Keywords Abstract
RAPOPORT, Amos. "An Approach to the Study of Conflicts in Space." In Conflicting Experiences of Space. Vol. 2. IAPS 2. Louvain La Neuve, Belgium: Catholic University of Louvain, 1979. The topic of conflicts in space use is broad and diverse. Since my time is limited, I will make some general points about space and its organization relating these to the theme of this meeting-conflicts in space use. Each point will be made briefly, almost in shorthand form. Additional readings (rather than references) are listed and will provide a fuller development. These readings are limited to a few of my own publications in which can be found the specific references and evidence for the state ments made. My intention, thus, is to give an outline of an approach to an analysis of conflicts in space which is ap plicable to any situation - from preliterate dwellings to contemporary cities and is also useful for comparative and cross-cultural studies.
Simon, Jules-Gerard, and Luc Delvaux. "Analyse De La Charge Semantique De L´habitation Parlee." In Conflicting Experiences of Space. Vol. 1. IAPS 1. Louvain La Neuve, Belgium: Catholic University of Louvain, 1979. conference:IAPS:other
JENKINS, T. H., P O'BRIEN, and T. ALEXANDER. "Apartment Communities: Hypothesis for Future Housing Form." In Conflicting Experiences of Space. Vol. 1. IAPS 1. Louvain La Neuve, Belgium: Catholic University of Louvain, 1979. "The"apartment community" of the 1960-1974 apartment boom is used to examine Gropius' 1929 hypothesis that in the period from 1920 to the Year 2000, the apartment and later a communal dwelling will overtake and succeed the single family house as the predominant residential form in Ame rican industrial cities and urban areas, associated with evolutionary social changes. Census and economic data are used to describe two twentieth century apartment booms and to analyze their relation to sociological and related changes. An attempt is made in the light of these, to re formulate Gropius' hypothesis for systematic testing and for assessing urban housing policy."
Ellis, Peter. "Architects and Residents Differing Conceptions of Outside Spaces in Housing Areas." In Conflicting Experiences of Space. Vol. 2. IAPS 2. Louvain La Neuve, Belgium: Catholic University of Louvain, 1979. "A series of empirical studies of residents' conceptions of the outside spaces in housing areas showed that such spaces were conceived primarily in terms of activities and their appropriateness. These "activity schemata", served as organizing models of the world. They were strongly re lated both to design variables and to the satisfaction of social goals, but not to territorial behaviour which depended more on the individual's mode of spatial appro priation. Architects' and residents' conceptions differed due to architects' failure to appreciate the derivation of activity schemata."
Smith, Peter F.. "Architecture the Unavoidable Art." In Conflicting Experiences of Space. Vol. 1. IAPS 1. Louvain La Neuve, Belgium: Catholic University of Louvain, 1979. As a legacy of the Modern Movement, there is still resistance to the idea that architecture should offer aesthetic satisfaction. Historically cities provided emotional satisfaction through symbolism and aesthetic pleasure. Aesthetic experience is related to the principle of rhyme, a principle which can be expressed through pattern, symmetry and harmony. These concepts are possible in the visual milieu because the mind attributes 'weight' to visual phenomena. The interaction of perceptual weights may result in one of these aesthetic systems. This paper suggests that it is time to return to a systematic consideration of aesthetics in architectural and urban design.
Imamoglu, Vacit. "Assessment of Living Rooms by Householders and Architects." In Conflicting Experiences of Space. Vol. 1. IAPS 1. Louvain La Neuve, Belgium: Catholic University of Louvain, 1979. In a survey of 60 lower and upper SES houses in Ankara, li ving rooms were evaluated by householders and architects using a Spaciousness -'Crampedness' Scale (s-c-s). The re sults of ANOVA indicated significant differences between the evaluations of the architects and the householders, as well as between the two SES houses. The evaluations of the upper SES living rooms were more'positive than the lower SF5 ones; independent of SF5, householders rated the inte riors more positively than the architects. Since 9 of the upper SF5 householders were architects, a further analysis was carried out to clarify whether the differences found between the architects and householders reflected mainly user-nonuser or professional differences. The results in dicated that there were no significant differences between the ratings of the two architect groups. However, these two professional groups evaluated the living rooms diffe rently on S-C-S factors: householder architects assessed their living rooms as being more appealing but not as well planned.
