Opportunities for urban biodiversity in dynamic cities In a worldwide perspective cities are confronted with drastic changes of its demographic development. This can be simply summarised under the terms „shrinking cities“ and „growing cities“. Both developments offer different opportunities to provide „adequate biodiversity“ e.g. as „recreational area and green spaces for the citizens“, as genetic resource or as conservation area for biodiversity. In this context the urban and peri-urban landscape ecological matrix has to be taken into account. Despite the fact that urban green spaces in inner cities are characterized by many „exotic species“ their recreational potential is not necessarily decreasing. But more „natural like“ green spaces in the outskirts of the cities have different recreational and biodiversity qualities, including more indigenous species and other recreational qualities. This indicates an urban to rural gradient concerning different kinds of biodiversity, its evaluation and perception. While shrinking cities offer the opportunity to provide adequate green space quantity for too densely built-up urban areas and for experiments with new design and species selection strategies the growing cities need the protection of indigenous biodiversity. The following two questions will be addressed in the proposed symposium: Which opportunities for „adequate biodiversity“ should be chosen in dynamic (growing or shrinking) cities? What are the citizen’s perceptions and expectations of the present urban and peri-urban biodiversity changes?