Keywords Abstract
Forgan, S.. "A Case for Analysis: Why do We Sit in Lecture Theatres?" In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. The answer may seem to be simple-because they are there and teachers expect students to sit in lecture theatres. However, the lecture theatre as we know it today is the result of a complex historical evolution, and may serve as an exemplar for the study of space in history. The space itself has a con-crete, objective existence within changing architectural forms. It is moredifficult to unravel its function, and how the space within the architecturalform was constructed, used or perceived by those who occupied it. One mustin this respect consider contemporary patterns of knowledge, practices ofdisplay, the social context of the dissemination of information, and changingeducational theories. There is no single formula for the analysis of histori-cal spaces, but it is helpful to consider divisions within spaces (whetherphysical or otherwise), patterns of access, notions of public as opposed toprivate space, the use of spatial arrangement to impose order and discipline,as well as the delineation of spaces in emblematic forms. This paper will trace the shape and history of lecture theatres from earlyanatomy theatres of the sixteenth century to the university lecture theatresof today. It is hoped, by approaching the subject in the terms outlined above,to discuss some of the prolems facing those who attempt to study space inhistory and culture.
Potter, James J.. "A Cross - Cultural Study of Linguistic Versus Graphic Abilities in Architecture Students." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. Recently, there has been a revival of interest in educational researh fo-cusing on the training of architects. The initial goal of this research pro-gram was to develop and evaluative test that could serve as a better predic-tor of student's performance in a university level program in architecturethan traditional intelligence measures. A secondary goal was to determinewhether there was a significant difference in architecture student's ablili-ties with regard to linguistic versus graphic communication. A final goalwas to determine whether there was a significant divergence in the per-formance of students from architecture schools in three different countries-i.e., Ireland, Nigeria, and the United States-on the evaluative test.Since the late 1940's, there have been various attempts In the United King-dom and the United States to develop alternative means of screening appli-cants for entrance into school of architecture. The reason for seeking othermeans of evaluation is that, although traditional university entrance examstest the applicants abilities in mathematics, sciences, and humanities, theyhave not necessarily served as a good predictor of succes in architecture.After considerable discussion with architectural educators regarding theunique characteristics of the discipline of architecture, it was generallyagreed that any evaluative test of architecture students should assess twokey abilities: 1. Visual communication, and2. there-dinesional visualization.An evaluation instrument consisting of sixty-eight (68) written questionsand graphic problems was developed. The instrument draws from previouswork done by other researchers such as. l.N. Uzagba. It was administered toa total of 246 students in the first, second, and third years of the programsof schools of architecture in Ireland, Nigeria, and the United States. The re-search addresses both the reliability and validity of the evaluative instru-ment. It then proceeds to address a number of content questions:1. Is there a significant difference in performance of the students in thefirst, second, and third years?2. It there a singificant difference in Irish, Nigerian, and United Sates stu-dent's performance?3. Is it possible to predict a student's score in their third year based ontheir first year performance on the test?4. Is there a significant difference between student's performance on thewritten questions versus the graphic problems?The paper will examine these questions, providing tentative answers. It willalso examine the key conceptual and methodological issues of the research.Finally, It will conclude with some indications of how architectural eductionin there different cultures seems to impact student's performance as wellas how future researchers may wish to proceed in arriving at better pre-dictors of student success architecture programs.
Bayazit, N.. "A New Paradigm in Design Methods and Theories: a Case Study on Knowledge Acquisition in Computer Aided Design." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. Bauhaus movement was a new paradigm shift in 1920's, leading to interna-tional style and modern movement in architecture and the application of so-cial sciences in urban planning. After the World War Two the developmentIn high technology in 1960's, in 1970's and in 1980's created incremen-tally new paradigm shifts in design discipline and nourished post modernismand other movements in arch itecture.This paper aims at shedding light onthe new developments in design methods and theories in relation to the ex-tensive use of computer aided design (CAD), which follows and utilizes thedevelopments in computer science and technology, cybernetics, informationtechnology, cognitive sciences, theories of learning, knowledge acquisitionand nowledge representation. This new paradigm shift In design methods andtheories leads us to the area of artifical intelligence (Al). The other side ofthis change concentrates on the crucial efforts to bridge the gap betweenprofessional practice and education, professional practice and researchworks trying to make computers replace human experts. Developments innew visual devices and tools of high design and information technology en-hance the quality of the approaches. The requirements of high technology so-cieties force us to deal with computer psychology in relation to CAD. We need new methods and techniques to solve the problems of computerized de-sign environment. On the other hand CAD education, education of CAD educa-tors, relations with proffessionally practicing designers as experts aremain problem areas to be solved. We need to develop new methods to utilizecomputers, to develop data and knowledge storage methods in order to under-stand experts and real life situations, to acquire knowledge from experts, todevelop simulation methods for representing expert knowledge and real lifesituations. The Importance of self designing as a learning procedure eitherfor lay people or professional education is recognized for the future re-quirements of computerized learning. New modern architecture has roots inthe high technology environment of this era. In this new paradigm in design-discipline some experiments and studies have been condected by the autor toacquire knowledge from the design domain. User's and designers informationprocessing is accepted having enormous impact on the research studieswhich are on environmental issues to shed some lights to the environmentalinfluences on design, design process, users, and user perception on the en-vironment. Information processing has important Impact on cognitivestructure of the users as well as designers. It is very difficult to acquireknowledge and it is important to understand the foundations of informationprocessing and cognitive structures and the conversations between theminds, and minds and minds and things, which leads to better understandingof the user's as well as designer's responses to each other and to the envi-ronment.Conversation between the parts are connected to the understanding of theconcepts and concept structures from which constraints and then rules ofdesign can be extracted and formulated in an expert system.A study was made to acpuire knowledge from professional young architectswho have experience in practice for a few years, related to informationprocessing and conceptualization in computer aided design. Different design-ing styles of young experts in CAD architectural design studio were invesi-gated. Conceptual structures of the designers were studied. Following theconcept structures some basis learning styles such as holist, serialist, in-ductive, deductive have been formulateu with reference to the expert re-sponses conflicting rules have been investigated. A set of rules for a givenobject have been formulated with reference to the expert responces. Con-flicting rules have been recognized, separation and clarification of right andwrong rules were made to provide a list of reles to be used in and expertsystem.
Moreno, E, and E. Pol. "A Service that Produces Pollution: Its Impact on the Environment and the Resulting Social Pressure." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. This study is based on an analysis of the attitudes shown by the population ofneighbouring towns towards a Refuse Recycling plant (RP) which emits un-pleasant substances. We outline guidelines for a programme of encourage-ment of acceptance of the plant once the technical problems are solved.The RP was Inaugurated in 1987 in the outskirts of Barcelona and hasopened and closed repeatedly as a result of social pressure against it. A badsmell is claimed to be emitted. This pressure, however, differs in the twopopulation centers, which are equidistant from the plant. Faced with thisconfusing situation, and after various technical modifications, the entity re-sponsible for the plant commisioned this study.An interdisciplinary team linked to our program was formed. The work setfor the team was as follows:a)analysis of the impact on the environment involving description of: thegeneral setting of the RP, the process of waste treatment, atmospheric con-tamination in the area and Its sources, the working problems of an RP, andthe wind circulation in the area.b)study of the social context, the social groups and their characteristics,and the political and social leaders with explanations for the different beha-viour of the populations and ideas about social measures to be taken.In order to identify the attitudes of the affected populations we use semi-directed interview technique and then analysed the results qualitatively us-ing an Analyala of Thematic Content. Three types of attitudes became appar-ent, depending on the influence of political and economic variables. Thus wewere able to Identify conjunctural motivations that explain the differentlevels of civil action against the RP.
Wang, H. K., and K. H. Chen. "A Socio - Cultural Interpretation of the Hierarchical Spatial Structure of Consumption in Taipei." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. This paper tries to extend the conventional central place theory, which isstill the most popular tool for analyzing the spatial hierarchy of urban andmetropolitan commercial activities, by viewing the spatial patterns in amore holistic,, modern perspective.The paper is composed of four parts. first, the conventional central placetheory and Berry's notion of market centers are briefly criticized. We be-lieve that central place theory ignores the effect of behavioural factors onspatial structure by stressing only the trip length to the center, which is asimplistic economic explication. Berry proposes to further develop centralplace theory by Incorporating consumer behavior and demographic charac-teristics of the service area into the system, but so far without carrying itout by empirical undertakings. The idea fails to break loose from the limits of closed systems, such as isolation from the outside world and short com-ings of a bottom-up development conception which disregards the influenceexerted on the sutructure by the diffusion of cultural consumption from thecentral area toward the peripehery. Furthermore, the dynamic interplaybetween the system of central places and the lifestyle and consumptiton be-havior of the service population is undoubtedly among the major forces thatshape and change the structure of central place system, but this complexmechanism has never been delineated in the literature. In the second part ofthe paper we propose a preliminary thehoretical construct which depictsand interprets the forming of the hierarchical spatial structure or con-sumption in urban areas, especially in third-world metropolises- It incor-porates five important conceptual elements in explaining the true meaningof the spatial patterns of tertiary activities in the urban area: clusteredconsumption activities, localized commerical ecology, mode of consumption,symbolic consumption, core/periphery relationship, and cultural diffusion.This construct is the principal theoretical contribution of the paper. In thethird part a summarized report on an empirical study is persented.Thestudy is conducted in three selected commerical areas of diffrent functionsand significance in Taipei, Taiwan, attempting to validate the role of the fiveconcepts in the evolution of the spatil patterns of consumption In this par-ticular third-world metropolitan area. Finally we conclude by recapitulat-ing that the hierarchical structure of commerical areas in a metropolisshould be understood simultanosly from four perspectives: (1) the extent ofthe service area, (2) the socio-economic class of the service population,(3) the role and function of the consumption activities as part of the livli-hood of the consumer, and (4) the relative position of the commerical areain the process of diffusion of cultural consumption.
Pablotzki, U. M.. "A Woman's Place is in the Houseand in the Garden: Images of Women in Federal German Landscape Architecture in the 1950's and 1960's." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. "Publications of landscape architects show that the planning and design ofopen spaces as well as the setting of standards for their "proper" use areundertaken with images of users in the experts' mind. They could range fromthe idealized "modulus user" to the opposite, the "potential vandal". Suchimages tend to influence decisions on the way usable open space is allocatedor denied to various groups and class within the planning and design process.Landscape architecture in the Federal Republic of Germany in the 1950'sand 1960's has mainly followed the conservative political mainstream ofthose years, and developed middle-class oriented concepts for the use of openspaces which tended to heavily emphasize users' traditional family and gen-der roles. Sexist opinions on women's role have contributed to concepts foropen spaces in which space for women in their traditional functions asmothers and homemakers only should be provided. The tendency inherent inthese concepts to ignore women's own wishes for a self-determined use aswell as other tendencies to confirm women to the "private" family sphereand exclude them from participation in public activities, i.e. the practiceand advancement in the field of landscape architecture itself can be seen aspart of general anti-liberation tendencies inherent in this thinking.These conservative middle-class-oriented images of women are expressed inmetaphors of primordial,pre - industrial femininity - the "domestic"woman - as well as in its counterpart - negative images of "modern Women"of independent mind. The idealized image of the "loving gardener becomespart of the ideological basis of conservative open space concepts that in gen-eral envision the middle class family as model users. Woman as "loving gardeners" are seen - in a premominantly petit-bourgeois context - as constantly working for the benefit and enjoyment oftheir families only in the home as well as In public and private open spaces.They seem to maintain gardenss for the enjoyment of their families and touse parks only as weary shoppers or child-minding mothers. Additonally,they are supposed to follow rather rigid standards for "decent" femininemanners in public open spaces. Only in upper - class contexts, gardenss aresometimes described as spaces for the recreation of women. If women do notseem to comply with such male oriented standards of behavior, sanctions areinherent such as ridicule for the "incompetent gardener or demands forstiffer penalties for juvenile "vandals" if they happen to be girls.The absence of statements on the use of landscape by women - apart fromtheir implicit presence in the context of family recration - can be seen asan indicator that landscape was not seen as an open space for women's self-determined use, either.These concepts for open space that tend to ignore women's wishes, i. e. to usegardens and "nature" in general as spaces for temporary escapes from theirstifling traditional roles and, on the contrary, tend to restrict women to te-hir traditional roles - as wel as the refusal of many landscape architects toaccept women landscape architects as equals can be seen as part of a gen-eral conservative, sexist political stance. The image of women as "lovinggardeners" is part of a general, conservative politica concept that is i.e. di-rected against broader participation of women in public functions It is im-plicitly promoted by German landscape architects of the 1950's and 1960'sthrough their concepts for the design and use of open spaces and also throughtheir explicit poltical statements."
Canter, D. V., and l. J. Donald. "Accidents by Design: Environmental, Attitudinal, and Organizational Aspects of Accidents." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. It has become Increasingly recognised that attitudional and organizationalfactors contribute to accidents in a number of contexts, including indus-trial plants and public places. It has been estimated by some authors thatwell over half of all industrial accidents have their aeitology in human andorganizational processes. It is also apparent that numerous environmentalfactors, which provide the physical context of accidents anddisasters, alsocontribute to their development. Following from this it can be argued thatcontrary to popular belief, accidents do not just happen, and that there is acomponent of Intention and design in the occurrence of many disasters andIndustrial accidents,An examination of a number of major fires and other disasters over the lasttewenty years, In several countries, shows that these became disastrous be-cause inappropriate actions continued to support conventional social and or-ganizational processes, and were also contributed to by pepole's cognitiverepresentations of the environmet and designs and strategies which failedto take these into account.In terms of public places this is illustarted by behaviour during theHillsborough Football ground disaster in 1989, in which 95 people werekilled, the King's Cross Underground Fire which darned the lives of 31people, and the Fire Valley Parade, Bradford City's football stadium wherethere were 56 fatalities.In each of these disasters the design of the physical environment and people'stransactions with it contributed to the scale of the tragedy. For example, thedesign of the Hillsborough stadium, and the inadequate and confusing signpositing, resulted in the football fans, in effect, being channelled into onarea of the ground where many ere crushed to dath. In the King's Cross fire alack of knowledge and understanding of the design and layout of the stationcontributed to the decisions of the British Transport Police who directed theevacuation, making wrong and ultimately fatal decisions. Further, at the Valey Parade disaster, there may have been reluctance on the part of sup-porters to move onto the football pitch when the fire began. This seems tohave also occurred at Hillsborough, but this time with the police being re-luctant in the initial stages to allow supporters off the terraces and onto thepitch. Social and organizational processes were also signifcant in each ofthese events.The importance of organizational and social processes in accidents canclearly be seen in industrial settings where these processes maintain ri-sky attitudes. In an attitude survey of 550 workers, drawn from 16 differ-ent plants on the same site of a heavy process industry, it was found that thecorrelation coefficients between attidinal messures and recorded accidentratios were as high as the reliability o fthe measures involved. Indeed, itwas found that expert rating of the intrinsic hazardousness o fthe plantscorrelated less highly with teh actual accident ratios than did many of theattitudendinal measures.The implications of this work is that safety training management shouldgive as much emphasis to the consideration of social processes as topresenting technical knowledge. Additionally, In planning for emergencies,people's psychololcal representations and understanding of the environmentshould be taken into account.
Bishop, J.. "Achieving Partnership in Planning and Design for All Ages." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. Our environment is too important to be left to the professionalsl It is alsotoo important to be understood, developed, enhanced and sustained withoutthe involvement of professionals. The natural outcome of these two points isthe need for partneranip in developing an attractive and sustainable envi-ronment for all. Partnership in this case concerns joint working at all lev-els and stages between the private sector, the public sector, the voluntary/community sector and the wider community.There is however a key problem in that partnership works best when allpartners start off broadly equal. Such equality is patently not the case Inrelation to issues of planning and design. The community -whether as anamalgam of individuals or in formal or informal groupings- is clearly theunequal partner. People, even when acting together, lack the knowledge, ac-cess, cash, stability, back-up resources and organisation adequate for themto have real influence on their own environments. This is particularly truein relation to the long-standing schisms of society along the lines of age, sexand race. Children may be left out, as are ethnics minority groups and wom-en: all are either not represented at all in the environmental powerhouses(including the professions) or are under-represented.Instituing change in such imbalanced but powerful systems- ie. to requestpeople to give up some of their pover-is a long and arduous task. There arestarting points however and, if undertaken with a very clear view of limita-tions, the whole wide worlk of 'education'offers us an as yet undeveloped op-portunity. 'Information is power' we are told. It may be a half-thruth, asknowledge with no outlet can be extremely frustrating, but there is valuablework to be done. What is more, environmental education world-wide, it onecould assemble its multitude of elements of good practice, would offer us andextremely good catalogue of approaches and ways forward. However, to most people environmental education remains a narrow processfocusing on 'natural' environments and taking place in schools. Our concernshould also be with built and developed environments, social, economic andpolitical processes and the everyday environmental experinces of people. Interms of target groups it is essential to address (as well as schoolchildren)adults and youth, people in retirement, professionals (in training and atmid-career), developers, elected representatives, funding agencies adn soforth. Work with such groups can take the form of traditional education(classes, seminars etc.) but can also include distance-learning, group de-velopment and 'on the-job training'. It should also happen between the manygroups rather than just for each in isolation. The methods used shouldbroaden out, from lectures' to role-playing, bookwork to problem-solving,creativity techniques to computer-based learning. There are indeed proven,successful examples of all to these-as yet unconsolidated.It would be wrong to suggest that mere knowledge can change the world but itIs a crucial first stage. It Is only when we have a knowledgeable, critical,articulare and well organised populace that any real progress can be madetowards valuing the aspirations of all in society and when gratuitous ges-tures by the powerful to the powerless can be replaced with true partner-ship.
lrkli, D, and M. Caliskan. "Acoustical Properties of Roman Theatre in Aspendos." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. A majority of towns in Asia Minor have an open-air theatres built in theancient Greek and Roman periods for performances and ceremonies. Thenumbers of these theatres are more than 50 and some of them are still ingood condition for present use. However, today, even the large cities inTurkey do not have such theatres with a large audience capacity. In recentyears, there Is a tendency to build open-air theatres with small capacityespecially in the holiday villages in the south and west of Turkey. Suchtehatres have the opportunity of use for, at least eight months because of thesuitable climatic conditions of the region. In respect to town needs andtourism purposes these ancient theatres could be restored. In order to avoidpossible acoustical defects that might be caused in restoration, reasons ofthe good acoustics should be known and the original form should be protected.In this study acoustical properties of the theatre of Aspendos have beenexamined by using geometrical room acoustics approach. Sound reflectionsfrom orchestra surface and stage wall have been simulated on computer. Animpulsive sound source has been used to record sound at several locations inthe theatre by an instrumentation tape recorder. These recordings have beenlater analyzed on computer and compared to the simulation results.Reflection patterns obtained from analytical and experimental studies arediscussed and evaluated. Locations where echoes are present are alsodetermined.
