The results of qualitative and quantitative studies, conducted in Italy, France, India & Mexico with the aim of exploring the relations between attitudes and behaviours towards the conservation of domestic fresh-water resources are presented. The studies are part of an International research Project on “Human perceptions and behaviours in sustainable water use” conducted with the financial support of ICSU & IUPSyS. At a general level, the project considered different contexts of water scarcity and supply restrictions (permanent, periodic, or accidental), across different physical-geographical, socio-cultural, and situational conditions. Specifically, two different locations were selected in each country according to their national “typicality”. The qualitative studies used semi-structured interviews and focus groups in order to assess participants’ attitudes and conducts towards fresh-water resource conservation in daily domestic activities. On the basis of these qualitative studies, a structured measuring instrument was set up, composed by various self-reported measures related to perception, attitudes and behaviours towards fresh water resource conservation. The questionnaire was administered to about 500 participants in Italy France, India & Mexico. Among others, the following measures were included in the questionnaire: 1) attitudes towards water-saving behaviours; 2) self-reported personal water-saving behaviours; 3) perceived water-saving behaviours among other people; 4) perceived barriers to effective water-saving behaviours. Results show the existence of some similarities across the different countries involved in the study, but also the existence of differences among the different sites considered in each single country. The theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed.