Keywords Abstract
Sandstroem, Sven. "A Sociocultural Theory on Aesthetic Visual Estimation and Use." In Architectural Psychology - Proceedings of the Conference held at Lund University. IAPS. Lund, Sweden: Lund University, 1973. A tentative system to describe the interaction of historical pre-mises, cultural habits, social attitudes and perceptual tenden-cies, which may determine the final reaction to and estimation of a visual phenomenon, i.e. a work of art or a unit of urban environment. Basic assumption: mere perception as measured in laboratory experiments don't account for factual estimation and use. The interaction of the individual's social system intro-duces both censure factors and deviational influences. The esti-mation and use is depending upon the symbolic - attributive and idolic - use of the object; the reading of its content, which is iconic the sensual responses to its form/color qualities, and the estimation of its functional qualities.
Cakir, Anmet. "A Study of Discomfort Glare by Floodlighting for Color - Tv." In Architectural Psychology - Proceedings of the Conference held at Lund University. IAPS. Lund, Sweden: Lund University, 1973.

Floodlighting for color-TV means a higher level of illuminance than used by former floodlighting systems. As there are re-commendations for the level and the uniformity of the vertical illuminance each point of the field is to be illuminated from eacn pole. This means at every point of the field the players face a number of light sources with high luminance. There are also demands for direct lighting of the stands.The results of some model experiments show that the discomfort glare caused by floodlighting for color-TV is not intolerably high.

Brodin, Carina. "A Study of Preferences for Sdiijlated Outdoor Environints with Different Intensities of Filing of Enclos Space." In Architectural Psychology - Proceedings of the Conference held at Lund University. IAPS. Lund, Sweden: Lund University, 1973. This investigation was carried, out to test the hypothesis that people rate an outdoor environment with an intense feeling of enclosed space higher than an outdoor environment with a less intense feeling of enclosed. space, and. the hypothesis that evaluations are also influenced by type of environment. The out-door environments were represented. by perspective drawings. An expert panel of architects rated. feeling of enclosed. space by a seven step scale. Then 242 persons in a field. survey rated the environments with seven-step bipolar adjectives, developed by a semantic differential technique. A significant correlation between the intensity of feeling of enclosed space and. peoples evaluations could. only be demonstrated. for villa environments, while for suburban environments there was a weaker correlation in the direction of the hypothesis. For central town environments the evaluation went in the opposite direction, due possibly to the bias of the drawings used in the investigation. Character-istic of the evaluations is that villa environments are rated highest and. central town environments lowest.
Preiser, Wolfgang F. E.. "An Analysis of Unobtrusive Observations of Pedestrian Movement and Stationary Behavior in a Shopping Mall." In Architectural Psychology - Proceedings of the Conference held at Lund University. IAPS. Lund, Sweden: Lund University, 1973. "The present study was concerned with the comparative analysis of stated design objectives vs. the effects of the realized design solution on behavior patterns of shoppers in the Mall of the new town of Columbia, Maryland. The major steps in the analysis pro-cess include 1. "Intuitive" evaluation of the shopping mall by the investigator team to become familiar with the setting 2.Inter-views with the planners, organizers and managers of the mall to identify design objectives. 3. Unobtrusive observation of user behavior in selected areas of the mall using time sampled video-tape recordings. 4. Structured interviews with a representative sample of shopping mall users regarding positive and negative features of the shopping mall. 5. Evaluation of interviews and quantitative analysis of observations."
Edberg, Man. "Applied Research in the Field of Architectural Psychology." In Architectural Psychology - Proceedings of the Conference held at Lund University. IAPS. Lund, Sweden: Lund University, 1973. "Iwork as a researcher in the Department of Environmental Design at the School of Architecture in Stockholm, which I represent at the conference board, butl am also a practising architect. Because of my double occupation I am specially intrigued by the questions, which I find in the theme for today, "APPLIED RESEARCH IN THE FIELD OF ARCHITECTURAL PSYCHOLOGY". How do we use the research results, how can they be utilized in actual planning of buildings and towns? Have results produced up to this date been used by practitioners? Are the findings known? Of what practical value are they? Are they of any value at all or do they only represent work for work's sake, research for the sake of research, another i'art pour l'art?"