POMEROY, Gavin. "Attitudes of Individuals and Groups in Assessing the Design of Buildings." In Conflicting Experiences of Space. Vol. 1. IAPS 1. Louvain La Neuve, Belgium: Catholic University of Louvain, 1979. A study of the application of repertory grids, to measure the attitudes of a range of parties, both professional and lay, to the design of buildings employs buildings as elements and elicit constructs, the respondents' dimen sions of judgment. It shows the relative importance of these dimensions and the placing along them of the varied elements. Using principal components analysis, it demon strates how tightly or singly the constructs are used, in dicates groups of buildings similarly construed and dis tinguishes functionally independent groups of constructs (components). It demonstrates how different are the di mensions used and found important to different respondents. It further shows that respondents vary in the diversity of views they bring to the judgment of building designs. Within the total respondent group, the specialist (acti vity) groups of architects in education, practising ar chitects, planners and laymen are seen to have group dif ferences and to be opposed on principal components of cognitive construction.
BEAUX, DOMINIQUE. "Coherence Perceptuelle Au Cours Du Circuit Comportemental." In Conflicting Experiences of Space. Vol. 2. IAPS 2. Louvain La Neuve, Belgium: Catholic University of Louvain, 1979. conference:IAPS:other
MITROPOULUS, E.. "Communications and Control." In Conflicting Experiences of Space. Vol. 2. IAPS 2. Louvain La Neuve, Belgium: Catholic University of Louvain, 1979. Beyond the space-as-footage (space production with profit in mind) and space articulation (the work of designers, where one way is based on perception), there is control of space--a more crucial but less talked about topic. Control is often regarded as a natural phenomenon--one way to avoid conflict. So, although one may arrive, for example, at a good design with in-built flexibility (al lowing for choice, change and participation), the ques tion still remains: Who controls flexibility ? Conflict in space occurs when a) We become aware of the control issue involved, and b) we can afford to try and do something about it. Communication, in the form of shared awareness, is lea ding to more and more conflict. On the other hand, commu nication in the form of negotiations can bring an end to a conflict. Communication is intimately linked to control (and hence conflict) whether face-to-face or using sophis ticated technology, whether non-verbal or verbal, whether small group or mass interaction. In this paper I raise issues like conflict, control, ne gotiations, exchange and communications, with design in mind--at the house and metropolitan scales.
Lawrence, Roderick J.. "Comparative Experiences of Domestic Space." In Conflicting Experiences of Space. Vol. 1. IAPS 1. Louvain La Neuve, Belgium: Catholic University of Louvain, 1979. The opportunity to observe five families simulate full scale models of their future houses in the Laboratory for Architectural Experimentation has been instructive. This experience has provided the opportunity to study the ideas and the intentions of the users. This text presents one part of a larger study which analyses the relationship be tween the ideas of the users and those of the architects. In the study the meaning and the intended use of the hou ses has been analysed as it was expressed during the si mulation process, and during a subsequent interview. In this text particular emphasis is given to those objects and built features which the users adopted as structuring elements or indices to design spaces in their future hou se. This process of design can then be compared with that adopted by architects.
VOYE, LILIANE. "Concepteurs, Usagers Et Legitimite Du Bati. Dynamique Des Discordances." In Conflicting Experiences of Space. Vol. 1. IAPS 1. Louvain La Neuve, Belgium: Catholic University of Louvain, 1979. conference:IAPS:other
DMANN, Ella Ö.. "Conflict Between Professional and Lay Definitions of Space Usearchitect's Ideology and Lay Experience of Dwelling." In Conflicting Experiences of Space. Vol. 1. IAPS 1. Louvain La Neuve, Belgium: Catholic University of Louvain, 1979. The discussion in the paper is based mainly on a research project within the field of sociology of law, dealing with the ideology of architects in relation to their activity in development of housing areas. In the project interviews have been carried out with a number of Swedish architects and architectural students. The genesis of the representations is illustrated by means of articles in architectural periodicals from the beginning of this century and onwards. Three aspects are chosen for the discussion in this paper. They are beauty, comfort and equality. It is claimed that these concepts are treated in the sane technical and superficial way. A French re search project on the ideological and symbolic meanings in dwelling is used to illustrate the conflict between this practice and the dwellers' experience of dwelling space. The question is put if there are any openings for another rationality.
