Keywords Abstract
van der Voordt, Theo J. M., and Herman B. R. van Wegen. "A Checklist on Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design: Usefulness and Limitations." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988.

In the seventies and eighties an impressive number of books and articles were published on crime prevention through environmental design. In order to involve the results of widespread research in design practice in a systematic way, a checklist may be useful. In this paper the framework of such a checklist will be presented. In addition some preliminary results are discussed of a field project that was initiated to evaluate this checklist on its utility and validity.

Deshmukh, Sudipa Nandi. "A Comparative Study of Psychological and Social Effects of Living in High and Low Density Housing." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. In the context of the rapid development of the city of Calcutta, a lot of spontaneous clusters of housing (high-rise, single room) have been constructed. Along with such development a considerable portion have been slums. Calcutta being one of the most populated cities in the world, is experiencing an acute shortage of living space - housing. About 300 adult subjects and as many children were chosen from the study area to see how the subjects perceived the environment they presently live in, their emotional reaction with reference to the high density and their level of intellectual functioning. Results show that high density living has a marked influence on psychological and social characteristics of the individual, considering their felt need for a particular environment and the quality of the environment they currently live in.
van Wagenberg, Andreas F.. "A Conceptual Environment - Behavior Model to Assist Decision - Making in a Design Process." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. A growing number of users of environments have negative feelings about contemporary products of architects, urban planners and interior designers. Their criticism is functional as well as aesthetic. Discontentment of users signals a low level of quality and should be concern of environmental designers. The proposed model explains which aspects of the build environment, do influence environmental value, judgements of users. It deals with four aspects: the social aspect, the spacial aspect, the organisational aspect and the service aspect (Canter, 1983). Such a model is only useful in a design process when it is related existing structures of decisionmaking and does express itself in a language that designers understand. It is important to acknowledge in this context that design decisions are made at different levels of abstraction and scale. The use of this model in design and evaluation research is discussed, using examples out of our own practise.
Tentokali, Vana, and Sandra C. Howell. "A Cross - Cultural Analysis of the Domestic Privacy: from a Gender Point." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. "Studies of domestic space allocations across different societies strongly suggest that applications of the concept of privacy, as formulated for western industrialized populations, may be irrelevant, nonsalient or ambiguous to non-western household groups and to populations functioning according to pre-industrial rules of social organization. On particular interest is the current determinant feminist literature on privacy constraints on the woman in household configurations. Depending upon whether privacy is defined as "the ability to control information about one's self or "the ability to create physical boundries that exclude others", the situation in many nonwestern extended family settings may be ambiguous. Control of information is not necessarily related to physical boundry delineation nor is the class of information to be controlled at all consistent cross culturally. Further, the absence of boundry labels for woman's individual space could be related to the more salient need for individuals to bond with gender, in order better to access and control information relevant to themselves and the multiage, cross-gender family with whom they reside and participate in collective economic activities. This paper is based on the case study of a muslim village in Greece."
Niit, Toomas. "A Methodological Framework for Studying Families in Dwelling Environments." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. A framework for studying the transactions between people and their sociophysical environment is proposed which tries to avoid the determinism or reductionism of socio-psychological and architectural theories. The sociophysical system is described as a unity of place, activity and relations, and we cannot understand none of these without considering them in relation to the others. This 'triad' functions in the broader context of sociocultural norms. As relations are part of the system, analysis on the level of individual will not be sufficient - we have to ascend to the level of social unit as well. Place and relations seem to be relatively stable parts of this system, and activity - the dynamic one. Nevertheless, we can speak about 'behavioral lifestyles' of different social units. The necessity of longitudinal analysis of social units in order to understand their functioning is emphasized.
Conan, Michel. "A Picturesque Tour of Landscape Sociology." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. French sociological research on landscape issues during the last fifteen years is briefly surveyed. It shows how a picturesque visual litteracy has shaped the french cultural elite attitudes with respect to landscape appreciation and public management. Yet it calls attention to the competing cultural models which are used by other social groups striving to achieve some sense of place. Then, this Brownian notion of landscape attitudes is shown to reflect a very deep change from an aesthetic to a symbolic value of landscape. Bibliography and notes.
Lindberg, Erik, and Tommy Gärling. "A Study of Residential Preferences and Choices." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. A model assuming that a person's evaluation of a given housing attribute is determined by a weighted sum of his/her evaluations of its perceived consequences for activities and life values, and that the evaluation of a particular housing alternative is obtained by summing this value-fulfillment across all attributes, was applied to data obtained by interviewing the adult members of 43 Swedish households searching for a new dwelling. The model was quite successful in predicting preferences for housing alternatives. When predicting evaluations of the households' present dwellings and choices among housing alternatives, however, the model was considerably less successful. A number of possible explanations were offered for the latter finding.
Shinobe, Hiroshi et al.. "A Study on the Adjustment of the District with the Change of Industry Structure. the Housing Policy of the Enterprise and the Housing Problem Arisen with a Depression." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. The purpose of this is to throw light upon the housing policy of enterprise and the housing problems arisen with depression. The enterprise mainly pushed the owned housing policy to form one body with it and raise the fixation rate. But its policy caused a serious strain on almost all the young retired employees in their thirties with their owned houses, and owned houses restrict retired employees' life. Therefore, they are suppressed for the occasion of the employment and economic burden by their owned houses.
Suzuki, Nobuhiro, and Yoshihiro et al. Kondo. "A Survey of Water Imagery with Respect to the Environment of Lake Union in Seattle." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. We asked water imagery of Lake Union by a questionnaire to 64 houseboaters and 37 uplanders. The result showed that houseboaters recognized more clearly various water characteristics and feelings about Lake Union than uplanders. Houseboaters gave higher evaluation to attractiveness and value of the lake. Comparing imageries obtained by the questionnaire, results of interview, and observation of the environment, we obtained physical characteristics of the environment which explained the causes of houseboaters' water imageries. They were 1) a lake and houseboats, 2) nature adjacent to a houseboat--visiting wild animals and four seasons, 3) a floating deck close to the water, and 4) a small lake. Majority of uplanders who could see a part or all of the lake rated it very attractive, whereas less than half of those who could not do likewise.
Bechtel, Robert B.. "Advances in Poe Methods." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. Design research should now be differentiated into Pre-Design Research (PDR) and Post Occupancy Evaluations (POEs). While most methods overlap, the different purposes of these two types of research influence selection of methods and analyses and modify methods to suit each. Simulation is the only method peculiar just to PDR and is rapidly advancing to a micro stage through electronic advances. The self-report controversy continues for all mehtods that use self-report forms of answers. The newest field, the transactional approach, also stirs controversy. Industry and government clients are preferring expert and focussed groups and these may be in danger of crowding out the more tried methods of social science.
Farbstein, Jay. "Advances in Post - Occupancy Evaluation Applications." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. "Advances in post-occupancy evaluation (POE) applications are looked at from two points of view. First, recent developments are observed and, second, those developments that may represent advances for the field are identified. Developments in POE applications include an apparent increase in the volume and acceptance of POEs, shifts in the sponsorship of POEs, and changes in the types of POE programs that are run by some sponsors. Possible advances include the integration of behavioral and technical assessments, moving toward the application of "total building performance". Other changes due to sponsor demands include a growing awareness of "bottom line" measures of performance in POE. Possible changes due to experience with large scale POE programs which may also advance the field include the development of greater sophistication in dealing with organizational issues and the clearer discrimination of multiple levels of POE."
KRAMPEN, MARTIN. "Advances in Research on Environmental Meaning and Symbolism." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. Early Italian and French semiological approaches to environmental meaning were advanced by philosophers and architects. The empirically oriented work in environmental psychology, sociology and geography on the topic originated in English speaking countries. Both approaches are currently being broadened to take account of complex multifunctional, multicodal, multivariate problems and of advances in the cognitive sciences. But recently there has been an awareness that the subject/object split dominating research on environmental meaning might have to be replaced by the ecological view that the environment issues meaningful information directly geared to perception and action of the (human) species.
Rautsi, Jussi. "Alvar Aalto's Urban Plans 1940 - 1970. the Abandoned Postwar Alternative." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. "The principles of Aalto's (unimplemented) regional and cityplans are still more viable today than the executed plans: river valleys as cultural and industrial entities: plans as "genetic codes" for changes in size and quality of settlements; protecting local communities against the consequences of rapid industrialization; terrestrial, organic patterns instead of grids."
Klimesch, Winfried. "An Administration Building According to the Principles of Green Solar Architecture (Gsa)." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. In 1985 LOGID designed the extension of an administration building. This GSA project saves energy and provides imaginative offices and work areas, but construction costs did not exceed those of conventional architecture. Forty working places were installed in the glasshouse by staggering two wooden pavilions one on top of the other. The glasshouse contains plants and serves as a conference and recreation area. The plants are subtropic species requiring a temperature of 5° Celsius in winter. They serve not only as decorations, but provide dust-free air containing ample oxygen. Their fruits an scent make for a pleasant working atmosphere.
Imai, Yurika. "An Analysis of the Design Process." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. The purpose of this study is to clarify how the people, both nonprofessionals and professionals, think or deal with forms and spaces. Visualization and manipulation of forms and spaces in mind and the act of drawing interact with each other. This paper is focused on the development of esquisse drawings and offers an analysis of protocols derived from experimental investigations in which both non-professionals and professional architects were asked to design houses on paper. Through the experimental results, it was concluded that non-professionals' cognitive structure in the design task was chiefly based on the linear and behavioral perceptions, while architecturally-educated group developed the design in pattern approaches as well.
Monteiro, Circe. "An Environmental Approach to Shantytown Urbanisation in Developing Countries." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. This investigation analyses social relations in three different neighbourhoods in Recife-Brazil: a favela, a public housing estate and a middle-class neighbourhood. The investigation was structured by means of Facet theory and the result analysed using the Smallest Space Analyses. It presents projections on the Level of Interaction, the Referent of Action and the Associates. The results show that casual interactions between neighbours form, paradoxically, one of the most important social relationships in the favela, and that questions of space play a determining role in the establishment of these social relationships. The middle-class arena for entertainment and the kind of interaction which takes place in the home is determined by the social role of the associates. Public housing dwellers present a stricter pattern of social interactions not directly influenced by other facets. Results demonstrate that these groups conceptualize and use residential space differently. Urban planning proposals aimed at favelas should consider that changes in spatial organization will also imply changes in social relations and life style.
Kobayashi, Masami, and Kiyoshi Kawasaki. "Analysis of Approach Design in Daitoku - Ji Temple, Kyoto Japan." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. Approaches of Daitoku-ji Temple, a compound of 23 sub-temples established during the period from 1338 to 1643 succeedingly, were surveyed to explore the meaning of difference and similarity found in their design composition. Public approach connecting sub-temples was articulated and classified by the type of wall design and pavement patterns. Inside approaches of sub-temples were classified by the length, bending forms and the area of temple. Overlaying the results, approaches of similar design composition were extracted. The meaning of the similarities was decoded by referring to the history of expansion of sub-temples.
Symes, Martin. "Architects Information Requirements." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. This paper suggests that some of the difficulties of research utilisation in architecture stem from the complexity and diversity of architects needs. The architectural design process may be seen as proceeding through a series of sub-processes: briefing, design, implementation, evaluation. In each sub-process, designers and their collaborators generate a set of 'hypotheses' and then test them, drawing conclusions for further action. As this technical work is carried out, members of the design team must interact with each other and with 'outsiders', so naturally their behaviour affects the decisions which are made. In any of the sub-processes of design, architects and their collaborators may thus need information concerning possible 'hypotheses', concerning testing mechanisms or concerning the behavioural context within which they are working. In some instances they may need information of more than one kind. Clearly it would be of interest to the research community to establish a full empirical classification of the information requirements of each subprocess. This paper will therefore use case studies written over the last five years by the author and his colleagues to indicate the types of result which could be obtained. Interestingly these particular data suggest that social and psychological research is often not available when it is most needed.
Tzamir, Yigal, and Iris Aravot. "Architecture and E - B Research - the Gap of Knowledge." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. The main stream of research on relations between people and their physical surroundings is still expected to set up scientific support to architecture and environmental design. In spite of the ongoing strive for communication between the disciplines, this aim has not been achieved yet. This paper intends to examine the problem from a theoretical point of view, in order to clarify that miscommunication is not a consequence of instrumental or methodological deficiencies, but can be explained by the inherent gap between different spheres of knowledge. The discussion is based upon a model of knowledge (after G. Ryle, 1946). This model, applied to architecture, shows the potential channels of communication between specific spheres of knowledge in architecture and E-B studies, The results of this analysis negate the very basic premise held by both E-B scientists and architects, that direct utilization of research results in architectural practice is possible and desirable. The paper concludes by illustrating the nature of different channels of influence between architects and E-B scientists.
Niezabitowski, Andrzej. "Architecture and the Need for Security." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. The need for security is the basic psychological need that man experiences. The spatial organisation of an artificial environment may favour the satisfying of this need, or on the contrary - arouse emotions of anxiety. A group of specific psychological hazards is distinguished which can be related to the spatial organization of an artificial environment and can become the source of anxiety states. These are hazards associated with: 1) loss of spatial orientation, 2) large scale and dimensions of buildings and complexes, 3) the complexity and differentiation of spatial systems, 4) the open and closed nature of spatial form, 5) the geometrical type and plastic nature of the forms employed, 6) the symbolical significance of these forms. An understanding of these hazards may contribute to reducing anxiety states and the elimination of unnecessary psychological tension.
Kretschmann, Susanne. "Are There Sex - Related Differences in Housing Whishes?" In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. Studies in housing satisfaction indicate that housewives see the social environment more important, while men tend to use functional criteria for evaluation of home environments. We wanted to verify whether these differences remain stable if groups in comparable life situations are tested. The subjects were asked to sketch a ground plan of an appartment according to their own housing whishes and to describe it verbally. The portions of functional, communicative, and private sectors of these plans were compared between woman and men, and with appartments which were offered in newspapers. The differences between the housing whishes of women and men were only small compared to the difference between the housing whishes of our sample and the offers of the housing market.
Huber, Joerg W.. "Artefacts and Personal Symbolism." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. Artefacts, despite their ubiquitous presence in our lifes, are generally a neglegted area in mainstream psychology including environmental psychology. Artefacts enter into research only in form of commodities and consumer purchasing decisions. One particular aspect which attracts the attention of lay people, but unfortunalety much less so of psychologists (exept those few with a strong interest in psychoanalysis), is the symbolism of personal objects. The view which will be proposed is based on the idea that symbolism develops on the basis of the active involvement of objects into human conduct. Two types of involvement are distinguished: objects are part of concrete human action and of contemplative activities. These different type of activity lead to different types of object symbolism which were identified by Boesch: situational, functional and analogical symbolism. An exploratory study was carried out which applied content analysis to in-depth interview data. The main finding regarding the issue of object symbolism was that the type of symbolism appears to be more closely related to the type of activity involvement of personal objects than to object attributes, thus supporting the importance of active involvement of objects for their symbolic meanings. Implications for the relationship between conceptual representations of objects including their symbolic meanings, activities and object proporties will be discussed.