Hesselgren, Sven. "Architectural Semiotics." In Architectural Psychology - Proceedings of the Conference held at Lund University. IAPS. Lund, Sweden: Lund University, 1973. "In January 1969, as Umber-to Eco tells us, the International Association for Semiotic studies decided during the conferen-ce in Iris that the word "semiotics" was to be used as a na-me of the studies of meanings, of which linguistic semantics is only one part. Since I since decaaes have interested my-self in the stuay of architectural meanings, I read the Swe-dish edition of Eco's book "La struttura assente" with the greatest interest. I found, however, that I couldn't always agree with Mr Eco, and since he introductorily explained that his Introduction was just an attempt and that discussions about his thesis would be welcome I am hereby forwarding some critical remarks in the hope that it might bring the study of semiotics a step further."
Küller, Rikard. "Beyond Semantic Measurement." In Architectural Psychology - Proceedings of the Conference held at Lund University. IAPS. Lund, Sweden: Lund University, 1973. Semantic measurement is used more frequently but at the same time criticism is getting stronger. Instead of doing too many indepen-dent studies it now seems to be time to find out what some of the cell-established factors stand for. One way of doing this is to validate semantic measurement against other methods, e.g. neuro-physiological and health records. Another way is to use the seman-tic dimensions as a theoretical framework. As bricks in this frame-cork are suggested: The concepts of ideal, expected and perceived profile, the concept of neutral zone, of critical limits and of critical factors.
Wallinder, Jan. "Borderline Against the Future. Place of the Theory Ofarchitectural Psychology in Tomorrow's Planning." In Architectural Psychology - Proceedings of the Conference held at Lund University. IAPS. Lund, Sweden: Lund University, 1973. During the last few days we have seen several examples on how it has become possible to use refined methods to study how man perceives and reacts to the built environment. There have been many examples on the advancement of technique and knowledge within this field. We have also been complaining over the lack of communication between architects and psychologists, i.e. the discrepancy between knowledge about man's reactions on his environment on one side, and knowledge about those physical and social realities, which form the environment on the other side. The psychologist has his rather elaborate field and the architect has his. What remains is to develope that field which we ought to share, i.e. to chart the relations between what we perceive and how it is perceived. There is a need of useful models to relate stimuli to perceptions. Such models are a necessary prerequisite for the much demanded cooperation between consumer, psychologist and architect in the process of planning.
Bishop, Jeff, and Jane Foulsham. "Children's Images of Harwich." In Architectural Psychology - Proceedings of the Conference held at Lund University. IAPS. Lund, Sweden: Lund University, 1973. This study started when, during a field project in Harwich by Architecture students, over 200 maps were obtained showing childrens' perceptions of their routes from home to school. Despite this uncontrolled beginning, an attempt has been made to follow up other similar work and add two things perhaps as yet little studied. Firstly, to follow development of mapping style and content by age, and secondly to relate the items shown by the children to the particular physical environment of Harwich.
Acking, Carl-Axel. "Closing of the Conference." In Architectural Psychology - Proceedings of the Conference held at Lund University. IAPS. Lund, Sweden: Lund University, 1973. In my capacity as head of the Department of theoretical and applied Aesthetics at the University of Lund and accordingly host for this conference I want to thank you all for your contributions. I want to thank my colleagues in the conference board, Gösta Edberg, Sven Hesselgren and Jan Wallinder and especially the secretary for the conference Rikard Küller and the staff of skilled people who have contributed to carrying it through.
Wedin, C. S., L. L. Avant, and L. Wolins. "Communication of Residential Spaces by Architectural Graphics1'." In Architectural Psychology - Proceedings of the Conference held at Lund University. IAPS. Lund, Sweden: Lund University, 1973. Four sets of four bipolar adjectives were employed to index the aesthetic appeal, physical organization, phenomenological size, and physical size of three different living rooms as represented in floor plans, isometric drawings, and photographs of the rooms. Averaged across living rooms and sets of bipolar adjectives, responses to floor plans and photographs did not differ, although responses to isometrics were less positive. All graphic forms showed one living room to be of greater aesthetic appeal, of better physical organization, and of greater phenomenological size than the other two. Surprisingly, responses to physical size were least consistent across graphic forms; depending on form of graph-ic representation, responses to areas varying over 147 square feet did not differ reliably.
