Keywords Abstract
CODEJ), COMMITTEE F. O. R. T. H. E. D. E.. "A Few Modalities of Appropriation of Exterior Spaces and their Sensory - Motor Basis - Two Case Studies." In Appropriation of Space. IAPS. Strasbourg, France: Louis Pasteur University, 1976. "For young children, sensory-motor activities constitute a privileged way of appropriating outdoor living spares. The methods of observation used here are similar to the so-called 'clinical" approach. In the case of the roof gardens at MANTES-LA-JOLIE, the analysis of the expe riences of the residents following observation of their behaviour enabled us to bring to light some phenomena of appropriation which were taken note of in the plans for redevelopment. At TILlS, the observations were carried nut in a framework of a higher than average quality as far as the organization of space and the treatment of outdoor areas were concerned. From this came the choice of examples relevant to the appropriation of minerals and vegetals. With the necessary adaptations, the procedure followed can be applied equally to the rehabilitation of old areas as to the drawing up of an operations report, when the aim is more or less normative."
Stringer, Peter. "A Participatory - Relational Theory for Architectural Psychology." In Appropriation of Space. IAPS. Strasbourg, France: Louis Pasteur University, 1976. The 'appropriation of apace' is interpreted as a political issue manifested partly in the contemporary move toward design participation. The classical, political theory of participatory democracy and several types of social psychological theory are examined as providing a possible framework for m related theory of architectural psychology. A 'relational' theory is preferred. The benefits of participation to both designers and psychologists are discussed. A schematic for relation appropriation, participation and other concerns is outlined.
Canter, David. "A Procedure for the Exploration of Place Appropriationa Communication Exercise for Architects and Others(Or How do You Know What You are Until You Have Seen Where You are At?)." In Appropriation of Space. IAPS. Strasbourg, France: Louis Pasteur University, 1976. A controlled event is described in which participants may be made aware of the processes within themselves and around thea which lead to the organisation and utilisation of space, These events are so structured that the processes may be recorded end presented for public analysis. As a consequence, the exercise provides so opportunity for both the education of the participants and a context within which research may be carried out. To essence, the exercise is drawn from the social psycliclegy of groups but provides a distinctly different framework by the group activity itself being concerned with the creation of spatial structures. It also provides the possibility for exploring the influence of roles which are prescribed in various ways upon the type of space which is created and the way people use the communication network in relation to the spatial arrangement of the group.
VOSS, KARL F. R. I. E. D. R. I. C. H.. "A Psychological Study About Architectural Characteristics in a Pattern Forintegrated Living of Students." In Appropriation of Space. IAPS. Strasbourg, France: Louis Pasteur University, 1976. When this study was carried out, its objective was to device architectural assumptions to proceed on in evolving abilities for getting satisfactioned in both individual an social sphere with special regard to requirements from the outside. Architectural characteristics for this purpose had not been reflected adequately in already existing housing accomodations for students. This pattern for integrated living contents statements on developing architectural characteristics for the individual range, for the common range of single or a couple of joined groups, and for a part of the public field of the students. Raving partly pot into reality these characteristics are taken into account by an empiric ( time-budgeting), which is able to support this pattern for integrated living in most of the important aspects.
PELED, ARIE. "A Study on Ttd Appropriation of a Secondary School's Space by a Sample of 34 Pupils." In Appropriation of Space. IAPS. Strasbourg, France: Louis Pasteur University, 1976. "The study attempts to demonstrate the Location Tear. technique and to apply it to the way a sample of pupils experience their secondary school. The students were divided into two groups of 17 and 18 subjects. The study in volved 2 sessions of 4 hours each. In the first session the subjects went through individual "Location Tests". The test provides the subject with means of dividing the spatial zone of an in stitution, in our case a school, and creating an internal spatial system through division, location, and direction. The resulting spatial systems are discussed in an attempt to define re-occurring relations and patterns both for the systems as wholes and for specific parameters: concepts of apace division, use of centre, distribution of internal places in the school's space zone, etc. The paper describes the "Location Test" technique and the information generated in the study on the way the apace division of the school is construed, by the given sample. The data is analysed in two ways: 1. a detailed interpretation of the tests of two individual pupils; 2. an interpretation of the spatial parameters and systems generated in the 34 tests."
GRAFF, CHARLAN. "Alienation Or Identiflcatlon: a Function of Space in the Home." In Appropriation of Space. IAPS. Strasbourg, France: Louis Pasteur University, 1976. A quasi-experimental design was used in which college students resoonding to a survoy who reported extreme feelings of alienation were matched with respondents indicating high identification and compared with a control group by analysis of variance. Findings support the hypothesis of more available space in public, front, formal and informal areas for the identifted group and less in homes of the alIenated grouc. As expected, private and back areas were not significantly related to feelings of alienation or identification.
MAZERAT, BERNARD. "Appropriation and Social Classes." In Appropriation of Space. IAPS. Strasbourg, France: Louis Pasteur University, 1976. "The influence of the juridical and architectural form of housing and more particularly of the dwelling-apace on behaviours of appropriation is meaning ful only in relation to the social components of the resident population. These results are arrived at by studies made in general on "social" (i.e. government owned, low-rent) housing, or on housing recently built and financed by various subsidies. Besides the practices in the lodging itself, it has been observed that the main differences in the inhabitants' speeches referring to an estimate of the general quality of their lodgings dealt with the exterior spaces and rela tionships with neighbours on the one hand and the general image of their buil ding on the other hand. Thus in the architectural field the innovation problem appears as an indicator of the ideological distance between conceptors and users. Therefore it has been noted that the morphological differences of innovating housing modified the concrete but shove all the symbolical appropriation only through an identification with the innovating conception upheld by the Establishment or the conceptors."