SALLOWAY, Niti Seth. "Conflict in Systems' Interface M.i.t. Cable Television: a Case Study." In Conflicting Experiences of Space. Vol. 1. IAPS 1. Louvain La Neuve, Belgium: Catholic University of Louvain, 1979. I am interested in applying systems theory, as developed for use in studying inter actional behavior in dyads, families and groups (small and large), to a specific subsystem in a large educational institution i.e. Cable Television at M.I.T. The three basic types of systems are examined - Open, Closed, and Random systems and their typical structural arrangements, boundaries, purposes, flaws, and ideals are presented. The spatial metaphor is used to describe Euclidean space, as well as psycho-political space, which includes the dimensions of power, affect and meaning. A discussion of systems invariably entails a discussion of subsystems (in this case the Cable Television subsystem) , and interface phenomena, which is the interaction at the meeting ground of two or more subsystems, each with its own boundaries, rules, etc. My thesis is that conflict, together with conflict resolution, negotiation, access, and change, can be observed at the interface of systems. M.I.T. as a whole is a closed system, with the characteristic closed-system rules for decision-making, access and control of space, facilities and resources. The Cable Television system, located in M.I.T. classrooms, dormitories, libraries, offices, public locations and connected to Harvard University via a micro-wave linkup, is an open system of communication. Conflict arises at the interface of these two systems, and conflict resolution can occur most successfully if the assumptions and values of the inter facing systems are addressed.
Mikellides, Byron. "Conflicting Experiences of Colour Space." In Conflicting Experiences of Space. Vol. 2. IAPS 2. Louvain La Neuve, Belgium: Catholic University of Louvain, 1979. The aim of this paper is twofold: 1. To summarise the 'state of the art' on conflicting experiences of colour space based on psychological and architectural interpretations. 2. The presentation of the preliminary findings of on going longitudinal studies at Oxford on colour attitu des to full scale colour spaces by architects and laymen. Conflict is considered at several levels of conceptuali zation. Conflict within the individual depending on his physiological and psychological state. Conflict within a group in their experiencesand attitudes to colour spa ces. Conflict within a group between personal evaluation and social evaluation. Conflict between groups in their perception and responses to colour. Architects' colour taste will be compared to the taste and aspirations of laymen. Conflict as a result of differences due to age and lex. Conflict arising as a result of the architectural di lemma: What we know about colour as scientists and psycho logists and what we do as artists and architects. The distinction will be made between synchronic conflict apparent conflict at any given time - and diachronic con flict - brought about through changes mainly the time factor but also taste, habituation.
MARTINOU, Sophia. "Conflictual Experience of Urban Space Between Women and Men:reality and Tendencies." In Conflicting Experiences of Space. Vol. 2. IAPS 2. Louvain La Neuve, Belgium: Catholic University of Louvain, 1979. "This conflictual experience is considered as based on the social difference traced in the binomial: Family- Society, that concerns the sexes. Changes on the one pole of this binomial are directly connected to changes on the other pole. The contestation of the traditional Fem. Role within the Family, is the basis of Conflictusi Relation between the sexes, occuring in the Urban level. Conflict is understood as a broader term for communication - and a prerequisite for it. The platform of this conflict is the different per ception of the sequences Interior - Exterior (between the sexes) that formulate the total spatial experience. The de velopment of its expression is related to the development of proper "languages" - mainly somatic reactions up to now, - from the part of Women. Opposed to the development of these 'dialects" are mainly - in terms of Space 1) Operational Thought and 2) Central Design (and its ideo logy)."