Hard, Anders. "Content and Contrast in Colour." In Architectural Psychology - Proceedings of the Conference held at Lund University. IAPS. Lund, Sweden: Lund University, 1973. Starting with an analysis of the dimensions of the colour gestalt the paper describes two principly different perceptual colour systems - the colourcharacterizing NCS-system and the discriminative system. The relationship NCS/physical stimulus is described in a bit unusual way also taking in account luminous colours. A brief critical summary of Munsell, DIN and Ostwald shows that they must be mixtures of different concepts. Finally are sketched some new research projects around colour in environment - variation in colour and colourdifferences depen-ding on varying outer conditions the colour-gestalt and its dependence of distinctness of boarder line - a theory for colour-combinations- other psychological relationships
Martyitiuk, O, J. E. Flynn, T. J. Spencer, and C. Hendrick. "Effect of Environmental Lighting on Impression and Behavior." In Architectural Psychology - Proceedings of the Conference held at Lund University. IAPS. Lund, Sweden: Lund University, 1973. The study presented in this paper is concerned with a search for evidence that the 'behavior setting', modified or altered by en-vironmental lighting, produces (creates) environmental cues or signals; and that the participants may tend to respond or act upon these cues in some consistent way. The experiment was conducted in a room in which the only physi-cal alterations were changes in the lighting arrangements. The methods for evaluating the subjective quality of space were a number of scientific techniques, most notably: (1) semantic dif-ferential rating scales for factor analysis, (2) ultidimension-al scaling, and (3) observation and mapping of overt behavior.
Lee, Susan-Ann. "Environmental Perception, Preferences and the Designer." In Architectural Psychology - Proceedings of the Conference held at Lund University. IAPS. Lund, Sweden: Lund University, 1973. This paper discusses basic aspects of perception and their influence both in environmental perception and in the develop-ment of environmental preferences. Particular reference is made to the influence of perception and preference on distance assessment and location choice. Research on 'priority evaluation' is described and the relationship between attitude and behaviour is discussed. The relevance of an understanding of perceptual and preferential processes, to the designer, architect and planner, is emphasised.
Canter, David. "Evaluating Buildings: Emerging Scales and the Salience of Building Elements Over Constructs." In Architectural Psychology - Proceedings of the Conference held at Lund University. IAPS. Lund, Sweden: Lund University, 1973. The results of principal component analyses of questionnaires, de-veloped after extensive pilot studies, dealing with space, ligh-ting, distractions, positions of class-rooms and overall evalua-tion of school buildings, completed by 510 teachers are presented. These questionnaires were cast in the form of grids and thus al-low for anexaminatjon of the salience of elements (aspects of buildings) or constructs (descriptions of those aspects). In ge-neral it is found that differentiation of the elements is more dominant than differentiation of the constructs. The items selec-ted to form standard scales for building evaluations are indicated.
Clarke, Linda. "Explorations into the Nature of Environmental Codes: the Relevance of Bernstein's 'theory of Codes' to Environmental Studies." In Architectural Psychology - Proceedings of the Conference held at Lund University. IAPS. Lund, Sweden: Lund University, 1973. Much research in environmental studies has been devoted towards finding the one meaning which the environment has, either for an individual or a group. Like the hunt for a Platonic idea of a 'table' by the analysis of constructed tables, this assumes an ideal, unchanging world; an assump-tion which re-appears in theories of functionalism or 'ideal fit'. The search for meaning at a different level must involve, not only a re-exami-nation of theories of meaning in architecture, but also the discovery of a generative structure. Bernstein's 'Theory of Codes' hopefully provides a starting point for this investigation by studying how potential meanings are actualised in various modes by classification codes operating in a variety of contexts.
Mackie, Drew. "Gaming as a Research Tool in Architectural Psychology." In Architectural Psychology - Proceedings of the Conference held at Lund University. IAPS. Lund, Sweden: Lund University, 1973. "The paper examines gaming as a possible paradigm for study of socially complex situations involving interaction between Man and Environment. Such a perspective is not novel in the human sciences having been applied by Mead, Goffman and others. The more normal "linear" model of research is contrasted with a pos-sible non-linear model based on negotiative gaming. The portrayal of complex ralatively complete situations as opposed to controlled laboratory experiments is proposed and the delineation of interactive structures is suggested as a neces-sary pre-requisite to measurement. Three examples of work using this approach are given."
