A considerable body of research addresses the role of the physical environment in child development. Children’s experience of their environment is connected with their perception of safety and with the feelings of fear. Safety is an essential resource for everyday life, needed by individuals and communities to realise their aspirations and it is a sources of identity expansion. It therefore includes two dimensions, objective and subjective, and both can influence the sense of well-being and the possibility to enhance exploration of the environment and to grow individual autonomy. Childhood should be characterized by feelings of security because place usually does not extend far from home, school and playing with other local children. However in the pre-adolescent stage, people begin to make more use of their local environment. Individual’s sociodemographic characteristics are also likely to influence the perceptions of their neighbourhoods; girls and boys tend to be socialised differently and use public spaces in different ways, and older children will use more extensive areas of the city than younger children. The aim of this contribution is to present the results of a research-project about the analysis of the feelings of safety/unsafety and fear of crime that arise from living as a child in urban environments that differ in structural and social features. More over we have investigated children’s self-esteem and well-being in order to examine the link between these constructs and the sense of security. Subjects of the study were 518 students of an average age of 10 years (261 males and 256 females). The research included 14th primary school from three different urban neighbourhoods in the city of Genova (Italy). Questionnaire was composed by: demographic information about children and their parents, measures of urban sense of safety and risk perception, self esteem and well.-being scale that includes measures of activities with peers outdoor and indoor. There are some questions that arise from the present study: are sense of safety and fear of crime correlated with children’s self esteem and well-being? Is there a relationship between sense of safety and structural and social features of the neighbourhood? Are there some differences in the sense of safety related on gender, age and social-demographic characteristics of parents? The results will be discussed in the presentation