Römhild, Thomas. "Artificial Lighting Interpreted as a System of Symbols." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. By a historical analysis, I tried to find a system that enables us to understand symbolic meanings in artificial lighting and gives us a higher standard of discernment of the designings of light. In my view such a system is to be devided into the following two sections: a. The substitution of daylight as a symbol of uniformity and selfcontrol expressed by an always available and constant lighting; b. the differentiating lighting as a symbol of power expressed by beams of light and shining things, as a symbol of individuality and of social esteem expressed by selected scources of light and as a symbol of the positive exeption and of starting new.
Amphoux, P, G Barbey, A Buttimer, C Graumann, P Korosec-Serfaty, M Sauzet, and Villela Petit. "Aspects Phenomenologiques Du Chez - Soi." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. conference:IAPS:10
Bechtel, Robert B.. "Back to the Future... Again - a Perspective on Ecological Psychology." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. Some confusion exists about the element of ecological psychology. Behavior Specimen Records were the first attempt to capture the richness of daily behavior. Behavior Settings were the units of behavior discoverd after conventional psychology was abandoned, but these were relayed to the community as a whole and individual behavior was deemphasized. This may account for the lack of acceptance in U.S. Psychology. But behavior settings when compared across communities and organizations of differing size led to undermanning theory which explained higher participation levels in smaller groups and organizations. The main philosophy of data collection in ecological psychology was to adopt the role of transducer and not impose manipulation of variables. While none of these concepts has been accepted by mainstreem U.S. Psychology, the need for unobtrusive, wholistic data collection is still felt as manifested in the transactional perspective, which repeats many of the tenets of early ecological psychology. Thus, the hope of the future is that this need will continue to be felt and the principles of ecological psychology will be discovered by a new generation in whatever form they may take.
Kruse, Lenelis. "Behavior Settings, Cognitive Scripts, Linguistic Frames." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. Behavior settings in the Barker tradition are conceptualized as non-psychological, supra-individual entities. It will be argued that it is useful to expand this conception toward a socio-cultural setting, stressing the fact that behavior settings are heavily influenced by the shared norms and value systems of a society. For the development of a truly ecobehavioral approach it appears necessary, however, to complement the behavior setting concept by psychological concepts that help to explain and predict typical verbal and non-verbal behaviors of setting participants. It will be proposed that the concept of script may serve as a cognitive correlate of behavior setting as it represents sequences of actions in typical settings. The linguistic concept of frame provides a further complement as it refers to settingspecific forms of speech. A theoretical and empirical integration of these concepts contributes to a more productive relationship between social and environmental psychology.
Weresch, Katharina. "Bibliography of Architectural Sociology." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. The evaluation of literature contents books, journals, publications of congresses, dissertations and publications of universities of german speaking countries. The material is divided into 7 parts which depends on their contents. 1. Balance of power in the process of architecture. 2. Sociological research of the use of buildings. 3. Sociological research of the profession of architects. 4. Social aspects of the history of buildings. 5. Socialpsychological aspects of architecture. 6. Social questions of political research in architecture. 7. Investigations about social behaviour in the dwelling places. The theoretical part also contains those 7 parts and discusses the methods and the cognitions of the research.
Del Miglio, C, A.M. Nenci, S Paluzzi, and D. Pastore. "Body Image and Graphic Representation of the Environment." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. "The rate of change of one's own body image was studied during the "subjectivization" process of the environment. According to our general hypothesis, thanks to its structure and variety as well as its firm or flexible boundaries, such a rate determines the degree of separation between one's own "Self" and the surrounding space, and influences the evaluation and the awareness of this space. The research was carried out on 169 first year students in Psychology and Architecture, by means of projective tests and graphic representation of private and public spaces, and allowed us to maintain a relation between the body experience, cognitive style and space representation."
Aksoylu, Yurdanur, and Yeni Mahalle. "Changing Concepts of Privacy, Territoriality and Crowding in Houses in Cross - Cultural Perspective." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. The quality of housing stock is changing in modern urban centers of the contemporary world. It is this change that this study focuses on. In particular, the impact of socio-cultural factors on both (1) concepts of privacy, territoriality and crowding and (2) the spatial formations in homes are researched. Among the parameters which mark this change, demographic factors, family compositions and use of leisure time are selected for close examination. In parallel to those, approach of the environmental designers to the contemporary urban life-style has also changed. As another parameter, it is of critical importance to the architects and therefore will be an integral part of the paper.
Groening, Gert. "Changing Notions of Landscape and Its Implications for the Social and Spatial Environment - Introduction." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. Notions of landscape seem to encompass elements of stability, of continuity, of eternity in an otherwise unstable, erratic, rapidly changing context. Landscape seems to be a notion void of ideology and history and full of science, especially ecology. Consequently occupation with landscape seems to liberate the researcher from the consideration of political and historical dimensions. Working and publishing in the field of the history of landscape architecture and garden architecture myself in the past years, I feel the need for an international exchange of research results in that field. It is the idea of this symposium at lAPS-10 in Delft to bring together for the first time scholars from all over the world who distrust such 'objective' notions of landscape as mentioned above by the very evidence of their research, part of which will be presented at the symposium. I assume that more researchers work on the topic of this symposium or related issues worldwide than I am aware of. So the symposium also could bring together some of those who are interested in scolary research in this field and we may find out if a world wide network on this topic is worth establishing. Also the idea of a small conference about that theme within the lAPS conference frame may become a point of discussion as a consequence of the symposium. All the participants have been working scholary in the field of landscape history and people-landscape relationships. All of the papers address the topic of the symposium and should guarantee for a thought provo-king session.
Coeterier, J. F.. "Changing Notions of Landscape: Seven Causes of Alienation." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. The gap between planning procedures and human needs is widening. This causes feelings of alienation. Seven causes are identified: A loss of human scale, of place identity, of environmental meaning and diversity of relationships, a high degree of mechanization, a utilitarian way of looking at things, having no voice in public matters, and dilapidation and unsafety due to financial restrictions. Although of different order they all hang together. Alienation is more widespread than is generally recognized but because its roots lie in the way society develops as a whole, its cure is far from simple.
Armstrong, Helen. "Changing Notions of the Landscape - the Avenue in the New World, Its Social and Spatial Implications." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. This paper considers the changing notion of landscape in contrast to environment using the avenue as an element of the landscape. It explores the avenue from the Renaissance to the 18th century in Europe and Britain and then moves to the New World. It particularly examines the changing notions of the avenue in Australia contrasting the early notions of baroque idealism with the eventual ordered grid, developed by surveyors. The notion of avenue and the tree species used are considered in terms of their meaning to the community revealing some interesting paradoxes in social attitudes to environment and landscape.
Björklid, Pia. "Children and Road Safety Education: a Research Review and Suggestions for Further Research." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. A new view of children's road-safety education has recently been introduced in Swedish official recommendations. Children should not only develop their traffic abilities as pedestrians and cyclists, but should also be encouraged to critically assess traffic problems from their own point of view and be given the opportunity for co-operating with local authorities in the search for solutions to these problems. Using a model of the ecology of human development I have made a research review and suggestions for further research in Scandinavia. The model builds upon a view of children's development in which the role of the individual in the society is regarded as interactive. The influence upon the individual can operate indirectly, through factors lyeing beyond the child's immediate controle, such as the attitude of local authorities to road-safety questions in the areas for which they are responsible.
Mauritzson-Sandberg, Eva, and Lennart Sandberg. "Childrens Psychological Reactions to Wearing Respiratory Protective Devices in Hazardous Environments." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. The modern industrialized society exposes children as well as adults to environmental hazards ranging from solvents in the home to industrial pollution. Civil catastrophes like the Union Carbides gas leakage in India, fires in plastic industries, and accidents when transporting chemical products has much in common with chemical warfare. The effects on humans and pro-tection against these effects are very much the same, namely respiratory protective devices (RPD). This paper has been submitted for presentation at lAPS-b Technical University Delft, The Netherlands. The study which it reports was financially supported by grant to the second author from the Civil Defense Department in Sweden.
Mikellides, Byron. "Colour and Physiological Arousal." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. There is more to colour than meets the eye and an account of some of the purported psychophysiological effects is given. The question whether Red is a more activating colour than Blue is discussed by reference to two opposing schools of tought, one based on colour light and measured by physiological changes in the central and autonomic nervous system and the other based on colour pigment applied in interior and exterior spaces while varying the dimensions of hue, chromatic strength and lightness. An experiment is discussed where subjects experience realistic full scale Red and Blue spaces and where both physiological and affective measures are taken.
Segaud, Marion. "Competence Esthetique Et Architecture." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. conference:IAPS:10
Péruch, Patrick, and Marie-Dominique Giraudo. "Computerization and Planning of Displacement in a Parisian Radio Taxi Reservation System." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. The introduction of new technologies into the field of transportation reformulates the question of the link between field studies and laboratory studies. With the use of computers, it has become possible to simulate the operator's behaviour, and to work out dynamic aids for displacement. The planning of taxi journeys is one of the many applications in which computers are contributing to the organization of displacements. At the same time, this approach has opened up new theoretical lines of research concerning the investigation of the cognitive processes involved in displacement planning.
Piche, Denise. "Contribution To: Women and Environments: Looking Back at Research, Looking Forward to Change." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. She will be discussing one approach to the study of women's relationships with the environment: the study of women's experience of the environment within the context of action research. Drawing upon her involvement with various women's organizations, particularly with single parents' associations, her presentation will examine why the women's movement has focussed little attention on the environment, why women are very little involved in the planning process and how one can work at bridging the gap by doing qualitive research into women's lives and by initiating, at the same time, actions in order to implicate them in decision making about their environment. This action research approach is seen as a necessary complement to a more traditionnal approch to planning for women's changing roles: its emphasis bears on building a city with women given (or taking) the power to create their own visions and plans.
Ahrentzen, Sherry. "Contribution To: Women and Environments: Looking Back at Research, Looking Forward to Change." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. She will discuss the meaning and experience of alternative work and home settings among women in the U.S. She is currently co-editing a book with Karen Franck called Alternatives to the Single Family Home,. highlighting the design and development of housing projects in the United States, Canada, and Europe for single-person occupancy hotels, housing for single parent families, and collective housing arrangements for families. She has recently completed a study of the socio-spatial consequences of home-based (paid) work (i.e. both business and residence in the home). Her discussion will focus on the spatial merging of traditionally-distinct settings (e.g. workplace vs residence) and the positive and negative consequences this has for women in terms of role conflict, time and stress demands, status, social and economic mobility, and the meaning of these settings in their lives. Her discussion includes a comparison of the U.S. experience with findings from research of home-based work in developing countries (i.e. Mexico, India).
Evans, Gary W.. "Crowding and Social Support." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. People adapt to crowded settings by social withdrawal and avoidance of interaction. This coping strategy may loosen social bonds. An empirical study of residential crowding in India verifies the hypothesis that the adverse consequences of crowding on male adult's psychological health are mediated by a breakdown of social support systems. Residential density predicts psychological symptoms after controlling for income and education. The addition of a social support term to the regression analysis, however, removes the significant effect of density on psychological symptoms.
Low, Setha M.. "Culture, Politics and the Plaza: an Ethnographic Approach to the Study of Urban Public Spaces in Latin America." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. Environment-behaviour studies of plaza use in the United States have relied upon traditional methods of behavioural mapping, behaviour setting observation and time lapse photography. The results have been useful for the evaluation of the design of these urban public spaces. However, a theory of plaza use that departs from urban design principles or that includes the sociocultural dimensions of plaza, plays a culturally significant role in the expression and cultural representation of urban life and as such requires a more contextual and interpretive theory and method to understand the meaning of this important part of everyday behaviour. Further, the political and economic dimensions of plaza design and construction are linked to historical and colonial power relations that still have meaning today. This presentation outlines an ethnographic approach to the environmentbehaviour study of the plaza and suggests that such a meaning-centred and culturally sensitive theory/method provides a more adequate perspective for the study of the complex problem of urban public space in the Third World.
JOINER, DUNCAN. "Designers Participating in Research." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. The experience of New Zealand Ministery of Works and Development architects with post-occupancy evaluation techniques has suggested that the keys to ensuring utilization of research in design are processes of participation and social negotiation. They are developing a range of consultancy techniques and an organizational structure for their practice which recognise these processes. Consultants working with the Ministery's architects have been reviewing public building delivery in New Zealand, and the review has focused on the problems of informing design from research. Research, and the assembly of social and technical knowledge do not easily form an intrinsic part of the creative processes of design, where designers draw largely on direct personal experience in preference to documented information. The Ministery has extensive technical resources and well developed postoccupancy evaluation methods which incorporate behavioural information into the technical knowledge base. But the technical resources are underutilized, and the reports from post-occupancy evaluations are not widely applied to new design projects. Architects participating in evaluations are however enthusiastic about the enriching learning experience they provide, not only from the buildings evaluated, but from how other participants in the evaluations respond to buildings. The review has recommended changes to working methods to gain the benefits evident in the participatory post-occupancy evaluation process. Instead of further refinement of documented data and design guides, emphasis is being placed on other interest groups to share their experiences, thereby providing a common basis for agreeing upon building performance rather than establishing normative or prescriptive criteria. Participatory post-occupancy evaluation methods are being extended and adapted as techniques for programming and designing new buildings and for their management through construction stages. The review has also shown that succesful transfer of research information into design requires a supportive organizational structure. Among the organizational changes made to provide this support has been the establishment of a Practice Support Group. The Practice Support Group provides a network of experts and an accompanying design information service. It enables designers to participate directly in bringing research knowledge to design. It enables them to share their experiences and to negotiate their priorities for research.
KRAMPEN, MARTIN. "Differences Between Glasshouse Office and Office Landscape." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. The occupants of a glasshouse office with plants were tested four times (quarterly) against occupants of an 'Office Landscape' for impressions about their entire room, their working place, their subjective health and mood. The strongest difference in favour of the glasshouse concerned the inventiveness, good atmosphere, invitingness, naturalness, aliveness, harmony and colorfulness of the room (p
Symes, Martin. "Discussion of Environment - Behaviour and Design Theories." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. This presentation will aim to evaluate the issues raised by Groat and Lang. Its starting point may be the notion that there are two types of theory required for an understanding of environmental action: theories which are explanatory and theories which are suggestive. The differences and the similarities between these types of theory may be catalogued and the possibility of metatheories which encompass them both can then be considered.
Moore, Gary T.. "Discussion: Two - Community and One - Community Theories as Means for Thinking About Research Utilization." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. "The papers in this session are of two types, with a possible middle ground. Working with Mm Byung-Ho on his Ph.D. dissertation in architecture, we have to come to the realization there appear to be two main approaches to resolving the utilization question. Two-community theory is based on the notion that research and practice are separate (read: "transfer," "communication," "information requirements," "channels of imfluence," "use of knowledge," "informing design," "the assembly of knowledge." and "design guides"). One-community theory, on the other hand, is based on the notion that research and practice are integrated (read: "participation," "share experiences and negotiate priorities," "direct involvement of the public," and "organized and participatory approach"). The advantages and limitations of these two approaches will be explored by reference to the work presented in the papers of this symposium."