Sivik, Lars, and Fil Lic. "General and Applied Research on Colour Perception - a Review of Current Swedish Projects - ." In Architectural Psychology - Proceedings of the Conference held at Lund University. IAPS. Lund, Sweden: Lund University, 1973. In Sweden a system for colour description has been developed (NCS) which is based on the Opponent Colour Theory of perceptual organ-ization. The principles and the assumptions of the theoretical mo-del is described, as well as some aspects of its reliability and validity. The NCS-system with its connected colour-atlas will offer new possibilities for solving many practical problems about colours. The development process has generated many ideas for further studies of which the first ones on the research program are mentioned. Of already performed investigations two are referred: One is a study on the relation between dimensions of meaning and perceptive colour parameters. The second is studying the perceived meanings of exter-ior colours in architecture.
Liljefors, A.. "Light Planning with Minimum Energy Consumption the Quality of Lighting." In Architectural Psychology - Proceedings of the Conference held at Lund University. IAPS. Lund, Sweden: Lund University, 1973. When energy is restricted, it is no longer possible to plan light according to the principle ordinarily used: general lighting at highest possible illuminance. The more light the better it has been said. This is wrong because it does not give good lighting but costs a lot. Good lighting does not need more energy, but better planning, with respect for individual needs, and for good percep-tion of the environment. Also needed is a technique that permits adjustable light on the work place. This is fairly simple in the office but more difficult in industry. To solve this problem is more important for the lighting planner, than the calculation of illuminance values.
Hesselgren, Sven. "New Tendencies in Lighting Research." In Architectural Psychology - Proceedings of the Conference held at Lund University. IAPS. Lund, Sweden: Lund University, 1973. C.I.E. (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage) has for a long time had its International Congresses every fourth year. In 1967, during the Congress in Washington D.C. the C.I.E. Board asked me to establish a Study Group A, Psychological Problems of Lighting. The intention was that this should become a forum for discussions between the C.I.E. experts in physical problems, the Psychologists as experts in perception, and the Architects as the people with the task to create the Man-Made Environment.
Voltelen, Mogens. "On Various Ways to Insight." In Architectural Psychology - Proceedings of the Conference held at Lund University. IAPS. Lund, Sweden: Lund University, 1973. The contribution deals with methods rather than results. In ad-dition to the conventional experimental scientific methods and the methods used in the humanistic sciences there is also the artistic approach to widen our insight. While less accurate it has a wider scope and might in cases be more pertinent to psychological prob-lems which inherently are complex. The demand for reliability should not be neglected and the different methods might cooperate to check each other. Mutual acknowledgement is a condition for more comprehensive and more speedy results to improve decision-making.
Fatouros, Dimitris A.. "Perceptual Ecology and the Organization of Physical Environment." In Architectural Psychology - Proceedings of the Conference held at Lund University. IAPS. Lund, Sweden: Lund University, 1973. "Cross cultural research attempts to determine whether the perceptu-al ecology of the environment actually shapes an individual's per-ception and to what extend. If indeed the perceptual environment shapes or contributes towards the formation of an individual's per-ceptual ability, then the immediate man-made environment created by architecture acts directly upon human behavior. These observa-tions must be corelated to the studies concerned a. with the de-gree of complexity of the environment, b. with the importance of the processes rather than the objects for the organization of the visual, and generally, the perceptual environment. The role of the physical environment as a 'field of learning" is then stressed. The practical importance of these observations is made obvious by two examples."
Smith, Peter F.. "Perceptual Hazards and Urban Remedies." In Architectural Psychology - Proceedings of the Conference held at Lund University. IAPS. Lund, Sweden: Lund University, 1973. "Visual urban monotony has been cited by psychologists as being a major factor in undermining mental well-being. It is proposed that this is the result of two characteristics of the system of perception, involving the mechanics of memory and retrieval. The first is that perception of familiar environment may be progressively achieved on a subliminal level. This involves a secondary "primitive" perceptual system which can discriminate and evaluate. Such evaluation may be conditioned by primitive criteria. The second concerns the physiological change which takes place each time a memory pattern is activated, lowering the threshold of activation, tending towards simplification of schemas of memory, and progressive blindness to detail. Towns can contribute towards a remedy by expressing the principle of dynamic urbanism i.e. creating situations which challenge existing schemas with unfamiliarity and variability, as well as offering incentives to discovery, problem-solving and imagebuilding."