NOSCHIS, Kaj. "Appropriation in a Laboratory for Experimental Studiesthe Relation Between Representation and Appropriation." In Appropriation of Space. IAPS. Strasbourg, France: Louis Pasteur University, 1976. A laboratory for experimental studies is a particular spatial environment to be appropriated by an individual. The way a subject will represent himself such a space will necessarily be affected by its specific character. This is here analyzed. The representations that the subjects will have are here considered as deter mining the way they will proceed to appropriate the space. This means that appropriation is consequent to the representation that the individual has of a apace. This relation is dialectic in the sense that the appropriation will naturally result in an influence on the individual's following representation of this space and so on. We raise here the question of the usefulness for the nalysis of appropriation of an experimentation in a laboratory. Experimental designs with the purpose of individuating the constituents in the appropriation process may be conducted in a laboratory if we concentrate on the analysis of the subject's represen tations and how these representations change. A laboratory offers here experimental conditions more easily controlled. The results can be of use for the architect. If we want to study the specific role of the spatial environment on appropriation it seems necessary to examine it in the individual's daily environment. This because in such a case the way the individual experiences his own condition in terms of power and as a consequence the influence he considers to have on the surrounding space becomes extremely important.
GUERRAND, ROGER-HENRI. "Appropriation of Houses and Lower - Class People." In Appropriation of Space. IAPS. Strasbourg, France: Louis Pasteur University, 1976. n older days there were no clearly defined limits between private space and public space. People of various social classes live in the same premises. They will separate in the XVIII th century. A classe of owners then develops. They build tenement-houses which they let to the lower-classes, crowding them as much as they can to make the biggest profits of them. Only at the beginning of the XX th century will measures be taken in Parliament to improve the hou sing conditions. Nowadays the surface of our living space is comfortable. And a new need for quality emerges, aiming to appropriation of that living space by personalising it.
DE LAUWE, PAUL-HENRY C. H. O. M. B. A. R. T.. "Appropriation of Space and Social Change." In Appropriation of Space. IAPS. Strasbourg, France: Louis Pasteur University, 1976. "The study of appropriation of space supposes a consensus on definitions. Here, the psychosociological appropriation of built space is considered in relation to the socio-economic conditions of physical appropriation. - Three preliminary remarks are necessary : on the importance of the contra dictions related to the environment in the industrial civilization, on the loss of bearings, on the rapidity of the transformations. 2 - The psychosociological processes operating in appropriation are related to practises, perception, images, representations, desires, aesthetic feelings, the imaginary, aspirations, plsns.Oetween the objects arranged in the daily space and the subject who tends to appropriate this space, complex dialectical relationships are established. 3 - Examples are taken from the housing-space, during meal-rime, in the neigh bourhood space in the production space. This last example is based on a survey made by workers themselves, that shows the processes of "desappropriation" of space. The link between work-space, housing-space and neighbourhood-space is emphasized. 4 - The processes of appropriation can be studied only in relation to the proces ses of technological transformation and social transformation, the one not neces sarily leading to the other. The inequality in the possibilities of appropria tion is underscored. Within the lodging, new objects, television in particular, modify both the social relationships and the modes of appropriation. 5 - Is the appropriation of space by all possible ? To ask this question is to open a discussion on the establishment of a genuine democracy."
ATASOY, AYLA, and UGUR ERKMAN. "Appropriation of Space as a Data for Architectural Design." In Appropriation of Space. IAPS. Strasbourg, France: Louis Pasteur University, 1976. Appropriation of space reflects the conflict between human needs and space properties. Therefore, studies on appropriation of space could be a starting point to determine unsatisfied human needs and requirements. We can create spaces which could be expected to meet the needs better by using the data stemming from these studies. In appropriation, the individual has more freedom in his dwelling. The aim of this paper is to investigate appropriation in the dwelling and try to make remodelstion by applying the data obtained from this investigation. However, it should not be forgotten that the stodyon a remodelation is s part of a continuous process.
Fatouros, Dimitris A.. "Appropriation of Space as a Mode of Institutionnalisation." In Appropriation of Space. IAPS. Strasbourg, France: Louis Pasteur University, 1976. "Contemporary official or "designed" architecture generally creates institution nary buildings and environments. Contemporary "spontaneous" or self help archi tecture (harriadas, bidonvilles, etc) creates non-institutionnary or more precisely anti-institutionnery environments. Their mode of production differs radically: In the first case is hetero-geners ted , in the second it is self-generated. Their perceptual organization also differs: In the first case it is more or less one-dimensional, in the second it is multi-dimensional. An effort to correlate these characteristics is made. A discussion on the different ways of appropriation and the "degree of privacy" of space follows."
DE LAUWE, MARIE-JOSE C. H. O. M. B. A. R. T.. "Appropriation of Space by Children as a Socialization Process." In Appropriation of Space. IAPS. Strasbourg, France: Louis Pasteur University, 1976. Appropriation of built apace is a process specific to the interaction between individual and environment, whose mechanisms and significance must be specifi cally analysed when they concern the child, because of his biological and social characteristics. For the young individual, to appropriate a apace is a way to assess his place in society as acting subject, in his own eyes and in the eyes of others, and therefore to integrate himself in his environment as a recognized member of his society.
BARILLEAU, ENRIQUE E., and JUAN D. LOMBARDO. "Appropriation of Space in Multi - Storey Dwelling Units - Elements for a Building Evaluation Method." In Appropriation of Space. IAPS. Strasbourg, France: Louis Pasteur University, 1976. This paper develop the distinction between two concepts : appropriation and utilisation of dwelling family's space. The first is defined us a psychoso cial fact that comprised all particular's use behaviours in the dwelling, that let transform virtual space in concret, personalized space. The second is defined as the habitual realization in time and determinated places, of the required activities to inhabit dwelling in a practical way. Those activities it integrate and could make sense in the particular use's behaviours. It states the different stages of family's appropriation of space in time, creating a relation these concepts with the evolutive family development and with the familiar economic changes. The results to obtain through the described method, leads to some concret suggestions to the designers of public dwellings.