Tosun, V, and K. Ö. ztürk. "Aesthetic Evaluation of the Traditional Vernacular and Modern Houses in Rural Parts of the Eastern Black Sea Region." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. In architecture, most of the studies on vernacular environments started as a result of its aesthetic and visual qualities. As else-where, the aesthetic and visual qualities of vernacular environments have impressed and influencedmany arcitects in Turkey. Yet, there has been almost no study on the aes-thetic evaluation of the vernacular environments so far. On the other hand,there has been also no study on the recent changes in such environments andwhat these changes and new form represnt for the users. The reason for thisneglect is partly due to the general assertion which is widely shared by re-searchers and designers that these new forms are inappropriate and have noaesthetic value. However, this has not been proven so far in a detailed anal-ysis by resarchers.The main objective of this paper is to discuss the cahges in house facades inrural parts of the Eastern Black Sea Regon from the aesthertic point of viewand compare the aesthetic value of the traditional vernacular houses withthe recently built modern houses. In this study, the aesthetic value of thetraditional vernacular and modern dwellings is assessed throuugh both thesubjective and objective measurement of facades to see if they give similarresuts or not. Therefore the second aim in this paper is to test if the sublec-tive impressions of the people is related to the objective properties of thefacades.For the subjective measurement of facades, photography was used as an en-vironmetal display media. The photographs for the interview was selectedfrom 12 villages where an earlier study on vernacular and contemporaryhouse and settlement form was carried (Tosun, 1989). From each village,one traditional vernacular and one contemporary house was chosen amongthose which were recorded earlier based on the criterion that they will rep-resent the typical vernacular and modern house form for that villlage. Usingthese 24 photographs, a photointerview based on a structured sorting taskwas carried in two other villages. Subjects were asked to sort the picturesinto three piles one end point high and the other low according to aestheticsand then comment on the environmetal ues that they used for their classifi-cation. 10 subjects who live in traditional vernacular houses and 10 sub-jects who live in modern houses were selected from each village, giving atotal of 40 for the whole sample.For the objective measurement of facades, a method proposed by OztUrk(1978) based on Birkoff's aesthetic analysis of forms, Arnheim's work andinformation theory was used. This method consisted of thre steps: Abstrac-tion, determining the relationship between the elements of abstracted facadeto each other and to the whole, and digitizing and calculation. The objectivemeasurement of facades was made by the two researchers and 3 vernacularand 3 modern houses were selected based on the analysis of the subjectivemeasurement of the facades, that is one vernacular and one modern housewas chosen from each pile of photograps which were formed by the subjectsduring the structured sorting task according to high/middle/low aestheticvalue.
Barbey, G, A Lawrence, D Kimberly, V Giuliani, C Graumann, P Korosec-Serfaty, L Kruse, A. Mazis, R Mugerauer, and J. Sime. "Affective and Temporal Dimensions of Experiencing Home." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990.

The general idea of this workshop Is to concentrate on a longitudinalperspective for the exploration of the use and meaning of home. The accentshould be on the spatial and temporal experience of being at home, includingboth affective and symbolic related issues. During the last three decades, the growth of interest in urban and housinghistory has produced a large volume of studies that have examined broad,societal parameters, or themes, such as housing policies, economics, andlegislation. In this respect, research by architects, economic, social andurban historians has examined dwelling units built for different socio-economic classes in a wide range of locations and societies, some limited tospecific towns and others to specific periods of time. Concurrently, therehas also been a growing volume of studies by social scientists about thehistory of households and families. Nonetheless, many contemporary housingstudies give scant consideration to the lifestyle and values of the residents:Apart from many functionalist studies of the use of dwelling interiors, therehas rarely been any systematic consideration of how domestic daily life isrelated to the spatial organization, the nomenclature and the furnishing ofrooms; or how these change during the course of time. In general, theInterrelations between societal and personal ideas, processes and values, andthe design and use of dwelling units, have commonly been overlooked. Newconcepts and methods are required to examine change In time within thedomestic realm.The task for some of us, during the last two decades, has been theredefinition and reinterpretation of housing history. It has becomeincreasingly clear that an integrative approach is required if the affectiveand temporal dimensions of domesticity are to be examined in a morecomprehensive way than hitherto. This reorientation could begin with theformulation of an integrative history of domesticity which encompasseshuman activities, motives, processes and ideals, as well as the spatial andtemporal organization of dwellings.This workshop provides the occasion to discuss some conceptual andmethodological Issues related to the elaboration and application of this kindof integrative approach. One conceptual question, for example, concernschange In time within the domestic realm which includes both broad societaldevelopments leg. building construction, domestic technology and householddemography) as well as individualized processes (eg. the residentialbiography of each family and individual): How should these different sets ofprocesses be conceptualized in order to respect an integrative approach ? One methodological question, for example, concerns the additive approach ofinterdisciplinary teams, such as collaboration of academics andprofessionals at the interface of architecture and social science disciplines.Given that this kind of collaboration has rarely been successful, whatalternative means can promote the integrative approach that is sought ?These and other matters shall be discussed and illustrated with respect toongoing research.

Yavuz, A. T.. "Ambiential Mise - En Scene." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. "One particular trend in the conservation of urban tissue has called my at-tention lately, due to spreading examples in Turkey: Conservation schemesbecome conceived and used to create "settings" rather than as means of say-ing and extending the existence of historical buildings and environment. Weintend to enlarge on this trend of "conservation" using international exam-ples with special emphasis on Turkish cases."
Mugerauer, R. W.. "American Social - Spatial Patterns: Toward a Comprehensive Hermeneutical Interpretation." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. "Our ability to live meaningfully in our urban and rural environment largelydepends on adequate understanding, as does our ability to design and buildwell instead of poorly. The goal of the paper is to show that Americans liveamidst several simultaneously present landscapes and to present a method tointerpret the underlying landscape visions - in order to disclose how it isthat what appears to be chaotic or unmanageable really is a complex and richtradition, still unfolding.Our presentation will use the cultural hermeneutics of M. Heidegger and M.Foucault to move beyond the work done by J.B. Jackson, C. Norberg-Schulz,and K. Lynch. Questions remain as to whether these latter three interpreta-tions adequately deal with the complex historical development and conflicts.In fact, as distinct from J.B. Jackson's three categories of organizing cityand landscape (the political, the inhabited or vernacular, and the thirdemerging "existential" concept), from Norberg-Schulz's three archetypesof man-made place and landscape (romantic, classical, and cosmic), andfrom Lynch's three theories and types of city form (cosmic, mechanical, andorganic),this study argues that the American social and spatial patterns arethe result of the overlay and struggle of more complex organizing princi-ples. Heidegger's historical hermeneutic of the unfolding epoches of cultural and intellectual history provides the potential categories to more adequatelyInterpret the accumulation and contest between types of social-spatial or-ganizations.Specifically, this paper will develop three hypotheses: A) the Americanlandscape is the result of seven historically distinct cultural - spatial pat-terns 1) primal - homological, 2) nucleated - heterogeneous, 3) democrat-ic - gridded, 4) rational - vectoral, 5) romantic - participatory, 6) tech-nological - aspatial, 7) figural - originary. B) These seven alternativelandscapes remain tensed today as a complex, but dynamic landscape. C) un-tangling the overlapping patterns is a key to the interpretation of the pastand the development of a coherent future way of life.For each of the seven patterns the inner logic will be described and clearexamples provided of "pure" occurences of these forms in America such asin 1) Native American communities, 2) early New England and Central Tex-as villages, 3) southern rural and mid-western towns, 4) southwesternSpanish cities and the City Beautiful and Imperial, 5) romantic parks andsuburbs, 6) systems and logistical forms used in planning and design, 7)localized blo-regional design and the ecological movement."
Kotze, C. P.. "An Analysis of a Series of Settlements, Derived from the Vitruvian Tradition, in Southern Africa and the Possible Application of the Underlying Principles to Present Realities in the Developing World." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. "The "imported" urban planning constructs form part of a series of settle-ments that consistently display a direct and unmistakable influence from theVitruvian tradition. The main characteristics of these settlements also coin-cides with those settlements that came into being by means of the sameprinciples elsewhere in the world, for example, the Roman colonial cities,the bastides in Europe and some colonial cities in the New World founded un-der the Laws of the Indies plus other examples like Savannah and Philadel-phia.However, the southern African examples have been adapted to the unique lo-cal circumstance, namely, the exacting climatic conditions, landform andlocally available building materials, at the time of the colonisation of theinterior. These settlements played a key role in the colonisation process andtook place In a perceived--cultural "void" due to the colonisers total disre-spect of the African peoples.In this paper the research and analyses will be presented in the followingway:a) Defining, very briefly, the abstract and philosophical origins of the de-sign principles underpinning this type of settlement.b) Comparisons to other examples elsewhere in the world in space and time,andc) Focussing on the unique qualities of the selected case studies in southernAfrica emphasising the local adaptations and transformations that have oc-curred. The case studies selected are the central areas of Cape Town, Pieter-maritzburg, Potchefstroom and Pretoria, and Graff-Reinet. Morphologically this type of settlement is underpinned by a, seemingly,simple structure, but on closer scrutiny, it always reveals a high degree ofcomplexity and adaptability. This feature have enabled these settlements, intheir evolution, to each acquire a unique and differentiated form, resultingin each having an individual sense of place. These qualities have made it pos-sible for these settlements to withstand, in time, the many and varied pres-sures of urbanization, displaying an ability to cope with demands not envis-aged in the original concept. Thus, this ability to operate as resilientstructures for urban living underlines its importance as a valid mode to alsocope with the present realities and issues regarding urbanization in the de-veloping world.These settlements, like those developed under the Laws of the Indies and theGreek and Roman settlements before them (Crouch, Garr and Mundlgo1982) display a sybiotic and mutually reinforcing relationship between thesettlement and its region. The general simplicity of settlement structuremakes it possible through the process of local decision making by the"thousand designers" to create a high degree of complexity and uniqueness.Great similarity is found in the organising principles that govern the rela-tionships between functions and built form on the urban and architecturalscales. As a unit these settlements perform extremely well within the con-textual realities at the time of its founding and within the present realitiesof the developing world.From the positional statement, that within the developing world the urbanform should be relevant, realistic and viable, that qualitatively rich andhigh performance environments have to be created, that it must be resourceconscious and, lastly, that it should be seen as part of the broader develop-mental issues (Dewar 1979) the argument is put forward in this paper thatthis type of settlement performs exceptionally well within these goals andrealities. This argument will be briefly illustrated with recent project (theurbanization of approximately 100 000 people from the lowest income lev-els in the region within the timespan of one year) where myself, as a mem-ber of a team of consultants, was responsible for the design input.The main thrust of this paper will represent the most important features ofour research into the philosophical and conceptual origins of this type ofsettlement its "importation" into southern Africa, relatively recently (ap-proximately 150-200 years ago) when compared with the other New Worldexamples, the analyses of the local adaptations and transformations that haveoccurred and the possible contribution it can make as a model for the reali-ties of urbanization in the developing world.Due to the fact that this type of settlement has never been documented be-fore, analysed in terms of its underlying principles and performance as acontainer for urban life this paper will hopefully make a fundamental con-tribution to the field of urban history and the realities of coping with therealities of urbanisation in the developing world."
Imamoglu, V.. "An Assessment of Traditional Houses in Kayseri." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. After the establishment of the modern Turkish Republic in 1923, a rapidtransformation took place In various fields of life in Anatolia. Reforms havealtered the social and cultural institutions, developing a new mentality andspirit, raising the living standards of people. Paralleling this progress, es-pecially after the Second World War, a rapid urbanization took place withinthe country leading to dramatic changes in urban life-styles and physicalenvironments. -This paper deals with changes that have taken place in Kayseri. Kayseri, thehistorical Ceaserea, is a central Anatolian town that has lived through Ro-man, Arabic, Seljukid and Ottoman periods. Due to its strategic location andrich hinterland it had a significant role in Anatolia. Not less than this sig-nificance it had a tradition of house-building worthwhile to examine.The paper explains general characteristics of Kayseri houses and traditionalliving patterns. Houses are asymmetrically grown, unpretentious, inward-looking. They are composed of simple, pure, rectangular prisms, added orsuperimposed on each other with strong architectural expressions. Sum-mer-winter living differentiaton, gender and privacy due to Islamic rulesandits reflection on house design, differences between Christian and Muslimhouses are other Issues discussed.
Oseland, N. A.. "An Evaluation of Space in New Homes." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. An interview survey of new homes was conducted in order to evaluate theowners subjective experience of space. The study adopted a fact approach toresearch. The literature review revealed four facet relevant to studyingspace in homes. These four facets were incorporated into a mapping sentencewhich has used to generate questions which formed part of the questionnaire.A social survey was conducted in order to evaluate the subjective experienceof space in owner occupied homes built post 1982. Occupants of homes ofdifferent type (e.g. bungalow, detached house etc.) and number of bedroomsin five regions of England were interviewed (N=456). A literature review of previous space studies showed that there are threedistinct research areas i.e. space perception, use of space and spatial beha-viour which are all relevant to the evailatlon of space. Many of the studiesused simulation techniques which lacked ecological validity, furthermorefew studies of space were actually carried our in the home.The review also revealed four aspects of the home pertinent to the satisfac-tion with space i.e. the spatial properties, the activities conducted, the typeof environment evaluated and the people present In the home. It was teher-fore hypothesised that a person's evaluation of space in their home would beinfluenced by these four areas of relevance. A facet approach to studyingspace in the home was adopted. The four aspects discussed were representedby corresponding facets in a mapping sentence which was used to generatethe questions included in a self-completion questionnaire.Statistical analysis using multidimensional scaling techniques providedclear empirical support for the four facets described above. Satisfaction ofspace in the home should not be considered to be simply associated with thephysical size of the home. Other aspects of the home also influence spaceevaluation such as the activities conductedthere, the relation ships betweenthe people present and the personal nature of the environment evaluated.
Philippides, D.. "An Exercise in Freedom: a Case Study in Architecture Education." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. "In designing an experimental course offered to students in architecture, oneneed not necessarily utilize sophisticated techniques. Instead, one has only to"re-invent" a real life issue, immerse it in sound theoretical context andthen allow students to get trapped in a tough debate on architectural ethics.This is roughly what happened in a planning course offered by the author to4th year students in 1988-89. The forthcoming international competitionfor the new Acropolis Museum, officially announced in June'89, was the"issue" selected. Already a subject infested with ideological conflict inGreece, it offered students an opportunity to test the limits of conventionalthinking in architecture, while following alternative rules for the competi-tion.In brief, the creation of a new museum, to house the Acropolis marbles wasnecessitated by the rapid deterioration of the monument itself due to heavyatmospheric pollution. While the buildings themselves were to be restored,it was decided that all major works of art would be removed andsealed insidea museum, located as close as possible to the Acropolis site. Combined withthis was another effort yet by the Greek government to acquire the Elginmarbles, which would join the rest of the works of art inside the new mu-seum.The only prerequisite imposed on students was to allocate the new museuminside the Athens historical center which surrounds the Acropolis. Althoughtoo obvious a matter, such a larger scale approach had been consistently ig-nored by the competition brief throughout its long gestation period (1988-89).Students were free to choose site or sites (be it the urban tissue itself or anarcheological site), organizational and formal aspects of the museum unit (I.e. whether it would be a single volume or more, dispersed or grouped, be-low or above ground), presentational techniques and most importantly, a setof ideological "assumptions" to support their conceptual approach.An often too lively debate in class and the high level of the projects submit-ted were sure signs of intense fermentation in class, which often questioneddeeply rooted notions among the students, concrening the sacredness of cul-ture (Parthenon,the unsurpassed paradigm), the competence of contempo-rary-Greek or international - architecture to uild such a museum facingthe Acropolis and the justification of planning intervention inside a histori-cal center. A substantial part of the class was uncomfortable with the con-sistently "value-free" and "provocative" approach of the instructor; someeven resented the unusual degree of freedom from "authority" allowed inclass. On the finial count (an anonymous critique submitted by students atthe end of each semester)- roughly half of. the class expressed its gratitudefor participating in a challenging course that wen beyond their expectations,while the other half was split between bewilderment and open disapproval ofthe method used."
Kaplan, M.. "An Intergenerational Approach to Community Education and Action." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. "The American democratic philosophy calls for citizens to display a sense ofcivic responsibility and to get involved in community affairs. However, withthe highly technical nature of community planning procedures in large cit-ies such as New York, many people in effect are excluded from the urbanplanning process.This paper reports on the methodology and results of a community partici-pation project organized by the author over a two year period (1988 &1989). This action research project, entitled "Neighborhoods - 2000" wasdeveloped and piloted in Long Island City, NY, with the goal of enhancing thecommunity awareness and involvement of youth and senior citizen residents,two populations who typically have limited community participation oppor-tunities.This paper consists of a description of the evolution and outcomes of the twocomponents of this pilot project; community-based "intergenerational spe-cial events" and a school-based "intergenerational urban studies curricu-lum".Two special events, the "Community Mural Day" and the "Futures Festival"were conducted as preliminary community organizing tactics.For the urban studies curriculum component of the project, eight seniorcitizens who were recruited through local senior citizen centers workedjointly with a class of sixth grade students on a series of neighborhood ex-plorations, communication, and urban planning exercises, culminating inpublicized recommendations for improving life in Long Island City. Qualita-tive data analysis methods were used to examine attitudinal and behavioral changes occurring in the participants throughout the course of the curricu-lum.The benefits of this action research project for participating youth and sen-iors are described in terms of evidence of tolerance and understanding ofother generations, sense of "civic responsibility", "sense of community",interest in, and knowledge of, community affairs, and participants' plans forfuture involvement in community activities and events.This paper also presents a rationale, derived from the progressive tradi-tions of participatory environmental planning and intergenerational pro-gramming as well as from the results of this project, supporting these andother intergenerational urban planning processes."