Acking, Carl-Axel. "Problems and Theoretical Models in Architectural Psychology." In Architectural Psychology - Proceedings of the Conference held at Lund University. IAPS. Lund, Sweden: Lund University, 1973. I now declare the Second International Architectural Psychology Conference opened. We have come together because of our common interest in human perception, feeling and behaviour and our need for understanding the factors of importance for creating a better environment.
Seager, C. P.. "Problems Arising Through Transfer of Psychiatric Care from Large Mental Hospitals to Psychiatric Units in General Hospitals." In Architectural Psychology - Proceedings of the Conference held at Lund University. IAPS. Lund, Sweden: Lund University, 1973. A brief review of the historical background of psychiatric treat-ment in England and Wales, followed by suggested architectural needs for a psychiatric unit in a general hospital. There is a plea for help in designing studies to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of mental and general hospital milieux. I would like to discuss the problem of the appropriate environment for the treatment of psychiatric illness. My experience is confined to the situation in England and Wales and my remarks will refer to my personal knowledge. I have no reason to believe that the situation is very different in other countries, although there are minor variations. I think it important to set the problem in context by giving a brief historical account of the background to the present situation.
Appleyard, Donald. "Professional Priorities for Environmental Psychology." In Architectural Psychology - Proceedings of the Conference held at Lund University. IAPS. Lund, Sweden: Lund University, 1973. Professional priorities for man-environment research should depend on the public context of environmental decision-making in the next few years. Citizen participation, environmental evalua-tion, planning, and management are likely to receive increasing emphasis. The low rate of communication between research findings and professionals suggests that the integration of social science concepts and methods in decision-making may be more urgent than basic research. Strategies for the integration of man-environment concepts with decision-making include participatory techniques, situational research, checklists, simulation, and manuals. Basic research should be seen by professionals as supportive arid innova-tive.
Sorte, Gunnar Jane. "Significance of Components in Environmental Settings." In Architectural Psychology - Proceedings of the Conference held at Lund University. IAPS. Lund, Sweden: Lund University, 1973. In this paper three experiments, concerning an individuals per-ception of components in the environmental setting, are referred. High correlations between an individuals description of the num-ber of components in an environment and the semantic Complexity has been found. The number of components described as not fitting in showed highest correlation with semantic Unity, but also cor-relations with Pleasantness and Complexity seemsto exist. Compo-nents not fitting into an environment have different effect on the individuals description on Complexity and Unity, depending on whether the component is of a permanent or temporary character. The experiments are based on judgements of architecture and high school students for a number of color slides of urban and rural landscape environments.
Laufer, R. S., H. M. Proshansky, and M. Wolfe. "Some Analytic Dimensions of Privacy." In Architectural Psychology - Proceedings of the Conference held at Lund University. IAPS. Lund, Sweden: Lund University, 1973. The purpose of the present paper is to suggest a series of analytic dimensions along which the problem of privacy can be con-sidered. It represents the beginning of an attempt to develop a conceptual framework which will allow for the development of theory and research. In addition, we report the preliminary re-suits of a research project, growing out of this conceptualiza-tion, in which we focus on concepts of privacy as a function of age and age-related experiences.
Gärling, Tommy. "Some Applications of Multidimensiionm. Scaling Metrods to 'ere Structural Analysis of Environmental Perception and Cognition 1'2." In Architectural Psychology - Proceedings of the Conference held at Lund University. IAPS. Lund, Sweden: Lund University, 1973. In order to perform structural analysis of environmental perception and cognition, multidimensional scaling based on similarity and preference ratings were compared to the semantic differential tech-nique in a study employing perspective drawings of urban and sub-urban views sampled from a medium sized Swedish city. The results, obtained for a total of 40 university students, were in fairly close agreement when subjected to metric and nonmetric types of dimensio-nal and cluster analyses. However, concerning the interpretation of the results, the semantic differential technique and preference ratings suggested a dimensional interpretation (two dimensions lab-elled aesthetic/general evaluation and social status evaluation), whereas the multidimensional scaling based on similarity data was more adequately described by a categorical model, type of area and style being distinguishing features attended to. The study, though considered to be tentative and in need of elaboration, clearly de-monstrates the value of multidimensional scaling methods as an al-ternative to the semantic differential technique for structural ana-lysis within the area under consideration.