Samie, Anita. "Appropriation of Space in Suburban Stations." In Appropriation of Space. IAPS. Strasbourg, France: Louis Pasteur University, 1976. Starting from an analysis of real spatial practices of suburban stations users, we try to give a definition of a raw concrete ope rations of appropriation what users can do and what they actual ly do within the apace. The analysis will show that the power of equipment does not lie in its adaptation to the execution of practices planned beforehand, but rather in the fact that it allows an indefi nite number of practices (looking at something, waiting for someone, avoiding someone etc... Among those practices we have defined as operations of appropriation overlapoing, marking, familiarisation, misuse .
BEAUX, DOMINIQUE. "Attempt at Making an Overall Description of the Environment - Physical Background, Activities and Psychological Factors - as a Basis for Evaluating Background and Housing Schemes." In Appropriation of Space. IAPS. Strasbourg, France: Louis Pasteur University, 1976. "Drawing up an overall theoretical model incorporating different components of the physical environment, corresponding types of activity (behaviour and perception) and principal factors of a psychological character : table of practical analysis. - Adapted to the housing situation, this table incorporates, inter alia, the 4 components of the physical background and the B psychological requirements connected with the dwelling place, identified by the psychologist Ingrid GERL enabling 1/ identification of the physical background, activities, actors in volved, 2/ evaluation of stresses and inadaptability on the psychological level, 3/ proposals for improvements to be made in the physical background. - These analytical criteria.have been applied to I! the improvement of their own lodgings by architectural students, 2/ the evaluation of housing projects presented in terms of "patterns"."
FAHLE, BERND, and Alexander Schmidt. "Environment, Perception and Behavior in a Pedestrian Area." In Appropriation of Space. IAPS. Strasbourg, France: Louis Pasteur University, 1976. "This paper summarizes the methods and findings of an empirical research in a pedestrian area of the city of Stuttgart. Interviews with pedestrians, observation of pedestrian behavior and the analysis of the physical and social environment of the research area were leading to findings which give information about the influence of peoples different "intentional roles" on environmental perception and about characteristics of pedestrian behavior in the context of specific social and physical settings. The study aims at the utilisation of the findings as a basis for town plan ning and urban design, i.e. to give people the chance of realizing in tentions and modes of behavior via facilitating or hindering aspects of behavior by arranging adequate physical and social environmental settings."
Lantermann, ERNST D.. "Environmental Competence, as an Important Concept for Designing for the Elderly." In Appropriation of Space. IAPS. Strasbourg, France: Louis Pasteur University, 1976. It is tried with the concept of environmental competence (NC) to integrate different paradigms in the field of humae ecology. NC is an interactive construct which is related to individuals in specific environments and not to individuals per so. At least six characteristics of individuals and environments are essential for EC Degree of stimulation - readability of situational components - avail ability of behavioral alternatives - predictability of environmental changes cognitive - and behavioral competence - interpersonal consensus of defining the situation. The necessity of EC for designing for the elderly and concrete architectural and organisational cuieqnences are demonstrated.
PEZANOU, ANGELA. "Experimental Research on Perception of the Built Environment by Eight Years Old Children - (Mental Map in Relation to their Behaviour)." In Appropriation of Space. IAPS. Strasbourg, France: Louis Pasteur University, 1976. The research aims at studying the built environment from the point of view of its appropriation by less than eleven-years old children. Aim selecting infor mations needed to plan and design the most pliant and the most appropriate structures for children's and adults' use. This paper is the punt-study carried out in the general context of the above research. - Subject of research four eight-years old children belonging to families of middling-high socio-economic level and living in an urban cultural environment. - Environment of research find out the way children perceive, conceive of, interpret and classify their environment and its elements (Saloniki, 1974). - Method for collecting information from children 1. In the known environment (their own home) : a) Memory drawing of their home's spaces. b) Observation of their behaviour in these spaces. 2. In an unkwnow environment : a) Observation of their behaviour, in the spaces of an unknown house. b) Memory drawing of these spaces. The collected informetions were processed by comparing and correlating between them and the actual state of the environment. As this is a first approach to the research and as the sample is very small, the chief interest of this research lies in its methodology and in the discussion of conclusions.
Allott, KATHRYN J., and FLORENCE C. LADD. "First Marriage and First Home." In Appropriation of Space. IAPS. Strasbourg, France: Louis Pasteur University, 1976. "The main subject of the work is to determine the factors influencing the choice of the young couples' houses and how they use residential environment for their needs for privacy (as individual identity and as a couple). What are the im portant facts to consider in such a study ? - residential history and "ritual patterns'" of each partner of the couple, - consequences of earlier occupancy of the home by one partner, - factors influencing the residential mobility (first- 3 years of marriage). Though the research techniques have distinct limitations, the research conclusions are 1) Couples have few specific residential requirements when they are first married, 2) They place greater emphasis on interior apace, 3) Economics factors are the major determinants of their residential choice, 4) They think they will spend 2 years or lees in their ]at home."
Haumont, NICOLE. "Home Appropriation Practices." In Appropriation of Space. IAPS. Strasbourg, France: Louis Pasteur University, 1976. The practices of appropriation of the lodging chiefly include the organisation and the marking of space. Most french city-dwellers organize their space with reference to common cultural models sociability, masculine-feminine roles, parents-children relationships and sexuality. The resident marks its space through modeling it, doing odd-job in it and upkeeping it. Marking demonstrate an affectiie investment in the lodging.
WEHRLI, B, S HUSER, H EGLI, P BAKKE, and E. Grandjean. "Housing Conditions, Housing Activities, and Housing Attitudes." In Appropriation of Space. IAPS. Strasbourg, France: Louis Pasteur University, 1976. In an interdisciplinary study we analyzed in 800 family dwell ings in Zurich the congruence between architectural structures and the needs of the occupants.For that purpose, we recorded on the one side the architectural structures and on the other side, the social and economical situation of the dwellers. The question, how much space dwellers could actively appropri ate or how much they are influenced by the given architectural environment, has been analyzed in a detailed study of housing and leisure activities utilization of rooms end attitudes toward the built environment taking into consideration the environmental conditions.
