An interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary action research project applying sustainability science principles and aiming at the conversion of the energy supply of a German village in Lower Saxony from fossil fuels to biomass is reported. From 2000 until 2005 the preparation and technical installation in the bioenergy village Juehnde in Lower Saxony was performed. Until 2008 further research activities explored the consequences regarding economic, ecological and social aspects. Psychological hypotheses were predicting changes in psychological variables like social support self reported environmental behavior, self efficacy and well-being as a consequence of the activities of the villages´ inhabitants. Results of a longitudinal study (once before and once after the conversion) with a broad sample of villages´ inhabitants (questionnaire study) and a subgroup of inhabitants of the bioenergetical village who were extraordinarily engaged for the project over longer time (semi-structured interview study) are reported. The data of the latter mentioned study show evidence for the increase of social support and well-being during the project time. Further activities which were inspired by the successful implementation of the first bioenergy village in Germany are reported: In the district of Goettingen from 2006 until 2009 four further villages (Reiffenhausen, Wollbrandshausen, Krebeck and Barlissen) followed the model of Juehnde, supported by the university team. The German government started in 2008 a follow up grant program supporting networking activities in 25 bioenergy regions in Germany. Actually, in the biosphere sanctuary region Schorfheide in the federal state Brandenburg the process of initiating a bioenergy village has been started. In these projects the authors are active as initiators, basing their activities on the application of own results of scientific research. This double role of scientists within sustainability research is discussed as an approach to cope adequately with the challenges of the global ecological crisis.