Mitropoulos, E.. "Space Networks:towards a Space Notation for Use in Complex Urban Systems." In Architectural Psychology - Proceedings of the Conference held at Lund University. IAPS. Lund, Sweden: Lund University, 1973. Research time span:33 months (Ph.D.).Started October 197I.This year supported by Univ.of Edinburgh.The research has been bro-ken down into Space,Spatial Perception--Spatial Behaviour,Nota-tion of this interaction.The space-as-defined-by-activity Nota-tion was originally developed through undergraduate design work, as the conventional tools of Plan-Section-Elevation,then Axono-metrics,Central Perspectives were proven inadequate for the con-ception and communication of complex urban environments based on activity,Movement as its basis.The notation was used by this writer for designing a multipurpose building for his finals.The research remainsfirmly design-orientated,seeking out general pri-nciples.
Maaloe, Erik. "The Aesthetic Joy and Repetition of the Ever Unpredictable." In Architectural Psychology - Proceedings of the Conference held at Lund University. IAPS. Lund, Sweden: Lund University, 1973. The paper reports on an experiment relating personal preferences for aesthetical variation with objective mathematical measurement of variation. The basic hypothesis, that a certain degree of variation is preferable, is confirmed. The investigation is related to previous ex-periments concerning the relevans of information theory to aesthetics. The results may have some implications for the development of less monotonous, industrialized housing schemes.
Korosec-Serfaty, Perla. "The Case of Newly Constructed Zones: Freedom, Constraint and the Appropriation of Spaces." In Architectural Psychology - Proceedings of the Conference held at Lund University. IAPS. Lund, Sweden: Lund University, 1973. "Psychosociologists often analyse urban spaces as a text of which the semiological analysis would reflect the ideology presiding at their emergence. However, the reduction of spatial structures to a signifier ("signifiant"), that of the dominate ideology to a signified ("signifié") artifically introduces a void between two poles of the same process which is built up by successive mediations between the pro-posed spatial forms, their degree of univocality in the transmission of directives for social practice, and their style of reception by the user. The means of exploration, the exercise of principal or in-terstitial liberty remodels the areas in an exchange whose limits are the very ones of individual creativity in the frame of a determined so-cial order."
Imamoglu, Vacit. "The Effect of Furniture Density on the Subjective Evaluation of Spaciousness and Estimation of Size of Rooms." In Architectural Psychology - Proceedings of the Conference held at Lund University. IAPS. Lund, Sweden: Lund University, 1973. The effect of amount of furniture on the subjective evaluation of spaciousness and estimation of size has been studied in a completely randomized experi-mental design. 90 male architecture students were used as subjects. Two adjacent office rooms, one being standard and the other comparison were used as stimuli. The furniture of the standard room was kept constant throughout the experiments, whereas, that of the comparison room was manipulated as empty, furnished and overfurnished. Each subject assessed both spaciousness and size, the order of which was counterbalanced within each of the experimental groups. According to the results of analysis of variance, the effect of furniture density on spaciousness and size was highly significant.
Loefberg, H. A., B Loefstedt, I Nilsson, and D. P. Wyon. "The Effect of Heat and Light on the Mental Performance of School Children - Introduction to a Climate Chamber Experiment." In Architectural Psychology - Proceedings of the Conference held at Lund University. IAPS. Lund, Sweden: Lund University, 1973. Experiments on the effect of moderate heat stress on the mental erformance of school children is extended to test situations where both heat, light and noise are studied. This paper gives an introduction to the first climate chamber experiment in which both illuniimance and room temperature are systematically varied.