Haumont, ANTOINE. "Industrial Spaces and Urban Practices of Space." In Appropriation of Space. IAPS. Strasbourg, France: Louis Pasteur University, 1976. Modern industrial zones isolate industrial spaces from the rest of urban space and exclude the practices of space learnt in urban way of life. This situation creates tensions that could be lessened by re-integrating industrial complexes to urban space.
Fischer, G. N.. "Industrial Work and Appropriation of Space." In Appropriation of Space. IAPS. Strasbourg, France: Louis Pasteur University, 1976. This researh brings out a well defined category of space we shall call the industrial space.
SERVAIS, Emile, and Georges LIENARD. "Inhabited Space and Class Ethos." In Appropriation of Space. IAPS. Strasbourg, France: Louis Pasteur University, 1976. Starting from ethnological observations on housing habits our purpose will be show how much they vary according to the differences in class ethos. We will be successively concerned with the class definition of housing, diffe rences in appropriation and which seems to depend on trajectory and social position. As a result we derive from these analyses, hypothesis capable of supporting the observation and explanation of the relationships between social factors and innovations in the field of housing habits.
Preiser, Wolfgang F. E.. "Modes of Space Appropriation in Institutional Settings:a Case Study in Methodology." In Appropriation of Space. IAPS. Strasbourg, France: Louis Pasteur University, 1976. Institutions, government, and large corporations control an ever increasing share of building activity, resulting in commun ication problems between clients, designers and users and fre quent misinterpretations of user requirements, particularly con cerning space and environmental criteria. This paper describes a survey of three school environments In terms of facility levels, environmental descriptors and human response measures, not for the purpose of data reporting, but In order to highlight the procedural difficulties and common methodological traps In research on appropriations of space In Institutional setting.
SANSOT, PIERRE. "Notes on the Concept of Appropriation." In Appropriation of Space. IAPS. Strasbourg, France: Louis Pasteur University, 1976. The objective is to situate the concept of appropriation and to find in what context it acquires significance. It is usual to relate it to all kinds of practices through which something or someone bears my mark and becomes mine. We propose to show that appropriation is achieved through various processes of identification which may or may not be linked to a practice. Strange power, almost infinite and yet almost bound to fail for in this undertaking, the other loses his otherness and becomes somewhat similar to us, unless we ima gine a world made of rebounds, of failures, of sparklings teht, from one difference to the next, would insure the continuity of saneness.
GLEICHMANN, PETER R., and HANS-JOACHIM FRITZ. "Open - Plan Architecture and Bureaucracy an Intermediate Report." In Appropriation of Space. IAPS. Strasbourg, France: Louis Pasteur University, 1976. We studied some changes in the use, of architecural spatial means in industrial administration beginning in one of the largest german cpen plan office buildings. The actual distribution of work-place areas is organized continuously by the organizational planners for improving labour productivity. There is a stady conflict betweeen the organizational planning department and the personell.
Duffy, FRANCIS, and JOHN WORTHINGTON. "Organisational Design and Space." In Appropriation of Space. IAPS. Strasbourg, France: Louis Pasteur University, 1976. The purpose of this paper is firstly to describe some of the more obvious characteristics of organisational structure which relate to space, and secondly, to relate these aspects to some current problems in the social sciences. The authors describe the way they attempt to help their clients to understand their needs better, so that solutions might be offered (which need not necessarily have a built-form). A direct link between organisational sociological theory and practical solutions to problems is netlined.
Mitropoulos, E.. "Paths and Barriers with Respect to Hunan Relationships in Semi - Private/public Spaces." In Appropriation of Space. IAPS. Strasbourg, France: Louis Pasteur University, 1976. Man interacts with the Physical Environment in an active and anticipatory way by projecting his intentions on it. The latter (we are here interested in man-rode Barriers) according to its organisation helps towards structuring man's activitios basically: movement--thought-space, and the all-important communication with others, along those daily/weekly etc networks. So, barriers could be good for you.
VOYE, LILIANE. "Production and Appropriation of Space Rules and Differential Modalities." In Appropriation of Space. IAPS. Strasbourg, France: Louis Pasteur University, 1976. Whether it is a lodging or a larger spatial unit, as the neighbourhood or the city, that are in question, the rules governing their creation or their trans formation do not make it possible to deduce in an absolute way the modalities through which these spaces will be appropriated.
KOROSEC-SERFATY, PERLA(et al.). "Protection of Urban Sites and Appropriation of Public Squares." In Appropriation of Space. IAPS. Strasbourg, France: Louis Pasteur University, 1976. What part does the public protection of urban sites play in the creation of conditions enabling the appropriation of historical public squares 7 Although the latter are approached, as specific public spaces for the sake of research only, the writers suggest that the modes and degrees of reality in their appro priation should he differentiated, so as to introduce an inquiry on the impact municipal decisions may have upon the use and especially the perception of squares.
Moles, A.. "Psychological Aspects 0S Space Appropriation." In Appropriation of Space. IAPS. Strasbourg, France: Louis Pasteur University, 1976. "Space, just as time, can be considered either as a frame of reference (the address, the coordinates system) or as a usable quantity, necessary to the process of living. Appropriation of sense means primarily, rother than lerul property-or rent:np-the Lendensy of the individual to exert control over a portion of the world by his very presence, whether actual or vicarious. Two nays of living is space are basic: (a) vanded up, which ashes that the individual erseives space in rnlationship with the Place he is now and anchoring taking roots: identifying oneself and one's space e:ith a artisulor place of the :ovid. These two extremes ways of living alternate, but one of them is always dominant: ep. "taking roots", fixing one's home as the geometric ounter of a series of fixed poal or focuses of interest, which develop the world around this rcotinp oint a rhilosochy f centrality, the point being a definite place of roturn from any cyclical excursion. This latter is in fast the tacit ideology underliying the Eastern civilization."