Moran, Rosalyn. "Distance Working and Electronic Home Work: Implications for Environmental Planning and House Design." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. This paper will examine the impact of new forms of work arrangements made possible by developments in NIT and by changing social values, on environmental planning and house design. The results of a survey of Electronic Home Workers (EHW) carried out in 5 European countries will be discussed. Changes in EHWorkers cognitions and activities in relation to their homes, neighbourhoods and the macro environment since taking up EHW will be reported on. The implications of changes in transport behaviour, activity patterns, use of the home, neighbourhood involvement etc. for the planning and design of environments will be discussed. Within this context, transport policy, residential amenity, land use zoning, neighbourhood planning and the design of houses which accomodate workspaces will be examined. The impact of these findings for the disabled will be considered.
Lengyel, Stefan. "Do We Only See What We Already Know? - Design Research by Eye - Movement Recording." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. "According to todays general tendency towards more emotionalism in design the meaning of symbols gains importance. However, we do know very little about how these symbols are visually perceived and interpreted by the user of a design object. By means of eye-movement recording techniques we try to localize individual symbols in a design object according to correlated meanings. In a here cited experiment we analysed electrical coffee- and teamakers to find out which are the specific formal elements denotating "coffee" or "tea". With this research we want to give a contribution to the recent discussion of productsemantics."
Procos, Dimitri. "Does Street Orientation Have an Effect on Passive Solar Heating?" In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. Equal numbers of samples of housing units, with known insulation, fenestration and area characteristics, built along east-west and north-south oriented streets respectively, will be compared in the Ottawa, Canada Metropolitan Area. For each sample, figures on annual space heating expenditure by the owners of the units will be obtained from a pertinent question in the 1986 Canada Census as a basis for the comparison. The purpose of the research is to determine if the often hypothesized superiority of east-west oriented streets for passive solar heating bears out for a large number of ordinarily built and occupied housing units.
Kruse, Lenelis. "Ecological Psychology - Introduction." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. "Ecological psychology did not emerge as a component of the "ecological movement". It arose much earlier and owes its existence to Barker's idea that psychology - in analogy to biology - needs an ecological subdiscipline or an ecological perspective, as an indispensible complement to experimentally oriented methodology. Ecological psychology nevertheless also has good reasons to ascertain, in "looking back", that its hopes had been somewhat too optimistic. Why did they to some extent remain unfulfilled? Wat is our present point of view? What are our plans and expectations for the future? The symposium will be focussed on Barker's "behavior setting" concept which, in the meantime, has undergone various further developments, though less than would have been possible and desirable. Most of these trends and attempts appear, on the whole rather incidental, sporadic, nonsystematic. However, due to their respective independence they reveal the multiplicity of potentialities and tasks for further progress in ecological psychology. As a complex systemic unit, the "behavior setting" lends itself to extentions in quite different directions. At least five main tasks or trends seem to be taking shape so far: 1. "Psychological ecology" aims at taking a descriptive-taxonomic inventory of all naturally functioning systems of person-environment-interrelationships. What are "natural units" above and below the "behavior setting" level? How are they defined and delimited? 2. The "behavior setting" itself, as the basic unit of Barker's "ecobehavioral" approach, deserves further elaboration. Is there any news about it? 3. The individual participant of a behavior setting system can (while actually participating in it) be viewed in traditional or current psychological terms. How does this enrich and differentiate behavior setting theory and research? How does the systematic context determine details of the individual's participation processing? 4. The individual as a whole, viewed in different longitudinal perspectives, overarches, as a different kind of "natural" systemic unit, all his/her various actual behavior setting participations. How can (individual) behavior setting participations be integrated into an ecological personology? 5. Although points 1 to 4 figures as issues in basic research they nevertheless can also raise questions of practical applicability."
Marans, Robert W.. "Effects of Different Lighting Designs on the Office Worker'sperceptions of the Visual Environment." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. Using data from a national study of modern U.S. office buildings, the effects of different lighting designs and glare problems of office workers will be discussed. The study involved 1000 workstations sampled from 13 office buildings. Results for open-plan offices will be presented. These will focus on how factors such as the type of lighting systems and proximity to windows affect workers perceptions of specific lighting attributes and also their perception of overall lighting quality. It will be proposed, among other things that future studies should focus more on measuring the visual quality of the luminous environment rather than simply its lighting qualities.
Sime, J, J Powell, P Newland, and C. Reed. "Environment - Behaviour Research and Information Transfer." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. With the advent of new information technology what for many years has been known as the 'applicability gap' between research and design, is currently receiving attention under the heading of 'information transfer'. While rapid information retrieval systems operated by computer are becoming available, there still is insufficient understanding of the relationship between research information and the design process. While researchers might decry the architectural profession for not making use of published research information. and designers might criticise researchers for ignoring the type of information they feel they most need, effective application of environment-behaviour research in design will only be achieved by an appreciation of the reciprocal importance of research to design and design research. Central to the problem of Information transfer is Insufficient attention to the physical environment and the design process in environment-behaviour studies, a lack of research tradition in architectural education, a decreasing willingness to absorb specialist information in any detail as a student progresses through an architectural course and, in particular, insufficient reference to environment-behaviour findings, and indeed other design science research, in the criteria used by the architectural profession to evaluate what a 'good' or 'bad' building is. Bearing in mind the particular problems of research information not being in a form which architects are predisposed or readily able to use when designing, a microcomputer design research program (contextual fit in housing design), a video-disc 'building event' simulation (escape from burning buildings) and a video-disc information and educational package (on energy saving design), all developed at the School of Architecture, Portsmouth, are discussed. The visual Impact and interactive nature of these information retrieval, experiential and learning packages, enable designers and building users to begin to understand the research and design process in a way that has previously been very difficult before. The advantages and limitations of such information systems are likely to have for the future application of environmentbehaviour research in design and policy making, are outlined.
Connell, Bettye Rose. "Environment and Behaviour Reseaice on Falls Among the Elderly." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. Falls are a major health problem among the elderly, resulting in death and injury as well as negatively affecting quality of life. Most research on falls specific to the elderly has been conducted from a medical and public health perspective, and emphasized health status and other personal factors. Studies which examine the role of environmental and behavioural contributions to falls among the elderly suggest these factors also are important. However, the environment and behaviour research community has shown little interest in falls, except for a small body of stair safety studies. Existing research is examined as a basis for pursuing more situationally-oriented studies of falls in the elderly.
Moore, Gary T., and Andreas F. van Wagenberg. "Environment, Behavior and Design Theory (Environnement, Comportement Et Théorie) - Introduction." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. "The purpose of this symposium was to bring together some of the leading exponents of different theoretical positions on the environment-behavior interface with implications for design. Altman and Rogoff (1987) and Moore (1987) have presented two frameworks for conceptualizing theory. Earlier symposia convened at the EDRA-Atlanta, lAPS-Haifa, IAAP-Jerusalem, and EDRA-Ottawa conferences have explored the implications of these two competing frameworks. Chapters on theory have been published in Advances in Environment Behavior and Design (Vol. 1, 1987; Vol. 2, in press). This symposium built off those sessions and chapters and again provided an opportunity for some of the leading theoreticians to present their ideas and to expose them to critical commentary by colleagues and lAPS members. As stated in the Preface to Volume 1 of the Advances series, there are at least three different orientations to the field: the pragmatic, social problem orientation; a range. of empirical orientations; and various theoretical orientations. "Theories" have been called by a number of different names- -explanatory theories, design theories, theories of good form, manifestos, conceptual frameworks, models, world views, theoretical orientations, and even metaphysical blueprints. The Altman-Rogoff and Moore taxonomies have been proposed as a way of structuring this seeming morass and bringing some order to this burgeoning aspect of our field. The past symposia, and the first two volumes of the Advances series, have critically examined some of these theoretical directions including phenomenology, empiricism, structuralism, and behavioral ecology. The symposium this year focused on normative or explanatory environment-behavior theories and positive or prescriptive design theories."
Trieschmann, G. V.. "Environment? Behavior?" In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. "Environment-Behavior effort for a thousand years in China, a hundred years in Europe, and thirty years in North America has led to conversation and composition but no clear design relevant definitions for "environment" or "behavior". This presentation addresses the question: Can finishing design students from an architecture school influenced by recent "Environment-Behavior" definitions evaluate design and design to met behavioral goals?Fifteen fourth and fifth-year architecture students at Tulane University were given a five-week problem to design a day-care center to bring children and elderly citizens helpfully together through interaction with pets. 35mm color slides of resulting student design solutions will be shown and brief comments made."
Küller, Rikard. "Environmental Activation of Old Persons Suffering from Senile Dementia." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. It was hypothesized that a familiar environment would activate old habits established through lifelong experience, thus increasing the functional and social competence of patients suffering from senile dementia. Two collective housing units for about ten patients each were built at the Kroksbck housing area in Malm& The intention was to follow the patients for two months when they remained at the geriatric hospital and then for another four months after they had moved to the two collective housing units. The results showed that collective housing in small units, especially if the environment was decorated in an old and familiar style, had an activating effect on patients with old age dementia. It actually provided a much better therapeutic environment than the conventional geriatric hospital.
Grange, Joseph. "Environmental Ethics and the Need for a Categoreal Scheme." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. I argue that Utilitarianism and Rights Theory, the two schools presently dominating environmental ethics, cannot decide major questions in the field. In their place I offer a categoreal scheme based upon Process Philosophy. Employing the concept of harmony, I develop a systematic scheme that uses both the conditional and essential features of natural entities to secure both individual and relational identity, This focus is then used to show how the environmental norms of stability and variety are not opposed but actually required for the good becoming of everything. Animal rights, for example, can be discussed without recourse to the norm of personhood or the utilitarian maxim. What emerges is a Platonic realism that requires the empirical sciences for the practice of normative thinking. Philosophy, in its original guise, is thus granted a significant place in contemporary discourse.
Kaplan, Rachel. "Environmental Preferences and Public Participation." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. The urban visual landscape is often assumed to be a reasonable reflection of the public's preferences. Why else would cities - neighborhoods, shopping malls, street scenes - look as they do? Rarely, however, in the United States at least, does the public have much say in the changed visual landscape. Furthermore, the public's preferences are rarely probed and generally become known only when a major perturbation is proposed. A recent project, to propose a master plan for a major segment of the city, offers some useful insights into these issues, both substantively and procedurally. Results of extensive public participation from diverse elements of the population, suggest that the desire for development may not reflect the majority's views, while the sentiments about natural areas are widely shared.
van Wagenberg, Andreas F.. "Environmental Psychological Research Integrated in the Redesignof an Office Enviroment: the Case of a Design Office." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. A growing number of Computer Aided Architectural Design systems is installed in offices of architects. This study is dealing with the question how the work environment of designers and engineers should be redesigned for CAAD use. The research was conducted in two phases. First, a diagnostic study of the existing situation considering the traditional work space as well as experimental CAAD work areas which resulted in recommendations for the interior designer. In the second phase the redesigned office was evaluated using similar concepts and research methods as in the first study. Five research methods were used; inventory and environmental description, systematic observation of environment-behavior interactions, interviews, ergonomic measures and physical measurements. Thus results of the studies were presented in annotated floor plans, bridging the gap between researcher and interior designer.
Bishop, Reid. "Environmental Psychology and Local History." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. One of environmental psychology's conspicuous failures to date has been to come to terms with the changing historical nature of man-environment relations. A possible way foward would be to take advantage of the placespecific wealth of material (pictorial and written) available to local historians, and to trace over several centuries some of the constants - and inconstants - of behaviour in, and perceptions of, that local environment. Considering its ever-growing popularity, the field of local history to date has been curiously unwilling to deviate very far from well-worn formulas all too often overly nostalgic in tone, uni-dimensional in their analysis of change, and above all unimaginative in format. Perceptions of historical time and change are central to the experience and building of place, and it is time to open up local history to these and other applicable elements of environmental psychology and the psychology of time and change. Entitled GUILDFORD TIMESCAPES A Celebration of Change l7O-l989 it could provide a useful starting point for a wider ranging workshop on temporal aspects of environmental psychology.
Pol, Enric. "Environmental Psychology in Europe. a Socio Historical Study Through Analysis of Laps Conferences and their Context." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. "In the framework that has been known as Sociology of Science, we have studied the evolution of Environmental Psychology in Europe, how has been influenced by several factors: cultural and linguistic background marking developmental styles, different theoretical approaches, power relationships that have developed in the scientific community bath in social and intellectual aspects, and how these constitute two "Invisible Colleges". Two nucleis centers in Surrey and in Central Europe, are defined as power structures within the organization that shape the scientific community and that expresse themselves through the lAPS conferences, with two theoretical differentiated perspectives. Finally, we ask the question does a European Environmental Psychology exist? We find that the different characteristics give to it a certain entity, but the intellectual influence of USA drown this possible identity. This paper presents some results of a brouder publication that has already been completed. A preliminary study of this type was presented in Berlin in 1984."
Canter, D.. "Environmental Psychology in the Third World - Introduction." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. Historically, Environmental Psychology and the related studies of the interplay between people and their physical surroundings has had its origins in the developed countries of the North Atlantic basin. Other developments in Australia and South-East Asia have also focussed on problems that clearly have their roots in the problems associated with affluent societies. Concerns such as effective office building design, the maintenance of wilderness and associated resource planning concerns, together with problems of forming internal representation of well-established urban environments, are all issues that assume a well-founded industrial base and a firmly established democratic political system. It is therefore not surprising that the methodologies that are characteristic of much research on people and their relationships with their physical surroundings are appropriate to developed countries. Theoretical frameworks will be formed such as those, for example, that derive from the relationships between established nuclear families in a developed country. The study of privacy is a very good case in point. The purpose of this symposium is to explore what methodology and theories can be transported to developing countries and what topics of study have a special relevance to the problems that the third world is facing.
Küller, Rikard. "Environmental Stress (Stress Du a L'environnement) - Introduction." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. In a recent review Evans and Cohen (1987, P. 574) identifies four general types of environmental stressors. Catastrophic events, stressful life events, daily hassles, and ambient stressors. With the exception of catastrophic events, all these areas will be covered in the present symposium. Initially, stress was studied as a response to single environmental factors. In at least one of the papers, the one on colour and physiological arousal, this approach dominates. However, already in the 1960's, stress researchers began to look at more complex human situations. This approach may be exemplified by two of the other contributions, one dealing with crowding and social support in an Indian setting, and the other with collective housing for old persons suffering from senile dementia. These contributions also exemplify the close link that exists between stress research per see and the well established fields of environmental psychology commonly referred to as personal space, crowding, and human territoriality. The importance of the concept of stress for environmental psychology emanates from the definition of stress as a generalized response to environmental factors. It is generally assumed that stress is a response to overload, resulting in a shift in bodily physiology, like blood pressure, pulse rate, and the secretion of adrenalin, noradrenalin, and cortisol. In addition there might be changes in perception, emotion, and behaviour. However, this straightforward view on the relationship between overload an stress is now being replaced by more elaborate models where cognitive or motivational factors are assumed to mediate the stress reaction (Küller 1987, p. 1251). In this context it is intriguing to take part of the hypothesis presented in one of the papers, that the breakdown of social support systems under high density living conditions may account for at least part of the deleterious effect that crowding has on mental health. The two contributions concerning colour and arousal and the activation of elderly people, however points to one of the limitations of the stress concept. Stress is commonly understood as a negative effect of too much stimulation. Therefore it often becomes necessary to point out that mild or moderate stress levels might be beneficial to the human organism. In those instances stress is instead regarded as a positive quality, and opposed to understimulation. It seems desirable to make a better distinction between the concept of stress on one hand, and the more general dimensions of activation and arousal on the other. Should we continue to regard stress as a generalized response to overload, or should stress instead be regarded as a positive force of everyday life? The organizers of lAPS 10 have asked us to look back into the future, which means we should try to compare the expectations we had twenty years ago to the present situation. I have come to the conclusion, that perhaps stress research is unique within the field of environmental psychology, in combining sound theoretical reasoning in physiology, psychology and sociology with a powerful set of methods and an eye for real world problems. Stress researcher actually seem to come to terms with a number of environmental problems (Küller 1987, P. 1267). I believe that this conclusion will become consolidated by the presentations at this symposium.