Cazalis, Laurent. "Conflits Existants Mis En Evidence Et Les Conflits Apparaissant Au Cours De La Construction D´institutions Privees Pour Enfants Inadaptes Ou D´instuttions Pour Malades Mentaux." In Conflicting Experiences of Space. Vol. 2. IAPS 2. Louvain La Neuve, Belgium: Catholic University of Louvain, 1979. conference:IAPS:other
de JONGE, Derk. "Differences in Conceptions and Attitudes Between Designers Andusers of the Built Environment." In Conflicting Experiences of Space. Vol. 2. IAPS 2. Louvain La Neuve, Belgium: Catholic University of Louvain, 1979. A number of authors have maintained that in certain cases and certain respects there are discrepancies between the ideas of architects and planners on the one hand, and the needs and preferences of users of the built environment on the other hand. These ideas of the designers are not only expressed in their publications and speeches, but also in their plans and in the buildings and spaces that are con structed in accordance with these plans. The discrepancies in question have been pointed at, e.g. by Chombart de Lauwe in France, by the social psychologist Wentholt and myself in the Netherlands, and by Michelson in North America.
PAMIR, Haluk. "Differences in Environmental Control, Construal Style and the Use of Space." In Conflicting Experiences of Space. Vol. 1. IAPS 1. Louvain La Neuve, Belgium: Catholic University of Louvain, 1979. In this paper, findings related to the alternative con strual styles employed in the construction of verbal and non-verbal schema space, are discussed as a function of personal (cognitive development) and social (group status) differences in environmental control possibilities. There are either role or setting specialists or genera lists. Role context specialists (older and middle class subjects) and generalists (older female subjects) were mo re in control of their environment than the setting spe cialists (younger, working class subjects). There was construal continuity between the verbal and non verbal schema space. Setting specialists varied their beha viour in relation to changes in the settings of proxemic studies; whereas, role context specialists varied their's in relation to changes in the role. More socially vulnerable people emphasized territoriality while good role construers used interpersonal distance and orientation.
ZRUDLO, Leo R.. "Differing Aspirations in User Participation Programs." In Conflicting Experiences of Space. Vol. 1. IAPS 1. Louvain La Neuve, Belgium: Catholic University of Louvain, 1979. "One of the problems facing designers involved in providing housing for a mass market, is the problem of the differing aspirations between the designer and the "designed for". All too often the designer is part of a social group that has developed aspirations quite different from the "mass" client he is called on to design for. In the past and even to-day to a certain degree, design education has tended to form leaders of "taste" in architectural design who can cure social problems with "good design" and would inform the public how and in what kind of environment they should live (1)."
Küller, Rikard. "Differing Demands on Interior Space in Naval Environments." In Conflicting Experiences of Space. Vol. 2. IAPS 2. Louvain La Neuve, Belgium: Catholic University of Louvain, 1979. The naval environment constitutes a fruitful ground for the study of the relationship between man and space. For months, when ships are at sea, people work, sleep and spend all their free time within the restricted area on board the ship and in a social setting equally restricted. A study was carried out where 140 sailors were interviewed about their attitudes towards work activities and the built and social environment on their latest journey. Items relating to personality were also included. Due to the traditionally hierarchical system on board the officers and some other crew members have much better spacial resources than others and they can also control their own working situation to a higher extent. This leads to a more positive attitude towards life on board generally. A point of specific interest is the question whether officers and the other crew members should share the areas reserved for dining and spare time activities. In this matter there are strongly divergent views, sometimes leading to conflicts about how a certain space should be used. Thus, the traditional attitudes are blocking a purposeful planning of the highly restricted area available. Different ways are suggested which in a perspective may lead to an improvement of naval interior design.
EDWARDS, MICHAEL. "Does It Matter If Architects do Not Really Know What People do at Home and Consequently Design for Them as for Themselves?" In Conflicting Experiences of Space. Vol. 1. IAPS 1. Louvain La Neuve, Belgium: Catholic University of Louvain, 1979. Some early results of a survey, designed to compare what architects believe goes on in houses compared to what ac tually does go on, are enlarged upon. The dissimilarity between the two sets of data is discussed and one conclu des that while the differences are intriguing and the oc cupant's attitudes towards the dwellings could be based on different considerations from those of the architects, there is not necessarily a case here for grave concern, owing to the adaptability of people to their environment. However, rather than suggest the study was a waste of time, it is not until such investigations take place that one can associate facts with commonsense propositions.