DEJEAN, CHARLES-HENRI de L. A. T. O. U. R.. "Relational Systems and their Impact on Space." In Appropriation of Space. IAPS. Strasbourg, France: Louis Pasteur University, 1976. This article, following up an ethnological investigation made in 1975, in the Mootbeliard area in France, aims to show that the arrangement of furniture within an apartment is in great part determined by the relational system a social class fits into. The relational systems underlying the social life of blue-collar workers and of white-collar workers are indeed differentiated by the importance that the former grant to parents while the latter rend to be more detached. The result of this fundamental divergence is that blue collar workers are set in a relational system of a collective, predetermined (not chosen) type, presiding over the great stages of their life cycle, du ring which commeosslity plays a leading part. On the other hand, white-collar workers favor, for their part, a relational system of an associative type, where one chooses his friendships among one's colleagues at school and at work in order to share with them particular interests and activities. To meet the requirements of these two systems, the apartment's living-room tends to be organized differently in each case.
GRAUMANN, C. F.. "Report on the Seminar - Modes of Appropriation of Space." In Appropriation of Space. IAPS. Strasbourg, France: Louis Pasteur University, 1976. "From its conception and from the beginning this seminar was different and meant to be different from the other seminars or workshops. While these dealt with more or less circumscribed or limited fields of empirical research on what may be called appropriation of apace (home apace, work space, institu tional settings, etc.), the modes seminar, first of all, had the task and the burden to state and to discuss what may be properly called appropriation of space. The risk involved in this task - and in these three days it turned out to be s controversial issue - was the following. For one group of our participants (of the seminar and probably of the whole conference) appropria tion of space was a mere label, a fashionable or even national linguistic preference, covering whatever had been going on in the field of "Architectural Psychology", which, in turn, some considered to be s national preference of, say, British and Swedish colleagues. And you will have discovered that the French title of our common conference was "de la psychologie de l'espace construit". So for this first group, whatever they were particularly interes ted in, was men - environment - relations in general as we know it mainly from EDRA conferences."
Remy, Jean. "Report on the Seminar Appropriation of Public Urban Spaces." In Appropriation of Space. IAPS. Strasbourg, France: Louis Pasteur University, 1976. This text does not sum up the papers presented and mentions no names. We ask the various speakers to excuse us for this. We shall attempt to present the similarities and the differences as they appeared in the papers and the discussions, as well as certain underlying problems.
Kruse, Lenelis, and Maxime Wolfe. "Report on the Seminar Appropriation of Space and the Life Cycle." In Appropriation of Space. IAPS. Strasbourg, France: Louis Pasteur University, 1976. The purpose of this seminar or -as we prefered to call it- workshop was to consider appropriation of space in terms of stages in the life cycle, such as childhood, adolescence, the adult years, old age. We were convinced that the focus on developmental aspects of space appropriation would, in fact, be as useful approach to shed some light on the native of appropriation of space and to help clarify the concept of appropriation. By looking at modes of appropriation as a function of age and age related experiences we hoped to gain insight into various dimensions of appropriation and to understand its dynamic native. In this seminar we tried thus to get papers from people who had done empirical research an space appropriation (i.e. what they defined as such) either within a particular age group or across age groups.
RICHARDS, BEVERLEY A.. "Report on the Seminar Appropriation of Space Tn Institutional Places." In Appropriation of Space. IAPS. Strasbourg, France: Louis Pasteur University, 1976. My aim here was to summarise the papers and significant points raised in discussion during the week. I hope it will be useful to anyone interested who was unable to attend the conference. I would like to thank Rowan Matthews and other members of the group who helped me arrive at what I hope is not too biased a picture.
FISCHER, GUSTAVE et. Al.. "Report on the Seminar Appropriation of the Work Spaces." In Appropriation of Space. IAPS. Strasbourg, France: Louis Pasteur University, 1976. The papers given were fewer than in most groups - there being only six formal papers, plus one informal written contribution.Nnnetheless, much discussion was generated, often of a truly fruitful nature, and there remained time on Thursday to discuss the differences in approach which seemed to typify the British approach via-a-via the French or German.
Haumont, NICOLE. "Report on the Seminar on Appropriation of Space in the Home." In Appropriation of Space. IAPS. Strasbourg, France: Louis Pasteur University, 1976. The papers presented in our seminar all deal with appropriation of space, defined as a group of practices related to housing and to its immediate environment. At the risk of losing much of the wealth of the contributions brought in by the various participants, we classified these papers in two groups corresponding to two complementary aspects of appropriation practices the organization of inhabited space, defined as the differentiation of this space, and marking, i.e. the symbolic use of objects to qualify space. Additional preliminary question : to what extent do appropriation practices in a given society correspond to s precise historical situation ? This is the issue studied by R.Guerrand for France from the end of the 18th century. For IL Guerrend, the appropriation of the lodging is closely bound with property. Emerging together withe the middle-class, appropriation practices develop with the raise in living standards, public housing aid and access to property. Contempo rary low-cost housing does not however always meet the conditions enabling appropriation.
HOSTEIN, BERNARD. "School Space Experienced by Children of Migrant Workers." In Appropriation of Space. IAPS. Strasbourg, France: Louis Pasteur University, 1976. In their attempts to appropriate the school-space, the children of migrant workers assume different attitudes which partake of the ambivalence typical of these populations and of their adaptations to their new social environment. Each of these attitudes is conflicting with the others, and yet can be found simultaneously in the behaviour of one particular migrant child. At each stage of school-life, one of these attitudes is more widespread than the others. The stage of taming enables the child to explore the school space. Objects and places become personalized through manipulation and through the link which the child establishes between school frame and family environment which becomes more clearly felt. The rigidity of unhomogeneoua school spaces then forces on the child a stage of domestication during which school is experienced as a fetterlock, a sum of restraints ; the semantic field of locations at school is gradually filled with constant disciplinary and mora lizing connotations. School becomes a walled in space. This totalitarianism starts a stage of pliancy in some children who readfly shape themselves to fit into the structures forced upon them. The cleansed atmosphere of the educa tional planet provides a refuge from the muggy climate of the family. The gge of refusal finds differentiated expression. A great number of children, inside school, live numbly ; this passive shunning of school can turn into actual truancy. After leaving school, refusal is expressed through the des truction of symbols of power in school. The living experience of migrant chil dren in school space reveals more explicitly the behaviours of other school children ; would-he reforms alter nothing in school apace, nor in living experience which school space both reveals and conditions. It is essential to bring school space and family space closer together to enable at last parents and children to communicate in our societies.