BARBEY, GILLES. "Esqisse De La Relation Affective Au Chez - Soi." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. conference:IAPS:10
Segaud, Marion. "Esthetique Et Technostructure (Aesthetics and Technocracy) - Introduction." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. conference:IAPS:10
Leger, Jean-Michel. "Etes - Vous Satisfait De Votre Logement? (Le Dialogues De Sourds De L´evaluation De L´habitat)." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. conference:IAPS:10
Amano, Koichi, and Osamu Shinohara. "Etude De L´evolution Du Paysage De L´avenue De Ginza." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. conference:IAPS:10
Klein, Hans-Joachim. "Evaluation of Museum Educational Effectiveness." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. "The display of continuous and temporal exhibitions should be organized with regard to efficient dissemination of background ideas and intended messages towards an interested public. In most cases this public is not known in advance, neither in its quantity nor in its structure. In order to get information, whether the general demand and special issues are or are not performed by the realized exhibition, it is necessary to define operational goals and make explicit statements on its contents. With the help of a inventory like this it is possible, not only to measure the "success" of an exhibition by comparing the number of visitors with those expected to come, but to carry out "sum mative evaluation" of the distribution of learning effects among the public. It is important to stress the fact, that the outcome of all surveys of this type has the form of "data-distributions", with partially contradictory tendencies. This is because of the heterogenity of visitors, their individual predispositions and selective perception, the different meaning exhibits present to different people etc. Therefore it is quite normal, to expect a considerable gap between intentions, layout and presentation structures on the one hand and preferences, capacities of understanding and interest of the target groups on the other. In order to adapt concept, design and didactic means to the latter - which in most cases is a question of finding acceptable compromises - it is useful and sometimes necessary to get the information about the "gaps" and their causes already before furnishing the final exhibition display. Therefore, "formative evaluation" with the help of mock-up environments has proved to be an instructive step bringing feed-back on the consequences of alternative exhibitional versions into the planning process. If there is already an existing presentation to be improved or modernized, it is helpful to start with a status quo evaluation in order to analyze its most serious shortcomings and weak points. The contribution to present will describe experience in different types of museums with these approaches, the difficulties to establish this kind of empirical research and to integrate it into the planning and designing process and will try to illustrate pitfalls and benefits of the method for museums and visitors."
Kubota, Yoichi. "Evaluative Differetiation of Riverscape." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. On a macroscopic scale, landscape resources along streams in the Kiso River basin are segmented typologically by way of experimental psychological methods in order to classify their visual quality for preservative and ameriolative planning of riverscape. Riverscapes observed on each viewpoint can be subdivided according to their compositional appearance. Eight major categories of the confrontal riverscape are identified by means of Quantification Theory, while the upstream and the down-stream riverscapes are categorized into twelve and ten groups respectively. Conspicuous elements effective on preference are discerned empirically.
Alp, Vefik Ahmet. "Experimental Methods for a Systematic Evaluation of the Visual Impact of the Architectural Environment." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. Architects experience difficulty in predicting people's reactions to buildings. To achieve a systematic and objective evaluation of laymen's emotional responses to the built-environment, we are compelled to refer to experimentation based on scientific procedures and research designed accordingly. While the experimental method is best to accomplish scientific acceptability, the quasi-experimental method appears to be an optimal approach for Architects, for the complexity of the architectural environment do not allow strict control and manipulation of the variables. Within this context, the confounding factors, experimental population, data-collection and test instrument become of central importance as well as the presentation of the stimuli and the nature and format of responses, and they all affect the validity, reliability and precision of the results. Finally, the convenience of administration of the experimentation is an imperative to meet if Architects are expected to sympathize with scientific research.
Symes, Martin S.. "Experiments in Architectural Education." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. The paper discusses some of the lessons to be learnt from the transfer of British Architectural education into University-level institutions. The first part of the paper describes the background discussions to this move, including the conference held in Oxford in 1958, it explains the continuing criticisms from practice of attempts to give architectural design a basis in theory and it explores two key but conflicting assumptions about the nature of architectural design which were developed in British Universities in the 1960s and 1970s. The second part of the paper introduces two modifications to the traditional teaching method which were developed in the 1980s and argues that these experimental pedagogies may give rise to further insights into practice. For this result alone, the teaching of architecture in Universities should be maintained and developed.
Van Andel, Joost. "Expert Systems in Environmental Psychology." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. The knowledge gathered through research in environmental psychology is not optimally used by designers and other people working in applied settings such as politicians and civil servants. In this paper a number of causes and possible improvements of this situation will be discussed. Two aspects are highlighted in particular: the structure and the presentation of information. A recent development to present knowledge from environmental psychology is the use of computerized Information systems or expert systems. Limitations and possibilities of expert systems in general and for environmental psychology in particular will be discussed. The issue is Illustrated with parts of an expert system on the design of children's play environments using the pattern language as a structure to present information efficiently and attractively to designers.
Wilmes, Ronald. "Facilities Management Based Upon Environmental Technologicalresearch." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. After the U.S.A. and the U.K. the Netherlands has recognized Facilities Management as a professional strategy, that coordinates and integrates information and expertise for the purpose of developing and managing facilities to support individual and organizational effectiveness. As part of a F.M. strategy, the planning and design process of office buildings should be based upon the relationships between the work-environment and people's responses to it. Coordination and integration of information requires rating processes of these relationships. Therefore it is necessary to develop appropriate quantitative environmental measures of the impact of the work-environment on the individual performance. As a contribution to the development of these measures, this study will classify key components of the quality of the work environment. In several organizations individual workers estimated the physical environment, building- and furniture systems, ambient conditions, organizational climate and the interpersonal relationships.
Newman, Oscar. "Factors Influencing Crime and Instability in Federally Assisted Housing Developments." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. This research set out to determine which social and physical factors are the strongest determinants of crime, fear, and instability in federally-assisted housing developments. The study examined all federally-assisted, moderate-income developments in Newark, St. Louis, and San Francisco, as well as public housing projects in San Francisco. The primary source of data for this study is a survey of households conducted in a single stage in late 1976 and early 1977 in which interviews were obtained from residents living in the study sites. Housing managers and city police were also interviewed. Archival data collected from housing management and police files were used to supplement the interviews with residents, management, and police.
van der Wurff, Adri, and Peter Stringer. "Fear of Crime in Residential Areas: Defensible Space and Beyond." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. A socio-psychological model of fear of crime is described, in which environmental influences are represented by the factor 'criminalisable space. The underlying concept was in part developed through a review of the 'defensible space' literature. Three issues from the review are highlighted here: the charge of determinism; the relative weights of physical and social factors; and the absence of a sociophysical, interactionist approach. More recent concepts of relevance to the environmental study of crime and fear of crime are refered to, e.g. 'signs of incivility'. Attention is drawn to their value-assumptions. 'Criminali sable space' and its empirical use is further elucidated.
Harris, Howard. "Form and Content N Contemporary Architecture - Issues of Style and Power." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. Architecture, the craft of making buildings, has been reduced to an alliance of taste and capital, of art and profit, of style and power. Contemporary architectural practice is, we contend, an alienated practice: form torn constantly from content; the aesthetic negated, reduced to looks, dressed up as Art. This, the taken for granted orthodoxy of architectural thought must be opposed, resisted. Such resistance is rooted in the concept and practice of craftsmanship, in the fusion of pleasure and work - an overcoming of alienated labour.
Papadopoulou, Titi A.. "Formes Architecturales Et Groupes Sociaux: Y - a - T - Il Un Compromis Qui Arrive?" In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. conference:IAPS:10
Bucht, Eivor. "From a Place for Recreation to a Scheme for Recreation - the Failure of a Goaloriented Approach to Open Space Design in Sweden." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. There is a general conflict affecting open space design. Opinions advocating design for multifunctional use over time, is as general sites stand against goaloriented approaches in which open speces are specified and functionally defined as a basis for their spatial distribution and arrangement. In Sweden the goaloriented approach resulting in technical standards for open spaces has had an immense impact since 1960. The dominating result is a highly static and atomized environment. The basic problem affects both the goaloriented approach as such and its implementation in a technically dominated building process.
Heimplaetzer, P, and F. Koornneef. "Functional Safety in (Hospital) Building Design Some Observations and Considerations." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. In this paper two major problem fields regarding the functionality of buildings for healthcare are indentified as 'high tech' versus 'low tech' and incongruity between intended functions and allocated space. Examples are drawn from post occupancy evaluations peformed in buildings of this type. The dual problem of future operational usage and design specifications that adequately mirror future use will be clarified and discussed from the viewpoint of functional safety of systems. It seems that evaluation of existing facilities as a form of feedback for the design of new facilities has to be accompanied by 'feedforward' design methods which permit the designer to maximise functionality and built-in flexibility.
Schempp, Dieter. "Future Scope of Green Solar Architeciure (Gsa)." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. "Until two years ago, the buildings of "Green Solar Architektur" were - for the most part - private detached houses. They are expecially noted for energy-conserving features and a high quality of living. Our first experiences with buildings other than private homes have been with adminisration buildings, a medical laboratory and with restaurants. We can conceive of further implementation of GSA in other areas of urban infrastructure (we have designed a city cultural center), in the renewal of large residential areas and in industial buildings. The latter could be upgraded aesthetically as well through the implementation of GSA."
Francis, Mark. "Gardens in the Mind and in the Heart." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. This paper reports on the results of a study of peoples relationships with their gardens in California and Norway. This research project has involved ethnographic interviews which explore the meaning of everyday, common gardens. Several categories of garden meaning are identified including garden as a setting for creativity, a retreat from the outside world. A private activity, a social place, a connection to ones personal history, a reflection of ones personality, a productive landscape, a symbol of caring and as a declining landscape. The implications of the research on garden meaning for environmental design and research is discussed.
Mitropoulos, Mit. "Geopolitical Art: the Aesthetics of Networks." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. "The "Line of the Horizon" art-science-technology project took place in November '86. The facsimile network (27 participant nodes) was spread over Mediterranean cities, but also extended beyond, to two boats (Atlantic, Indian oceans), and reached New York. This program provided us with: a) Observations related to the use of communications technology, and the proposed Together/Separate unit, useful for tackling interactivity -- a parameter not readily measurable, and b) The opportunity to check on proposed aesthetic criteria as they relate to communications in contemporary human and built environments. This geopolitical art network was activated from Thessaloniki, Greece, for a 6 - hours live exchange of respective horizon lines."
Schempp, Dieter. "Green Solar Architecture (Architecture Solaire) - Introduction." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. When we reported at the 19814 lAPS Conference in Berlin on GSA our experience was still confined to applying the principles of sharing space with plants in housing. We were able to report on substantial energy savings, to advance hypotheses on health advantages of residing in a GSA building and to demonstrate that the people living in GSA buildings accepted this new style of life. Four years later we are now able to show that the principles of GSA can be generalized beyond the function of housing. During the last decade glass and solar aperture technology have advanced rapidly since their first applications to architecture. So we are now able to apply GSA principles to such buildings as offices, laboratories and restaurants. We are also able to show, that there are correlations between the positive evaluation of working places in a GSA environment and reports on well being and good mood. We are convinced that the principle of GSA can be extendet to other areas of architecture such as industial buildings, cultural centers and urban renewal. We hope to demonstrate in the future progress in implementing man-plant symbiosis through architecture.
Seguchi, Tetsuo. "Homelessness and Assistance Measures in Japan." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. The homelessness in Nagoya, Japan is analyzed in this paper. The homelessness becomes a new housing problem in Japan.Most of homeless persons are single with no relation with their relatives and be forced to sleep on the streets. Voluntary groups give their hands to homeless persons. Japanese social welfare system can not save all of then. The reason is most of homeless persons are not eligible for the present systems. The present systems should b modified. Most of homeless persons belong to the class of day labores. So Japanese homelessness are not only a housing problem but also an employment problem.
Kilical, Hatice Ferhan. "House Design and Saudi Women." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. Saudi Arabia's change in economic base and rapid transformation into a modern nation affected housing and life styles. Privacy plays a major role in the physical and social structure of the Saudi society. A woman's position in the family is one of influence now more than ever due to the educational attainment of today's women. The activities of women, their needs, desires, and the facts concerning their privacy are major considerations in housing design. In order to obtain guidelines for villa housing, the socio-cultural structure and the impact of change and modernization is studied. Interviews were conducted with women to provide a reference for understanding and evaluating the existing and the preferred conditions in villa housing.
Sandhu, Ranvinder Singh. "Housing - Caste, Income and Housing Among the Slum Dwellers." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. In the present paper, an attempt has been made to understand the income and housing in relation to the caste among the slum dwellers. Two broad categories of the castes have been used to draw generalization i.e. Scheduled Castes and Non Scheduled Castes. It is found that caste is associated with income and both caste and income are associated with the type of house, size of house, covered area, number of rooms and attached facilities and utilities in the house. The data was collected from January to May 1982, from the slums of a medium sized city. Total 300 respondents were interviewed with the help of structured interview schedule.The analyses of data was done with the help of computer and the chi square test was applied to learn the association among caste, income and housing.
Manandhar, Ramesh. "Housing in the Pacific: Problems and Opportunities." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. "The paper summarizes the housing approaches pursued and their effects in the Pacific Region in the last two decades. The focus of the study is Papua New Guinea which is regarded as a country having enlightened housing policies. The paper reviews the 1973 "White Paper" on housing and evaluates the different activities of the government in trying to solve the "housing problem" since independence in 1975. The author's survey in two major urban settlements in Papua New Guinea shows that squatter settlements are centres of problems as well as opportunities. It is the "opportunity" side of the squatter housing that largely remains dormant and often ignored and thus housing is seen as a "problem". This view needs to change if we are going to be effective in meeting housing needs of the poor in the years to come."
Sanoff, Henry. "Housing Strategies for South Africa's Future." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. Housing in developing countries has reached a stage where the crisis can be alleviated as there is a shift from a socio-economic to a socio-polical phenomenon. The stage has been reached where housing needs to be implemented as a social art and not merely building construction. Consequently, the broad objective is to provide homes rather than houses to foster community belonging and participation. The introduction of new oppraches is a logical development of increasing social awareness of the role of housing as a need to provide shelter for many families. This paper proposes to identity key social & behavioral strategies that could impact on South Afrcia's housing future.
Sanoff, Henry. "Housing Strategies for South Africa's Future." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. Many developing nations such as South Africa have a formidable housing crisis. The cost of housing is usually beyond the reach of what the urban poor can afford. Because of the great variety of ethnic groupings in South African communities, the future housing options need to be culturally as well as socially and economically more appropriate than those generated by theories of housing development which are deeply rooted in Western industrial society. The environment must be appropriate to the needs of those it is being planned for and should respond to the employment needs of the residents and, if possible, help to support an informal economic sector. Participation in housing can be seen as a continuum where the user helps to shape a building by acting as a client of an architect while at the other end the users actually build for themselves. People must stay involved throughout the process and take responsibility with their professionals to see that there are results.
