The aim of this research is to investigate the cognitive mapping process of a regional landscape (Sardinia - Italy). Cognitive mapping is a process “by which an individual acquires, stores, recall, and decodes information about the relative locations and attributes of the phenomena” (Downs and Stea, 1973:3) or people learn, remember, and process spatial information about an environment (Kitchin, Freundschuh, 2000). In this study landscape is a specific spatial phenomena with high social value: it represents ecosystem diversity (di Castri, Balaji, 2002) and a significant dimension of space personal experience (Ohta, 2001). We thought the landscape cognitive maps like the result of a series of psychological transformations in which memories, residents’ social and cultural background, impressions, associations, and so on (Ohta, 2001) prevail over spatial relations ad represents an important component of place identity. They have a practical application level like a tool of the social design (Canter, 1977; Gifford, 2002; Kitchin, 1994) because they allow us to understand the community awareness of own environment and “ mind interior landscape” (di Castri, Balaji, 2002). This approach is useful to think the landscape project like a ethic project that refers to and boosts social and place identity of people (ethical concerns). The wide investigation of cognitive maps by sketch maps, since the sixties, reveal that this technique shows some problems: motor skill, creation of symbolic representation of physical elements, familiarity with paper and pencil format, etc. are strongly dependent to the social group. Qualitative techniques are a answer (Kitchin, 2000; Tversksy, 2000). We required adults (n. 185) living in Sardinia (a island of Italy) for a sketch map of their region landscape, to attach a label to each drawn object and to explain their importance. Like expected data analysis shows the preponderance of isolate objects in a environment without contours and land end reveals a difficult to represent landscape like a shifting system. The sample of inhabitants’ landscape representations (sketch maps and labels) was essentially focused on greenery, vertical shapes, coastal and agricultural areas. On the one hand these characters are typical aspects of the stereotypical representation of the island in tourist messages and the other hand they represent region identity and regional proud. An interesting result is the minority of the urban environment. These results and importance of drown objects in place identity and landscape project are discussed.