VAN HOOGDALEM, HERBERT. "Some Conceptual Tools for the Analysis of Man - Environment Systems." In Appropriation of Space. IAPS. Strasbourg, France: Louis Pasteur University, 1976. The original idea of Fitch, who conceived of the building wall as a modulating membrane, has been elaborated in this article into a model of the Man Environment System. Four subsystems, reap. the physiological, the psycho logical, the social and the physical, are identified and described in terms of feedback-mechanisms, that complement each other in particular ways. Some of these relations are described. The relevance of the model for Architectural-Psychological research is discussed in terms of integrative power as well of predictive power.
RIVLIN, LEANNE G.. "Some Issues Concerning Institutional Places." In Appropriation of Space. IAPS. Strasbourg, France: Louis Pasteur University, 1976. This introductory paper will precent an overview of some environmental issues growing out of research on insiricutional settings, both partial (schools, day care) and total (psychiatric hospitals for children and adults). Using a broadly-based conception of users, including staff as well as clients, a series of themes will be outlined directed toward understanding the qualities of institutional places, including issues related to space, activities and time.
RAYMOND, HENRI. "Some Practical and Theoretical Aspects of the Appropriationof Space." In Appropriation of Space. IAPS. Strasbourg, France: Louis Pasteur University, 1976. The appropriation of space is represented by an assemblage of practices which gives to a limited space the property of either a private or a commun place. This assemblage of practices allows the identification of the place to be made, and this place, in turn, allows the production of practices. The appropriation of space is always linked to a symbolism. Therefore the appropriaM tion of space implies to communicate : the social qualities of the place, the I or the WE in this communication space is a material, a background for its operational use. The appropria tion may be subordinated to the qualities which are proper to space itself, when the latter is built, planned, produced there is then a relation between appropriation and the way in which some groups plan space, whilst others have or have not got the possibility to appropriate space.
MÜHLICH, EBERHARD. "Some Remarks on the Appropriation of Kn0Wledge Aboutappropriation." In Appropriation of Space. IAPS. Strasbourg, France: Louis Pasteur University, 1976. "In this short paper I will try to stimulate some reflections about the question of why the 'scientific community", engaged in the production of knowledge about the man-environment re lationships, was unable to develop more knowledge applicable for practice. I will point out external and internal reasons for its failure to organize a learning process to develop better organizational forma for planning, construction and use of housing and its failure to learn more about the personal social, political and technical preconditions."
PETIT, MARIA V. I. L. L. E. L. A.. "Space as Appropriated and Appropriating." In Appropriation of Space. IAPS. Strasbourg, France: Louis Pasteur University, 1976. "This paper puts in question the of in the expression "appropriation of space". Is this appropriation not characterized by a reversibility allowing us to say that apace is as much appropriated as appropriating ? From this point of view, we broach the topic of the relationship between inhabited apace and the proces ses of identification in the human subject, out of which there follows, among other things, the necessity of considering the temporal dimension and the genetic aspect of spatial relation. Two clinical examples concerning "moving house" point to the existential character of this relation."
TABOURET, R.. "Space Or Life !" In Appropriation of Space. IAPS. Strasbourg, France: Louis Pasteur University, 1976. "The semantic field of the word "space" and the construction of this concept in mathematics are called upon to underscore that individual experience is irreducible to a geometrical-space. The latter owes its increasing ascendency to the built environment's mode of production and more generally to the destruction of those relationships and references that are not determined by the predominant mode of production. The writer, a practitioner of development himself, fears that social sciences participate in this attempt. He should like each discipline to make its specific mode of reduction explicit, and to take into account the diversity of the practices of apace, as well as the role of language in constituting representations and in the symboli cal atructuration of the environment. With regard to an intervention on apace, the formula "space is what goes on in it and what may he said about it" maintains the problematical nature of design."
Remy, Jean. "Spatial Appropriation and Inter - Group Relationships Open Region and Closed Interactional Networks." In Appropriation of Space. IAPS. Strasbourg, France: Louis Pasteur University, 1976. The individual appropriation of space is understood as an element contributing to build the identity in a network of solidarity and opposition. Hence the social transaction governing the relations between groups is a key-element of the explanation. To do this, it is necessary to distinguish between analytical concepts and con cepts organizing the perception of space in daily life such is the private! public opposition. This opposition allows the actors to elaborate their percep tion of the normal and the legitimate. Our analysis concepts will begin from the open/closed qualification and we shall associate it to three objects whose difference and interdependence will have to be found the interactional network -the region or territory- the physical characteristics of space. The analysis will be applied to an open-apace school experiment in Montreal, through which we shall attempt to characterize the relations between school and lodging and to situate the stake of the encounter in the spaces interme diate between school and lodging that are nevertheless devalued.
Lipman, Alan, and ROBERT SLATER. "Status and Spatial Appropriation in Eight Homes for Old Peoples." In Appropriation of Space. IAPS. Strasbourg, France: Louis Pasteur University, 1976. In 8 Homes for old people, each of 374 residents - categorized by mental designation as 'rational' and 'confused' - was recorded as regularly occupying a specific seat in one or other of the 34 communal sitting-spaces studied. The seats and sitting-spaces were scored as.to their apparent 'desirability' and the scores inspected to examine the propositions that (a) rational and (b) male residents occupy the desirable seats and sitting-spaces. While the data provided support for the first of these anticipated types of differential appropriation of space, they do not uphold the second.