Güven, S.. "An Interpretation of Roman Spatiality." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. The rendering of space by the Romans, particularly those derived from stagescenes and displaying perspective effects involving architectural simulationhave generated much heated debate, but the discussions have mostly centeredaround how far the ancients comprehended the optics of linear perspective.In the paper, the problem is examined in architectural contexts only. Itsmetamorphic implications in the definition of experienced space are ex-plained in order to provide and additional index to make a case for the evalu-ation and discussion of the space consciousness of a society customarilycredited with the creation of spacious interiors on a monumental scale.This paper claims that regardless of the degree of understanding the under-lying scientific principles during Roman antiquity, the important issue isthat the ancients attempted it since the depiction of space is not only a mat-ter of ability, nor even an awareness but it involves a preference-dictatedby a cultural identity, bias, or change of preference from previous modes to do so. Illusionistic effects and the illusion of reality are known to have existed inGreek painting. However, Romans break new ground in depictions of contin-uous narratives which is not characteristic of earlier Greek models. In theexamples illustrated in the paper, not only is the visual field deepened butand experiential component of the present is incorporated to enhance the in-terior-ness of spaces. Two ways of activating the kinetic dynamics of Romanspace are singled out for discussion: spaces with the function of passage andenclosed spaces. In both of them, the reading of the space is not limited byphysical boundaries. Beyond the trompe I'oeil effects of architectural fan-tasies, there is an attempt to dissolve the physical boundary of the wall byobjectifying depicted space and creating a new limit of controlled space. Thusthe 'real' space merges with the imaginary space with the result of and ex-trapolated spatial experince. This quality is emphasized further by using forthe suject of the depiction activities related to those that take place in thespace in question i.e. the frenzy of initation rites in a room for cult initiates(Villa of the Mysteries, Pompeii) or the triumphal passage through an archfor the inner surface of a triumphal arch which is parallel to the actualprocession that would proceed through it during ceremonies (Arch of Titus,Rome). When this is considered in relation to the Roman emphasis on sumptuous in-teriors- a mentality that turned outside in the Greek preoccupation witheye-catching exterior surfaces - it is not at all suprising to observe theutilization of a space within a space, very often a small one, for and overallricher and more spacious effect. The paper proposes the rendering of spaceby Roman artists and architects as an example of the historcial transforma-tion of space-representing a cultural phenomenon beyond the paradigms,
Archer, B.. "An Outline of the History and Concerns of the Design Research Society." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. The Design Research Society was founded as a result of debate at the FirstInternational Conference on Design Methods, held in London in 1962. Itsconstitution was finalised in 1967. The objects of the Society were rootedin current widespread public concern about the explosive growth in worldpopulation, the military and commercial exploitation of scientific discover-ies of immense potential, and the fear that transnational industries andworld economic forces were going out of public control. The central interestwas the study of the processes of design decision making and the organisationof design activity. The society attracted a small but worldwide membership,mainly amongst architects, engineers, industrial designers and urban plan-ners, but also including some scientists and others. In the early years of theSociety there was a strong strand of sentiment in favour of the restoration ofuser participation and citizen power in urban planning, commercial and do-mestic architecture and product design. In the course of time, the develop-ment and application of computer aids to the conduct and management of de-sign also became a major strand. The spread of membership and the rangeof concerns of the Society were never restricted to particular socio-political-economic systems, or to particular cultural traditions. DesignResearch is essentially crossdisciplinary in character, and explicitly re-jects limitation to particular paradigms or methods of enquiry. The DesignResearch Society has thus been very centrally concerned with Space, andwith people in relation to their environment, but only weakly concernedwith Culture and History.
Min, B. H., B. H. Lim, and B. Y. Min. "Apartment Deterioration And, Residential Satisfaction." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. Increasing attention has been called to the rapid deterioration of apartmentbuildings in Korean cities. While new construction of the apartments havebeen booming, a large part of the stock, 15 years or older, is given seriousconsideration for demolition and reconstruction. These considerations andthe actual rebuilding, however, are not justified by any potential dangers inthe building structure, critical defects of the apartment, or the incurablevulnerability to crime. Instead, demolition is planned by voluntary resi-dents full of complaints and dissatisfactions with their dwelling environ-ments.To understand the rapidity of the deterioration and its effects on residents,the apartment age and various social, managerial, physical factors were ex-amined in terms of their relationship to deterioration. The relationships ofthese factors and deterioration to residential satisfaction were investigated.The study sample consisted of 176 apartment sites with differing buildingages selected among the listed apartments in Seoul using the nonproportionalstratified sampling method. For each apartment, physical and functionalconditions of the site, building, and unit were measured by trained observ-ers using an observation checklist composed of 67 5-point scale, pretesteditems. These items were analyzed using principal component analysis andthe deterioration indices calculated. In parallel with the observation, a sur-vey was conducted including aquestionnaire and interviews of management staff and residents, which provided residents' sociodemographic data, eco-nomic features of the sample, maintenance information, residents' percep-tion of building functions and surrounding environments, and residentialsatisfaction indices (using a translated and pretested version of the measuredeveloped by Housing Research and Development at the University of Illinoisat Urbana-Champaign). The relationships among these study variables wereanalyzed using several parametric statistics of the SPSS/PC + statistica-program.Major findings of the study included: deterioration was strongly related tobuilding age, suggesting that building age can be a rule-of-thumb measurefor judging apartment deterioration. This correlation considerably in-creased in the sample of lower building height or smaller unit size. But de-terioration was not necessarily the function of building age, considering oldbut well repaired high-rise apartments for relatively high-income resi-dents, and markedly speedy deteriorations of many recent apartments forlow-income urbanites, poorly constructed and maintained. Theoretically, itwas suggested that construction and maintenance qualities are mediatingvariables and these variables vary to a large extent with economic factorssuch as resident's income and housing market value.With regard to residential satisfaction, the findings showed that about half ofthe residents were not satisfied and 56 percent wanted or planned to move.Residential satisfaction was significantly related to the apartment deterio-ration and the resident's attitude toward moving. Satisfaction was found to beinfluenced mainly by functional or environmental flaws that caused the res-idents' immediate inconveniences and discomfort. These defects occurredmainly due to the deterioration process and the design/construction that didnot meet the residents' expected living standards. Those variables first hy-pothesized as important but found not to be significantly related to satisfac-tion were architectural aspects (form, finish, size, and plan configuration),residents' socio-demographic variables (income, education, previous house,and family size), and the ownership (own or rent).These findings were discussed in relation to the past studies on the relatedsubjects and in terms of the implications for rehabilitation policy, apart-ment design, construction, and maintenance.
Jadelius, L.. "Apartments of Spaces and Places." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. "This paper is based on a thesis titled People, Form and Functionalism. OnGeneral and Generic Aspects in Public Architecture, where primarly earlyfunctionalism and its conceptions of society are discussed, and present asketch of the implications on architectural space.The thesis starts with a social and architectural study of history. In the lightof the traditions and their change during the bourgeois revolution in Europe,the architectural conceptions of public buildings and places are penetrated.These conceptions are found to be built up on two complexes of notationswhich apparently seem contradictory. One of them imagines society whithoutany concrete collectivity at all, while the other instead imagines society asbased on small communities. They correspond, in the debate on architecture,on the one side with ideals associated with the liberty of action in metropo-lis-anonymity and on the other with the civic sense of a village or smalltown community.The thesis ends with a discussion where modernism within architecture issaid to be a movement, which looked upon the ideal society as a kind of ab-straction, free from control, and based on "rational" and "objective" plan-ning by experts. Man should be set free, but a new, inapparent, confinementwas created in the communal constellations, which had to be arranged"behind the scenes" in an attempt to ignore the presence of power.In the light of theory-development after the functionalism's break-throughWe argue that the conceptions of society in "postmodernism" has notchanged. We would like to stress that another development of architecture ispossible, one that builds on a democratic tradition different from those Ihave pointed out earlier. The notation-complex of this tradition is neither based on illusions about local nor cosmopolitan harmony. It assumes a cornprehensive thinking built on both individual and collective independence,but with universal responsibility for the public.This way of thinking leads to a discourse which should emphasize both theprincipal difference between the individual and the corporate actor or agent,and the manysided relations of community with open and evident power-relations. It should then emphasize the concrete, non-harmonic character ofthe public, too. This way of thinking also leads to an architecture with dif-ferent relations between part and whole as well as between independence andsubordinance.After the completion dissertation I have come to, so far, that it is importantto study the connections between space and place and relate them to the con-cepts of borders and apartrnentations. Here we will discuss territoriality asa power-related strategy and the idea of open space in the history of moder-nity, as well as Genius Loci and postmodern concepts of place. Then follows apenetration of ethnical, local and private domains in relation to the dream ofan open and universal society. A sketch of a theory of how to handle spatialrelations and their border implications in architecture will finally be pre-sented."
Macia, A, J. V. Lucio, l Barbero, J Benayas, E Vila, and F. Bernaldez. "Application of the Children Environmental Response Questionnaire (C.e.r.l) to a Spanish Sample: Age and Sex Differences." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. In previous Investigations the existence of sex differences has been provedin an adult sample, in landscape (Macia, 1979a, 1979b; Bernaldez, 1989)as well as in the categorization that adults make of the environment (Maciaand Huici, 1986). We are carrying out, with permission from LE. Bunting, the translation andadaptation of the Children Environmental Response Questionnaire (CERI) toa Spanish population. The CERI, which may be considered as a downward re-view of -- Mckechnie's ERI (McKechnie, 1974), is based on the considera-tion that children have a set of stable and relatively enduring dispositionstoward the environment (Bunting and Cousings, 1983). These dispositions would be reflected in beliefs, attitudes and values. The questionnarle is corn-posed, In the original English version, by one hundred and eighty-five itemswhich evaluate nine scales: Pastoralism (PA): Enjoyment and conservationof the natural environment in an intellectual and aesthetic fashion; Urban-ism (UR): Attraction to the complexity and diversity of city living, itsphysical, social and cultural richness; Environmental Adaptation (EA):Professed belief in man's ability to dominate nature. Strong preference fortechnologically adapted environment; Stimulus Seeking (55): Interest inunusual, adventurous and varied events and envronmental settings; Envi-ronmental Trust (ET): Feelings of competence, securityand comfort in man-made and natural environments; Antiquarianim (AN): A positive emotionalresponsiveness to the historical past and a traditional orientation to envi-ronmental design; Need Privacy (NP): A need to control stimuli impiningfrom the surronding environment; Mechanical Orientation (MO): Attractionto mechanical processes and the application of manipulative skills; andCommuuunality (CO): A validity scale derived from responding In a statisti-cally model fashion.In the version that we are carrying out we have reduced these one hun-dered-and eighty-five items to eighty-seven, which evaluate the same orig-inal scales. These items were defined and reduced using several factor anal-ysis, verifying-that reliability and validity of the scales awere constant.The questionnarie has been applied to a sample of two hundered and fifty-four children in the age range of ten to fourteen years,of which one hunderedand sixty-four were boys and ninety were girls.The investigation that we present is a studyof the results obtained in the ap-plication of CERI for the sample described. Our goal is centered in studying-possible sex and age differences in the answers given to the questionnaire.
Nasar, J. L., and A. T. Purcell. "Architect and Non - Architect Knowledge Structure and Aesthetic Response to Single Family Houses." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. "This research examines similarities and differences in aesthetic response asa function of knowledge structure. We had 60 architecture students and 60non-architecture students rate 40 homes (20 "popular" styles and 20"high" styles) on four scales. The scales included two measures of knowledgestructure (goodness-of-example, and familiarity) and two measures ofeasthetic response (preference, and interest). The groups exhibited similarknowledge structures but differences in aesthetic response. However, thepattern of responses was consistent with the knowledge structure model.Finally, we Identified relationships between scene attributes and bothknowledge structure and affect.The present paper describes a model of the process underlying the similari-ties and differences in environmental evaluatin (cf. Zube, Sell and Taylor,1982; Purcell, 1984) and tests the model in relation to emotional/aesthetic responses. The model posits environmental experience as resulting from similarities between the particular instance and the representation inmemory of past experience related to the place or building type (Mandler,1984). Similarities and differences in affect can therefore result from dif-ferences in either knowledge structures or in how individuals evaluate mis-matches to their knowledge structure.We expected to find similar knowledge structures across the groups but dif-ferences in how they evaluated mismatches; and we expected the knowledgestructure and affect to be linked to attributes of the scenes.Method: We interviewed 120 students (60 architects and 60 non architects)at the University of Sydney and had each assess 40 American single-familyhouses on one of the four 100-point scales. The scales included two meas-ures of knowledge structure, goodness-of example, and familiarity, and twomeasures of affect, interest, and preference (cf. Berlyne, 1974; Kaplan andKaplan, 1982; Mandler, 1984). Displayed in color slides, the houses in-cluded 20 "popular style and 20 "high" style houses (see Devlin and Nasar,1989).Results and discussion.The results support the model linking knowledgestrusture to similarities and differences between groups and they suggest anenvironmental bases for the responses. We found a close similarity betweenthe architects and non-architecsts in terms of goodness-of -example and fa-miliarity. Both groups judged the "popular style houses as the better ex-amples. The American houses differ from the typical house In Sydney (thestudy site), yet both groups judged the "popular" styles as the better exam-ples. Perhaps some basic house attribute common to both cultures affectedthe knwledge structure.For both groups, familiarity related directly to goodness-of-example. Fur-thermore, for a given level of goodness-of-example (particularly in themiddle of the range), both groups preferred the unfamiliar. Both groupsrated Interest as Inversely related to goodness-of-example.The groups differed In their rating of the interestingness of "popular"styles. As goodness of example improved, non-architect interest increasedand architect interest decreased. Overall both groups judged increments intypicality as less interesting, but this effect was more pronounced amongthe architects. The main differences, however, emerged for preference. Non archiect pre-ferece across the full set of houses increased with goodness of example,while the achitects preferred moderate to high discrepancies from the goodexamples. Similar differences emerged within the "popular" styles and the"high" styles separately. The non-architect response can be seen as a famil-iarity effect (preference for a prototype) ad the architect response as fit-ting the discrepancy model (preference for a discrepancy from the schema).The paper characterized the physical features of the scenes and found thekowledge structure and affect related to those features. For exampe, judge-ments of goodness of example related to rectilinear forms, asymetry, hiproofs and popular styles."
Moran, R, and K. Cullen. "Architectural Design Aspects of Home - Based Telework for People with Physical Disabilities - a Case Study." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. This paper examines the socio-spatial issues which arise in the design ofhouses for home-based teleworkers. Engaging in home based telework isconstrued as involving a change in role for the teleworker This role changehas implications not only for the teleworkers use and experience of the homebut also for others who share the accomdation. These issues are explored andthe implications for the design and use of combined living-working envi-ronments are put forward.A case study of four teleworkers with physical disabilities was carried out.A number of methods were used to gather information - interviews, ques-tionnaires, architectural inventory of teleworkers' homes ands primaryworkspaces and equipment inventories. In addition each teleworker com-pleted a design game. The Aiscal procedure was used to analyse the designgame data. On the basis of these explorations a number of guidelines for thedesign and use of housing for home based teleworkers were put forward un-der the following headings:- Relationship of the teleworking arrangement to the externalenvironment- Layout and adjacencies within the dwelling- Workstation ergonomics, luminous and thermal environment- Telecommunications- Storage and security
Erginsav, Ö.. "Architectural Education and the Cultural Heritage." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. "Architectural education has to revolve not only around the idea of sharedparadigms, but also around the idea of shared knowledge. When strong con-cerns for contextualism, historical precedents and user needs are empha-sized within the prevailing paradigms of architecture most students' worktend to concentrate on clever inventiveness and novelty rather than sensi-tivity to cultural values and tradition. Design studio exercises to demon-strate the need for "common knowledge" leading to common paradigms whereboth the local vernacular architecture and the internationally acclaimedvalues are in a healty and rewarding mix.History shows that cultures have emerged when ways of life have lasted longenough to become integrated into an organic whole. Culture is the expressionof man's responses to the physical and human environment. These responsestake the form of behavioural patterns and emotional relationships as well asdevelopment of utilitarian objects. This interplay is evident in architectureand the very idea of culturally and socially responsive architecture isstrongly tied with tradition."
Aközer, E.. "Architectural Space as a Representation of a Self - Image." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. "This study follows from the premise that the works of architecture wit-nessed first, the awakening of the human mind, then the ages long struggle ofthe human mind to build a human world and to preserve it against its owndestructive tendency to return into an initial undifferentiated state, and itssubmission to this latter tendency as well. It is argued that to understandthe poetic content or any work of architecture means to disclose the self-image conveyed through a particular mode of defining and bringing orderinto space, and relating it to the world.Actually the insight that poetic (or creative) activity, including creation ofarchitectural space, is essentially imitative, and that what is imitated is aself . image, that human mind learns about itself continuously recreatingitself through whatever it creates, underlines the theory of poetry firstelucidated by Aristotle In Poetics and invoked by Vico (1725-44 ) in NewScienceContemporary analytical psychology owes Its development to this insight -so that it becomes possible to "read" in dreams and works of art, and in ar-chitecture, the states of mind, as It is exemplified in Jung's (1933 ) work.Bachelard (1958 ) "reads" in the images of "felicitious space" felicitiousself-images of the poetic consciousness... In this study, the emergence andunfolding of architectural space is related to the emergence of a first self-Image than to the unfolding of it a through a process of moravintellectualdevelopment depicted in the works if Vico (1725-44), Cassirer (1925)and Piaget (1965). This is an essential step to understand the modern dis-solution of space and the "ironic" space or "perverse" poetry created in re-action to the modern dissolution of the self. The emphasis of the study is onthe "modern" architectural space as an expression of the loss ofIhe"felicitious space"."
Doxater, D.. "Architecture as Medium in the History of Human Space: the Cosmic, Architectonic and Semiotic." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. "The proposed article will outline a medial theory of architecture in whichthe use of architectural form is strongly conditioned by three separate"kinds" of socio-cultural use of space. As a medium of cultural expression,atchitectural form and its effect is seen to change dramatically according tothese larger spatial predispositions of society. While not chronologicallyexclusive within a particular culture, these different effects appear to ex-plain major historical changes in architectural form. Labeling the specificmedial role of architecture, rather then the differences of socio-culturalspace per se, three kinds of architectural effect are hypothesized: lithecosmic, 2)the arch/tectonic, and 3)the semiotic. The argument will bedeveloped through the use of historical and ethnographic examples from theS.W. Pueblo Indians of the U.S., and the flat-land agricultural areas of Scan-dinavia.Whether applied to the dwelling, settlement and landscape meaning of prim-itive tribes or the founding of Rome, the ubiquitous usage of symbolic"cognitive maps" created a pervasive ritual efficacy in the early forms of virtually all societies. Diverse socio-spatial groups in this way maintainedtheir integration, whether in egaliration or hierarchical form. At the otherextreme of time, the contemporary, one finds essentially a territorial usageof space. Social space has lost its symbolic definitions and ritual cantexts,and has become available for the more immediate political and economic ma-nipulation of individuals and groups. Its legitimacy rests not on symboliceffect, but immediate power. Between these two extremes stands an inter-mediate and often adjacent condition which largely coincides with the term"peasant". Here, indigenous conceptions of cosmos are either prohibited bymore powerful intrusive others, or are severely impacted by other culturalcontact and technological change. The results are relatively small, isolatedgroups, perhaps either rural or urban, whose intense, highly intimate useof space Is neither "sacred" (cosmic) nor "profane" (territorial).This paper will detail the unique ways in which architectural form and ef-fect are correlated to the above. In the cosmic , architectural form is highlyconstrained by the meanings of symbolic domains and their ritual positions,e.g. In the threshold, ehile largely unavailacle to the stylistic manipulationof the later semiotic. The villages and perhaps urban ghettos of "peasant"groups are also largely unavailable for purposes of style and status but arealso prohibited from the oven usage of cosmic symbols and ritual. In thiscase, the usually highly condensed spatial form of the architecture, togetherwith the intense daily social life, provides a theoretically unique effect, thearchitectonic. Finally, it is maintained that the cosmic or ritual influence onarchitectural form is inherently different from the more language-like ma-nipulation of style can be used to communicate signs of territorial identityand status."
