The security stakes face to the seismic hazard are no more to be demonstrated in the French West Indies as well as in some other Caribbean islands. The potential impacts, as the Richter exercise of simulation (November, 2008) was able to demonstrate, would concern the all social organization and would affect the economical sphere, the mobility and the usage of the space, the family organization, the places of life, etc. The researches made in Guadeloupe and Martinique since 10 years underline that the positioning of the populations towards the seismic risk is elaborated. It is centered around precise needs and demands and around syncretic representations integrating scientific knowledge and faiths. It is also in line with a high risk perception but also results in a bad estimation of the personal efficiency to cope. The challenge which the public authorities have to deal with is: On one hand, the dissemination of preventive information adapted to the specific needs of the people at risk and on the other hand, the development of new techniques of communications based on the empowerment and the mobilization of the population. In Martinique, awareness campaigns have been conducted since five years. Previous researches have underlined the level of risk perception and the knowledge about preventive behaviors. After a recent earthquake, a survey enlightened the level of preparation of the population and the non-efficiency of the awareness campaigns.