Gruais, Marc. "Structuration of the Three Dimensional Space and Perception Ofthe Form by the Young Children from Four to Five Years." In Appropriation of Space. IAPS. Strasbourg, France: Louis Pasteur University, 1976. Can the child structure uhe space in a different way from the one habitually proposed to him? Architectural games are elaborated and presented to children fsoa tour to five years in a class of nursery school : reduced scale games, full-sized scale games. The geometrical performances of those games permit spatial plans without right angle, that means different tree the one habitually lived by the child in the framework.
Davis, Gerald, and Irwin Altman. "Territories, Privacy and Control in Workenvironments." In Appropriation of Space. IAPS. Strasbourg, France: Louis Pasteur University, 1976. At work, people observe powerful implicit serial rules about territorial con trol and privacy, analogous to the rules they observe in the residential suburb whore they live. People find out which rules apply in a particular place, and what behavior patterns are appropriate at a given moment, by recognizing the territorial category of the place, and the roles of the individuals i.n it. Every place in the work environrnnt can be categorized as individual territory, group territory, or general territory, and at the same tine as primary or seconder, territory for a particular individual. (Public territories generally lie outside thu work environment.) People at work can know which category of territory they are in when they can recognize the cues and eyrcbols of tern- tonal control that are used by the organization and its staff. Stress and dissatisfaction with the work environment are reduced when the organization's rules for cceu and symbols, for fitting cut end parsenali ring of territory, for control of territorial boundaries, and for frequency of change ore consistent with the implicit social rules follerad by the staff. These concepts were eaed in planning the facilities for an organization of about two thousood people, and in the development of guidelines and critaria for layout end space design. This paper suamarizes these concepts and elements of the planning strategy developed to apply then.
HILLERET, MICHEL. "The Appropriation of Ecosystem Elements." In Appropriation of Space. IAPS. Strasbourg, France: Louis Pasteur University, 1976. "Space appropriation is always the appropriation of some ecosystems. Quite often, only spatial elements are taken into account and the spatial support of the ecosystem becomes, for example, cnnatructible support. The consumption of natural spaces can thus be analysed through the phenomenon of country-houses. In the european industrial societies, the problem of the access to nature can be solved, indeed, through a will of individual appropria tion of "naturalapacea". These so-called natural spaces are nothing but dis membered elements of the ecosystem the traces, the markers of an initial ecosystem on it's way of disappearing ; revived and diffused by the mass-media the myth of an always good nature, encourages a mode of appropriation of so called natural apace. This mode of appropriation is now also a fashion which is mainly based on the misapprehension of real ecological mechanisms and on that of the necessary management of the environment. The consequences are the reinforcement of the process of dismemberement of the ecosystem leading to an increasing degredation of environment. It means that now the initial ecosystem is completely disappea ring from some areas being used as a support to - constructions - markers as trees, greens and "exotica" plantations trying to recreate an image of the nature. The major problem of a territorial planning which should include the ecological cares in the spatial planning process would than be to struggle against the devastating consequences of this type of apace appropriation."
BARBEY, GILLES. "The Appropriation of Home Space - a Tentative Conceptual Definition." In Appropriation of Space. IAPS. Strasbourg, France: Louis Pasteur University, 1976. The concept of 'appropriation of space' has various meanings or implications for research and therefore deserves a careful ana lysis. The recent and frequent use of this concept in the liter ature raises the question of its normative use in the behavioral sciences. The appropriation of space can be viewed as a similar concept to 'place identity'. Spatial appropriation can be identi fied with at least S different but interrelated meanings, which are particularly relevant to the study of the use of space at home. The appropriation of space night presently (1976) be the most adequate psycho-sociological concept to describe some of the deepest interrelations between the subject --individual or social group-- and his daily environment. However, the sudden and exten sive use of such a broad concept in the behavioral sciences is subject to obsolescence and variation of meaning over time. Its normative relevance for the social sciences should therefore be questioned and analysed carefully.
GRAUMANN, CARL F. R. I. E. D. R. I. C. H.. "The Concept of Appropriation (Aneignung)And Modes of Appropriation of Space." In Appropriation of Space. IAPS. Strasbourg, France: Louis Pasteur University, 1976. The words of appropriation and Aneignung as used in ordinary language are ambiguous and not appropriate terms for psychological use. The psychological term of appro priation, however, has so far been largely restricted to Marxist literature. The historical background of the anthropological usage of the concept of appropriation is described, its usage in psychology clarified. The structure of appropriation as yielded by a conceptual analysis serves to evaluate the appropriateness of this term in psychologic al studies of the built environment.
LEROY, Claude. "The Historical Development of Self - Image and Mechanisms of Defence Against the Environment and Others - Its Place in Relations with Present - Day Territory." In Appropriation of Space. IAPS. Strasbourg, France: Louis Pasteur University, 1976. "A fundamental aspect of the relationship of a being with territory is his histo ry. Between the organisation of self, of body-image and territory the relation ship and to things has been neglected. Today the key to a subject's ability to situate himself in "real" space is the historical value of his representation of perceived apace and time. Man creates his space and ego himself. A subject's mechanisms of defense against the environment vary in accordance to the latter's organisation."
MUNTANOLA-THORNBERG, JOSEP. "The Identity of the Body and the Appropriation of Places." In Appropriation of Space. IAPS. Strasbourg, France: Louis Pasteur University, 1976. "The paper will intend to uncover the links between the identity of the body and the app; opr iation of places to live in, which happen to be two important and complementary notions in architec tural psychology. First of all, the notion of identity will be analysed according to several psychological and sociological schools of thought. Then, the different levels of the "Appropriation of places will be des cubed, all of them considered as expressions of the psycho-social identity of the body. Finally, and as a result of all those state ments, The paper will consider architectural design, both as a proposal of transformation of the environment, and as an expression of the identity of the body."