Scuri, P.. "Artificial Versus Natural New Italian Work Environments." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. With this paper we want to illustrate some Italian cultural characteristicsand their relationship with space. The American mentality currently has avery strong influence in Italy. This mentality is being diffused violently andmoreover in a way that is heedless of Italy's very rich heritage. This iscoming about not only through mass media but also through the design ofspaces which tend to recreate American environments that spread theAmerican mentality. A kind of Disneyworld in reverse. Instead of buildingVenice in Los Angeles, Los Angles in now being built in Venice. Italian re-staurants, shopping centers, supermarkets, and more importantly work en-vironments are designed according to the characteristics and the desires ofAmerican society. However designing environments in Italy the re-proposeAmerican models in a imitative and uncritical way, means forcing people tobehave artificially, as an result of the influence the environment has on hu-man beings. The fact is that the Italian designers and architects who proposethese environments do not take into account their own cultural context. This, seems, is because Italion cultural characteristics are not known or identi-fied. In this way, Italian environments are being designed in a manner thatrisks blocking rather than aiding our creative and communicative abilities.The point is that culture, and in particular Italian culture, is 'Known' onlyon an intutive and pre-conscious level.There is no school of ethnology In Italy for example. We know so little aboutour cultural characteristics that we risk loosing them without realizing it.
Lindsey, B, and P. Rosenblat. "Avatars: Changing Models of Architectural Computing." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. Architects use traditional drawing and modeling processes to design build-ings because they are highly adaptable to individual work habits, flexibleand inexpensive. The computers speed and storage capabilities offer tantal-izing new ways of testing design ideas but often impose technical barriers tothe individual designer. This paper will examine methods of removing suchobstacles and of integrating the computer into existing personalized ap-proaches to architectural design.Models are representations of reality in which the representation is madeby expression of certain relevant characteristics of observation. We willdiscuss why we need models, what forms these models take and how the ideaof models can help architects to plan and visualize their designs.Our theme revolves around the integration of the computer into the designstudio, which we explore in the paired courses, Avatars of Achilles: Intro-duction to Computer Modeling, and Avatars of the Tortoise: Introduction toArchitecture. In our architectural pedagogy, we remove the conceptual ob-stacles commonly posed by computers by emphasizing the concept of themodel. Using inexpensive Apple Macintosh personal computers, simpledrawing software and traditional drawing and modeling techniques we teachbeginning architecture students to adapt the computer to their design explo-rations. This process is built into the structure of the courses and theirunique interrelationship.Finally, by showing slides of our students at work in both settings and ex-amples of their projects, we will demonstrate the effect of changing modelsof architecture and computing.
Highlands, D.. "Backing Forword." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. "The relationship of the subject of history to the education of architects re-mains unclear. Only by understanding past events, or better, by rejectingthem In favor of alternative representations, will the prostect for clarifi-cation improve. This paper incorporates history into proposals for sur-roundings in a way not dissimilar to that of the application of science to en-gineering . The title of this paper encapsulates the conclusion reached andthe process of investigation favored.Reflection on twenty-five years of teaching allows for assessment of suc-cess. Exercises for design instruction from this period, all of which entailedhistorical considerations, provide data for generaizations. Summarily, fivetypes are examined: first, information about a building without resort todescription; second, information about the process of one building's design;third, descriptions of surroundings from fact; fourth, descriptions of build-ings from fiction and fifth, naming of buildings or parts there of.The aim of this pedagogy is the representation of objects that could exist.Proposals are directed toward existence by the modal character of the argu-ments used to explain relationships, for example, between persons and sur-roundings. The world envisioned must be one of necessity, as Saul Kripkesuggests. This world requires questions appended to the five exercises of thefollowing sort. What if these are the facts? What if this is your procedure?What if this were to become real? What if this is not an accurate represen-tation? And, what's In a name?Also, there are historigraphical questions. Marcel Proust's Remembrance ofThings Past and Samuel Beckett's analysis of it provide some elaboration.Hugh Trevor-Roper's Valedictory Lecture of 1980 at Oxford provides for apoint of departure: sensation in terms of alternative prospects such thathistory can be imagined. This is a discovery that both Proust and Beckett were on the verge of making. The prospect of imagining history contributesto understanding its worth adn there is a model gained.It representations, eternal or nearly so, can be developed on a mode) of im-agined history, then, rules can be prescribed for design. Patterns and chainsconstrain, but, they are the best we can hope for, unless we're satisfied withstories. Another lesson is in the pedagogy. There concerns are separatedwhereas these normally are expressed simultaneously in planning.The truth of planning is in the buildings that are built. Exercises that re-quire students to suspend their own increduality cannot be justified by theinstructors enthusiasm for play or for pedagogy. Only one exercise has beenpredictably successful. As argued by C. S. Peirce a century ago, naming re-quires an understanding of a more absract name for past things, one which isentailed in the not-so-simple question: "What's that?"The conclusion is this: if history is to be written other than as substitutionof one story for another, then, it has to be written as the testing of writingthat has the prospect of rule or law. Otherwise there is no history. It hasbeen obvious for some time that there is nothing other that what's ahead.Now, we must realize that only by backing forward will we be able to knowwhat's coming."
Erman, E. T.. "Becoming Urban and Modern?: a Case Study of Rural - Urban Migrants in Squatter Settlements Vs Lower - and Middle - Class Apartment Neighborhoods in Ankara, Turkey." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. "The physical environmental dimension is overlooked in the migration liter-ature: Despite the focus on squatter settlements, there has been very littleresearch on rural-urban migrants who live in apartment neighborhoods.Although economic status is found to influence the experiences of migrantsin the city, no in-depth research exists which compares wealthy migrantsto poor migrants. Since the first appearance of squatter settlements, therehave been changes in those areas, some of them being replaced by apartmentblocks. Yet, we do not know much about this physical transformation and itsmeaning for the residents.The project is hypothesis-generating (Glaser & Strauss, 1967) approach torural-urban migrants in Ankara, Turkey. It investigates changes in thelives of migrants in the course of time in the city and asks whether mi-grants (urban villagers") become urban or stay as rural (, 1978;Mangin, 1970; Abu-Lughod, 1961). Its goal is, by grounding in data, to de-velop a conceptual framework for understanding the role of(i) the physical environmental dimension in general and squatter!apartment residence in particular (lower- and middle-class apartmentresidence), and(ii) time in the process of migrants' becoming "urban" and "modernTM. It ex-plores changes in the interaction of migrants with particular attention be-ing paid to their residential history, namely, the nighborhoods and type ofhouses they have been living in the city. The project also obtains migrants'definitions of modern and rural/urban persons and their self-definitions inthese terms. Three issues, namely, modernism/traditionalism, urban ism/ruralism andsocio-economic status define the framework of the study. The question isposed regarding the meaning for migrants of living in (i) the city, and in(ii) lower- and middle-class apartment neighborhoods and squatter settle-ments and whether the desire to become "modern" and "to achieve higherstatus are signigicant issues in the lives of migrants in general and in theirapartment/squatter residences in particular.The project employs ethnographic research techniques. Data are gatheredthrough participant observation and formal and informal interviews(Spradley , 1980) during my stay at "cukurca", a squatter settlementwhich faces the high-rise "modern" apartment blocks of "Gazi Osman Pasa",creating a marked contrast, and during my frequent visits to "Bacilar", anewly developing apartment environment, still with squatter houses aroundand to "Seyran", a mixed squatter and apartment environment which willsoon totally be replaced by apartment blocks. "Esat" is included into theproject as a middle class residential area. Observations are made on the in-teraction of migrants with their environment as well as on the way theypresent themselves (Goffman, 1959). Interviews are carried out with theresidents, the focus being on a group of migrant households which shares asimilar residential history: they rented squatter houses at "Seyran" close toeach other, built their squatter houses on the same plot at "cukurca", andtwo of them bougt apartments and moved to "Bacilar", whereas one house-hold still lives at "Qukurca". The relarives adn neighbors of this group arepotential participants of the study (40 persons)."
Turan, M, and Z. Ulusoy. "Behind the Facade." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. Retreiving and recycling the artifacts of culutural heritage for differentuses, ranging from adaptive use to display, is a social and culutural obliga-hon. In the realm of architectural past, specifically, this act may be more ofan economic necessity in cases which involve housing stock in historic coresor designated districts of an urban environment. Salvaging and rehabilitat-ing an act with a cultural agenda but a political one with economic ramifica-tions. White political and economic structures of a society constitute themain thrust for the nature of rehabilitation, it is the ideological stance thatguides concrete attitudes and provides orientation and expresses a collectivewill, or lack of it, reveling (or concealing) what lies beneath the appearance. Regeneration of housing environments, in particular, through restorationand recycling involves not only the present occupants of buildings and theagencies, both at decision and technical levels, but more importantly thosewho will be the future inhabitants after the curatorial intervention. Relatedto this, more specifically, is the question whether this act of regenerationwill lead to a redifferentiation of the cultural, social nd economic landscape,namely gentrification. Restructuring of cultural landscape and personaliza-tion of the architectural form through commodifiction leads to displacementand social differentation; this has been the case in instances attemptihg toreshape residential environments with the guiding power of capitalism inmarket economies where the exchange value of the dwelling has taken asharp rise following the preservation act for adaptive use. On the otherhand, if restructuring of cultural landscape, even with personolization ofthe architectural form, is done without turning the environmentalproductsinto commodities, the result is that tere is no displacment, therefore no so-cial or economical diffrentiation; restoration projects, where in the process of commodification has been controlled in favor of the use value, emphasiz-lng the social aspect rather than the narrowly defined economics, are exam-pies of this nature.Restructuring residential environments for adaptive use will be discussed,with examples from both categories, In a theoretical framework of produc-tion, distribution and class relations. Mexican War Streets in Pittsburgh,USA and the Museum Towns of Berat and Gjirokaster in Albania will be elab-orated in detail and parallels will be drawn between these and other exam-ples elsewhere.
Ellis, P, and l. J. Donald. "Beliefs, Myths and Realities in Facilities Management." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. "With the increased complexity of modern office buildings, facilties manage-ment has grown into an Important profession in its own right. When an or-ganizalton relocates to a new building facilties managers face many complex and challenging problems. The way in which these probelms are addressedwill depend on the beliefs of the facilities managers and the envrio-:organizational context within they work. In-dept case studies were made of mere oranizations which had relocatedtheir offices within six months prior to the study. unstructured and semi-structured interviews, lasting between one and three hours wereconducted with approximately 40 employees from each organization. Inter-views took place at three six-monthly intervals. The results generally showed considerable differences in the approachestaken by the facilities managers of each organization, which to some extentrelated to their experience, degree of professionalization" specialization,and their role and status within their organization, as well as the culture ofthe organization itself. Central to the findings is a distinction between what may be termed intrinsicand extrinsic pressures for change. Extrinsic change comes about as a resultof pressure within the formal structure of the organization. Intrinsicchange is generated as a result of the day-to-day work processes and psych-logical needs of individuals and groups; it isa less formal pressure forchange. Facilities mangers were found to be able to respond to extrinsicchange, but not to intrinsic change. This failure to respond was due to or-ganizational and environmental constraints, and facilties managers beliefsabout employees and their relationship to the environment. For example it was believed that the original office desing was the only ap-propriate one, and efforts were made to preserve it, only make changeswhen these were formal and "expert designed". It was not recognised that itis almost impossible to produce an office that would "fit" an organization onoccupation because of the complexity of the office environment, and the dy-namic nature of organizations and the time between space planning and occu-pation. It was also apparent that facilties managres thought that if peoplewere allowed a degree of freedom in changing their office, chaos and anarchywould region. Additionally a belief existed that a final end design could beachieved andthat control of intrinsic change would make this more achieva-ble.The study found that intrinsic change often resulted in an office which wasnot, in apperance, in accord with the stereotypical image of what an officeshould look like; the work aesthetic. However, ft was also apparent that in-trinsic change oenerates and effective lived-in workplace. Offices evolve andintrinsic change is central to this development. This was not accepted by fa-cilties managers.In order to prevent intrinsic change organizational policies and mechanismswere enforced, leading to dissiatisfaction. Also, the use system furniturecontributed to the inhibiton of intrinsic change, while allowing for ex-trinsic changes.The results have implications for the design of office furniture, as well asthe education of facilties managers."
Conan, M.. "Bernard Lassus´ Critical Landscape." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. conference:IAPS:11
Martinou, S. E.. "Body - Space Relation in Traditional Greek Dances." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. Space-before being built-is already organised conceptually within thebuilding communty's spirit, into patterns or archetypes. These patternsemerge from collective/individual exchange of information between humansand their surrondings, through real or potential body motion (Kinesthesis).This unbuilt architecture of movement and dance patterns, while liberatedfrom obstacles such as the physical or technological sitration might pro-duce, and which in a bigger or smaller degree influence built results, is inthe same time revelating (much of) the origins and original forms, commonin all-or almost-collective expressions of the community.Subject of the poster proposed will be the connection of the thesis above, totraditional Greek dances. It will be structured as a combination of visualmaterial (photos, scetches, drawing, diagrams) theoretical commentary, informations on facts, and scientific references. Main points of the presen-tation will be the following:1) Notions on Space (perception-conception-awareness-reflection on, or-ganisation). Main references: Schulz, Moles, Lewin. 2) Lists of Oppositesstructuring Spatial Experience (Aristotle, structuralists). 3) On kinesthe-sis-collective/self image-body language (Schilder, Birdwhis-tell,Lekatsas,P.Vidal-Naquet). 4) On collective archetypes and schemata(Jurng, Eliades, Vernant, Dodds, Kakouri). 5) On collective traditional ex-pressions (Politis, Kokoules, Kakouri). 6) Geographical and topographicalparticlarities and characteristics as factors in the organisation of Time andSpace concepts. (Karavidas, Sfikas, Vernant, Wilcken, Rispen, Glotz, Thom-son). 7) The four dimensional spaces of Movement/Dance/Music (Reieri,Startou, Samir-AU, Martinou). 8) On Time organisation (circular/linear) an its reflections on spatial conceptions). (Plato, Thomson, Vidal-Nequet, Vernant-Bachtiar). 9) References to the origins an history of tra-ditional Greek dances. (Nilsson, Wllcken, Koukoules, Loukianos, Karas, Thomson, Dodds, Duvivier, Bikos, Tsatsomorios).10) Patterns of Space/Movement SoundSpace Rythm-Mesaure-Tempo-Notifications-Scales Arcitecture Movement Modes-Improvisations Sound Dance Sound Music11) Diagrams and groupings of trad. Greek dances. Relations to archetypalforms. (Startou, Vernant, Karas, Niilsson). 12) Eventual correspondencesbetween Dance and Architectural archetypes. (Prokopiou, Eliades, Bachtiav,Vernant, ,Jng). 13) Body postures-body movements-body decorations andaccesories (Polhemus, Schilder, Piaget, Kakouri, Grotowski, Dodds, Duviv-ier). 14) Dance activity-root of major artistic expressions. Theater andAgora, and their newer versions. (Lignadis, Mitropoulos). 15) Dance another expressions-including architecture-facing the contemporary bipola-rity of experience vs. Spectacle. (Debord, Virillo, Moles, Sansot, pernolia,Martinou).
Franck, K. A., and L. Schneekloth. "Building Types: the Hidden Categories All Around Us." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. Type, or the classification of buildings and other places into categories,structures research, design, planning, teaching, regulation, and daily life. Itis the underlying, highly influential framework for those activities and forthe products of those activities. Yet what type is, how it is used, and itsphysical, social, political, economic, and intellectual consequences arerarely discussed. Much of what we do and think is governed byclassifications that are implicit and unconscious even though the results ofthose classifications are all around us. The problem is not that we classify;classifications are necessary and often beneficial. The problem is that theclassifications we use are not explicit, self-conscious or subject to criticalanalysis and modification. Other categories that serve to organize society and daily life such as gender,race, or class have come under intense intellectual and social scrutiny withaccompanying efforts to change the use and consequences of thoseclassifications. Type is a more abstract and more varied from ofclassification but its consequences are similarly significant and pervasive.We use type to produce, modify, destroy, and preserve the environment, andto understand it. Environments are categorized by type according to those characteristics theclassifier deems important at a particular time and for a specific purpose.Distinctions between types may be based on aspects of physical form(courtyard, perimeter block), style (Victorian, post-modern), function(housing, prison), landuse (commercial, residential), material qualities(brick, concrete block), other characteristics, as well as variouscombinations of characteristics (perimeter block, concrete block housing). The amount of detail captured by typologies varies considerably and it ispossible to discern primary and secondary criteria used to distinguishbetween types in a single typology. Since type is usually an implicit meansof categorization, the complete array of types in a typology and the specificcriteria used to distinguish between types are rarely stated. (One exceptionis in building regulation.) Often the name of a type may generate a powerfulimage and a host of associations: single-family house, high-rise housing orpiazza. These images and their associations exert a powerful influence onmany aspects of creating and understanding environments.There are advantages to the use of type. It provides a means ofcommunication, a directive for action, and an opportunity to createcontinuity and predictability. In these different ways type conveys meaning;we know, or think we know, what we are talking about and what to do.Disadvantages arise when type is used unreflectively and without criticalreview, when it becomes a shortcut, a way to avoid exploring meaning. Usedin this way, type limits analysis, variation, and change.The purpose of this workshop is to explore some of the ways type is used indesign, planning, education, and research and to examine how its use limits,or enhances, possibilities for change. The workshop organizers, KarenFranck and Lynda Schneek loth, and two invited participants, Martin Symesand Robert Shibley, will each speak for the minutes. This will be followedby discussion with all those attending the workshop.
