Using data from the 2010 ISSP Survey a series of multilevel models of competing theories were built that seek to explain cross-national differences in pro-environmental behaviors (PEB). After controlling for a series of sociodemographic and psychosocial factors, it was predicted that national levels of wealth, postmaterialism, education development and environmental problems are positively related to PEB. The results indicated that significant differences exist between nations in their levels of PEB (ICC: .10 to .37). The contextual-level variance is to a substantial degreed explained by individual-level variables, capturing compositional effects. The remaining variance is explained by the contextual-level variables (R²: 40 to 79%). All of the country level variables are predictors in the expected direction with the exception of environmental degradation, which is negatively related to behaviors and education development, which has no impact on individual behaviors. More importantly, cross-level interactions show that in more developed countries is easier to translate proecological attitudes into actions.