This study has a clear two aims. The first aim is to find clear evidence of a connection between contemporary and modern architecture based on their ecological ideals. The second aim is to define the ecological characteristics in the space design of modern architecture by an analysis of space composition, structural characteristics, mass, and positioning plans in modern architecture. The scope of this research is limited to the space design types of organic architecture, which has appeared from the modern age. In particular, this research focuses on the living environment of modern human life. Five major stages were undertaken in this research. First, an extensive literature search was conducted in order to gather a comprehensive works of modern architecture. Second, observation was undertaken to define the ecological characteristics from previous modern architecture styles. Third, the researched works of architecture was selected through the analysis of social and age background for the space design types of organic architecture. Fourth, the living environment design types of human life were also selected about the first selected architectural works. Fifth, the ecological characteristics in the selected architectural works were defined. Last, the taxonomy of the findings, which are the ecological characteristics, was undertaken based on a relationship among the findings, space composition, space form, space structure, technology, and material. This research work mainly produced two findings. First, the philosophical ecology concept from the architects who designed the selected architecture in the modern age will be discussed. In detail, the philosophical ecology concept of the architects can be described in the four concepts of ‘localism’, ‘organic relation’, ’economic aspect’ and ‘environmentally friendly’ through survey results which are produced characteristics of space composition and structure in the ecological paradigm of modern architecture. Second, the ecological characteristics in contemporary architecture are defined in modern age architecture. The ecological characteristics in contemporary architecture are nature friendly, a good condition for residential life, a flexible component for space, and an efficient architectural structure for saving energy.