Verpraet, Gilles. "Housing Towards a Model of Neighbourhood Relations." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. A sociological anthropological approach to the neighbourhood relations in a housing estate shows how interpretations of the relation outside-inside of the home differ between the various social and cultural groups. The study of social relations and the processes of sociolization brings the shared facilities in the semi-public spaces in sharper focus. This reconstruction of the modalities of public space allows us to refine the social and cultural content of the concept of home.
Mugerauer, Robert. "Housing, Community and Landscape in the Amercian Suburb." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. "A recent research project, "Reassessing the American Suburb" documented that both in cases of suburbs with distinctively good architecture (for example, Riverside, Illinois) and with very ordinary buildings (as in Park Forest, Illinois) satisfaction with one's home and community life were not significantly dependent on the architectural quality of individual buildings, but on the communal coherence, public spaces, and aesthetics resulting from the planned and cultivated landscape. This paper presents these two case studies of the successful subordination of suburban architecture to the landscape as a key design feature in articulating a suburban pattern language."
King, Anthony D.. "Ideology and Environments: Critical Histories and Historical Critiques." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. "As with an earlier "Human Relations Theory" in Management, much of "people-environment" theory and research, in their various guises, has been a product of a particular type of social and economic organization and political control (or mode of production) which developed in particular places, under particular conditions and at particular times ("Western" market economies of the 1950s and 60s). Similarly, a-historical and often ethnocentric ideologies and formulations concerning "first" and "third worlds", originating in the 1950s, have inhibited the development of an adequate understanding of the interdependent development of societies and built (as well as natural) environments on a global scale. The paper will put forward the case for two inter-related and theoretically-informed histories: the first, drawing on world systems theory and recent work in urban polital economy, will construct an agenda for investigating the social production of the built environment on a global scale. The second will develop an outline for a reflexive and critical sociology and history of ideas concerning social knowledge of people and their built environment."
Robinson, Julia Williams. "Institution and Home: Linking Physical Characteristics to Perceived Qualities of Housing." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. A polarity between institution and home was hypothesized and 236 physical variables were proposed as descriptive measures for the two poles. It was predicted that housing would be evaluated as falling along a continuum between the two poles. In a study of 29 house settings, the applicability of the terms used to characterize the poles as well as their oppositional nature is explored, as is the assumed polarity of the terms. Also investigated is the validity of the proposed descriptive measure. Environment is the independent variable.
Lievaart, Harry H.. "Integrated Design: Coping with Constraints and Images." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. An architectural design should be the integration of knowledge and experience of all the participants in the design process. In order to make a usable model for well-integrated decision making, it is necessary to study what architects do, especially how they use constraints and images to fulfil goals and wishes of the participants. The analysis of the design process takes place with the help of the IDEF-0 technique, which is a systems-analysis technique used to structure information. The model of the process is tested by observations of design excercises. Some results of this research will be presented. The abstract mode lpresentation is translated into diagrams and drawings, which can be understood easily by everbody involved in architectural decision making.
Sanoff, Henry. "Integrating Research and Design Participation: New Paradigm for the Future." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. Architecture in the future may be characterized by an increasing participation of the user in its organizational and formal definition. This is evident from the work of the last two decades where there has been a considerable movement towards the direct involvement of the public in the definition of their environment. A review of the theories and practices of participation suggest that the architects Job is no longer to produce finished and unalterable solutions, but to extract solutions from a continuous confrontation with those who will use his/her work. The architects energy and imagination will be completely directed to raising the level of awareness of clients/users in the discussion, where the solution generated from this approach will need to be made 'transparent' so that the decisions are understood by all the people who made them. In order to respond to this situation examples will illustrate how architects will need to do everything possible to make design solutions more the representation of its users even though difficulties arise in applying the concept of participation in the decision making process such as the organizational and methodological problems of the process itself. The potential benefits offered by an organized participatory approach, effecting the community, the users, and the architect are numerous and constitute logical, technological and economic tenets for it's use.
Walden-Hutter, Rotraut. "Intentions of Architects, Appropriation, and Well - Being Ininnovative Single - Family Housing Projects." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. "Well-being and satisfaction of residents are generally accepted as important criteria for successful housing design. On the other hand, it has often been pointed out that such concepts are quite complex and multi-layered. It should, therefore, be worthwhile to identify and investigate those design elements and appropriations that actually make a difference for the wellbeing of occupants. - Using a multivariate facet approach, architects and owners of innovative single-family housing projects are questioned just before moving in, and again six months with respect to 48 aspects of living in the new home. Presumed and actual significance of residents' goals and activities, as associated with dwelling, will be compared. The importance of dwelling relative to several other areas of life-quality serves as an "anchor"."
Frantz, Jürgen. "Interior Gardening." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. Green solar architecture' is inconceivable without plants. In addition to their decorative effect, they improve the climate of rooms and - according to the season - provide different services. This is, of course, possible only under certain conditions. The correct selection and combination of plant species and their proper care are indispensable for the functioning of the green solar architecural projekt. Modern methods of cultivation and carefully selected substrates together with new forms of technology make it easy to take care of the plants and therefore the inhabitants of the living quarters are relatively independent of them.
Hedge, Alan. "Investigating the Sick Building Syndrome in Offices: Methodological and Conceptual Issues ." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. "The "sick building syndrome" is a collection of non-specific symptoms of malaise, such as eye nose and throat irritation, headache, and lethargy, which seem to be associated with the occupancy of air conditioned buildings. A variety of causal factors have been suggested, including indoor air pollution, microbiological contamination, vibration and mass psychogenic illness. In spite of the research conducted to date, no study has satisfactorily demonstrated the cause or causes of this syndrome and none has evaluated the effectiveness of any intervention. Furthermore, differences in research design and methodology and in architectural, engineering and organizational attributes of the settings studied, along with the frequent absence of any conceptual framework make comparisons between research results difficult. In an attempt to better understand this phenomenon, an overview of recent research on the "sick Building syndrome" will be presented. Based on this, a conceptual framework which integrates the role of both physical and non-physical factors in the "sick building syndrome" will be described."
Linneweber, Volker. "Jeopardizing Patterns of Stings: Deviations and Deviation - Counterings." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. "Although Barker theoretically conceptualized discrepancies between the "program" of the setting and events actually happening, he was primarily interested in states of "congruence" or "fit". Theoretical considerations and results of empirical studies are presented which focus on intra- and interpersonal processes resulting from events evaluated as contradicting to programs of settings. The results and their interpretation indicate that (a) Barker's approach generally offers room for this kind of events (b) criticisms concerning the static and a-psychological character of his concept may be taken up productively (c) for this, a crossfertilization of ecological with socialpsychological concepts is inevitable."
Faure, A, Y Trochel, and T. Priestley. "La Cartographie Perceptive, Une Methode D´evaluation Qualitative Des Operations D´amenagement Urbain. L´experience De Chevilly - Larue." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. conference:IAPS:10
Grivel, Francois, and G. Wittersheim. "La Chaleur Jugee Dans Le Bruit, Le Bruit Juge a La Chaleur: Une Etude De L´interaction Entre La Temperature Et Le Bruit Embiant." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. conference:IAPS:10
Frances, R.. "La Musique Contemporaine, Artefact Economique Et Sociotechnique." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. conference:IAPS:10
Sauzet, Maurice. "La Phenomenologie Sensorielle Comme Reference Du Projet D´architecture." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. conference:IAPS:10
Mougenot, Catherine. "La Qualite Architecturale En Belgique: Anciennes Et Nouvelles Tendances Sociales." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. conference:IAPS:10
Chaguiboff, Jean, and Yvonne Bernard. "La Representation Spatiale De L`insecurité." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. conference:IAPS:10
Nakamura, Yoshio, and Shin-ichi Kitamura. "Landscape Design and Implementation for the River Banks at Hiroshima." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. A powerful amenity movement has been raised from the citizens of Hiroshima. So the government decided to launch a landscape improvement scheme along the rivers in the city. And the planmaking and the design were left in charge of us. Based on our survey around the rivers, we set up the design principles as follows: a) conservation of traditional bank images b) encouragement of water front events as possible c) application of local materials d) landscape expression of tidal movement e) assurance of flood control function.
Staats, Henk J.. "Landscape Evaluation: Explaining the Psychological Process." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. Based on Daniel Berlyne's theory on perception and motivation and especially on the categories of stimulation he distinguishes, part of a large research project was devoted to an attempt to explain the process of landscape evaluation. The Kaplan's Landscape Preference Model was interpreted as an application of Berlyne's category of collative simulation. Taking also in account the effects of Berlyne's category of ecological stimulation, a causal model was hypothesized to explain the process of landscape perception and evaluation. The results look promising and are in line with the theory used. The process was studied for people extremely familiar with certain parts of their environment as well as for people unfamiliar with landscapes that were shown by slides.
Axia, Giovanna. "Language and Orientation: Memory for Route Elements in Verbal Descriptions by Children and Adults." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. "The main aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between knowledge represented by language and ability in purposefully remembering information about new environments. Subjects were 22 6year-old children and 22 adults, whose verbal descriptions of a route in a novel urban environment were analyzed. Results show that adults remember more structural features of urban environments than low landmark potential elements. The same trend was observed in 6-year-olds with high conceptual-linguistic ability, while the opposite trend was found in 6year-olds with normal such ability. The results are interpreted focusing on the role of the "knowledge base"in memory strategies."
Ubrina-Soria, Javier. "Latin American Priorities in Environmental Psychology." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. This paper describes the environmental conditions which directly affect the quality of life of the inhabitants of Latin America. It reviews what have up to now been the principal guidelines in Environment Psychology in Europe and the United States in contrast with Latin-American needs. At the same time it proposes concrete exchange and collaboration which could enhance the application of Environmental Psychology in Latin America.
Villela-Petit, Maria. "Le Chez Soi: Espace Et Identité." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. conference:IAPS:10
Korosec-Serfaty, Perla. "Le Chez Soi: Secret Et Proximite De L'autre." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. conference:IAPS:10
Egenter, Nold. "Le Style a L´origine De La Naissance Des Facades Quadrillees." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. conference:IAPS:10
Fuhrer, Urs. "Learning How to Act in Behavior Settings: the Case of Newcomers." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. In the present paper the behavior setting perspective is applied on learning in naturalistic settings. According to my theory, behavior settings are interpreted as resources of knowledge which is available from other setting participants and from instructional material as well. Behavior settings impose social forces upon the behavior of newcomers. Thus, when the newcomer participates in a behavior setting, usually he/she tries to create the impression of acting in conformity with the behavior setting's standards of appropriate behavior. Empirical studies with first-time users of libraries and career planning and placement centers were aimed at uncovering the newcomer's competence by asking questions. The most significant result of this research is that individual differences in the number of questions asked reflect different tactics to create favorable impressions on others. Since other setting participants will interpret the newcomer's behavior in relation to what they expect of him/her, it seems likely that he/she will consider what constitutes a reasonable goal within the particular behavior setting when formulating impression management tactics in the process of learning or knowledge acquisition.
Prak, Niels L.. "Looking Back to the Future." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. We, as organizers, have allowed ourselves the luxury of the last word. The theme of the conference was the interrelation of past, present and future of man-environment studies, so it seems most appropriate to reflect on the immediate past, i.e. lAPS-b itself. To provide more salience for some of its idiosyncracies, I have compared it to that memorable conference of 1976 in Strasbourg.
Chouinard, Roger Jean. "Looking Back to the Future Through the Looking - Glass of the Present." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. This paper presents some ref lexions about the present situation of urban environments and attempts to set out new directions for the future manenvironment studies. The paper aims to show that it is possible to look back to the future only through the study or consideration of existing urban environments, from which should be derived all actions to improve the quality of urban life, as well as more compatible and human urban developments.
Tipple, Graham. "Low Income Housing and World - View in Asante: Problems and Possibilities for Policy in Kumasi, Ghana." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. The need for large increments in low income housing in Kumasi is established using data from surveys in 1980 and 1986. The scale of the need is such that reliance on the initiative of ordinary people is indicated for any realistic policy. Most theory on such initiatives relies on a world-view in which housing is a marketable good for which individual action is the major initiator and economic security or gain the major motivator. This paper shows how the Asante world-view, which dominates activity in Kumasi, imposes very particular constraints and opportunities for the housing policy maker. Their effect on the provision of housing is assessed and alternative approaches are recommended which are congruent with the local world-view.
Simon, Jules-Gerard. "L´architecture Comme Systeme De Significations." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. conference:IAPS:10
Ellis, Peter. "Making Post Occupancy Evaluation Work in an Organization." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. The Ministry of Works and Development (MWD) of the New Zealand government started conducting post-occupancy evaluations of governmentdesigned buildings in 1978. A system for POEs was designed with the help of researchers from the School of Architecture of the Victoria University of Wellington. In the eight years since the first initiative, ... building evaluations have been completed and the programme has become firmly established. Apart from developing and modifying the techniques for POE, MWD has also learned a good deal about the organizational aspects of operating a POE programme which is the subject of this paper. In this paper we describe the early period of using POE with MWD and the problems associated with establishing and maintaining a POE programme within an organization. The paper discusses POE as an organizational process and the contribution it can make to improving design quality and standards. We go on to consider recent and current changes in MWD's mode of operation as an agency producing public buildings, and the role of POE in MWD's marketing strategy. Then we discuss some of the organizational problems of building a data base out of POE for use in future design. Finally, we attempt to draw some conclusions.
Aarts, C. G., and P. Evenblij. "Man and Measure, Why? Spatial Aspects of Activities in the Home: Sleeping." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. "If handicapped people are able to live indepently, an architect should ask himself the following questions: -which actions - and especially which sub-actions - are essential for handicapped people for the execution of their daily activities at home; -which are the spatial consequences when technical aids (e.g. a wheelchair) are used? In this study we intend to investigate those aspects of the use of space, that cannot be visualized with the help of drawings, pictures or written documents. For this purpose a more dynamic medium such as video is necessary. Under the mentorship of two researchers and with the help of two revalidating patients, two students are involved in the preparation and production of various video films. The aim is to investigate the following activities: entering the house, preparations for the night, the use of bathroom facilities and cooking and eating. The pictures for the films are taken in a "training apartment" and in a laboratory setting. The revalidating patients are involved as "actors". Next to this a computer program was developed. With this program - by using animation techniques - movements and actions can be analyzed in detail. On lAPS-b we will present the work on "preparations for the night". In this film attention is given to: moving to and from the bed, getting undressed and dressed, storing and collecting clothing, transfer to and from the bed, doing the bed, moving to andfrom the bathroom."
May, Mark. "Methods for Studying Mental Representations of Real World Environments." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. Research on cognitive maps as mental representations of real world environments can considered to be confronted with two central problems: (1) The attainment of an adequate theoretical formulation of the ambiguous concept of cognitive maps, and (2) the development of a well-suited methodology for externalizing these mental maps. On the basis of model-theoretical considerations, a 'method-comparison strategy' for research on cognitive maps is proposed. An experimental design comparing different methods for gaining access to mental representations of city structure will be out- lined, the results of which will be reported at the conference.