Markus, Thomas A.. "Can We Change?" In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. conference:IAPS:11
Fried, M, and S. Fried. "Changes in Residential Orientations Across the Adult Lifespan." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. "During the past decade, there has been a proliferation of studies about adultlifespan processes. A major impetus has been the increased longevity of thepopulation. But other demographic and social changes have also influencedobjective conditions and subjective experiences across the lifespan. One ef-fect of these dynamic forces of adult maturation is manifest in residentialneeds, orientations, and realities but this has recieved relatively little at-tention.Some of the literature about lifespan change is, inevitably, devoted to acuteand chronic problems of the very elderly. Indeed, housing issues as theypertain to the very elderly have been the focus of a number of studies duringthe last few decades. However, recent research- psychological, physiologi-cal, and sociological- has generally taken a broader range of ages as theirfocus in considering patterns of effective functioning among mature adults.And they Introduce shifts in both the results and conceptualizations about theconditions and duration of successful adaptation in all the years of adulthood.The newer approach induces questions about the applicabilty of earlierhousing studies oriented to a different conception of aging, without consider-ation of changing patterns of gender behavior and of family and householdrelationships. At the same time it becomes even more apparent that issues ofchanging conceptions of space are of vital importance: residential space,space for social Interaction, Space for movement and consumer activity,leisure space, and space as a major source of place identity. A fundemental feature of the changing perspective is based on the recogni-tion development and change continues throughout adulthood in contrast to animplicit notion in the past that adulthood was simply the culmination ofchildhood and adolescence with little subsequent change until the very lastyears oflife. Increasingly we find evidence of very significant changes takingplace, including the meaning of places and spaces during the decades from the20's to the 80's and beyond. These appear to be dynamic process of alterna-tion in functions (rather than Joss or decline) and in conceptions of self andthe world related to roles, roles expectations, and role options. To link thisto the spatial dimension of this dynamic, we introduce the concept of roleplaces. The "decline" formerly posited (and still popularly believed) in di-verse cognitive and social (including sexual) functions during the yearsfrom 60 on , are hardly evident in those who maintain their bodily conditionand utilise their psychological functions occupationally and recreationallyuntill their life.These dynamic processes (which may change from one generation to anoth-er) imply modifications in our theoretical conceptions and planning prac-tices., Conceptions and practices which largely ignored long-term adult de-velopmental changes. Whether we consider the delayed period in earlyadulthood of establishind a career and having a family for both men andwomen, or the long period during which people live as couples, with theirchildren out of the household, oftenwith sufficient income and in excellentphysical condition, the necessity for a change in our view of spatial envi-ronments is evident. But, in fact there is relatively little concrete informa-tion about many of changing place orientationsof men and women of widelyranging ages. Some of these are higly systematic interview studies with extensive quantitative analyses. Others are more qualitative and phenomenol-gical in approach. Without attemting to report our findings, two resultsalert us to the significance of this approach. It is quite evident that residen-tial experiences are far more significant for satisfaction with life than isordinarily recognised in the research literature. However, it also appearsthat this is increasingly so across the lifespan: with increasing age , resi-dential satisfaction becomes increasingly important for lifesatisfaction - Thispaper will attempt to integrate the lifespan literature as a reflection of con-temporary psychosocial research with conceptions of spatial environmentsas these affect people at different stages of life and in different socioeconom-ic and cultural positions."
Sancho, J. M.. "Changes into Labour, Social and Learning Environments in a Post - Industrial Society." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. "This paper will deal with the transformations which are taking place inphysical, social, psychological and symbolic environments because of theuse of the Information Technology, with special reference to those related to the educational field.Information Technology is a new field of study and application which inte-grates the use of computers, microelectronics and telecommunications, inorder to produce, store, process, retrieve and transmit information. Thisfield is making such advance in post-industrial societies that we argue thatit needs to be taken Into account for various reasons. Firstly, because important changes are being produced in the labour mar-ket, each time another profession becomes Involved in tasks related to theprocessing of computerised information. The use of Information Technologydevises even in traditional jobs and professions, rather than increasing ordecreasing skill levels,is producing changes in the quality of skills re-quired. (Adler, 1983)Secondly, the same Educational System, which is in charge, in principle, ofeducating people able to cope with present and future life, has to bear thistransformations in mind. Apparently, one of the most necessary labour andsocial skills in societies undergoing technological changes is the ability todeal with change itself (Grubb, 1988). So educational institutions shouldprovide the appropriate learning environments in order to faciliate studentsthe development of skills and knowledge that can be used in a variety of set-tings.Thirdly, Because in the School itself an important part of the tasks per-formed have to do with the process of collecting, storing, processing,retrieving and transmitting information. Information which is convertedinto "knowledge" when pupils organise it for use in a given context. At thepresent time, in a world were in a single day is produced, collected, storedand transmitted, through different media, more information than a personcan significantly understand in her/his whole life, the challenge of Schooldoes not seem any more to lie on giving pupils information but on helpingthem to develop their own criteria and skills to select the sources of infor-mation, understand it and being able to use it to analyse problems and makejudgements about related topics (Harmon, et als., 1988).Finally, we argue that the use of Information Technology itself in the teach-ing and learning process can question the traditional conception on teachingheavily based upon the teacher as a privileged element of information trans-mission and the School as the only place where the children have access torelevant knowledge."
nlü, A. Ü.. "Changing Human Values and Urbanized Vernacular Architecture." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. Tourism generally brings out rapid physical and socio-cultural changes inthe environment of developing countries. Contrary to this fact, there is alsoa pragmatic judgement that is related to its supportive role in adjustment ofbudgets and completeness of deficits. The tourism activity in Turkey simi-larly in other developing countries causes important physical changes andtransitions in life styles, world views of users who are completely dependedupon this and its outcomes in economics.This paper concerns physical transitions in the environment and morpho-logically explores its linkages with the socio-cultural environment of asmall town in southwestern Turkey. Although Bodrum (Halicarnassus) wasa plain fisherman's town twenty years ago, today it has been a focal point orprimary place in tourism not only for internal and external activities butfor newcomers and settlers who escape from urban life style and explorenew settings. Thus the touristic image of the town recently has tended tooserlap with the connotation of this urban-rooted alterantive life style.Consequently, increase in touristic visits, migration from urban areas,magnetization in the trading of real estate changed the appearanace of cul-ture specific character of the town and transformed it partly an urbanizedcharacter.Desipte the growth of size and town limits, urbanization and overpopula-tion,this conclusion brings out new problems in the evaluations of users re-lated to environmetal formations. The development of the site is tended tobelong decision makers who are briefly two social groups, one is ruralrooted traditional users and other is urban-rooted migrants.In the framework of these considerations, the paper is aimed to reply theseaugmented questions as below. - In spite of partly provision of physical continutiy in new formations,which culture specific elements in the physical environment are synthe-sized with design and which are elminated?-What kind of response do traditional users have in relation to new envi-ronmental formations?- What kind of dwelling image do traditional users have or do they survivetheir Images about vernacular formation while intrinsic transitions occurin value system, world view and elite styles?- Do traditional design concepts survive in new formations- Which spatialmanifestations allocate in settings instead of older ones?- What kind of environmental evaluation do briefly users have for new for-mations?What kind o discrepancies do user groups have related to image and evalua-tions?The paper is dealt with a field study in order to pursue empirically verifiedresponses to these questions. The data anaysis which is held will clarify thevagueness and will raise important arguments not specifically addressed tothis town but to others on the country having similar situations.
Kose, S, and J. Sanui. "Coming of Age of Japanese Environmental Psychology: from People as Measuring Tools to People as the Master of the Environment." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. conference:IAPS:11
Erpi, F.. "Community Culture and Its Reflection on Vernacular Architecture - Three Case Studies: Turkish, Greek and Levantine Housing in Anatolia." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. During the reign of Ottoman Empire various peoples, each belonging to dif-ferent ethnic, religious, linguistic origins lived together. In the nineteenthcentury as the empire shrank into the limited area of anatolia, the ram-nants of these groups kept their cultural colours as minorities alongside theTurkish Muslim communities. Their culture was reflected in their lifestyle as well as on houses they lived in, within the framework of a generalcross-culture.This paper is to illustrate the strong ties between culture and vernacularresidential architecture. Three case studies are to be discussed by usingvisual material.In the first study collection of Turkish houses chosen from three dif-ferent localities shows features common to them all derived from the lifestyle of then users. This is an organic Architecture. Each House is shaped totheir requirements determined by the factors as site topography, orien-tation, owners taste etc. Another feature they all share is the introvertplanning organization. Turkish houses set a good example to unity in diver-sity.In the second study houses of a Greek minority group in a Western Anatoliantown examplify a different case. In contrast to the previous case these hous-es have a 'Miesion' concept of design came into being long before Mies vander Rohe. Instead of following function they seem to rule it. They can easilybe categorized into a few typological groups, each showing similar featuresof planning and facade treatment. Facade elements such as doors, windows,balconies are all standadized in the fashion of mass-production although thehouses were by no means constructed by the use of such a method. The third study displays an entirerly different case in its nature. While thearchitectural style of the houses of the first two cases are consistent inthemselves as a reflection of communities with homogeneous cultures, thethird group of residences exhibit an inconsistent variety in their stylesagain reflecting the heterogeneity of their owners, despite the fact that allare in the same town and were built within a certain period of time. Theseare residences of Levantine families lived in Turkey during the late nine-teenth and early twentieth century.
Akin, N.. "Continiue De L´espace Versus Discontinuite Culturelle a L´árriere - Plan: Exemples De Restauration Au Bosphore." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. conference:IAPS:11
van Wegen, H. B. R.. "Criminality, Spatial Planning and Design in Historical Perspective." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. "From the historical point of view the bull envrionment has always made amajor contribution to puplic security and the protection of people against undesirable intruders or aggressive behaviour . In the Middle Ages it wasabove all the town ramparts and the guarded town gates that afforded the cit-izen protection ogainst thieves, robbers and attacks from outside. Much lat-ter public security was furthered by good public lighting.The more systematic attention to the relation between characteristics of thephysical environment and social safety is of relatively recent date.The purpose of this contribution is to show in a short backward glance howthe phenomenon of criminality has been examined and how attention alter-nated in the course of time between the offender, the crime, legislation andthe environment.Classical criminology (1800-1890) concerned itself above all with the de-scription of the type of crime and the preventive effect of sanctions. At theend of the nineteenth century attention was increasingly concentrated on theindividual criminal, and causes of criminal behaviour were sought above allIn the personality structure of the offender. This meant a growing interes inbiological, psychological and sociological theories (Lombroso, 1967; Bong-er, 1906).In the fifties, above all in emulation of the Chicago School (Park et al., Shawand McKay, 1942), the connection was established between criminality,housing and socio-cultural amenities.In the period after 1960 we see how, with the advent of environmental-criminology, attention to criminality takes a new direction. The envrion-ment, the characteristics of the scene of the crime, becomes a subject ofstudy. Initially these ideas were still based above all on personal experienc-es (Jacobs, 1960). This changed with the publication of Jeffery's book on"Crime prevention through environmental design" (1971) and - shortlyafterwards - the book "Defensible Space" by the architectiresearcher OscarNewman (1972), in which Jacobs' ideas were brodly confirmed. In theyears that followed, research into the spatial spread of crimes and criminalswas continued on the basis of the ideas of the Chicago School and the theoriesof Jeffery and Newman (Brantingham, 1970).Manuals were published in which the points of departure of CPTED pro-grammes were explained. And checklists were developed for the purpose of making the knowledge acquired more accessible to designers, plan testersand others involved in the building process. Recently attention has been in-creasingly directed towards an overall approach to the problems in post-war apartment blocks. In this, criminality forms and important but not thesole explanatory variable that is responsible for the increasing decay.Which is why considerable research has been directed towards the develop-ment of technical measures concerning design, management and social as-pects.Which measures are advocated, and their effect on the combating of crime, isone of the subjects that will considered in greater depth in this contribution."
Coeterier, J. F.. "Cues for Space Perception in Landscapes." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. "In an early investigation !mamolu (1973) has demonstrated an effect offurniture density on space perception in rooms, i.e. on the perception ofthe size of the rooms. This study has now been extended to landscapes. Anumber of attributes has been identified that influence space perception inlandscapes. In the classical psycho-physical theory of perception these at-tributes were not recognized as cues for space perception, or they were called illusios. They are for instance the grain of texture of the soil cover-ing, the height and complexity of walls, the presence of loose elements inspace, and brightness. In a moving observer his prior experience also playa role. Space perception is not identical with the perception of depth ordistance because different cues are used, or the same cues in a different way.It is a separate faculty with its own cues, based on an integration of infor-mation. This is in accordance with Bartlett's observation that "even ourelementary perceptions are inferential constructs". Besides ImamoOiu, anumber of authors have found cues for space perception. In order to per-form a systematic investigation on the cues for space perception in land-scapes, seven hypotheses were formulated. Then slides were taken in ter-rains that perrmitted the testing of the hypotheses. The hypotheses were1. The higher the boundary wall of an open space in a landscape the small-er that space will be perceived. 2. The more varied the boundary wall thesmaller the space is perceived. 3. The coarser the texture of the soil cov-ering the smaller the space is perceived. 4. The presence of loose ele-ments in space, such as trees or cattle, makes the space look smaller. 5.A decrease in light intensity makes a space look smaller. 6. When the ob-server comes from a small space a space is perceived as smaller than whenhe comes from a large space. 7. These effects are additive, they strength-en or weaken each other. The hypoteses were tested by comparing the sizeassessment of spaces on pair of slides, having a high and a low value on eachcue. In each pair all the cues were held constant, except the one to be tested.The results justify a distinction between the perception of depth or distanceon the one hand and space perception on the other hand. Proof: Carr(1935) for instance states: "A heterogeneous or differentiated distance isjudged to be longer than a homogeneous or undifferentiated one. " In the ex-periment by Imamo*lu and in this experiment contrary results were foundfor scale perception. And much more arguments can be found. It is conclud-ed that there is no simple connection between space perception and the areaof the ground surface in a landscape, as measured in square meters. There isa limited number of cues that together determine space perception."
Robinson, J. W.. "Cultural Critique in the Design Studio: Images, Forms and Words." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. In the design studio formal analysis is frequently both the end and themeans, and its use relies predominantly on the plan as a representative forarchitecture. Cultural criticism, on the oter hand implies the need to ad-dress the link between Ideas and forms. This paper presents and discussestechniques originally used in research on cultural images and architecturalform which have been applied in the studio. These enable a student to revalsome of the cultural massages embodied in architectural form, and to con-sciously use them in design. Teaching with the assumption that architecture is a medium for culturalcommunication has several logical consequences for architectural design: first that architecuture is defined as an expression of ideas which must beunderstood in order to be well-communicated. Seen in this light, architec-ture is more than simple manipulation of form, and the degree to which theform accomplishes an intention is of critical importance. The second conse-quence is that architecture is to transform habit into ritual and to createfrom the taken-for granted nature of things, specialness. The third and finalconsequence is that the responsibility of the architect becomes that of mani-festing in form the shared cultural ideals of society, not simply, expressinghis/her own ideas. The professional must neither be alienated from the or-dinary lives of other people, nor a conduit for the lowest cultural denomi-nator, but rather a cultural critic who expresses ideas from within the cul-ture.The approach described here derives from that used in a research projectthe purpose of which was to define the architectural difference between in-stitution and home. This was framed in the form of two opposing principlesfor design and was presented in the from of paired sets of drawings accom-panied by explanatory annotations and a checklist of architectural elements.After examining innumerable slides and developing a preliminary checklistof items we thought our drawings should include, we began to darw our stre-otypic notions of these two principles. But in the uprocess of drawing wediscovered that out of our hands came architectural features we hadn't no-ticed in the slides. The drawing process tapped a deep nonverbal coherentimage. Only because the drawing process requires a sequence of lines did webegin to unravel individual features embedded in the image. Thus we discov-ererd the power of the stereotype in forming our design norms. The visualimages of which we had been previously only vaguely aware were reformedin drawing form.. We then used words to record the individual architecutu-ral elements and to hypothesize why they had a given effect.This research experience led to the similar use of drawings models andwords In the design sutido. Drawings become a device to tap the unconcious,words to capture the unconsicious Ideas, and the concept of type as a vehiclefor revealing cultural experience. The projects which illustrate this ap-proach are diverse. In each project of different form of cultural critique isbrought to bear on: in two cases more theoretical projects, and in the thirdcase an academic problem very much linked to a particular place and a set ofpragmatic issues. Design is inherently and act of culutral criticism. While there are manywell-developed studio teaching methods which address the formal questionsof of how to make architectural form, there are few methods which addresscultural values. The projects and methods peresented here engage in theprocess of exploring that can and ought to be done as well as addressing thequestion of why the proposed arcihtectural form is appropriate.
Churchman, A, and S. Amir. "Culturally Specific Demand for Open Space in Public Housing Neighborhoods in Israel." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. The subject addressed by this paper is the relationship between the use ofpublic and private open space by families of 2 sub-cultural groups living inmulti-family buildings in Israel. 70 % of the urban population of Israellive in multi-family buildings, and 50 % of the dwelling units are spon-sored in some way by the Ministry of Housing. Until recently the buildingplot was owned and used jointly by all the building residents. However, dueto the need to reduce building costs and to improve the level of maintenanceof the open space area of the buildings the Ministry of Housing has, duringthe last 10 years, experimented with a new policy. Ownership and use of most of the open space of the building plot is allocated solely to the residentsof the first floor apartments.The purpose of the research project was 1) to evaluate the needs of the res-idents of this new building form for three types of open space - neighbor-hood public parks, jointly owned open space of the building (semi-privatespace), and private yards. 2) to identify the special needs of 2 sub-cultural groups distinguished by level of observance of Jewish religiouslaw. These 2 groups differ significantly in family size and life style andthus it is important to determine whether or not this has implications foropen space use. 3) to develop design guidelines for these open space areas.Three newly developed neighborhoods of Jerusalem were studied and 2 otherbuilding forms were used as control groups. The empirical study was car-ried out in 1988-90. 3 research methods were used to examine the behav-ior and attitudes of the residents: a) Individual structured interviews -500residentes were interviewed in their homes. b) Behavior mapping obser-vations in the public and semi-private open spaces. c) On site survey ofthe physical characteristics of the 3 types of open space.Findings with the less observant group only indicate that the existence ofprivate yards provides benefits for the majority of residents. Owner of theyards are able to extend their living environment out of doors, and given thelimited size of their apartment ( an average of 80 m2 ) and the Mediterra-nean climate, this is an important asset. The residents of the upper floorsreport a benefit from the improvement in the appearance of the environ-ment occasioned by the care given the yards, and no negative effect on thefunctioning of the building. However, the existence of the private yards doesnot effect the use of the public and semi-private spaces. Each of the 3 typesserves somewhat different needs and different populations. The private yardis used mainly by the adults or the whole family for activities like rest andentertaining that are extensions of activities linked to the home. The semi-private spaces are used mainly for play and mainly by children aged 6-11.The parks are used mainly for play by younger children accompanied byadults. Thus, our data indicate that each of the 3 types of open space haveseparate functions. One cannot fully substitute for the other. The detaileddesign of the private yards and the semi-private spaces is critical for theirability to fulfill these functions. For the private yards the issue of privacyIs critical and for the semi-private spaces the issues of location, size, to-pography and shade are important. The results of the second part of thestudy will allow us to see whether or not these preliminary conclusions arespecific to this group or more general. The presentation will also includespecific design guidelines for each of the open space types.
