Edit Climate Change has been considered a reality for over a decade now. This has been evident as a result of rising CO2 levels, coupled with rising earth`s temperatures, melting of glaciers, etc. The consequences of such trends are observable all over the world today in for of more frequent or stronger flooding of rivers, increased storms and snowfall, cloudbursts, as well as droughts and desertification. The aim of this paper is to assess the role of Nigerian government and its citizens in climate change adaptation and mitigation with a view to resolving endemic conflicts associated with such. The paper asserts that global climate change is already impacting Nigeria as manifested by increased flooding, delayed rains, enhanced desertification, increasing bush fires, all of which have grievous consequences for the country`s food security, thus posing a further threat to national security. Indeed, the poor depend on elements of climate like rainfall, temperature and humidity for their livelihoods, and when changes occur as a result of global warming, resources are often depleted, and large populations are often forced to move towards greener pastures. Such mass movements have resulted in large numbers of internally displaced people and/or refugees. Where national borders are crossed, conflicts become inevitable. So far, the Nigerian government has made significant progress in addressing the problem of climate change by preparing, demonstrating, negotiating and developing various policies and plans at national, regional and international levels, although some of these lack full implementation. The paper therefore x-rays the level and consequences of Nigeria`s vulnerability to climate change, and suggests plausible mitigative and adaptive measures aimed at minimizing conflicts.