Heritage is a constituent of the cultural tradition, and an important part of societal and community well-being. This comprehensive vision merges both tangible and intangible dimensions; architectural and historical values. As a result of globalisation, residents of heritage sites have started to realise the significance of their influencing voices in shaping their life and future. They have recognised that heritage sites are dedicated to promoting appreciation and knowledge of their history and its importance to understanding the present and anticipating the future. Thus, the principles of residents’ involvement in decision making have gradually evolved aiming to achieve and maintain sustainability in the built-heritage and guide significant development in the planning and management of those particular contexts. Hence, it is the responsibility of nation states to safeguard and rehabilitate its heritage sites by encouraging and facilitating the active involvement of local communities throughout the stages of planning and implementing development schemes.Historic Cairo is currently considered the fifty fifth most visited world heritage site, amongst almost 1000 sites. It has the largest concentration of Islamic monuments in the world and has been included in the world heritage list of UNESCO in 1979. However, and despite historic Cairo’s international and local significance, it has been highly vulnerable to negligence and deterioration as a consequence of modernisation and rapid changes in cultural and traditional lifestyles. Hence, historic Cairo has started attracting numerous rehabilitation, preservation and restoration initiatives and projects by national and international bodies. Regrettably, many of those rehabilitation schemes have overlooked the amalgamation of the scheme objectives with the physical and socio/cultural urban context of the area, and another key factor of successful schemes as community involvement.The paper presented aims to examine the major problem issues of local involvement in the heritage conservation of historic Cairo. It elucidates a chronological review of key interventions and development schemes that have taken place in this unique heritage site. It critically evaluates those interventions in light of how successful community participation has been incorporated and how effectively it has been applied within those schemes. The paper proceeds into effective means of incorporating community participation in rehabilitating and maintaining historic Cairo’s urban, social and cultural fabric. The identification of critical requirements for a successful rehabilitation strategy in historic Cairo by exploiting community involvement initiatives is consequently recommended.