Bouzid, B.. "Culture and Cognitive Structure." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. "Architecture is not just the activity of building. Because man is an intellec-tual organism; he vividly employs his capacities to produce all kinds of ar-tifacts that convey meaning and Imply cultural dimensions. It is this veryproperty that credits these artifacts with their aesthetics as well as theirfunctional values. It is bitterly true, also, that the present architects andtheorists have gone too far in expressing their fascination with this verynotion in such and abstract, meanningless and alienating manner that onewould prefer to reconsider ARCHITECTURE for its own sake as a mere activ-ity building.A manifestation of the downfall of the "ART OF BUILDING" is that it becameprecisely a profession devoted to a very special people. The new ELITES, theARCHITECTS of reputation, in order to express themselves. Only, are driv-ing architecture from its physical setting and from society. They have de-nied, its cultural, traditionnal and historical identity. They introduced"EXHIBITION ARCHITECTURE".The graceful virtue of culture has become, accordingly, and expression ofempty aestheticism, illusive intellectualism and a brutal tendency to rejectthe word's diversity. That architecture, which rewarded all antecedent gen-erations of various parts of the world with indulgent sarisfaction and pleas-ure, has been callously sacrified that ARCHITECTURE WHOSE ESSENCES ISDEEPLY THROUGH ITS ADAPTABILITY TO DIFFERENT GEOGRAPHIES ANDCULTURES HAS BEEN MISUNDERSTOOD, MISINTERPRETED AND, IT MAY BEBRUTALLY MURDERED.The most acceptable meaning of culture has been to imply the role of physi-cal environment in shaping social relations, the modes of thought, norms,beliefs, ways of life, the ideologies and the total range of customary, behavi-our all of which have been influenced by people's adaptation to their environment. Therefore, building forms, patterns of growth, town morphology,in short architectureal phenomenon, has like culture, evolved characteris-tics from its natural habitat.My aim through this communication, hense is to redirect attention to theImpact of the object on the subject, and to discuss or explore the notion thathuman archievements i.e. cultural, technological, architectural etc. are anoutcome of the interaction between ecology, culture and cognitive structuresuch interaction is is thought to set out a condition of stability, compatibili-ty and fitness wich characterises various vernacular culture. These notionsought to be investigated, and hence utilised in design ideas and design pro-cesses."
Bouzid, B.. "Culture and Cognitive Structure." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. "Architecture is not just the activity of building. Because man is an intellec-tual organism; he vividly employs his capacities 10 produce all kinds ofartefacts that convey meaning and.irnply cultural dimensions. It is this veryproperty- that credits these artefacts with. their aesthetics as well as theirfunctional values. It is bitterly true, also, that the present architects andtheorists have gone too far in expressing their fascination with this verynotion in such as abstract, meaningless and alienating manner that one wouldprefer to reconsider ARCHITECTURE for its own sake as a mere activitybuilding.A manifestation of the downfall of the "ART OF BUILDING" is that it becameprecisely a profession devoted to a very special preople. The new ELITES,the ARCHITECTS of reputation, in order to express themselves. Only aredriving architecture from Its physical seting and from society. They havedenied, its cultural, traditional and historical identity. They introduced"EXHIBITION ARCHITECTURE".The graceful virtue of culture has become, accordingly, an expression ofempty questheticism, illusive intellectualism and a brutal tendency to re-ject the word's diversity. That architecture, wich rewarded all antecedentgenerations. of various parts of the world with indulgent satisfaction andpleasure, as been callously sacrified. That ARCITECTURE WHOSE ESSENCESIS DEEPLY FELT THROUGH ITS ADAPTIBILITY TO DIFFERENT GEOGRAPHIESAND CULTURES HAS BEEN MISUNDERSTOOD, MISINTERPRETED AND, IT MAYBE BRUTALLY MURDERED.The most acceptable meaning of culture has been to imply the role of physi-cal environment In shaping social relations, the modes of thought, norms,beliefs, ways of life, the ideologies and the total range of customary, behavi-our all of which have been influenced by people's adaptation to their envi-ronment. Therefore, building forms, patterns of growth, town morphology,in short architectural phenomenon, has like culture, evolved characteris-tics from its natural habitat.Our aim through this communication, hense is to redirect attention to theimpact of the object on the subject, and to discuss of explore the notion thathuman archievements i.e. cultural, technological, architectural etc are andoutcome of the interaction between ecology, cultrute and cognitive structure.Such interaction is thought to set out a condition of stability, compatibilityand fitness which characterises various vernacular cultures. These notionsought to be investigated, and hence utilised in design ideas and design pro-cesses.notion in such as abstract, meaningless and alienating manner that one wouldprefer to reconsider ARCHITECTURE for its own sake as a mere activitybuilding.A manifestation of the downfall of the "ART OF BUILDING" is that it becameprecisely a profession devoted to a very special preople. The new ELITES,the ARCHITECTS of reputation, in order to express themselves. Only aredriving architecture from Its physical seting and from society. They havedenied, its cultural, traditional and historical identity. They introduced"EXHIBITION ARCHITECTURE".The graceful virtue of culture has become, accordingly, an expression ofempty questheticism, illusive intellectualism and a brutal tendency to re-ject the word's diversity. That architecture, wich rewarded all antecedentgenerations. of various parts of the world with indulgent satisfaction andpleasure, as been callously sacrified. That ARCITECTURE WHOSE ESSENCESIS DEEPLY FELT THROUGH ITS ADAPTIBILITY TO DIFFERENT GEOGRAPHIESAND CULTURES HAS BEEN MISUNDERSTOOD, MISINTERPRETED AND, IT MAYBE BRUTALLY MURDERED.The most acceptable meaning of culture has been to imply the role of physi-cal environment In shaping social relations, the modes of thought, norms,beliefs, ways of life, the ideologies and the total range of customary, behavi-our all of which have been influenced by people's adaptation to their envi-ronment. Therefore, building forms, patterns of growth, town morphology,in short architectural phenomenon, has like culture, evolved characteris-tics from its natural habitat.Our aim through this communication, hense is to redirect attention to theimpact of the object on the subject, and to discuss of explore the notion thathuman archievements i.e. cultural, technological, architectural etc are andoutcome of the interaction between ecology, cultrute and cognitive structure.Such interaction is thought to set out a condition of stability, compatibilityand fitness which characterises various vernacular cultures. These notionsought to be investigated, and hence utilised in design ideas and design pro-cesses."
Conan, M.. "Culture, Espace Et Histoire." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. conference:IAPS:11
Riley, Robert B.. "Culture, History, and Mythic Landscapes." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. "Current attempts to understand the affective impact of landscapes followdistinct paradigms such as visul assessment (better called pictorial prefer-ence), historical studies in built/spatial form, the landscape experience associo/cultural transcation construction of internal landscape narrative, etc.This paper discusses another concept, that ofthe culturally-specific, mythiclandscape, that is both a complementary addition to other paradigms, andpotentially an integrative symbol."Mythic landscape" is first defined. Then a distinciton is made betweenmythic landscapes assumed to be pan-human (e.g., "Jungian archetypes")and those specific to a cultural/historic tradition (e.g., the "Landscapetaste" refined by Lowenthal and Prince).Three major Issues are raised concerning these latter landscapes. One is theauthors artificial but possibly useful distinction between mythic land-scapes that confirm and modify a culture's actual spatial habits, and those that stimulate internal, "charged" narratives that are dependent upon cultu-ral myth, not necessarily immediate experience. A second issue is the evr-increasing role of media, secondary information, and secondary modes informing landscape perceptions and thus, the questional validity of the tradi-tional distinction between insiders' vs. outsiders' (or "real" vs. "spurious")landscapes. Third, is the possibility of ecumenical, universal, culturallansdcapes in a global society of information and tourism, and whether suchlandscapes can carry any significant affective content. Can Jungain arche-types be media-made?The presentation will be illustrated with the author's own interpretation ofcultural lanscapes within the Anglo-American traditition, from literatureto television, from Alexander Pope to John Wayne and Woody Allen. Thischoice is explicit and unashamed, in an attempt to highlight the culturalspecificity of mythic landscapes and to stimulate the audience to speculate onthe nature and role of such landscapes in their own tradition."
Dovey, K.. "Culture/space/history Studies in Australia: a Review." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. conference:IAPS:11
Imamoglu, E. O., and V. Imamoglu. "Current Life Situations and Attitudes of the Turkish Elderly Towards Institutional Living." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. The study to be reported is part of a cross-cultural project involving Swe-den (in collaboration with A. Kuller), England (in Collaboration with B.Mikellides) and Turkey. In this presentation mainly the findings of theTurkish study are considered with occasional references to the Swedish case.As part of the Turkish study, in-depth interviews were carried out with448 males and females (55-71 years) who were under some kind of re-tirement scheme. In order to consider different living conditions samplewere selected from metropolitan areas, cities and small towns.The interviews considered the psysical, social and phychological character-istics of the retirees' life situations. In this paper current life situationsand attitudes of the Turkish respondents to institutional living are exam-ined; and differences in relation to sex, age, and developmental level of arealived are considered. Results indicate that the Turkish respondents' attitudestowards institutional living in general are negative: more so than that ofSwedes; however, they tend to become less negative with age and urbaniza-tion. With respect to psychological variables, a relatively positive attitudetowards institutional living seems related to feeling lonelier, having lessfrequent interactions with a smaller social network, having a negative atti-tude towards aging, and being less satisfied with one's life. Implications ofthe findings and prospects for the future are discussed.
Cakin, S.. "Design in Context: Exhibition of a Student Project from King Faisal. University, Saudi Arabia." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. Fifth (final year students in the College of Architecture and Planning at KingFaisal University challenged the problem of tradition vs. change throughinquiry and design. Sites with strong urban context were chosen by thestudents. Analysis of the physical and socio-cultural characteristics of thesite enabled them to identify problems to be solved at the level of urbandesign, such as accessibility, availability of parking lots, waste collection,infrastructure and location of facilities for daily needs of the community.The next step was to identify the community facilities needed in the area andto design these in harmony with the architecture of the traditionalsettlement. To illustrate this model, one project is planned to be exhibitedduring the conference:Design in Rural Context: Housing and Public Facilities for Al-Jubail Villagein Al-Hasa-Eastern Province, Saudi Arabiaby Mashary Al-Naim (840206)This project emphasizes the physical quality of the rural environment inAl-Jubail farming village in Al-Hasa oasis. It identifies issues, problemsand extract patterns from the traditional settlement with a view torevitalise and enhance village life. Pre-design analysis starts with thephysical characteristics and typologies of the village and is followed by thesoclo-cultural characteristics of the inhabitants. Changes in the physicaland social characteristics are recorded. Finally, the climatic significance ofthe existing buildings and forms are investigated. The findings of thisanalysis form the basis for designing new housing and community buildingsto be used by the residents of Al-Jubail, as well as those of the surroundingvillages.Integration between the proposed buildings and the adjacent traditionaldwellings constitutes an important design objective. Design is carried out inbasically four directions: (1) Proposing strategies for improving theexisting dwellings in the traditional part of the village; (2) Proposingurban design solutions to the problems such as accesibility, provision ofparking lots, waste collection, and infrastructure; (3) Proposing infillhousing to increase density on the vacant areas on the site; (4) Proposingdetailed designs for a rural development (arts and crafts) center, exhibitionarea, lecture hall, restaurant, shops and Thursday market.
Teymur, N.. "Design Research and ... on Culture, Space and History in Design Research." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. conference:IAPS:11
Moore, J, and D. Canter. "Designing for Therapy: Testing a Design Theory." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. It is rare that an architect develops a design theory and subsequent buildingsfrom systematic research. This study set out to test one such design theorydeveloped from research with hostel residents and based on therapeuticmodels (Canter 1979) which was used to design Salvation Army Hostels forsingle homeless People. The study aimed firstly, to discover whether or notOakley's design theory based on therapeutic models, could be incorporatedinto a hostel design; secondly, whether there was any support for the designsand thirdly, whether the staff held similar therapeutic environment.As multivariate places, the hostels were explored by obtaining some meas-ure of resident and staff satisfaction with aspects of the physical environ-ment (Satisfaction Questionnaire), of the therapeutic models in use by staff(Therapeutic Model Questionnaire) and of the conceptions residents have ofthe hostel and similar places (Multiple Sorting Task) . Visits were made tofour Salvation Army Hostels in Bolton, Darlington, Swindon and Liverpooland a total of 54 residents and 45 staff participated in the study.Results indicate that the four hostels are recognised by staff to be homely,bright and colorful places which encourage individual growth, that is, as-pects of the design theory. In general there were high levels of satisfactionwith different aspects of the hostels for staff and residents offering supportfor the existence of different environmental roles. This variation betweenpeople was found further to vary across settings. Both resident and staffsatisfaction with different aspects of the hostels was found to be highest forthe newest, smallest and most sophisticated hostel in terms of design andlowest at the oldest, largest and least and sophisticated hostel. No distinct therapeutic models were identified for staff. Results suggest thehostels are not operating as the designer envisaged, presenting some supportfor the arguement that actual use of a therapeutic facility or indeed anyphysical setting can confound an original design brief (Rivlin and Wolfe1979).The study has implications for the use of therapeutic models as goals for de-sign and has further implications for the role of design theory in the successof any therapeutic environment.
Vale, L. J.. "Designing Political Power: an Analysis of Seven Capital City Plans." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. "This paper examines the urban design of seven planned capital cities in thecontext of their cultural and political history. In examining the plans ofthese capitals--Washington, D.C., Canberra, New Delhi, Chandigarh, Bra-silia, Abuja and Dodoma-- the paper analyzes the reasons behind the loca-tons of these cities and the symbolism behind the location of major govern-ment buildings within them, it is argued that close observation of theintended spatial form for these capitals reveals a great deal about the natureof the political ideals that forged these momentous partnerships betweengovernment leaders and designers.The paper begins with a discussion of ideas about "centrality" of location fornew designed capitals, and identifies and categorizes the kinds of politicalpressures that led to the cohice of site in each of the seven cases. The rest ofthe paper focuses in on the central areas of the capitals, In an attempt toidentify the spatial and political hierarchies implied byeach of the seen ur-ban design master plans. In the plans for each of these seven designed capitalcities, it is argued, the designers attempted to create a kind of ideogram forthe political system of the country.A central distinction is made between designed colonial capitals and designedpost-colonial capitals. Lutyens' plan for "Imperial Delhi" is the only one ofthe seven in which the plan is centered on an executive presence (the Vice-roy's palace), indicative of British commitment to continued colonial ruleover India. The other six designed capitals exhibit their planners attempt tocome to terms with certain ideals of democracy: the symbolic center of thecity is given over to facilties for publicly-elected legislatures. In the de-signed capitals considered here, these attempts at promoting the idea ofrule "by the people" take one of two spatial forms. The first type reuses theolder monarchy-driven idea of the central axis but-- as the terminus of theaxis-- substitutes the parliament building for the royal palace. Theplans for washington, D. C. and Abuja are examples of this strategy. A secondtype also makes use of a central axis, but terminates the axis not with asingle building but with a public plaza or constructed vista. Canberra (atleast in Griffin's original plan), Chandigarh and Brasilia fall into this cate-gory. Dodoma, designed for socialist Tanzania, somewhat fits within thispublic plaze model, but also suggests the need for a new category of designedcapital. In the urban design plan for Dodoma, the old notion of the monumen-tal axis is challenged; the patp through the heart of the city is fragmentedinto a series of gradually ascending pedestrian-scaled terraces, with a mix-ture of institutional, commerical and residential facilities located at eachlevel. This symbolism of this approach, however, is thoroguhly subvertedby the alien presence ofthe Party headquarters high atop a nearby hilt.By way of conclusion, it is argued that these seven city plans reveal muchmore about the persistence of the need to demonstrate political power thanthey do about any abstract ideals of democracy. Moreover, , interpretation ofthe messages encoded into these city plans by their designers is necessarilyinsufficient, and must be altered in response to political changes, adaptivere-use of buildings by new regimes and continued growth of these capitals inunpredicted dimensions."
Saini, B. S.. "Domestic Architecture of Tropical Australia." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. In recent years there has been an increasing interest in colonial demesticbuildings which exhibit a distinct regional character. Many researcher at-tribute the unique forms of these buildings to the influence of climate. Acloser study however reveals that this is not always so. The impact of thelocal political, economic, social and cultural factors are often more impor-tant, as is evident in the domestic structures of tropical Australia. Thesetimber and tin lightweight buildings which are scattered throughout thisregion are very popular and are greatly sought after even today. They areusually single storeyed and are the product of prefabricated building tech-niques employed during the, great rush of mining, pastoral and agriculturaldevelopment which took place between the 1850's and early 1900's. In aregion of scarce local materials and buildings skills, and in an attempt tobuild economic shelters in a hurry, they proved to be a reasonable answer towhat then was a transient economy in a frontier region. Most of these houseshave now been occupied by over four generations of Australians who have wecorned ther airy quality and generoisty of space-enclosed as well as semi-enclosed-such as their deep verandahs which surround the main core of theliving and sleeping accommodation.Australia has both hot dry and hot wet climatic zones. As indicated by a num-ber of research studies, these houses largely fail to provide adequate physi-cal comfort in both of these climates. The lightweight materials possesslittle or no barrier to heat transmission and they have too poor a heat stor-age capacity to be effective in the hot, dusty and dry climate of the interiorwhere temperatures often stay consistently high and where vegetation issparse and stunted. The houses fare a little better in the warm and humidcoastal areas but the compact plans of these houses fail to encourage cross-ventilation so necessary for comfort. So, the popularity of these houses could only be attributed to factors otherthant climatic ones and probably lie in peoples' attitudes to lifestyle, theirperceptions and the degree to which they are prepared to accommodate andadapt themselves to their surronding environment. The tropical houses ofAustralia therefore present a good example of a shelter form which plays animportant role in the life of the people, offering flexibility in an environ-ment which allows them to adapt more readily to an alien setting.This discussion highlights the regional characteristics of this unique archi-tectural development, especially the way it reflects the values of the peopleand their attitude to nature. These are examined against the background ofdifferences in attitudes between Europeans and the Australian Aboriginalpeople and how these diferences are now slowly converging to help the evo-lution of a new vocabulary of tropical houses as reflected in the work of ar-chitects such as Glen Mercutt and John Andrews.
