The perception of and attitudes toward risk constitute important topics in modern democratic societies, due to the increasing complexity of everyday life, which includes a large list of potential risks, and to the public demand for a healthier and safer environment. Attitudes toward risk influence political decision-making and the level of support for public policies aiming at managing those risks. The perception of risk of nuclear waste disposal processes is relevant today, due to the fact that this type of energy is less contaminating and does not contribute to greenhouse gases (Slovic, 2000). Its use is thus potentially beneficial but the public opposition to it and to the placement of nuclear waste cemeteries close to home has been fierce. Recently, a public debate has opened up in Spain about building nuclear waste repositories on national territory. This is due to the fact that the amount of nuclear waste is increasing in Spain and it is currently and temporarily deposited in France, with high costs for the Spanish government. As the agreement with France is coming to an end, the Spanish government has opened up a bid for locations to build a nuclear waste repository, using as incentives massive local investments and the creation of new jobs in the midst of the recent economic crisis resulting in high unemployment rates in Spain. In spite of its potential benefits and the relative safety of these types of installations that experts proclaim, public opposition has been fierce in Spain. The present study investigates the reasons for this opposition, the perception of risks and benefits associated to the installation of a nuclear waste repository on the Spanish territory, the perception of fairness in the choice of location, and the trust in, and support of, the expert and government assessments and ability to manage risks involved in transporting and depositing nuclear waste. The impact of media coverage and framing of the issues on risk assessment is also discussed in this study. Because an appropriate communication policy can lead to increased credibility of public institutions (García-Mira & Lema, 2007), some proposals for the improvement of political communication strategies regarding nuclear waste disposal risks are also formulated.