Biodiversity is an increasingly important phenomenon in environmental policy and research. This development is driven by the recognition that biodiversity loss is now one the major global environmental problems, with relations to climate change, urbanization, population growth, and ultimately threatening sustainability. Essential for initiatives that aim to preserve or increase biodiversity is knowledge about how the various ways in which biodiversity manifests itself are perceived and appreciated, and how this may lead to action in favor of biodiversity. Therefore bridges have to be built between ecology and psychology. This symposium aims to contribute to this goal. Presenters collectively address a number of issues that deal with psychological implications of biodiversity: awareness and recognition of biodiversity in (1) urban green spaces and (2) on farm land, its relation to perceived naturalness and scenic beauty, (3) a hierarchical system of indicators relevant for biodiversity and aesthetic criteria, (4) strategies to induce farmers to increase biodiversity on their land, and (5) similarities between the perception and evaluation of biodiversity and cultural diversity.