Scuri, Piera. "Milieux Artificiel." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. conference:IAPS:10
Gärling, T, A Gärling, and E. Mauritzson-Sandberg. "Mother's Cognitive Representations of 1, 2, and 3 - Years Oldchildren's Accident Risks in the Home." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. Home interviews were conducted with mothers of 72 children, equally many of each sex in each of three equally large groups consisting of 1, 2, and 3years olds. Questions were asked about perceived accident risks, need of supervision, and need of safety measures in different rooms. The results showed that kitchen and bathroom were perceived as more dangerous than other rooms. Protective actions also tended to be perceived as more important in these rooms. Furthermore, the younger children the mothers had, the less risk and need of protection they tended to perceive. The age differences were in some cases larger for girls than for boys.
Bax, Thijs. "New Netherland 2050; the Role of a Central Design Team in a Decentralized Design Process." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. "Reflection on participation of a design team in activities, resulting in the exhibition "New Netherland, 2050", led to a new insight in the strucure of design processes and their contribution to the spatial organisation on a national level and for a long span of time. There will be a full explanation of the chosen design strategy, focussing on the role of a central design team in the framework of a decentralised design process and the methods and thechniques involved. The viewpoint that the far future is only conceivable as a historical reflection on the past links this paper to the theme of the conference."
Bagnasco, C, M Bonnes, M. V. Giuliani, and G. Rullo. "Objective and Subjective Aspects of the Quality of Urban Environment: Approach to an Integrated Study." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. An integrated method of analysis and evaluation of factors defining the quality of the urban environment and the level of environmental satisfaction, now being applied in the city of Rome, is described. The impact of various factors on the environmental quality is evaluated with respect to given standards with the help of a series of 'indicators'. These evaluations are compared with those given by a sample of the population on its own residential district in order to verify the relations between the objective aspects of the quality of the urban environment and the way they are perceived at subjective level.
van Wagenberg, Andreas F., and Robert W. Marans. "Offices and Office Systems (Bureaux Et Systmes D'équipement) - Introduction." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. The purpose of this symposium is to share information on previously unpublished research/work dealing with workers response to offices and to selected environmental systems within them. Special emphasis will be given to the future of office design in the different countries and to the theoretical framework underlying the research of the different participants. One of the possible outcomes of the Symposium could be an international approach to evaluation research in offices, possibly steering pilot studies in the two countries in the near future. The work of the participants has several characteristics in common. First each team has taken a systematic approach to evaluating office environments including worker responses. Second, questionnaire data and their analysis are common to all work. Third, each study is conducted on the basis of a theoretical framework and considers the office as a dynamic environment to which workers must adapt. Fourth, each has been undertaken for explicitly stated purposes and despite focussing on different aspects of the office, each study is comprehensive in gathering extensive data on the organizational as well as physical environment. Finally, the results of the research are of importance for future office design. The participants in this symposium will present individual papers. After the presentations they will discuss similarities and differences between their individual approaches to office evaluation research as well as their vision on the future of the office environment in different countries as a place to work. Among the issues to be discussed by the particpants are: 1. What are appropriate theoretical models of stu4ying the dynamic nature of office work and environmental change? 2. How is information technology changing the nature of office work and organisation and what are the consequences for the design and management of office environments? 3. Do patterns of information technological change differ between the two countries? Has this implications for the future of office environments? 4. What are the possible advantages of conducting research in offices on an international scale? 5. What are appropriate uses of findings and/or data produced by the research reported in this symposium? In order to stimulate discussion, each participant will limit his presentation in time and a discussant will lead the final discussion between the participants.
Trust, Henk M. G. J.. "On the Concept of Function in Building Science." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. "In the obviously increasing need for quality control in building, a renewed attention for the concept of function may be observed. Although the history of "function goes back as far as Vitruvius, a considerable amount of confusion about this concept seems to exist, disturbing communication and hampering decision-making, especially in the promising surroundings of interdisciplinary cooperation. It turns out that the basic mathematical concept of function is surprisingly well applicable on architectural design. The use of the mathematical way of thinking about "function" also enables to relate conceptually experimental research and design activities. Some simple examples orginating from both fields will be elaborated."
Voelker, William. "Open Office Planning and Design Reflecting Organizational and Technological Changes in the Workplace." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. "This paper presents an argument for hexagonal workstations in the context of open-office systems furniture. It draws conclusions and explains the implications of "radical" workstation ideas vis a vis the manner in which work may be carried out one or two decades hence. In the process of arriving at conclusions, the paper delineates: 1. The advantage of the hexagonal workstation over rectangular stations. 2. New design and construction ideas for system furniture elements and 3. Proposed configurations which are amenable to specific office work tasks."
Blakely, Kim. "Parents' Conception of Safety in Neighborhood Playsettings." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. This study investigates parents' conception of children's play safety and danger in an urban setting. The paper proposes that parent's conceptions of neighborhood play safety are multi-dimensional constructs influenced by ethnic background, socio-economic conditions, household composition, sex of the child, and the physical features of the neighborhood. This investigation is divided into four stages: (I) an ethnographic phase; (2) interviews with 18 Caucasian and 18 Black-American families and; (3) case studies with six families. The final stage of the research will involve a critique of the research findings by the study's participants. The findings from this data will be useful for informing social policy on children's outdoor safety and the improvement of urban outdoor play opportunities.
Sanoff, Henry, and Joan Sanoff. "Participatory Programming of a Campus Child Development Facility." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. The teaching of child care workers has prompted technical colleges to integrate their training with an on-campus child development facility. This project describes a collaborative process where the architect and user group exchange their different areas of expertise to the facility development process. Beginning with a goal setting process, the staff members and the architect embarked on a series of iterative stages that included children's classroom flow patterns, activity relationships, and activity requirements. Specific gaming techniques were developed to permit a dialogue between all project participants throughout the facility development process.
Landwehr, Klaus. "Perceiving, Cognizing and Memorizing the Affordances of Environments (Perception, Cognition Et Mmorisation De L'environnement) - Introduction." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. "GENERAL AIMS OF THE SYMPOSIUM - Our symposium is intended to explore the complex interrelations between perceptual and other cognitive activity in the encountering of our everyday environment. The discussion will focus on the controversy whether "available optical stimulus information" as conceptualized by the late James Gibson (1979) is sufficient for supporting and guiding goal-directed action or whether it has to be supplemented by additional cognitive processing. SPECIFIC TOPICS - We shall deal with large scale, outdoor environments first, and then also look at the smaller scale - the behavioural affordances of everyday commodities and industrial design. With regard to the first theme, there will be papers on wayfinding as well as on representation - of environments. With regard to design at the smaller scale we shall examine the technqiue of eye movement recording as an indicator for specific cognitive activity."
Bonnes, M, A. S. de Rosa, and R. G. Ardone. "Perception of the Quality of the Residential Environment and Temporal Dimension of the Residential Experience." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988.

The study is part of a wider multidisciplinary research project within the UNESCO-Man and Biosphere (MAB) Programme on the city of Rome. The aim of this part of the study is to investigate the perception the inhabitants have of the quality of their residential environment, in order to find out (i) the principal evalutative dimensions underlying these perceptions and (ii) how these evaluations are affected by the temporal dimensions of the residential experience: i.e. the length of residence and the amount of daily time spent within the quarter of residence. A sample of about 500 subjects all from the same quarter of the city, was considered.

Crunelle, Marc. "Perception Tactile Des Sols." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. conference:IAPS:10
Kose, Satoshi. "Personalization of Narrow Office Room Space in a Research Institution." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. Post occupancy evaluation of small office rooms In a research institution was conducted to Initiate an Improvement program of the office environment. Occupants of rooms of virtually the same plan were requested to answer questionnaires. Question Items Included: concept of furniture layout; subjective evaluation of the room environment; relationship between occupants In the room, etc. Furniture layout in the room was photographed. The result suggests that the senior occupant of each room gave fairly high ratings on his choice, while subordinate-occupants seemed to suffer from psychological stress of being seen.
Buttimer, Anne. "Phenix, Faust, Narcisse: a La Rechercher Du Chez - Soi." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. conference:IAPS:10
Marcus, Clare Cooper. "Pink Palace to Rosa Parks Towers: High Rise Rehabilitation Usingenvironment and Behavior Research." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. "The objective of this paper is to present a case study of the rehabilitation of a high-rise family housing project in San Francisco to provide attractive housing for low-income elderly persons. The author's role was first, as a programming-consultant 'translating"existing environment and behavior research on elderly housing for use by the design team. And second, condu&ng a simple, no-budget post-occupancy evaluation (POE) of the building, three years after the residents moved in. These two phases of work will be described, and some of the POE results briefly presented and analyzed."
Fried, Marc. "Place Identity: Psychological Origins and Adaptive Consequences." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. The sense of spatial identity is a concept introduced to provide a spatial context for many human experiences and behaviors (Fried, 1963). The subsequent conceptualization of place identity (Proshansky and Kaminoff, 1982) further delineated numerous functions subserved by this form of self-identity. Much evidence, widely dispersed, confirms the critical significance of place orientations for human development and functioning and as a dominant factor in adaptation to environmental stress. This paper examines the socio-cultural and psychobiological core of place identity and of manifest variations within and across societies. It presents a fundernantal theoretical formulation of the sense of place and its psychological intergrative fontioris.
Dovey, Kimberly. "Place, Ideology and Postmodernism." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. The phenomenological approach to environmental meaning is considered in relation to social theory and postmodernism. Phenomenology exhibits a concern with the experiences and meanings of 'place' while certain recent social theory focuses on the manner in which social structure and ideology constrain and reproduce such meaning in everyday life. It is argued that the phenomenological approach needs to be integrated with such tehory for both a rigorous understanding of place experience and for the questioning of ideological constraint and reproduction. Postmodernism, as a pastiche of formal meanings, reduces meanings to references. It appropriates meaning and borrows legitimacy from both phenomenology and social theory without questioning the legitimacy of existing ideologies. The community design framework is proposed as one that permits the restructuring of design practice through an ideologically self-critical place-making process.
White, Edward T.. "Poe from the Client's Perspective." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. This paper discusses the concerns, questions, problems and opportunities of POE from the client's perspective. Its thesis is that the planning of POE must not only satisfy professional criteria such as reliability and integrity, but that the fundamental strategy and planning of the POE should also be sensitive to the client's personal, organizational and political context. Specifically, the paper addresses how POE planning factors such as purpose, building sample, content, rigor, tools and techniques, participants, scheduling and cost may be made responsive to client concerns such as avoiding embarrassment, defending results, satisfying administrative superiors, boosting morale, minimizing disruption, resolving conflicts and obtaining maximum public relations benefit from the POE study. Neglect of these contextual factors can lead to POE results which satisfy professional criteria, but which are useless and even counterproductive for the client's organization.
Preiser, Wolfgang F. E.. "Post Occupancy Evaluation (Poe - Enqutes Auprès Des Utilisateurs) - Introduction." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. "ADVANCES IN POST-OCCUPANCY EVALUATION: KNOWLEDGE, METHODS AND APPLICATIONS - The purpose of this symposium is to describe recent developments in the field of post-occupancy evaluation. The five papers which follow, range from uses and boundaries of POEs and a performance-based conceptual framework for systematic POEs to advances in POE methods as well as applications. First, recent developments are noted and the developments that may represent advances for the field are identified. These include an apparent increase in the volume and acceptance of POEs, and shifts in the sponsorship and in the types of POE programs that are run by certain sponsors. Possible advances include the integration of behavioral and technical assessments, moving toward the application of "total building performance", and the development of greater sophistication in dealing with organizational issues and the clearer discrimination of multiple levels of POE."
Grimme, Friedrich W.. "Progress Achieved in the Development of the Solar Aperture." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. "Various transparent and translucent thermal insulation materials are now being investigated or are ready for the market as new products. In combination with other components, they are giving an impetus to the wide field of solar energy utilization. In 1986 tha program "Energetic Optimization of the Solar Aperture" sponsored by the Minister for Research and Technolgy, FRO, was started. This research and development program includes work on materials, components and active and passive systems, for instance daylighting of buildings, low temperature heating for houses and domestic hot water, process heat, for example for drying, absorption cooling and thermosolar water pumping."
Feldman, Roberta M.. "Psychological Bonds with Types of Settlements." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. Considerable theoretical and empirical research has been conducted on the experience of bonds between people and the tangible surrounds of home place. These bonds have been described as attachment to or rootedness in place as well as home place as an integral aspect of the development and expression of personal and group identity. Yet many of these same scholars have expressed concern over the growing rupture between people and places in American society. This research reports on interviews with residents of the Denver metropolitan area that suggest that mobile Americans may not necessarily consider themselves as rootless; rather, the experience of people-home place bonds may generalize to the experience of psychological bonds with a type of settlement.
Uzzell, David L.. "Psychological Dimensions of Planned and Traditional Shopping Centres." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. This study sought to explore the underlying psychological dimensions used by people to structure their thinking about a planned shopping mall and a traditional English market town High Street. The results, using multi-dimensional scaling analysis, demonstrated that personal comfort and space assumed more importance than the quality of the shopping facilities. Furthermore, the planned shopping mall was not perceived simply as an undercover extension of the High Street, but construed as a fundamentally different sort of environment.
Wineman, Jean. "Reconceptualizing the Workplace to Support Emerging Models Oforganizational Effectiveness." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. In 1974 Duffy made the argument that environmental planning for offices should concern itself with organizational structure. A number of authors have put forward models of organizational effectiveness. A notable example is the work of Schon (1974). He presents two basic models of corporate communication: Model I is based upon a competitive outlook. Model II represents a much more cooperative situation, involving a high degree of interaction and recognition of the primacy of group goals. He argues that the second model produces a much more effective organizational climate. Schon's work as well as the work of others on this subject will be discussed in this paper. It will be argued that it is useful to return to Duffy's recommendations concerning the importance of understanding corporate structure and designing to meet the needs implied by this structure. Yet it is also time to rethink the conception of work. Office planners and designers have to long been maneuvering within the limits of a set pelette: the individual workspace and its component parts. The challenge we face is to reconceptualize this idea to fit within the new office model of group problem solving for today's world of complex problems.
Symes, Valerie J.. "Rehabilitation of Post - War Public Housing." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. The large high-density inner city housing projects of the 1950s and 1960s are no longer perceived as ideal homes. This housing has become vandalised and neglected, many units are hard to let and some abandonned, resulting in a loss of useable housing stock for local authorities. Normal maintenance programmes have proved inadequate in solving the problem. This paper will examine the methods used to rehabilitate certain estates in London, including user-participation in the decision process, the varying use of resources, and the costs involved. An assessment will be made of the results obtained in terms of tenant satisfaction and long-term viability of the housing.
Sixsmith, Andrew J.. "Remembering - in - the - World: an Experiential Analysis of the Relationship Between Memories and Home." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. "The intention of the research is to explore the relationship between remembering and the home environment. Specifically, attention is given to how memories contribute to the attachment that many elderly people feel for their homes. Recent work on memory has emphasised processes of remembering in natural contexts and provide useful concepts for the present analysis. In particular, the processes of reminiscence and "spontaneous" remembering are essential to understanding the emotional and symbolic ties between person and home. Case studies are used to illustrate the role place-memories play in the wider context of changing life situations in old age."