Laufer, Robert, and Maxine Wolfe. "The Interpersonal and Environmental Contact of Privacy Invasion and Response." In Appropriation of Space. IAPS. Strasbourg, France: Louis Pasteur University, 1976. This paper focuses specifically on the developmental aspects of the problem of human privacy. We will present our own conceptuelization of privacy and its relation to the life-cycle, discuss existing theory and research that oijld seem to have implications for the developmental aspect of privacy, end describe our own research on the development of definitions of privacy.
FERRAND, ALEXIS. "The Spatial Practice of Groups of Youngsters Symbolical Segregation and Appropriation." In Appropriation of Space. IAPS. Strasbourg, France: Louis Pasteur University, 1976. Attempt at interpreting the processes through which youngsters organize in groups during their free time, on the basis of the relationships of individuals to various institutional places. The movement from a socially determined grou ping in practice to the imaginary universe of s group appears as a symbolical totalization of the social identity of the members.
LUGASSY, FRANCOISE. "The Spatialization of Identity Supported by the Body - Image and by the Dwelling." In Appropriation of Space. IAPS. Strasbourg, France: Louis Pasteur University, 1976. In a psychoanalytical theoretical framework specifically elaborated in order to integrate the relations to socially produced objects (like the dwelling and to a certain extent some characterizations of the body proper) a general prnhlematlcs of the relations between the significations of the body and that of the dwelling is presented here. These significations refer correlatively to the (sexual and social) identity of the self and to the processes of the ego which constitute the appropriation-re-appropriation and identifications composition mechanisms of the self. From this point of view the importance of those two figurative supports of identity both spatializcd and their relations of reciprocal anaclisis is analysed more particularly with respect to the sex and the psychosocial history of the subject.
Küller, Rikard. "The Use of Space - Some Physiological and Philosophical Aspects." In Appropriation of Space. IAPS. Strasbourg, France: Louis Pasteur University, 1976. The transactionaliets succeeded better than others in keeping our world together, thus avoiding the division into physical and perceptual worlds. Unfortunately their theoretical liberation seems to be forgotten today. However, during the last few years new evidence has been accumulated concerning the interaction between man and his surroundings - evidence from physiological science and accordingly not so easily discarded. It might not be an exaggeration to state that every change in the space surrounding man can be observed in his own organism. Some experimental results relating visual information rate to cortical arousal and heart rate are summarized by means of a theoretical model. Although the new facts have led to many interesting psychological hypotheses, their philosophical implications have not been thoroughly discussed. Some such implications are suggested.
GARBRECHT, DIETRICH. "The Utilization of Inner - City Green Open Space." In Appropriation of Space. IAPS. Strasbourg, France: Louis Pasteur University, 1976. Questions to be answered by this research were: (a) What are the variables that determine the visiting of inner-city green open space? (b) What distan ces do people travel? (c) What are the main reasons for non-use? (d) What should the quality of green open spaces be like? These questions were inve stigated taking the apartment or the job as origin and the open space as destination of a trip; i.e. the research did not only try to find out the role of green open space with respect to the apartment, e.g. visiting open space on Sundays before lunch, but also with respecr to the job, e.g. the conditions under which people will visit a space during the lunch break. The research included the issue of substitution: (a) Do people who own a private garden visit inner-city green open space as often as people who do not dispose of a garden? (b) Do people who live near an inner-city green open space go to the country on weekends as often as people who are not well supplied with inner-city green open space?
BAYAZIT, NIGAN et al.. "Three Levels of Privacy Behaviour in the Appropriation of Dwelling Spaces Tn Turkish Homes." In Appropriation of Space. IAPS. Strasbourg, France: Louis Pasteur University, 1976. This study aims to shed some light on the privacy problems of Turkish people in their homes, which are affected by several factors such as Huhammedaofsm, socio-economical-situation of people and the cultural transition. Privacy behaviour was studied at three levels in relation to the increase of distance among the people and the hierarchical levels of built environment such as personcl privacy - personel distance, social privacy - social distance, public privacy - public distance. Reviewing the historical background of the subject, a survey was designed to make a preliminary research in working class homos,to find out the interrelation between the privacy behaviour of people and the physical setting in theft homes and also the appropriation of space to their needs.
PROSHANSKY, HAROLD M.. "Tile Appropriation and Misappropriation of Space." In Appropriation of Space. IAPS. Strasbourg, France: Louis Pasteur University, 1976. "In this paper the concept of appropriation of space is subjected to a preliminary theoretical analysis by first attempting to order the various meanings provided by the canvenera of this Conference. In a second section of the paper) the analysis seeks to extend and further clarify the concept by taking flute of the fact that it is a process that extends over time involving particular places; must be considered both generally and specifically in relation to the different levels of human organization, e.g. individual, group, social organization; and must he conceived of in tents of an evaluative dimen sion, that is, whether one appropriates or "misappropriates" space in the sense of failing to achieve ones ohjeetiva in the organization of space. Considerable attention is given to the individual level of analysis in understanding tile-appropriation of space. with special note taken, the person's conscious aware ness or the lack of it in the process; the significance of the individual intro jeeting the properties of space as well as expressing himself in it; and finally by stressing the importance of certain broad types of personality dif ferences for understanding space appropriation. In a final section of the paper a strategy for research in the appropriation of space is presented in general terms with the view taken that it must be focused an yell-defined end well-studied specific sociocuitural groups living in particular physical settings."
DOZIO, MARIE-JOSE, and PIERRE FEDERSEN. "What is the Use of the Notion of Space Appropriation for Architectural and Planning Design." In Appropriation of Space. IAPS. Strasbourg, France: Louis Pasteur University, 1976. "The experiment we are presenting here endeavours to apply obser vations of human behaviour to the fields of land-development, planning and architecture so as to arrive at operational solu tions better adjusted to users' needs and demands. Thus we attempted to understand the process of appropriation of some spaces experienced by a "social milieu" representative of a groun of people, characterized by behaviours, ways of life, specific : ways of thinking, relationships to the environment. In a way we attempted to recognize the complicity between physical space and life, to experience space as the "pratice" of a "social milieu" and to bring to light the factors governing the indis pensable conditions of appropriation dynamics."