The appreciation and active protection of diversity, not only in the biological domain but even the in sociocultural one, are becoming key components of international programs for ‘sustainable development’. The hypothesis that evaluative and emotional perception of bio-physical diversity parallels perception and evaluation of social and cultural diversity has been tested trough a set of studies, carried out in various Italian cities. Two different measures were employed to systematically assess people’s attitudes and emotional affinity towards biological and social diversity. The first one, the scale of attitudes toward urban green areas considers attitudes towards the diversity of urban landscape, when this includes also biodiversity features such as green spaces (Bonnes, Aiello, Bonaiuto, 1999; Carrus, Passafaro, Bonnes, 2004). The second one, the Affinity Towards Diversity (ATD) scale measures people’s attitude toward social and biological diversity in general (Corral et al. 2007). First results support the validity of the measurement instruments, and confirm the hypothesized association between evaluations of social and bio-physical diversity. For example, negative attitudes towards urban green areas positively correlate with measures of Ethnocentrism and Authoritarianism, with people’s general tendency toward intolerance. Similar results were obtained for ATD scale, which positively correlates with tolerance, altruism and Indignation for insufficient environmental protection.