Koeppl, Martin. "Representation and the Physical Enactment of Social Ideals." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. This paper discusses data from an environmental education project that employed audiovisual methods to stimulate participatory change. The study compares a city planner's presentation in class and the acts of two girls making collages, with the intent to examine the relationship between mode of representation and the practice of environmental prescription.
Groening, Gert. "Research in Open Space Planning - from Belief to Social Science." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. At the beginning of the 20th century statexrents about open space provision in Germany re closer to belief than to science. In the 193o's scientific and social scientific approaches to university education in open space planning re brutally suppressed by deeply anti-scientific, racist, and nationalist National Socialism After WW II, science and the history of garden styles became part of the curriculum. In the late 1 96o 's social science was added but was considered Threatening to the accepted beliefs. Then ecology emerged and was accepted as 'scientific' because it was free from social science and history and was considered to be free from ideology. Avoiding the cul-de-sac of an ideology-free ecology by identifying the ideology of ecology from a social science point of view could open up a new perspective for garden and landscape architecture in a deiucratic society.
van Andel, J, I Aravot, P Ellis, R Hamel, D Joiner, G. T. Moore, P Newland, J Powell, Chr Reed, H Sanoff et al. "Research Utilization." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. Looking back, we see that the transfer of results from research in environment-behaviour studies to practical people, for instance designers and policy makers, is an old problem. Researchers are accused of studying the wrong problems; and practical men are asking the wrong questions. Different reasons for this miscommunication have been given and a number of possible solutions have been proposed. In this symposium eight speakers will treat different parts of this problem. Tzamir & Aravot will stress the role of the different spheres of knowledge of architects and researchers. Hamel will present an empirically tested model of the design process, while Symes pays most attention to the complexity and diversity of architects information needs. Each of the next five speakers will elaborate upon a specific method or technique to improve the communication between researchers and architects. Both Joiner and Sanoff will speak about the implementation of participation of various interested partys in the design process. Ellis will stress the use of 'social episodes' as a research technique. Both van Andel and Sime a.o. will discuss the potentials of computerized techniques, respectively of videodisc -systems and of expert-systems. The symposium consists of short individual presentations and/or demonstrations, concluded by a general discussion between participants and the audience of about 45 minutes.
Churchman, Arza, and S. Neaman. "Resident Participation in Neighborhood Programs: Some Issues to Beresolved." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. Resident participation has been a central aspect of neighborhood rehabilitation programs around the world in the last three decades. A number of general issues regarding the principle of participation and its functioning within this context, can be identified. Two such issues are addressed in this paper: (1) Representative vs direct participation. Can anyone represent anyone else? Does one need to participate oneself in order to benefit? (2) Which is more important the process of participation or its product /outcome? Results of a four year comprehensive evaluation study of Israel's Project Renewal are the main context for discussion of these issues.
Coleman, Alice. "Returning to Our Civilised Roots." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. Civilisation is the advanced social development that is believed to owe its origin to human interaction in cities. But cities do not always have a civilising effect. In early nineteenth century Britain, when industrialisation attracted vast members of ruralCivilisation is the advanced social development that is believed to owe its origin to human interaction in cities. But cities do not always have a civilising effect. In early nineteenth century Britain, when industrialisation attracted vast members of rural immigrants, cities became the scene of crime and social unrest, and this has happened again since World War II with planned out-migration to reduce population density. Why should these two contrasted conditions promote the same sort of social breakdown, when the intervening century of city growth saw a steady fall in crime followed by a sustained low-crime period. in-migrants, cities became the scene of crime and social unrest, and this has happened again since World War II with planned out-migration to reduce population density. Why should these two contrasted conditions promote the same sort of social breakdown, when the intervening century of city growth saw a steady fall in crime followed by a sustained low-crime period.
Carmon, Naomi. "Self - Help Improvement of Public Housing: Empirical Evidence and Policy Implications." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. In numerous public housing neighborhoods in Israel, one can observe a widespread process of user-initiated expansions of small housing units. The residents of these neighborhoods are working-class families with below-average income. These people frequently function as passive users of the welliare state's services, including housing services. A study on their housing-related attitudes and behavior discovered that when they were given a chance, a considarable portion of them turned into active, participating users. When they gained control (ownership) over their housing, when the physical conditions enabled it, and when the administrative institutions did not inhibit it, many of them renovated, expanded the area and greatly improved their living conditions.The improvements included frontages and yards, and thus, not only themselves but also their neighbors and neighborhoods benifited from the housing expansion process. When subsidized loans and on-sight technical assistance were provided, the numbers grew, especially from among lower-income families. The conclusions are that old public housing can be made responsive to new needs, and that public-individual partnership can create a positive dynamics in low-status neighborhoods.
Pinard, Jasmine. "Shinsuikoen, Des Egouts Au Parc De Loisir." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. conference:IAPS:10
VAN HOOGDALEM, HERBERT. "Sick Buildings in the Netherlands." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. "An analysis is made of factors, which may interact in producing potential "Sick Buildings". Two case studies will illustrate this. Three as yet broad hypotheses about the causes of the "Sick Building Syndrome" are proposed and held against the evidence of user's complaints and other data. The notion of perceived control over the environment is discussed as a central explanatory concept. Guidelines for future research and design are formulated."
Lenartowicz, K, W Gawlowski, and J. Czekai. "Silesian Museum in Katowice (Poland)." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. "Competition project for the art, ethnographic and history museum in Katowice is presented. The original Silesian Museum (1936-39) had been an advanced modernistic building destroyed by the Nazis because of its Polish contents and International Style architecture. After 50 years the competition was to choose an equally high quality design. A series of patterns was introduced: 1) concerning the museum as institution: - on the hand as "temple of arts", -on the other hand as: "Disneyland"; 2) concerning the specific Silesian character: - typical of the region "small town structure" with its "market square" and "town hail", - "witness of the past" being a building from the 1950s, - coal mining tradition symbolized by "hole in the Earth" and tectonic "crack"."
Harloff, Hans-Joachim. "Small Nets as Learning Experience." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. Two surveys were made to study the behavior of the inhabitants of 'small nets' (a union of nearly households, which try to reach self subsistence in some way or other). We wanted to discover those changes of behavior that lead to success both, individually and groupwise. In my first study I reviewed 16 building self help groups, former squatters, who succeeded in getting a contract with the house owner. The second research deals with spiritual groups and other nets.
Hamel, Ronald. "Stages of the Design Process and the Use of Information." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. The intake and processing of information by architects was studied by analysing the protocols of twelve architects who worked on a design thinking aloud. The analysis was carried out using a descriptive model of the design process. The model itself is based on the analysis of the task and a psychological analysis of the capacities and limitations of the designer. It explicitly describes the activities, the use of knowledge, and the intake of information during each part of the process. Some of the practical implications for environment-behaviour research concerning the choice of the phenomena to be studied, the communication of research findings, and the reception of the information as a function of both the knowledge of the designer and the stage of the process will be discussed in more detail.
Stokols, Daniel et al.. "Stress and People at Work: the Impact of Relocation." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. The present study involved a longitudinal survey of office workers whose departments either (1) relocated from one facility to another, (2) renovated or rearranged their existing facility, or (3) experienced no change in the location or arrangement of their offices. All groups were surveyed twice. The relocation groups completed a pre-move survey and a post-move survey that was administered approximately four to six months after the relocation. Non-relocation and office-renovation groups also were surveyed at two different times during the year (which roughly approximated the same testing intervals used for the relocation groups). Approximately 300 participants provided data relating to various aspects of employee health, productivity, and satisfaction with the work environment. As well, detailed assessments of the physical conditions within participants' offices were obtained (e.g., work station configurations and amenities; noise, lighting, temperature, and humidity levels). Health, productivity, and satisfaction differences between work groups experiencing various levels of environmental change were examined. Implications of the findings for the development of theoretical perspectives on peopleenvironment transactions are discussed.
Lawrence, Roderick J.. "Structuralist Theories in Environment - Behavior - Design Research." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. "This presentation will provide a brief overview of diverse interpretations of structural theories and structuralist methods that have been applied to study people and the built environment. Particular attention will be given to "cognitive structuralism" and "Marxist structuralism", as well as "space syntax" and architectural semiotics. This presentation shows that this complex range of contributions cannot be considered as sharing common theoretical and methodological perspectives. The differences between these interpretations will be illustrated by refering to recent studies of the interrelations between people and the built environment."
Priestley, Thomas. "Study of the Effects of an Electric Transmission Line on Perceived Neighborhood Quality." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. To provide a basis for assessing the effects of large infrastructure projects on perceived environmental quality, a study was carried out in two neighborhoods adjacent to a recently built transmission line in California. Through use of a mail survey employing multiple choice, photo, and mapresponse questions, resident perceptions of neighborhood quality and transmission line visibility and effects were determined. Analysis of the responses allowed generalization about the impacts and the factors affecting them, including line distance, visibility, and mitigation measures, and whether the respondent moved to the neighborhood before or after the line's construction.
Lissner-Espe, Andrea. "Studying the Communicational Meaning of the Home." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. Housing, looked at from a communicational perspective, shows a peculiar characteristic: it is an environment, a situs of communication and at another level it is a medium, a vehicle of communication. By themselves each of these two dimensions leads to certain questions; but through their combination a new quality arises and we are challenged to cope with the problem of reflexivity. In this paper I propose a research framework for the study of this double-faced feature of the home. A case study shall help to illustrate the points and to sharpen the instrument.
Saccopoulos, Christos A.. "Summer House on the Island of Kyti - Inos, Greece." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. The nine-hectare site is an isolated cove on this arid, treeless, hot (in the summer) island. The owners, husband and wife are both university professors. The setting and the island suggested a combination of the cerebral with the vernacular (Plato/Zorba). The adoption of a regular geometry (that of the small rhombicumboctahedron) that is deliberately violated in response to the topography and the program seemed appropriate. The massing addresses the human scale and high level of complexity that are integral aspects of the Cycladic vernacular. A ferrocement/styrofoam construction technique was adopted for its economy, limited thermomass, earthquake resistance and visual plasticity. De Chirico's early treatment of form and light guided some of the formal decisions. The immediate grounds are walled-in, separating the paved and planted sacred space from th profane space beyond. The topography dictates the irregular shape and variable elevation of several outdoor spaces, at least one of which is in shade at any given time of the day.
van der Meulen, George G.. "Tablet an Adapted Approach for Analysis of the Use of Land and Floorspace in Urban Areas in Developing Countries." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988.

In an era of transfer of high technology to developing countries in general, and in transfer of methodologies in the field of urban and regional planning using computer equipment in particular, attention has to be paid to adapted approaches. Adaptation means that approaches and methodologies introduced in developing countries primarily have to suit under the circumstances of such countries, and that in stead of main focus to high tech transfer, issues concerning mobility have to be considered. One of MANROP: Urban Management Systems adapted approaches for analysis of land and floorspace in urban areas in developing countries, applicated in an area in inner Bangkok city, is the microcomputer program TABLET. That program will be described in three subparts, namely: 1. data collection using a digitizer or graphical tablet 2. analysis and calculation concerning land use and floorspace occupancies 3. drawing of collected spatial data using a plotter. An application example will be showed and discussed. Finally, some conclusions will be drawn.

Steiner, Gerhard. "Technology and Glass." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. Glass as a building material has played an important role in the history of architecture. But it has become popular in the construction of hones only in recent years because of its high cost. Last century architects recognised the capability of glass to climatically close openings while at the same time preserving the appearance of openness. Because of this property, it is possible to construct buildings solely of glass. This glass functionally seperates indoors from outdoors, thereby providing the possibility to establish certain climatic conditions indoors. On the other hand the transparency of the material allows the sensation of openness.
Raymond, H.. "Technostructure Et Architecture: L´exemple Corbuseen." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. conference:IAPS:10
M. Giuliani, Vittoria, and Giuseppina Rullo. "Territorial Organization of Domestic Space in Different Types Ofhouseholds." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. The study is focused on the relationships between household role on the one hand and territorial behaviour and attitude towards one's own home on the other. It is assumed that, in contemporary society, household roles may be different from the traditional family role and that human territoriality is primarily related to the need for privacy, social interaction, and selfexpression. All members of thirty households, including traditional families and two different types of alternative households, were interviewed. The results indicate that household role affects territorial behaviour and attitudes, structuring the way people interact with their homes.
J Martines, Freixes i, Juanaola i M Codina, Monllevi i J Portolo, and Valera i S. Pertegas. "The Barcelona District's Look." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. This communication collects the results from a survey on how a number of urban functional and symbolic interventions get integrated in the cognitive schemes, in districts in the city of Barcelona lacking these kinds of elements. We evaluate how these interventions also affect the identification and social life of their inhabitants. A survey has been carried out on a sample of three hundred and forty individuals by means of a questionaire. The results show that the contributions have had an important incidence in the cognative schemes of the citizens, although they do not reach an identification with the district. By now they are, however, integrated in the individuals the way of the look the city is inteded to show.
Sanford, Jon A., and Ted Finlay. "The Effects of Exhibit Signage on Visitor Behaviour." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. "To enhance the educational and recreational experiences of zoo visitors, Zoo Atlanta has developed a research program to inform the design of effective exhibit signage. The research design entails a parallel study, multimethod approach to be used throughout the Zoo. The first study utilizes a "before and after" design to evaluate the impact of sign performance on exhibit performance (attractiveness). The second study utilizes a product evaluation model to determine the impact of three sign characteristics on sign performance (learning). This paper reviews the purpose and procedures of the research program and reports the results of the initial exhibit performance study."
E Peron, Mainardi, Michel Baroni, and G. Zucco. "The Effects of the Salience and Typicality of Objects in Natural Settings Upon their Recollection." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988.

Possible effects on memory of typicality and salience of the objects present in two natural places were investigated upon. In Experiment I three ratings of typicality and salience obtained with modalities more or less strictly connected with the environmental settings were compared. In Experiment II incidental and intentional memory for the objects were tested. Results showed that typicality of items favours their free recall but hinders their recognition, while salience of items favours their recognition. It is argues that these findings could cast some light on divergent data reported in literature about schemata effects on memory for natural places.

Wolschke-Bulmahn, Joachim. "The Fear of the New Landscape, Aspects of the Perception of Landscape in the German Bourgeois Youth Movement Between 1900 and 1933." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. Landscape has had a central meaning for the German youth movement of the Weimar Republic. The bourgeois part of this movement has developed respectively taken over (Riehi, LSns, France) an immobile ideal picture of landscape which corresponded to a preindustrial societies way of nature appropriation and power structure. Their perception of landscape ignored people living there. Man was understood not as a social being but as coined by landscape, culture was understood as rooted in the landscape. Therefore a change of landscapes was perceived as destructive for culture and man. The immobile picture of an ideal landscape has been stable over the last five or six decades with some groups of society. It has had its highpoint during National socialism, but is of influence still today in Germany. It appears that this immobility is detrimental towards conceptions of a democratic society at the doorstep to the 21st century.
Wolfe, Maxine. "The History of Changes in Children's Institutions and Action Research." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. After twelve years of frustration in attempting to use my research to create positive changes in children's psychiatric hospitals, schools and day care centers, I needed to put my failures into perspective. My research into the history of these institutions allowed me to understand their role in U.S. society and revealed implicit values and goals shaping their philosophy, form and functioning which work against positive change. My research into the history of action-research raised questions about the role of research and the researcher in environmental change - ethical and value based issues which we rarely address. An historical approach provided an understanding of how prevailing ideologies shape research and design questions, methods and professional roles and limit our visions of what could exist. Without such an analysis, and despite our best intentions, places we are helping to create will probably not be an improvement over the ones which exist.
