This article discusses the factors making up place attachment and place identity based on analysis of statements by residents who were rehoused from stilt houses on the riverbank to verticalised apartments, the Abençoada por Deus Housing Project, and residents of houses in a self-managed self-built project, the Dom Helder Câmara Project. Physical, environmental, social and economic aspects were analysed. The focus for the first group was on the typology and building process of he housing itself. For cultural and other reasons, the general preference is for the house and not the apartment. In Brazil and other developing countries, a large proportion of residents in spontaneous low-income settlements participate actively in building their houses and the place where they live. Often through self-building or mutual assistance, this process directly involves residents in decisions about the type and layout of the house according to their wishes and resources. By taking part directly in such decisions, and even in actual building using savings from the household budget, strong objective and subjective links are created with the resulting property; this has a direct impact on place attachment and place identity, as seen in the Dom Helder Câmara project or among residents who built their own houses on stilts on the riverbank. Street layout was another important aspect. The layout of winding streets in the favela allows greater privacy and a feeling of safety, while at the same time promoting neighbourliness, in contrast to the verticalised apartment projects with their rectilinear layout and wide corridors which made residents feel vulnerable to strangers while impeding contact between neighbours. Leisure equipment and spaces to encourage sociability might help strengthen place attachment. Feeling safe is another commonly mentioned aspect. Living in such housing projects tends to be associated with a real increase in violence and feelings of insecurity, generally associated with drug trafficking. In the favela they felt safer and even had a night watchman. Economically, many residents lost opportunities for odd jobs, as well as charitable assistance from churches (food and utensils), while they found they had electricity and water bills to pay. The feeling of rejection of the new housing is widespread; everything is further away, everything is harder. This pattern can be seen in housing projects in Brazil and other developing countries. Nonetheless, such projects continue to be implemented under the national scheme Minha Casa, MinhaVida. Little attention is paid to place attachment and place identity. A deeper knowledge of the basis of these feelings may offer alternatives that incorporate them within housing policy.