Lipman, Alan, and Howard Harris. "Environmental Psychology a Sterile Research Enterprise?" In Conflicting Experiences of Space. Vol. 1. IAPS 1. Louvain La Neuve, Belgium: Catholic University of Louvain, 1979. Substantively, this is a critique of environmental psycho logy as a positivistic research enterprise; a critique that centres on the predominantly asocial character of the discipline. The central tenets of positivism are outlined, as are the corresponding methodological assumptions that underlie environmental psychology. We argue that, in their subservience to the positivistic cast of thought, environ mental psychologists treat of people as objects. Further, in acceding to the naive expectations of design practi tioners, they play the role of technical handmaiden - they offer comfort in the form of a technical, an instrumental service. That is to say, the discipline treats of the mo ral, the socially rooted dilemmas inherent in the prac tice of design as technicalities, as problems to be resol ved via 'value-free' data. We, on the other hand, claim that efforts to confront such dilemmas - let alone to re solve them - must rest on the recognition of space as a social resource. Rather than providing comfort, this al ternate view seeks an understanding of social reality, of the social world in which designers and psychologists, like others, must act.
Boudon, Philippe. "Espace, Lieux." In Conflicting Experiences of Space. Vol. 2. IAPS 2. Louvain La Neuve, Belgium: Catholic University of Louvain, 1979. conference:IAPS:other
J. Hiernaux, Pierre, and Jean Remy. "Exclusion Spatiale Et Construction D´identite Les Marginalites Et Leur Dynamique Dans Les Agglomerations Urbaines." In Conflicting Experiences of Space. Vol. 1. IAPS 1. Louvain La Neuve, Belgium: Catholic University of Louvain, 1979. conference:IAPS:other
BURISCH, Matthias. "Expert and Lay Opinion in the Evaluation of Housing." In Conflicting Experiences of Space. Vol. 1. IAPS 1. Louvain La Neuve, Belgium: Catholic University of Louvain, 1979. The design and construction of an apartment house Is a venture of considerable moment for all parties Involved, such as proprietor, architect, contractors, local authorities, and the like. The same is true for the tenant who eventually decides to move in; it is he or she who will have to live with the consequences of that decision. Although the evidence for close and causal relationships between aspects of the built environment on the one hand and measures of subjective well-being on the other is scarce (Mtlhlich et al., 1978), this may partly be due to inadequate research paradigms used.
Davis, Gerald, and Francoise Szigeti. "Functional and Technical Programming - When the Owner/sponsor is a Large Or Complex Organization." In Conflicting Experiences of Space. Vol. 1. IAPS 1. Louvain La Neuve, Belgium: Catholic University of Louvain, 1979. "This paper represents a conceptual framework for the deci sion-making process regarding facilities. This process and its content are refered to as "FUNCTIONAL AND TECHNICAL PROGRAMMING". Its implementation is presented here in its application to one category of facilities: projects, at building scale, built in North Amercia, for which the owner/sponsor is a large or complex organization. Programming is defined and placed in its overall manage ment context. The typical range of programming tasks are described. The authors draw an their 14 years of experience in this field to identify certain risks, stresses and con flicts as well as means of minimizing such conflicts. * The concepts in this paper are more fully developed in a document titled: A Manager's Introduction to Programming for Facilities, prepared for internal distribution for Public Works Canada, Atlantic Region, 2nd edition, 1979."
NOSCHIS, Kaj. "Identity and Behaviour in the Urban Environment: Appropriation as a Potential Source for Conflicts." In Conflicting Experiences of Space. Vol. 1. IAPS 1. Louvain La Neuve, Belgium: Catholic University of Louvain, 1979. The first aim of this study is to be of practical use. We thus overlook the criteria- Of' a scientific approach. We will discuss the identity of recently. built neighbour hoods on the periphery of Venice by describing specific patterns of interaction between the built environment and the behaviour of the inhabitants. We will briefly show how the conservation of the identity of the neighbourhood is necessary if we want to avoid conflicts generated by a modification in the patterns of interaction.
