The paper discusses revitalisation options and processes in former mining regions in Central Europe. It stresses the importance of mobilising endogenous potentials from the mining legacy to create additional opportunities for the development of these regions. Research focuses on identifying such potentials in general and on building regional capacities that allow former mining regions to realize these potentials. European mining industries have undergone radical changes in recent decades. These changes have had a profound impact on many European mining regions and towns, which had been shaped by these industries for centuries. The end of mineral exploitation often meant deindustrialisation, high unemployment, and out-migration, combined with an often difficult environmental legacy. This led to an overall negative image for many of these former mining regions. Such regions and their inhabitants face enormous challenges for the economic, social and environmental future. Owing to the lack of economic alternatives, the organisational, financial and conceptual resources of such regions are generally regarded as extremely sparse. Across Europe, various efforts have been made to regenerate former mining regions. The research of the Leibniz Institute of Ecological and Regional Development (IOER) in Dresden concentrates on re-evaluating local and regional potentials for strengthening local and social resilience from within the region. Special attention is therefore paid to the identification and utilisation of potentials left by mining industries. The sustainable economic re-usage of mining legacies focuses firstly on natural resources, such as geothermal water in energy production and secondly on cultural resources, the architectural heritage and traditions, which serve to foster regional tourism. In addition to identifying such potentials, research stresses the importance of regional capacity building. Central to this approach is the question how local and regional actor networks (with regard to strength, competence and configuration) can enhance the organisational capacity of former mining regions in pinpointing and tackling regional development problems. Here the focus lies on the ability to identify potentials and solve problems by improving interaction between actors from different sectors (politics, civil society) and planning levels (local, regional, national). The question is hence how former mining regions can enhance their capacity to take action. Identifying regional potentials and carrying out projects can provide an important platform for collaboration between various actors. Former mining regions thus gain opportunities to mitigate weaknesses through a networking process that could create additional development options. The paper draws on research experience in the CENTRAL EUROPE project “ReSOURCETurning problems into potentials” (INTERREG IVB). The ReSOURCE project started in 2009 and involves 7 Central European mining regions in 6 countries (Germany, Austria, Poland, Slovenia, Czech Republic, and Hungary). The IOER is coordinating the accompanying research.