Muntanola, J.. "Education as a Transmitter of Spatial Culture: Two Case Studies." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. "According to previous research, this communication will explore the waysspace entangles with culture throughout education. We should know howspace expresses culture, conveys it or conforms to it. In order to do so,we will describe in this communication two very different"case studies". The first one is one analysis of the child's construction ofplaces in Barcelona, using wooden models. Thousands of models have beenanalyzed and conclusions will mainly be focused upon the social constraintsand educational circumstances. The second case study generates from anotherpoint of view. It deals with ten years of research about architectural educa-tion in the University of Barcelona, in the School of Architecture. Severalalternative methods of teaching design to architects have been explored. Ur-ban history and ethnomethodological studies have been related to the tradi-tional teaching procedures in order to change the usual attitudes regarding tothe existing environment by the students of architecture.These two very different perspectives: The genetical psychological analysisof children conceptions of places to live in and the architectural educationexplorations in the university, they have a lot of aspects in common. Thiscommunication will try to uncover these connections. This can spatially bedone by the role of the cultural and educational constraints in the way weperceive and conceptualize the environment, we dont see real objects orforms, we see what we are able to see with our education. It is important topoint out that this is even true when we use computers. Secondly, in bothssituations, children and students select and produce environment SIGNIFI-CANT, culturally speaking, to them. It is very important that neither in en-vironmental education, nor in architectural higher education, we haveenough research and data analyzing the impact of spatial education in generalas reinforce of cultural rites, attitudes, social roles and values.This communication will conclude with a statement upon the meaning ofmodernity in this context of architectural and environmental education. Wewill argue that we have completely forget the original interest of the modernmovements in architecture, and in space, and we have subtitute culturalspace for economic "standard" spaces, far from the "modern" environmentalattitudes. As a result of this confusion, environmental and architectural ed-ucation is today immerse in a sea of misunderstandings. Against other posi-tions that argue in favor of this confusion as culturally necessary in ourpresent world stage of historical development,We will describe these mis-understandings as excuses in order to isolate education from political reali-ty, or education from culture. Throughout the whole exposition, architecture will be considered as a cultu-ral transmitter. It will never be an "authonomous" object independent of so-cial interaction."
Ba, H.. "Egyptian Pyramids and World Architecture." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. "Ancient Egyptian civilization, and particularly its architecture, predatedEuropean, American (including Mayan and Aztecan) and Black African ar-chitecture. One of the most impressive Egyptian monuments remaining arethe pyramids. The existence of pyramidal influences in other cultures raisesthe difficult question of the social and historical production and diffusion ofbuilt form by built forms. By diffusion I mean the permanent dialectic be-tween borrowings and discoveries in two different societies or cultures.The historical and social production of Egyptian and Mayan pyramids will betraced In tight of why this pyramidal form and not others was produced, howthey were built and for whom, and why they were replicated in such coun-tries as: United States, Greece, France, Italy, and Mali. Historically, theEgyptian pyramids appeared earlier than the Mayan. For geographical rea-sons, It is almost impossible to make any kind of connection between them.However, the pyramlos found in Greece, Mali, Italy, ... France, and he Unit-ed States seem to have been one influence of Ancient Egypt. The social, eco-nomic, and political context in which these countries' architects built pyra-mids will be questioned. These architects replicated or used the Egyptianpyramidal form In their architecture without mentioning Ancient Egypt'contribution to world architecture in general. I will look at the implicationof these "borrowings" in new design and why the Egyptian origins are notcredited when they are placed in new environments."
Chapin, D.. "Elevator Systems and the Social Geometry of Tall Office Buildings." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. "Since the introduction in 1853 (in public exhibit in New York's CristalPalace) of the Otis "safety device", elevators have been regarded simply as atechnological innovation, one of several technological innovations necessaryto the possibility of tall buildings. Other than being seen as a limit on ulti-mate height, elevators have not been viewed as a dynamic factor in what wethink about when we think of tall buildings.Current elevator systems are incredibly inefficient in several ways. Thispaper focuses on just one ramification of elevator inefficiency: the necessity in tall buildings to group individual elevator shafts together into elevator"cores". The cores, in turn, assure that large numbers of people, often withlittle reason otherwise to be together, must pass through or occupy the im-mense areas taken up by circulation corridors and waiting lobbies. Bothpassing through and waiting in these anonymous spaces are commonly-occuring social situations. Floor plans of five "typical" tall office buildingsare analyzed to expose the dimensions and qualities of this experience.Why has the history of elevators been a technological history, with virtual-ly no public recognition of the social effects of elevator systems? There arethree explanations which I consider: 1) The social effects of elevator sys-tems are unrecognized and unintended and, additionaly, are tolerated becausethere is no conception of a viable alternative; 2) The social effects of eleva-tor systems are recognized though unintended, but are tolerated because thesocial costs are borne by individual system users who have no power to af-fect decisions; 3) The social effects are both recognized and intended, andserve as a means of social or organizational control."
Moore, G. T.. "Environment - Behavior Issues in Extraterrestrial Space." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. The purpose of this paper is to explore a range of physiological, psychologi-cal, and social problems that occur in deep space.The physiological, psychological, and social well being of the inhabitants ofany extraterrestrial space environment in a location as foreign as a spacestation, the moon, Mars, or even deeper space, is of prime concern in theextraterrestrial design process. There are a multitude of human concerns tobe considered in the design of any extraterrestrial space habitat.First among them are basic human factors issues including both anthro-pometric and ergonomic issues.A number of physiological problems affect space design, chief among thembeing the effects of weightlessness and micro-Gravity often resulting instress. Sensory responses including vision, response to color, and responseto noise and temperature, must also be considered in the design of any close-fitting extraterrestrial environment.Because extraterrestrial environments necessitate a closed-system archi-tecture, _psychological problems can also occur, including __personal dis-orientation and way-findino difficulties Maintaining a highly productiveand interactive team in the face of stress is one of the most important con-cerns in both a safety and economic sense. Together, these psychologicalproblems can lead to complex, _multiple stressor effectsEconomic and resource constraints necessitate that designed extraterrestrialand space colony spaces serve multiple functions, perhaps resulting in aseries of social problems including boredom and _feelings of isolation a lossof privacy, the need for the ability to personalize space and make one's ownhome __territory the possibility of tension among workers, and the __interper-sonal dynamics of small groups.This paper explores these human factors, physiological, psychological, andsocial issues of long-term space travel and inhabited extraterrestrial colo-nies.
Cinq-Mars, I.. "Espaces Libres Urbains: Integration Culturelle." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. conference:IAPS:11
Anestis, N.. "Ethnicity and Urban Environment in the Metropolis." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. "Enclaves of ethnic culture nurtured in a host environment form our generalarea of study. Most particularly we concentrate on analyzing the conditionsthat occur at the physical and cultural boundaries between the two cultures: the host and the hosted. Our test case has been primarily New York's Lower Manhattan a fer-tile ground for many different communities in the past and present. Thecity's urban and architectural character is to a large degree the reflection ofthe presence of several ethnic groups that adapt the environment accordingto cultural needs and traditions.The pan of town identified today as Chinatown extends far beyond the con-fined blocks occupied between 1840 and the 60's and overflows into LittleItaly and the Jewish Lower East Side. Chinatown brimming withsmells of vegetable produce and fish and is crowded with people, restaurantsand street trade resembling a bustling town in the Far East. The brick,stone and iron tenement facades are coated with layers of plexiglass signageof Chinese characters. There are also banners, fliers and posters, all inChinese. On several occasions one sees applied architectural elements on thefacades or in interiors, reminiscent of Chinese culture.Interspersed in the East Village and the Lower East Side's empty blocks, ex-ist temporary structures known to the Latin population as "Casltas".These recall equivalent communal structures to be found in Puerto Rico andother areas in the Carribean. The Cassitas in New York are unique urbanvernacular spaces that assert the cultural rebelious autonomy of the com-munityAs "nodes" in the urban fabric are places of worship of various relig-ions, They each "restore" a particular symbolically coded environment,utilizing orientation, geometry and iconography. On several occasions, suchplaces are inherited from previous congregations, in which cases adapta-tions occur, although the cultural layering is inescapably conspicuous.In the Derridean Deconstructivist methods of analysis it is examinedhow the breeds of cultures sustained under the dominant culture are beingconstantly nurtured and undermined at the same time by each other. Whatare the systems of hierarchical structures in effect. What elements arechosen as representative of a culture in question and how they are used. Themajor topics of this discourse are to investigate the extents of the argumentof the dislocated culture acquiring the status of a new culture (if how andwhen) through finding and what It means for whom As we are witnessing the emergence of increasingly multicultural societiesand their direct reflection to the urban environment, we add this researchas a contribution to the efforts of recording the changes that occur to thecity."
Rullo, G.. "Evolution in the Definition and Scope of Environmental Psyhology." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. "Within a historical perspective on Environmental Psychology (EP), thepurpose of the present study is a comparative analysis between the fourbasic reviews of EP published in the "Annual Review of Psychology" (Craik,1973; Stotols, 1978; Russell & Ward, 1982; Holahan, 1986).It is here assumed that differences emerging from a comparison betweenthese reviews may be interpreted as conceptual variations occurring withinthe discipline and not only as divergencies between the authors, althoughpersonal background and research interests of each reviewer surely in-fluenced their way of defining EP and surveying the literature.Many other important publications might be analysed to promote our under-standing of the evolution of EP, but these four reviews seem to be represen-tative documents of the state of the art of this discipline at different pointsof time of its history. In fact, their systematic periodicity and synthesis aswell as their underlying purpose of reviewing the field for a broad interna-tional audience make these publications particularly valuable for this kindof analysis. However, this choice might be biased in that the reviewers --all American-- mainly considered the literature published in North-America, where in-deed ER was born and is still much more expanded. Thus, the picture arisingfrom the present analysis may put research approaches and topics evolvingin Europe or elsewhere into the shade.The analysis of the four reviews consists essentially of two principal stages,i.e. an exploration of each review and a comparison between them focused onthe following issues: the author's appoarch to the review and its purpose;central concepts used for defining the object (s) and scope of EP; the strate-gy applied for selecting and categorising the research areas actually re-viewed.The principal results first show a common core of some very general con-cepts of definiton of the discipline and some basic research areas. This con-vergency highlights a definition of EP as the study of the relationships be-tween people and the physical environment, in both its cognitive andbehavioural components, from a multidisciplinary view. However, funda-mental differences also emerge. Mainly, the notion of physical environmentevolves towards a more complex concept of "soclo-physical environment" or"place", the role of people is considered more and more active, and a grow-ing emphasis is put on the study of cognitive representations of places. Bycontrast, interest in ecological psychology becomes more restricted. Fur-thermore, the frameworks used in organizing the literature are qualitative-ly different. The connection between these qualitiative differences and thetheoretical approaches to the study of people-places relationships will bediscussed, In particular the transactional and interactional approaches."
Costa, F. J., and A. G. Noble. "Evolving Planning Systems and Physical Form in Madrid, Rome and Athens." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. "Contemporary urbanization and planning activities and their relationship tothe built - form, in southern European cities have not been studied exten-sively by English - Speaking scholars. The ancient cities of Greece andRome and the medieval and Renaissance attention. However, 19th and 20thcentury urban development in southern Europe has not been a high item ofpriority. This paper provides an overview and a comparison of planning ac-tivity and physical of urban form for three south European capital citiesMadrid, Rome and Athens.Athens and Rome are ancient cities which have contributed greatly to thetraditions of urban life. The Greek polls and the Roman civitas are two bas-ic concepts underlying Western civilization. Athens, the great center ofclassical antiquity, saw its fortunes slowly diminish to the extent that it waslittle more than a village by the beginning of the 19th century. In contrast,Rome's urban form and functions remained relatively robust from classicaltimes and throughout the periods of European history after the collapse ofthe Roman Empire in the West. Yet like Athens by the beginning of the 19th century it was more a museum city than a major urban center. Both citiessurvived and eventually thrived again because of the enduring strenghts oftheir state and because of this new status, each experienced sustained andeven rapid growth during the second half of the 19th and throughout most ofthe 20th century.Madrid, on the other hand, has little of the august historical associations ofAthens and Rome. Madrid rose from the status of an obscure and isolatedvillage to become capital of a newly-united Spain in the 16th century large-ly because of Its central location and its lackof association with any majorpolitical group in the new kingdom. Central position and a neutral politicalhistory were the factors behind the rise of Madrid.This paper analyzes the major planning initiatives and programs in eachcity from the middle of the 19th century to the present. The authors haveused the major, formally-adopted, comprehensive plans for the cities as thebasis for describing their planning and urban form changes.In the case of Madrid important planning measures such as, the Plan Castroadopted by Royal Decree in 1860 and which guided the expansion of the citythrough major new subdivisions or "ensanche", the famous "Cludad Linearconcept of Arturo Sorla, and the series of post World War Ii urban plansare examined.Rome also has had a number of comprehensive or master plans intended toguide its growth. Among the plans examined are those of 1873, 1883,1909, 1932, and the post World War Ii planning efforts. Forces workingfor the successful implementation of each plan, as well as those working toundermine the plans are discussed.Athens, in contrast to Madrid and Rome, has had fewer formally approveddevelopment plans. The earliest planning measures were undertakeng by theBavarian architects imported by the king of modern Greece, Otho, the 18years old son of Ludwig I of Bavaria. Athens, however, developed larglywithout planning. In contrast, the center of the city did benefit from coor-dinated development because it housed the central bureaucracy of the newGreek govenment and Greeks aspired to create a capital city form whichcould bear favorable comparison with other European capitals. The balance of the paper is devoted to a review of planning efforts andachievements in each city. A comparison of the actual built - form with theplanned built - form constitutes the basis for this part of the paper. In ad-dition, wherever possible, other standards of comparsion including publictransport facilties, green space and recretion facilties and extent of unau-thorized housing are used."
Daniel-Lacombe, E, and M. Ferrand. "Expose De Recherce Sur Le Memento De Programmation Generative De M. Conan." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. conference:IAPS:11
Küller, M, and R. Küller. "Health and Outdoor Environment for the Elderly." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. Research shows that elderly persons will remain healthier if they have ac-cess to an outdoor environment suited to their special needs all around theyear. The main medical reasons for outdoor activities relate to the upkeep of physical mobility and muscle mass; the preventive effect on acute coronary diseases; and the impact of natural daylight on hormones, emotional tone, aswell as vitamin-D effects on skeletal bone structure. Other benefits fromoutdoor activities include the maintenance of a neighborhood network, espe-cially for persons who lack close relatives. The paper focusses on what isknown about the outdoor habits of elderly persons, and what might be im-plied from these studies for the design of outdoor recreational areas.Data will be presented from two Swedish studies on elderly carried out bythe authors. In the first study, 500 persons aged between 60 and 70 wereinterviewed in their homes about matters relating, amongst others, to ac-commodation, work, leisure, health and economy (KUller, 1988). With theaim, in particular, of elucidating the importance of the environment, indi-viduals were selected from five different localities, an inner-city area and asuburb of Malmo, a district in Karlskrona and one inland and one coastalarea in the Karlskrona region. This study was later replicated in the UnitedKingdom by Mikellides and Willcox (1987 ) and in Turkey by 1mamolu,Kuller and Imamolu (1989 ). This makes it possible to includes cross-cultural data. The second study, aimed at the same topics, comprised 116women aged between 63 and 65 in MalmO ( Kuller and Steen, 1988 ). Datawill be presented which focus on the outdoor activities, psychological well-being, and health, during the different seasons of the year. Special emphasiswill be put on climatic factors like outdoor temperatures, availibility ofnatural dayligth, and access to green areas in the neighborhood.
Tishler, W. H.. "Historical and Cultural Continuity in Folk Architecture: the Adaption of Old World Building Concepts to a New American Setting." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. In the 19th century, America was the setting for a massive wave of immi-gration that was unique in history During this time, more than 30 Europeanethnic groups came to the Midwestern State of Wisconsion. They broughtwith them a rich Old World architectural legacy that shaped countlessbuildings in the state's rural countryside. These structures reflect a re-markable continuity of life styles, functions, forms, construction methodsand building materials from their homeland across the ocean. As such, theyrepresent a unique American historic resource-but one that is rapidly dis-appearing from the landscape. This paper discusses the cultural continuityand diffusion of traditional building concepts in Wisconsin and the assimila-tion forces that eventully changed folk building methods in the immigrant'snew American environment. The author begins by presenting an overview of his recent research that hasdocumented hundereds of rural ethnic structures. He then discusses theirprimary architectural characteristics, drawing upon examples from select-ed ethnic groups. In shaping these buildings, countless immigrants ex-pressed extraordinary ingenuity, perseverance and ambitions for a brighterfuture. Yet, while seeking a better life in tehir new Wisconsin homeland,they never completely relinquished European ancestral building traditions,and their varied architecture portaryed a myriad of cultural values and re-membered images.Included in this presentation are the Germans, Wisconsin's largest ethnicgroup. Their most unique architectural contribution can be found in theFachwerk construction methods they brought from their fatherland. Thebuildings of the British and Yankees, who generally utilized estabilished-construction features they had learned in the esatern states, are also noted.Central Europeans, including French from Canada who incorporated piecestir place horizontal log construction, and Swiss and Austrian immigrantswho erected distinctive stone structures, are then discussed. From Europe'sLow Countries, Luxembourgers and Belgians replicated Old World buildingsusing stone and brick. Settlers from the Nordic Countries, particularlyNorway and Finland, utilized their wood building skills to erect many typesof low structures . The Bohemians left a sizable legacy of traditional struc-tures, but folk buildings of other Eastern European immigrant groups arerare because they quickly adopted new American building techniques. None-theless, several remarkable structures built by Poles, Russians, Estoniansand Uthuanlans have been found in the state.The paper then addresses how, over time, changing attitudes and conditionsresulted in adapta tions of traditional building methods and the assimilationof new values and ideas. It notes why, in some cases, changes occurred slow-ly in some ethnic settlements, while others quickly rejected their tradi-tional ways in favor or new American techniques. Thus the study offers in-sights into suchquestions as the transfer of tradtional building techniquesover time and space, the adaptations made when new conditions confrontedfolk builders, and the reasons why some early structures and other elementsof the built landscape have survived to the present day. These questions arenot only important to scholars of folk material culture, they are also crucialto understanding how we can better manage these historic resources for thefuture.
Oriah, G. K. King. "Historical and Cultural Impacts of the City Structure of Mombasa, Kenya." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. The city of Mombasa, lying on the coast of Kenya, has been of great historicalsignificance to the whole East African hinterland adjacent to it. The city hasbeen the starting point of colonial penetration into the modern Kenya, and anarea of great cultural mixing which has caused inland-ward diffusion inAsiatic, Middle Eastern, Arabic and European civilizations and culturesthroughout history. For centuries, sailing ships from Asia and Middle Easthave used monsoon winds to facilitate a steady floor of navigational and com-mercial traffic between East Africa and Asia. From about 8th Century A.D. Mombasa has been an important port and hasattracted the settlement of Arabs, Turks, Persians, Indians, Chinese, Portu-guese, and the British. All these ethnic groups have brought in their archi-tecture, urban settlement patterns and other cultural artifacts to the city.Their cultural interaction has affected ethnic characteristics of Kenyansalong the coast and ultimately had some impact on the city structure ofMombasa. This paper aims at examining the impact of this cultural mixtureon urban design of Mombasa and city structure.The paper explores the history settlement of Mombasa and tries to capturethe urban form that resulted from these early settlements. Each dominantcivilization or sub-structure in each historical period is then analysed indetail and the impact it has on the city structure is explored. Finally the pa-per dwells on the impacts of British Colonization and the attempts of theBritish administration to impart the concepts of modern city planning prin-ciples over Mombasa between 1926 to 1963. The eventual entrance of theAfrican into the city's economy since 1963 is then examined. Finally, thecurrent city structure of Mombasa is analysed in detail.