PRESSMAN, Norman E. P.. "Images, Plans and Realities in the Development of New Settlements." In Conflicting Experiences of Space. Vol. 1. IAPS 1. Louvain La Neuve, Belgium: Catholic University of Louvain, 1979. The search for ideal or new cities has always existed as it still exists today. There will always be utopias which are removed from the realities of the times which have created them, However, in spirit, they have rarely gone un noticed. On the contrary, they have often imparted deep values and operational concepts to the societies from which they have evolved and have made lasting impacts upon future eras. Throughout the course of history, whether we deal with the real or imaginary worlds, it is possible to retrace echoes of questions which consistently reappear as being universal and demonstrating timeless qualities.
Becker, Hermann, and Jean Marc Collier. "Intimite Et Espace De Transition." In Conflicting Experiences of Space. Vol. 2. IAPS 2. Louvain La Neuve, Belgium: Catholic University of Louvain, 1979. conference:IAPS:other
Poche, Bernard. "La Consultance Architecturale, Pedagogie De Léspace Ou Processus De Legitimation Sociale?" In Conflicting Experiences of Space. Vol. 1. IAPS 1. Louvain La Neuve, Belgium: Catholic University of Louvain, 1979. conference:IAPS:other
Feltz, Claude. "La Forme De La Maison, Enjeu Social. Pratique De Utilisateur Et Pratique Des Architectes." In Conflicting Experiences of Space. Vol. 1. IAPS 1. Louvain La Neuve, Belgium: Catholic University of Louvain, 1979. conference:IAPS:other
Herrou, Michel. "Les Marelles Participation D´haitants a La Conception De Leur Logement." In Conflicting Experiences of Space. Vol. 1. IAPS 1. Louvain La Neuve, Belgium: Catholic University of Louvain, 1979. conference:IAPS:other
Covarrubias, Javier. "L`intelligibilite Et La Banalite Des Espaces Urabines En Tant Que Conditioneurs Des Experiences Conflictuelles Chez L´homme." In Conflicting Experiences of Space. Vol. 1. IAPS 1. Louvain La Neuve, Belgium: Catholic University of Louvain, 1979. conference:IAPS:other
LUGASSY, FRANCOISE. "L´arme Ideologique Pour Le Controle De L´esace Et L´orientation Societale." In Conflicting Experiences of Space. Vol. 2. IAPS 2. Louvain La Neuve, Belgium: Catholic University of Louvain, 1979. conference:IAPS:other
Bourdin, Alain. "L´espace Fondateur Dans Les Usages Conflictuels De L´ Espace." In Conflicting Experiences of Space. Vol. 2. IAPS 2. Louvain La Neuve, Belgium: Catholic University of Louvain, 1979. conference:IAPS:other
POODRY, Deborah, and Sharon LEE. "Observations on Neighborhood Self - Definition Through Inhabitation." In Conflicting Experiences of Space. Vol. 1. IAPS 1. Louvain La Neuve, Belgium: Catholic University of Louvain, 1979. The focus of this study is on the types of changes made and the envidenco they proVide showing a process of neighborhood self-definition as implemen ted by residents of a publicly-assisted housing project. Neighborhood self definition is the interactive, resident-initiated process of integrating a social community with a physical one. Definition involves the modifica tion of imagery, function and control of the total environment so that physical and social structures, reinforce and complement one an other. Changes to the physical environment are idioative of this process, based on the assumption that the physical environment is a carrier of social meaning. This meaning is made up of physical association and symbolism as well as interpretation of imagery through the economic, class, normative and associational filters of perception. Active participation in the cre ation of this meaning is a third factor affecting content of the message.
PEARLMAN, Wolf. "On the Semiology of Habitable Space." In Conflicting Experiences of Space. Vol. 1. IAPS 1. Louvain La Neuve, Belgium: Catholic University of Louvain, 1979. The paper discusses a number of 'four-function' de sign paradigms, drawing attention to their isomorphic properties and holistic qualities which suggest general validity for application to the design process. The study proceeds with the assessment of the 'envi ronment' of an archetypal housing design and describes the subsequently developed paradigm. No extravagant claims are made for the operational quality of the model. But the lack of any generally accep ted paradigm leaves room for some optimism that such a mo del might ultimately be adopted. The conclusion drawn is that further practical appli cations will be necessary before applicability, at the urban scale, might become the norm.