Menzies, M. R., B Goodey, and D. N. Donnelly. "The Place of Meaning in Perceptionrat Studies in Planning." In Architectural Psychology - Proceedings of the Conference held at Lund University. IAPS. Lund, Sweden: Lund University, 1973. This paper reports on an attempt to elicit the differing 'meaning' man's surroundings have for him and discusses a number of ways in which such information might be presented to planners and architects. The purpose of such information is not only to bridge the language barrier between planners arid their 'public', but also to give the individual about to intervene in the environment an indication of what parts of the environment are significant to the public and what likely reaction there would be to changes affecting these parts. Our work owes much, for its foundation, to the Theory of Personal Constructs and accompanying Construct Repertory Techniques, formulated by G. Kelly in 1955.
Mikellides, Byron. "The Role of Psychology in Architectural Education." In Architectural Psychology - Proceedings of the Conference held at Lund University. IAPS. Lund, Sweden: Lund University, 1973. In our attempt to build up the science of Architectural Psycho-logy we seem to have neglected the essential contribution that Psychology can make to architectural students. The only infor-mation they can use in creating environments is that acquired in their education and training. The intention of this paper is to give a general impression of our attempts to include psychology as part of the architect's education and to look at some of the most fruitful approaches and techniques in teaching the subject with special reference on information received from current architectural projects.
Cuttle, Ch, and M. Ilium. "The Sharpness and the Flow of Light." In Architectural Psychology - Proceedings of the Conference held at Lund University. IAPS. Lund, Sweden: Lund University, 1973. This paper is concerned with how perceptions of objects and surroundings are affected by the directional nature of lighting. The changing appearances of isolated objects are examined, and also how these relate to more general perceptions within a room. The concepts of the Sharpness and the Flow of Light are proposed to describe the principal aspects of these effects, and the physical parameters to which they may be related are identified. Means of prediction and measurement are described briefly, and sources of recommendations expressed in these terms for the guidance of lighting designers are referred to.
Caid, Michel, and Laurent Cazalis. "The Therapeutic Effects of an Architectural Activity in a Children Home." In Architectural Psychology - Proceedings of the Conference held at Lund University. IAPS. Lund, Sweden: Lund University, 1973. "The authors, who are nenbers of a team, can present two activities in which emotionally disturbed children were able to express their needs, wants and wishes about actual living spaces, then imagine and "build" some personal spaces. The authors could observe how conflictuous and unconscious revivals, the observation of the individual environment and a collective consciousness about the organisation of the livingspaces, were raised up by these activities. People (children and adults) discovered how architecture might occult a system of implicit norms and symbolic associations (according to a particular social system or to an individual's personality development). Thus there appeared three levels of therapeutic effects for the children. The paper is to be regarded as a clinical contribution to Architectural Psychology."
Isikpinar, Ertürk Mehmet, and Sueleyman Velioglu. "The Therapeutic Environment - an Attempt at Studying the Emotional Content of Architectural Space." In Architectural Psychology - Proceedings of the Conference held at Lund University. IAPS. Lund, Sweden: Lund University, 1973. To be able to understand the process of perception, the emotional load attached to each perceived object should be analyzed and understood clearly. Research concerning emotional load has its roots in the unconscious levels of the mind. An understanding of the unconscious levels requires a psychopathological approach as well as a psychological one. An attempt, therefore, has been made to analyze perception with its psychological and psychiatric aspects in a therapeutic environment assuming that the therapeutic environment is a suitable ground for a perception research. Among psychiatric settings the mental hospital grounds and among patient groups schizophrenics have been selected to accomplish what has been stated above.
Tagg, Stephen K.. "The Use of Multidimensional Scaling Type Techniques in the Structuring of the Architectural Psychology of Places." In Architectural Psychology - Proceedings of the Conference held at Lund University. IAPS. Lund, Sweden: Lund University, 1973. A short introduction to Multidimensional scaling techniques is given in the context of studies into the meaning of rooms. Three examples of applications are given; an analysis of perceived similarities of room names, which leads to conclusions about underlying components and the specificity of room meaning; judgements of the appropriateness of activities to rooms which are shown to have similar patterns of meaning; and a grid of furniture occur-rences in rooms which yelded less clear patterns, but still the same structures could be discerned. The advantages for environmen-tal psychology of such techniques are summarized.