In the discussion about the sustainability of everyday settings, the study of restorative environments has recently gained attention for the healthy outcomes deriving from the transactions between individuals and such environments. According to Attention Restoration Theory (ART), the experience in those environments may help people regain a higher effectiveness in their cognitive functioning. ART claims that a measure of the restorative potential of environments can be obtained through the assessment of four components, namely being-away, fascination, extent, and compatibility. The literature on this topic has mainly focused on young people and adults’ perception of restorative environments often by comparing natural and built settings. On the whole, a higher restorative potential of natural environments consistently emerged. To date, this line of research has rarely involved primary school pupils. The aim of this study was to evaluate the distinctive restorative potential of familiar natural and built environment for children. An Italian version of the Perceived Restorative Component Scale for Children was administered to 164 pupils aged 10-11 and balanced by gender with reference to four everyday settings. In addition we measured the cognitive and affective response to the environment through a semantic differential and the level of autonomy in the environments. A factor analysis performed on PRCS-S items identified a three-factor solution, with beingaway, fascination and compatibility clearly outlined, and extent items merging in the other dimensions. Factors showed a satisfactory internal consistency. Results confirmed a higher restorative potential of natural environment and showed that positive emotions and cognitive benefits increase when perceived restorativeness is higher. The level of autonomy differently affects the perception of restorativeness of natural and built environments. In particular, the level of being-away and compatibility is higher in natural environments when children are away from their parents’ control and spend their time with friends. Conversely, perceived fascination of built environments is higher for children accompanied by their parents. Finally, gender differences emerged in the evaluation of built environments, being measures of perceived components higher for females than for males. No gender difference was outlined for natural environments.