SCHMIDT, Alexander J.. "Participatory Design with a Scale Model - a Primer." In Conflicting Experiences of Space. Vol. 1. IAPS 1. Louvain La Neuve, Belgium: Catholic University of Louvain, 1979. conference:IAPS:other
Francis, Mark. "Participatory Mapping: a Technique to Resolve Conflicts Between Designers, Users and Communities." In Conflicting Experiences of Space. Vol. 1. IAPS 1. Louvain La Neuve, Belgium: Catholic University of Louvain, 1979. Maps and plans have been used for centuries as place making tools in archi tecture and planning. More recently, mapping techniques have been used to assess people's use and image of environments so that future plans can better respond to user needs. Yet rarely has environmental mapping been used to engage users directly in the design and planning process or to assist communi ty residents in controlling their everyday environments. This paper will present several mapping techniques drawn from fields such as environmental planning and environmental psychology (Ittelaon et. al., 1974). These mapping methods have been successfully used in participatory settings to encourage users and community residents in planning and controlling resi dential, neighborhood and community spaces. How participatory mapping tech niques can be used by non-professionals will be presented and the role of the environmental designer and researcher in the mapping process will be examined.
Woitrin, Michel. "Plenary Session I." In Conflicting Experiences of Space. Vol. 2. IAPS 2. Louvain La Neuve, Belgium: Catholic University of Louvain, 1979. conference:IAPS:other
Lemaire, Raymond M.. "Plenary Session Ii." In Conflicting Experiences of Space. Vol. 2. IAPS 2. Louvain La Neuve, Belgium: Catholic University of Louvain, 1979. conference:IAPS:other
Laconte, P.. "Plenary Session Iii." In Conflicting Experiences of Space. Vol. 2. IAPS 2. Louvain La Neuve, Belgium: Catholic University of Louvain, 1979.
Churchman, Arza. "Public Participation as a Means of Dealing with Conflicting Views: a Case Study in Israel." In Conflicting Experiences of Space. Vol. 1. IAPS 1. Louvain La Neuve, Belgium: Catholic University of Louvain, 1979. "In any decision-making process conflicts may arise between the participants. The situation may be one of cooperative conflict, generating out of the real or perceived incompa tibility of means toward a mutual goal; or it may be one of competitive conflict, arising from the real or percei ved incompatibility of goals among parties (Horai, 1977). Where the decision-making process deals with a design or planning issue, conflicts may arise on a number of diffe rent levels - between individual and group goals, between group and community or national goals, between professio nals and laymen, between those involved in the process and those not, and so forth. One critical question is whether whatever conflicts exist are based upon "real" incompatibi lity of means or goals, or upon misperceptions and misun derstandings. Such misperceptions are more likely to occur when there is little contact between the various groups or individuals involved in the process, or affected by it."
Cakin, Sahap. "Qualitative Appraisal of Jointly Used Spaces." In Conflicting Experiences of Space. Vol. 1. IAPS 1. Louvain La Neuve, Belgium: Catholic University of Louvain, 1979. The relationship between users' behaviour and the built en vironment is shown in a conceptual model of the built en vironment. The ways in which theme relationships affect the model is illustrated on a study of jointly used spaces. Two office buildings are 'appraised within the framework of the model. In the analysis of user responses to the ques tionnaires, relationship between users' level of satisfac tion with their office environment and their position within the organisation, type of work, sex, period of buil ding use, degree of familiarity with the building and of sensitivity towards environmental factors i.e. heat,light, noise and smell are examined. Discrepancies found between planned and actual use of the buildings are discussed. In the light of the results, suggestions are made to modify the earlier designs.