RIVLIN, LEANNE G.. "The History of Homelessness." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. The increasing number of homeless persons, especially in the US, has led to a search for explanations along with some attempts at providing assistance. In considering the many faces of homelessness, it becomes clear that both the reasons offered for the loss of home and attitudes toward the homeless have long and complex histories. In order to address these issues I am examining descriptions of homelessness in earlier times, particularly explanations of why people are homeless and public responses to it. One step involves an analysis of articles in the New York Times reporting on homeless children and adults from 1868 to the early 1900s. Other sources are being reviewed as well. This information will be used to present a perspective on homelessness and a critique of the use of historical sources.
Horwitz, Jamie. "The History of Technology and Domestic Life." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. This presentation summarizes how an historical approach informed an environmental analysis of computer home-use. After rejecting the socio-functionalist definition of the household as a private family refuge from work and public life, as well as rejecting the new media image of home as a locus of employment in a computer-based communications society, a review of the history of technology and domestic life provided a framework for conceiving of the household in dynamic relationship to social institutions, including the technology transfer that occurs across them. Historical inquiry informed case study selection, interview protocal and analysis of U.S. households who had purchased microcomputers for home-use. Historical analysis contributed, as well, toward grounding a concept of home as a place that can change over time.
Horelli, Liisa. "The Meaning and Role of the Physical Environment in Housing." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. A seven-year long follow-up of a self-planned housing community of 21 families at the outskirts of Helsinki has made it possible to explore the meaning and role of the physical environment in the intrapsychic work of the individuals, in the family dynamics and in the everyday life of the small housing community itself. The results show that there are striking differences in the temporal, spatial and psychosocial dialectics, constantly present in the individual transactions as well as in those of the families. These are due to personal, gender and sociocultural factors influencing the creation, use and expression of a idiosynchronic code system.
Cohen, Uriel. "The New Museum: New Roles, New Experiences, New Forms." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. "Practices and programs of museums are changing and are vastly different from those of past museums. New approaches to the museum experience include visitor's participation in activities, hands-on experiences, and conducting civic and performing-arts functions in the museum. These are just a few of the emerging trends which give the museum a more dynamic role in education and recreation. Many new museums are more public than ever before - - places where people gather and participate in a variety of cultural experiences. The changes in roles and experiences manifest themselves in the form of the museum. This presentation will demonstrate the links between activities and physical form at different levels and scales: from the "interactive core," which responds to new concepts of display at the micro scale, to "common grounds" which provide a place for large gatherings and often make connections to the surrounding urban environment."
Bonaiuto, Paolo. "The Power of Mental Schemata in Determining the Visual Appearance of Buildings." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. New research has been carried out after the first, presented 2 years ago in West-Berlin (IAPS-8; P. Bonaiuto, M. Miceu Roman, F. Bonaiuto, 1984). The research contributes to show that, when we observe highly irregular and pa- radoxical buildings, under ambiguous perceptual conditions, because of the influence of mental schemata we attenuate the anomalies. But we increase and emphasize them, if the perceptual conditions are univocal and coercive. In such opposite phenomena, respectively, assimilation and contrast after-effects are involved. The demonstration of these phenomena has been confirmed by experiments on the perception of three-dimensional models of leaning buildings The very consistent individual differences have also allowed us to define 5 different cognitive styles. This research paradigm is also successfully applied in predicting and explaining similar phenomena which occur during the perception of architectural facades with characteristics of disorder (i.e. windows not lined up).
Kaminski, Gerhard. "The Psychological Experiment as a Behavior Setting Genotype." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. Ecological psychology and experimental psychology appear as two different, unconnected worlds. Could they be reconciled or even integrated to one world? Ecological psychology claims to be responsible for all kinds of person-environment - interrelationships and may attempt to usurp experimental psychology by pronouncing all psychological experiments to be behavior settings. Supposing experimental psychology would not resist: would that have any consequences for it? Or would that amount to a Pyrrhic victory for ecological psychology? And how could experimental psychology enter into the realm of ecological psychology? What would be the repercussions on itself? The paper attempts to find at least some answers.
Böök, Anders. "The Role of Perspective in Recognition of Real - Life Scenes." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. A study of recognition of pictures was conducted with reference to the assumption that direction changes in wayfinding are specified through a process of perspective coordination. Perspective of the pictured scenes was varied as a judgment factor in the study phase. The distractors used in the recognition test consisted of new scenes in one condition but new perspectives of old scenes in a second condition. Performance in the former condition decreased when subjects judged dimensions related to perspective in the study phase as compared to dimensions related to content. Equal performance was obtained when new perspectives were used as distractors. A mixture of two recognition strategies in the latter condition, assumed to be relevant in the real environment, was proposed as an account for the failure to obtain the predicted cross-over interaction.
Kalbermatten, U, S Looser, and L. Valach. "The Session of the Swiss National Council on Dying Forests." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. "We analysed a special session of the Swiss national council on "Dying forests" which was called for so that swift action to stop the forest deterioration could be taken. According to our theoretical approach we collected data at different time points (calling for the session, during the session, several days after the session) of several actors (parliament, political party, members of national council) and from various perspectives (politicians, media, passers by). The following data will be presented: from questioning of politicians and passersby prior to the session, their comparison, results of votes in the session and their comparison with the questioning prior the session."
Groat, Linda N.. "The Significance of Architectural Theory for Environmental Design Research." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. This paper argues that environmental design must, if it is to influence architectural design in any fundamental way, incorporate not only empirically-based theory derived from the social sciences, but architectural theory as well. With this argument as a premise, three phases in the history of architectural theory - Classical, Modern, and Post-Modern - are described in terms of both rhetoric (underlying goals) and strategy (their compositional principles). One important conclusion drawn from this analysis is that architectural theory has increasingly assumed a relativist stance, the deconstructionist position being the most extreme version of this. Given this lack of a consensual basis for design, environmental design research offers the possibility, through its empirically-based methodologies, of identifying the current cultural conventions by which built form is interpreted. Unfortunately, because this body of research has tended to ignore the significance of the compositional principles that are embedded in all architecture, this potential has barely been realized.
Möllring, Fred. "The Transfer of Technology to Solar Architecture." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. The relationship between architecture and technology is an important part of the creative progress. An example of this was the Russian construct ivists' architecture for a cultural revolution: Melnikov's 'solar pavilion' and 'sleeping quarters' for his 'green city'. The following projects represent the present state of the art. The first is at Nimes, France (Neinansus 1, Nouvel & Ibos). The second is located in Stuttgart, West-Germany (Hysolar, Behnisch & Partners). LOG ID in Ttibingen designed a public library in Herten, West - Germany promoting further development of solar architecture. The last example describes the special implementation of space research technology by the British group 'Future Systems'.
Ellis, Peter. "The Usefulness of Research on Social Episodes." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. This paper will discuss the usefulness to designers and planners of research which addresses itself to social episodes. This type of research has been common in European social psychology for the past ten years, but has been hardly used by environmental researchers. Social episode research attempts to analyse discreet social events in terms of the roles of the participants and the rules which govern social behaviour, using participants' own accounts of these events as primary data. The way in which this methodology can be applied to yield useful Information for designers and planners, will be dicussed with reference to a multi-national research project on office planning in which the author is currently engaged.
Rabinowitz, Harvey Z.. "The Uses and Boundaries of Post Occupancy Evaluation." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. POE is now 25 years old. Phases in the development of POE in the 1960's, 70's and 80's are examined and characteristics of POEs in these decades are discussed in terms of the 1) types and size of buildings evaluated 2) variables included in the evaluation 3) the relationships among the variables and 4) intentions of the investigation. POE has evolved from research into a applications-oriented activity over the past three decades. Building types and clients have also changed - in the U.S. large, private sector firms are increasingly utilizing POE. Research in POE also continues emphasizing the interaction between, and the relative influence of environmental and non-environmental variables, as well as the development of databases for POE utilization.
Zimring, Craig M.. "Theory and Post - Occupancy Evaluation." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. "This paper argues that whereas post-occupancy evaluation (POE) is experiencing considerable success as an applied area it will not and cannot develop unique theory. However, there appear to be an emerging "worldview" that emphasizes the utility of POE as an organizational intervention ans the interrelatedness of behavioral and physical aspects of buildings in a "total building performance" framework. Nonetheless, there is some disagreement about the ability to generalize POE findings. This pattern of consensus and disagreement suggests some important future directions for POE."
C. Mitchell, Tom. "Time Perception and the Processing of Environmental Information." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. Experiments are reported in which subjects were asked to indicate when they felt 15 minutes had passed while observing each of two model environments of similar design but differing spatial scale. Three types of model environment were used: scale model railways, sitting room models, and abstract, non-representional environments. Subject's judgments of duration were significantly shorter in the smaller of the two model environments in every case except where comparisons were made with the smallest scale models of room interiors. It is suggested that the effect of spatial scale on duration judgments is related to differences in the density of the information to be processed in environments of different scale. It is further suggested that there may be an optimum value for information density related both to the scale and to the type of environment being modelled.
Graumann, Carl F.. "Towards a Phenomenology of Being at Home." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. "Phenomenology emphasizes and explicates the intentional relationship between bodily subjects and their material and social environment. This relationship is conceived of as reciprocal. Individuals, (as well as groups) experience (perceive, judge, feel, evaluate) and act upon their concrete, i.e., situated, environment which, in turn, has its impact on its inhabitants. Some of the modalities of both the environment as intended and as happening ("unintentionally") will be demonstrated and discussed with respect to living at home."
Lawrence, Roderick J.. "Transformations in Domesticity, Household Demography and Dwelling Designs." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. This paper identifies the interrelations between many factors that have contributed to transformations in household demography, house planning and home life during this century. These factors are discussed and illustrated in terms of a dual historical perspective. This approach shows that there is a growing discordance between housing policies and architectural practice, on the one hand, and socio-demographic and socio-psychological trends, on the other hand. In sum, it is appropriate to look back before looking to the future, if alternative strategies to correct the current situation can be formulated and applied successfully.
Sixsmith, Judith A.. "Unemployed at Home: Prison Or Refuge." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. Once the workplace is lost through unemployment, a person spends a high proportion of their time at home. In this context, the home is experientially altered. Actions become transformed, socially, psychologically and behaviourally, as the person copes with being unemployed. This paper investigates the dynamic and complex relationship between the unemployed person's emerging lifestyle and their home lifespace. Through in-depth interviews, attention is focused on the home as a restorative, supportive and/or worrisome environment, which acts as a system of constraints and opportunities for action.
Ajdukovic´, Dean. "Urban Residential Preferences: Some Correlates and Trends." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. In order to establish dominant housing preferences in a Yugoslav city and some of their correlates, two techniques were administered to a number of subjects from the city of Zagreb: a questionnaire related to type, location, and other residential issues, and a trade-off game of various housing features. To determine some trends over time a content analysis of a classified section on real estate in a local newspaper was done. Data on residential experience, SES, and actual housing conditions were gathered in addition to preference responses. Results are discussed within a framework of individual and social determinants of residential preferences in an urban environment.
Plöger, Wolfgang, and Marco Lalli. "Urban Self - Presentation and Resident's Identification with the Urban Environment." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. "The relationship between the self-presentation of the town, her perceived identity and residents' identification with the urban environment was investigated in Heidelberg, FRG. This relation has relevance for the increasing efforts of local administrations to improve residents' attachment with the town through specific impression management measures. In the present study the method of content analysis was used to classify the themes of communal self presentation in the local gazette. Therefore a categorization system was developed using the following three dimensions: temporal orientation, spatial level and functional aspects. In a subsequently conducted telephone survey (N=130) the perception of these themeatic contents by the town residents was investigated and related with the urban identification scores measured with the "Urban Identity Scale" (Lalli, in press). The results indicate that highly indentifying subjects appreciate the functional aspects of the town more. Their thematic perception of the urban environment coincides with the self-presentation offered by the community. An important mediator of this relation is the attributed responsibility for the urban quality perceived (personal vs. communal). This may be of relevance for further public relation campaigns by local administrations. The study exemplifies that identity measures may prove valuable as mediating variables in many areas of Environment Psychology."
Symes, Martin S.. "Urbanisme Contemporain En Angleterre Et Aux Etats Unis." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. conference:IAPS:10
Kaplan, Stephen. "Uses of the Past: Enhancing Cognition and Environment by Incorporating Historical Information." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. Preserving environmental reminders of the past can have important implications for meeting human needs and enhancing human functioning. Not only the physical environment, but the informational environment as well has suffered as informational technologies have overwhelmed the cultural capacity for selection, filtering and focus. Amidst this informational glut, information about past patterns has suffered neglect. Three areas of human concern can be identified in which a coherent, organized perspective on the past could make a significant contribution: Identity and self-reliance, Self-maintenance, and Coping and problem solving. These mutually-supportive facets of human functioning are offered as a conceptual basis for analyzing the potential contribution of historical information and historical environments.
Landwehr, Klaus. "Wayfinding with and Without Signs." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. "A case study of a walk through a "town-parkscape" towards a specified goal is being presented. Several strategies and means which might aid in wayfinding are discussed: propositional description, cognitive mapping, etc. Emphasis is laid on available optical stimulus information which in a selfexplanatory way specifies continuability of a path and perhaps goal-orientation. Implications for planning are derived. The study is richly illustrated with photographic and cartographic materials."
Hulsbergen, Edward D.. "Which Spaces for Whom? Problem Definition, a Major Point." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. Architectural and urban design and planning can be part of the solution of social problems, though not necessarily so. The scientific explicitation and testing of hypotheses on the relationship between the professional tools, the (long lasting) products and structures built, and other social phenomena is far from finished, especially in respect of vulnerable groups in our society. These groups can be, and are, defined in great variety. The built environment is one of the available means to accentuate differences between people. Likewise it is easily used for negative (stereo) typing of people. However, environmental solutions also easily give rise to hope, expectation. This capacity of the daily results of our science should not be a manipulative device, but should benefit vulnerable groups.
Ahrentzen, S, and D. Piché. "Women and Environments: Looking Back at Research, Looking Forward to Change (Les Femmes Et Penvironnement) - Introduction." In Looking Back to the Future: Proceedings 10th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Delft, Netherlands, 1988. "This symposium brings together researchers and practitioners actively involved in researching, designing, and developing policies and programs for environments planned by, with, and for women in various countries throughout the world. The intent of this symposium is to disseminate information of these designs policies, and research among the symposium participants and audience, and to generate international collaboration and exchange for action addressing the problems, ideas, and concerns of women today. The field of "women and environments" has been growing in the last decade, but primarily the research and information of this field has been disseminated and cultivated within national boundaries: Canada, Britain, Sweden, West Germany, United States, Netherlands, for example. Since LAPS is an international organization, this forum provides an opportunity for researchers, designers, and activists to exchange information, ideas, and policies, and to begin collaboration on new developments in research and environmental application on an international scale. The symposium is organized such that the three listed participants will speak briefly on research and design programs they have been involved with, highlighting issues and implications. After these brief presentations, discussions will follow among the participants and audience."