Recently, the concept of sustainable development has prompted reflection on how industrialization has damaged the relationship between humans and nature. Particularly, discussions on urbanization and urban resource centralization have coined numerous concepts, such as eco-state, eco-city etc., that incorporate sustainability into spatial planning. Among these concepts, eco-community is a community-based sustainable strategy for proactively fixing the relationship between humans and nature. The government of Taipei, Taiwan launched a series of eco-community development plans in 2008 and 2009, focused on community participation. In this case, the implementation process can be considered a community empowerment mechanism for achieving sustainable development. The establishment of eco-communities will bring Taipei closer to sustainability, while community identity, consensus and capacity accumulation derived from building eco-communities can provide a foundation for future environmental governance. This study examines strategies and mechanisms for eco-community development in Taipei, including a core value of public participation, a selection mechanism based on community-based proposals, and principles based on cultivating sustainable methods of community management. Seven communities were chosen as demonstration of eco-communities, and spatial features, issues and planning strategies are explored for each community. The final section of this study presents general statements on the role of community initiatives in creating eco-communities.