Gruais, Marc. "Realtions Des Comportements De L´habitant Et Du Concepteur Devant L`evolution De L´habitat Dans Un Site Defini." In Conflicting Experiences of Space. Vol. 1. IAPS 1. Louvain La Neuve, Belgium: Catholic University of Louvain, 1979. conference:IAPS:other
Bernard, M, Y. Ledoux, J. L. Morlie, and F. Noel. "Rehabilitation Residentielle Et Recherche Appliquee." In Conflicting Experiences of Space. Vol. 1. IAPS 1. Louvain La Neuve, Belgium: Catholic University of Louvain, 1979. conference:IAPS:other
TURNER, John. "Successful Design for Public Authorities." In Conflicting Experiences of Space. Vol. 1. IAPS 1. Louvain La Neuve, Belgium: Catholic University of Louvain, 1979. "In much public authority building the control of the de sign of a facility, whether or not the eventual users can be identified, is often taken out of the users' hands and put into the hands of the authority's "officers". Lines of communication between the designer and the actual user are then impeded. This paper discusses the acceptance of this phenomenon, and how it can be circumvented in order to achieve a closer correlation between the users' needs and the completed environment."
Symes, Martin, and JOHN WORTHINGTON. "The Conflict Over Standards in the Use of Workspace." In Conflicting Experiences of Space. Vol. 2. IAPS 2. Louvain La Neuve, Belgium: Catholic University of Louvain, 1979. The paper reports the experience of space-planners con sulting on the re-use of industrial buildings. It argues that differences between the broad use-classes of buil ding control and their specific application to individual cases can be exploited by small firms. These meet the need of their employees, their customers and their finan cial supporters by a variety of types of code avoidance. The paper suggeststhat some kindsof strategy are more appropriate for the early stages in a firm's growth. It ends by questioning the role to be played by professional advisers.
EDWARDS, MICHAEL. "The Development of a Projective Technique for Interviewing Architects About their Work." In Conflicting Experiences of Space. Vol. 1. IAPS 1. Louvain La Neuve, Belgium: Catholic University of Louvain, 1979. A sample of twenty-eight architects were interviewed about the way they designed houses. In view of their anti cipated drawing ability, it was expected that they might be able to express ideas they have about the way people live in houses by undertaking a drawing. This method of interviewing architects was thought to be novel. The pa per describes how the technique was developed, with par ticular emphasis on problems associated with ensuring that the technique was valid and reliable. Alternative techni ques are discussed and, with reference to some of the re sults obtained, the paper concludes with other studies which might benefit from this method.
PELED, ARIE. "The Experience of Role and the Division of Space." In Conflicting Experiences of Space. Vol. 2. IAPS 2. Louvain La Neuve, Belgium: Catholic University of Louvain, 1979. Since our Conference at Louvain focuses on two central concepts, Conflict and Space, I intend to present some data from a study, which is part of a series, in which we attempted to find correlations between two phenomena: the conflicting perspectives participants have of a given in stitution and the various ways they construe the division of its space.
MUELLER, Wally. "Usage of Indoor and Outdoor Spaces of the House: Architects' and Dwellers' Perceptions." In Conflicting Experiences of Space. Vol. 2. IAPS 2. Louvain La Neuve, Belgium: Catholic University of Louvain, 1979. It is often claimed that architects rely on their own ex periences of space usage when designing houses for others. If so, architects who use houses in ways that differ from non-architects are likely to produce designs that are not representative of their client's lifestyles. An experiment was carried out to evaluate the nature of the differences between architects and non-architects in their space usa ge patterns. The two groups (10 in each) were asked to ra te the likelihood of occurrence, for both day and evening usage, of 15 behaviours in 15 spaces (indoor and outdoor) of a house. An INDSCAL analysis produced an interpretable 4-dimensional solution: I - Motor/Expressive Activity; II - Intimacy of Social Interaction; III - Activities As sociated with Eating; IV: Verbal/Expressive Activity. Architects placed a heavy emphasis on the first two dimen sions, non-architects attaching more importance to dimen sions III and IV. The relative importance of the dimen sions depended on time of day for architects but not for non-architects.
VOYE, LILIANE. "Villageois Et Citadins: Dialectique De L´autonomie Et Du Controle Dans L`espace Du Village." In Conflicting Experiences of Space. Vol. 2. IAPS 2. Louvain La Neuve, Belgium: Catholic University of Louvain, 1979. conference:IAPS:other
Canter, D.. "Y a - T - Il Des Lois D´interaction Environnementale?" In Conflicting Experiences of Space. Vol. 1. IAPS 1. Louvain La Neuve, Belgium: Catholic University of Louvain, 1979. conference:IAPS:other