Groening, G, and Joachim Wolschke-Bulmahn. "Historical Continuity in Open Space Administration - the Case of the Citizens Committees." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. It is the goal of the paper to show continuity and discontinuity of citizenparticipation in open space planning in the course of the 20th century in Germany. Sometimes citizen participation seems to be regarded as a recentphenomenon in open space planning. However, in our paper we will considerthe ideas for citizen participation in open space planning from the begin-ning of the 20th century until today. We take as an example the developmentof participatory efforts in a major city in Germany. The issues will refer tocommunal open space policy, allotment gardening, cemetery administrationand trees in city streets.
Seymen, Ü. B.. "Historical Evolution of the Concept of Space in Natural and Social Sciences and the Epistemological Evaluation of Sciences of Spatial Organization." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. The first and main context of the paper is centered on the concept of SPACEbeing the most important and basic term of the expression put forward asTHE SCIENCES OF SPATIAL ORGANIZATION. The main questions formulatedabout the concept can be listed as: does the term space have only one concep- tual meaning (content) if not how and in which interrelations they are evolved historically how they are related withtheoretical, methodological and epistemological totalities? Even though thesecientific inquirers must use the concepts within the theoretical totalitiesthat they belong to; it is very crucial to differentiate between differentepistemological totalities, in which the teories and the concepts are placedin. We can evaluate the appropriate use of concepts and their conceptualmeaning only if we can specify their relation with the teoretical - epistem-ological totalities they are formed and placed in. For clear and appropriateundersanding of different epistemological approaches they must be relatedwith historical - social contexts. In the paper the introduced way evaluation and approach helps to see andformulate clearly the problems, the contradictions and the crises continuingwithin the sciences of spatial organization which are bing considered as asubset of social seciences.In sciences of spatial organization the physical dimensions of space are usu-ally separated from the social-economicalcultural-historical etc. dimen-sions of space. In fact the physical and socio-economical, cultural-historical etc. dimensions of space are unseparable, so they must bu held andanalysed together. It is not adequate or sufficient to accept the multidimen-sionality of space only at the conceptual level. The choice at the conceptuallevel must be integrated and unified with the choices at the theoretical,methodolgical and epistemological levels.In Turkey the work on the content of the concept of space has been consideredby the scientists those having natural (physics) and mathematical secien-tific bases (Oner, 1951, 1971, 1976; Koc 1984). Besides these work,within the context of the sciences of spatial organizalon, I. Tekeli (1967,1979) has evalutions on the concept of space and the different contents ofthe concept.Both In A. Einstein's (1969) and Max Jammer's (1969) approaches thehistorical evolution of the concept of space is taken as a linear, one dimen-sional and a successive process. If we summarise and clear the point, ac-cording to Einstein and Jammer the concept of space takes different contentswithin different periods throughout the history. These era's or periods areseparated with clear limits from each other and from one period to the oth-er; sequentially one content differentiates into the other. But Infect it is oneof the main thesis of this paper that the content of the concept of space hadan unhinear multi-Dimensional and compex historical process of evolutionThe evolution process has not taken the form as differentiation of one con-ceptual content into another in each specific historical period or era, but thechanges and transformations took place among synchronic conceptentualformations with crosswords interrelations and within historical conditionsand social determinants. The evolution of differentiations and transforma-tions are wavelike-unlinear but multicurved linear. The level and strengthof extention and approvability, of diffrent conceptual contents have beendifferent at the same historical period or era.
van der Voordt, D. J. M.. "Homelike Houses for Mentally Retarded Adults: Current Developments in the Netherlands." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. In Greek and Roman times mentally handicapped children were regarded asuseless and were either killed or abondoned. In the Middle Ages mentally re-tarded people were also rejected. In modern Western culture on the otherhand, the mentally hadicapped are seen as normal people, albeit with(sometimes considerable) mental disabilities. The different approaches areclearly expressed in the way they are housed: from a nomadic existence inAntiquity via the madhouses in the Middle Ages to modern institutions andsmall-scale living-units. This article describes how since World War II, inthe Netherlands, especially the latter form of housing has deeloped increas-ingly in the direction of living as 'normal' as possible.At the moment normalization and integration are key concepts in housingpolicy with regard to mentally handicapped persons. About 1970, the nor-malization principle gained momentum because of the work of among others Bank-Mikkelsen, Bengt Nirje, H. Gunzburg, Ann Shearer, and Wolf Wol-fensberger. Partly due to the pressure of parents' associations the intro-duction of this principle in the Netherlands led to the building of 600 liv-ing-units. The first homes usually have large-scale dayrooms anddormitories. At the moment there is a trent towards further splitting upwards into smaller common rooms and individual bedsitters for every resi-dent. Practical experience shows that this increases the independence andself-reliance of most residents, but is not beneficial for all of them.In financial and ideological grounds mentally handicapped people are in-creasingly housed in specially adapted family dwellings. In actual practice,adaptations afterwards cause many problems. It would be better to constructpurpose-built housing for the mentally handicapped. At the design stage itshould be taken into account that the living units will be occupied by roughly24 metally handicapped persons and these units should be arranged in such away that they can be easily 'rebuilt' into normal family dwellings later on.On the basis of a comparative floor plan analysis, interviews with residentsand experts, and visits to 12 residential institutions important lessons canbe drawn from the recent past (1). For that purpose the article discussesseveral floor plans of the investigated facilties that are illustrative for thedevelopments described.
Farhadi, A. S.. "Housing for Returning Afghanistan Refugees Province of Hearat." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. In the past ten years, during the Russian invasion, five million refugeeshave scattered to Pakistan, Iran and other countries. After the Russianwithdrawal and a better political atmosphere, refugees will be returning totheir native land.A research paper is in process o be presented at the lAPS 11 InternationalConference, Julay 1990. Information is being gathered from refugees stillresiding in Pakistan and the results will be available for use by designers.An interview method, using questionnaires, will be used to determine peopleneeds socially, economically, and environmentally. Studies will investigatespace and physical requirements for the family traditional home economy;handicrafts, food preparation and products, housing poultry and animals,agricultural production and provisions for those handicapped by war inju-ries. Proposals will be made based on the findings of the study.
Kose, S, and Michiko Nakaohji. "Housing the Elderly: Past, Present, and Future: Conflict Between Historical/cultural Background and User Requirements." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990.

As a key government organization, the Japanese Ministry of Constructionhas tried to implement various policy measures to assist to supply dwellingunits that are suited to the needs of elderly persons. The measures include:construction of public housing through local governments; construction ofhousing through the HUDC (Housing and Urban Development Corporation);and financial assistance by housing loan through the HLC (Housing Loan Cor-poration). Some of the measures date back as early as 1964, when general designguidelines for purpose-built units for elderly persons were issued. Thispaper describes the outline of these developments up to present time, refer-ring to some of typical examples. It also discusses some of the implicationsongoing research project on housing in the aging society has in implement-ing future housing policy because some hisiorical/cultural background con-tradicts with desirable design solutions derived from ergonomic viewpoints.Finally, the paper describes design guidelines that have been developed along with the project.

Tosca, TH. F.. "I Am Curious Blue." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. "In the great times we are living, when man can finally tame the formerlyalmighty nature (exterior and interior) colour is bound to play, thanks toits psychogenetic qualities, three very important roles in man-made space:a) that of attributing to it its time dimension (continutiy, rythm, gesture),not antagonistically to plastic structure but over it, within the frame of aconstantly evolving metastructure of interweaving semiotic networks. Tothis contribute the relative flexibility and inexpensiveness of colour coat-ings; b) Establishment of beauty as an overall factor of the total appearanceof the urbanscape and as opposed to any individual "I amcurious blue" state-ment; c) Restitution of ecological symbolicness, following the pardingm ofnature, through element and group colour rendering.Rules of a design strategy should be: a) Tolerances of man's adaptation levelaccording to the Macclelland theory of "affect" allowing for moderate fluctu-ations of the stimulation level above or below the usual; b) according to thesame theory, the possibility of constant change of the adaptation level forconstant change of the previously adapted to stimulation level; c) Control ofthe quality and quantity of perceptual input to avoid lowering of the perfor-mance of the human mind, due to system-maximization (adaptation to thefamiliar, good or bad; d) Regulation of the reflexivity of the elements of thebuilt milieu (stronger or weaker) so as to allow a degree of unlearning lib-erating attention for inner visions normally projected on axterior planes;e) Above all a transcendent overall conceptual context based on self-awareness, inciting no less than "let me be another wonderful blue" state-ments. Toots for a design realisation are object properties (optical properties,physical form, illumination). Factors to be taken into consideration are en-vironmental (contextual, geographical, social) ones, biological (need &survival, aesthetic and medical) ones and the learning mechanism of the-brain (perception, connotation, cognition). The last one is of great impor-tance and accounts for man's simultaneous awareness of his individuality andhis belongingness to totality (spatial, temporal, social, cultural, archety-pal, etc.)The International architecture has at times offered examples of such and"organic" colour rendering that are worth examining and being taught by.The Workshop of Semiotiac Applications of Colour of the Section of Arhitec-ture of the University of Thessaloniki has been involvd In research basedprojects thereup for the last four years."
Georgalli, M. C.. "Identity and Chance in Dwelling Environments: Amorgos, a Case Study in Greece." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. "The study discusses issues of identity and change as exemplified in thedwelling forms on Amorgos, and island which forms part of the Cycladic Ar-chipelago in the southeastern Aegean. Identity is searched among thosedwelling types that best reflect the attitude of the islanders towards spaceduring the early years of settlement growth on Amorgos, the years of a sub-sistence agriculture. Socio-economec changes due to the Ottoman conquest in1538 AD, led to the evolution of new or modified urban types while culturalidentity was preserved in the rural areas through persistence in the oldformal models adn adaptation of the imported ones to the local building tech-niques.Amorgos is one of the remotest islands of the Cyclades, very long and narow,exposed to strong winds and surrounded by stormy sea- The limited agricul-tural potential, due to Amorgos' rocky terrain, was further restricted byrepeated natural disasters, such as earthquakes, and man- made activitiessuch as colonization and piracy. Main conquerors have been the Romans, theLatins and the Ottomans. The towns of Amorgos followed the defensive mou-tainous type, common in the Aegean, while, due to the lack of arable land andthe need to preserve it, the houses were of the "monospito" type: Single-cell, single floor units, very long and narrow, their entrance from the nor-row side through an open courtyard. A special wooden structure, theNapocrevatos for sleeping and storing, the cooking area called sparastiawand the bread-baking oven, the "fournos", were main features of the mono-spite which had no interior walls. Similar types, to be discussed, were foundin the rural areas while more complex variations were produced throughvertical and horizontal combination of the monospito. The island's natural evolution was disrupted in the sixteenth century due toan influx of settlers as a result of the Ottoman conquest as well as due to amajor shift in the economic orientation of the islanders with their gradualintegration into Mediterranean commerce. Trade and navigation were con-tributing factors in transforming the towns from communities based onprimary production to more sophisticated formations based on trade andnavigation. Elaborate building types, the archontika, the upper class build-ing forms of Ottoman continental Greece were imported on Amorgos and be-came dominant in its major towns.Nevertheless, the imported style was well adapted to fit the local buildingtechniques adn new dwelling types arose at the crossroads of the two archi-tectural lines. Their derivatives were welcomed in both urban and rural ar-eas of the island while, at the some time, the older formal models continuedbeing built in the villages of Amorgos where the same elementary functionalconsidirations of pre-industriel communities remained unchanged."
Mills, G. T.. "Ideology and Spatial Structure in Informal Settlements: Two Case Studies in Southern Afric." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. This paper reports on our research into the relationship between spatialpatterns and ideology in two 'Informal' towns in southern Africa. Using theanalytical techniques of space syntax together with the social theory ofstructuratlon an attempt Is made to show how urban space 'works' as boththe medium and outcome of power relations in society. Social patterns ofdomination and resistance are spatially constituted in urban designs, and byhighlighting this soclo-spatial interplay key lessons are provided for ar-chitects on the sub-continent.In their attempt to overcome the anti-social and sterile effects of modernarchitecture and urban design in southern Africa architects have directedtheir attention at the more informal, or organic-looking, settlement in theregion. These range across a wide spectrum of settlement types, from theiraditional' towns in Botswana and the older segments of cities such as CapeTown that have evolved piecemeal during the last 150 years, to squattersettlements around the larger industrial centres.A morphological feature underlying all these settlements Is that they areseemingly without design, or order. Their complex, distorted geometry sug-gests an unintelligible environment without structure and without any formof planning logic. In plan, therefore, 'informal' settlements present S a finemosaic of narrow streets, winding walkways and Irregular shaped squaresand meeting places. Vet, on closer inspection, what at first appears to be disorderly and confus-ing turns out to be an immensely sophisticated spatial system. This is so be-cause the design of this settlement type at the global level has been deter-mined mostly as the result of numerous decisions taken at the local level.Since these decisions are, in effect, the spatialisation of social ideas, includ-Wing those tacitly taken-for-granted conventions that give structure to theway people Interact and ultimately how society is ordered, they are not al-ways explicit In the appearance of settlements. Indeed it is not that these settlements are without planning but that the rulesof composition governing their design are different. Each settlement is thus,in effect, a complex web of interlocking spatial decisions informed by a setof locally generated rules. In order to identify those rules, or 'the designlogic', research has had to go beyond the level of appearances and style andinvestigate the pattern of spatial relationships that is defined by the builtforms that make up the settlement as a whole.This paper presents this research in order to demonstrate that any attemptby architects on the sub-continent to design better environments with onlya superficial understanding of form will most likely lead to a spurious solu-tion, essentially no different to the ones being criticised. It adopts the tech-nique of 'space syntax' (Hillier and Hanson 1984) which is used in combi-nation with the social theory of 'structuratlon' (Giddens 1984) and appliesthis model to two case studies: Crossroads, a 'squatter' settlement near CapeTown; and Serowe, a 'traditional' Tswana town.In each instance the ideological framework which forms the non-physicalcontext of design is unique and both the set of design rules and the spatialmorphology vary accordingly as two distinct spatial cultures. Crossroads Isbasically an enclave of conservative, Xhosa-speaking people who since themid-1970's have constantly been threatened with removal by the State. Po-litical tensions both within the community and between the community andthe State have frequently erupted into violence, culminating in a major con-frontation in 1984/5 and the destruction of a large portion of the settle-ment. Major aspects of these power relations are spatially constituted in theform of the settlement.Serowe is typical in form of the informally produced settlements in Botswa-na. It consists of numerous households organised into clusters, or wards,each of which is under the control of a wardsman, and all wardsmen are re-sponsible to a chief.. This hierarchical pattern of relations is clearly arti-culn both case studies the relationship of social organisation and spatial de-sign Is demonstrated to be non-trivial and deeply embedded in form. It isargued, In conclusion, that urban design and architecture are forms of ma-terial Ideology crucial to the reproduction (and transformation) of societyon the sub-continent.
Beattie, N. J. W.. "Imageability and Cultural Identity." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. The concept of imageability recognises the processes of cognition and deducesthe characterics of the environment that contribute to its comprehension.This concept can be expanded to include aspects of cultural identity which isalso actively sought and valued by the observer In the pursuit of a morecomplete comprehension of a place and its people.The literature and theory of human evaluation and comprehension of the ur-ban environment Is voluminous and covers many aspects of the subject in-cluding the aesthetic, behavioural and cognitive. Within this material thereis a great deal of agreement eventhough emphasis and terminology may notbe consistent throughout.The area within which most agreement lies can be summarised into the basisof a theory about the form of the environment that will be easily compre-hended and, more importantly, will allow the user to act with competence.The most accessible summary of that theoretical material is that which de-fines the comprehensible environment as one which has a discernible struc-ture and the structure is based on a network of paths punctuated with orien-tating devices in the form of nodes and landmarks and discriminated intodistricts which are clearly defined by boundaries and edges. These elements are known to provide the mechanics of the cognisable envi-ronment but the theory that brings them together says nothing about thecultural dimension which provides the sense of identity and belonging whichis also sought by the users of the environment.In the past, towns had regional and cultural characteristics. Separate devel-opment of cultures produced strong individual characteristics which werealso discernible in cultural artifacts including buildings. Distictions maystill exist in parts of the world but distinctiveness is being reduced formany reasons including global movement of ideas, technology, literatureandpeople and the institution of global opinion leadership which in recenttimes has located somewhere in the western world.However there are many other elements such as climate, topography andnatural and manufactured landmarks which give unique characteristics tocities, towns and regions. Climate and topography are not primary deriva-tions of culture but do continue to provide characteristics which are even-tually associated with the culture of the inhabitants of a region.Landmarks on the other hand present images that are more strongly asso-ciated with particular places even though comprehension may vary from aglobal to a local level. Landmarks at the same time are endowed with manylayers of meaning that reveal mech about the culture and its value system.It is concluded that in addition to requiring an environment with a structurethat is comprehensible, people are sensitive to and actively seek the cultu-ral identity of the environment. Information gathered from the unique at-tributes of a place are used in conjunction with those which relate imagea-bility to provide a more complete comprehension of the place and its people.
Yan, X, and R. W. Marans. "Images of Changing Urban Form: a Case Study of Beijing." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. "The traditional physical form of Beijing, China which evolved over severalcenturies, has undergone drastic change since the 1950's. Changes duringthe 1950's were influenced by Russian architectural and Planning practice;since the 1970's, western style architecture and planning have prevailed.This paper will explore the impact of these changes on the image of the city.The image of Beijing is examined from the perspective of both the publicand the "image makers" or design professionals (i.e., architects and cityplanners). Image, although largely influenced by the visual quality of keyelements which make up the city, is also a function of the cultural and his-torical singificance of these elements and the degree to which they are usedby the public. The paper is based on research conducted between 1986 and 1988. The re-search methodolgy included:1. A survey using questionnaires administered to residents in three types ofresidential environments: traditional courtyard housing, low-rise apart-ments (circa 1950s), and high-rise apartments (circa 1970s and 1980$);2. A survey of architects an planners from Beijing;3. lndepth interviews with a sample of residents and the design profession-als;4. An examination of reconstruction documents and newspapers covering the30-year period; and5. Observations of activity patterns in residential areas and in public plac-es.Key findings from the study include the following:1. Despite dramatic physical change in urban form since the 1950s, theimage of Beijing among residents and design professionals is still that of ahistoric city. This is due, in part, to the well preserved elements of the city(buildings, walls, spaces) and the historical and culdural significance ofthese elements to both groups.2. The public image of Beijing prior to 1950 was largely structured by thethree walls which enclose the Forbidden City, the Imperial City, and the In-ner City. The pattern of new streets influcences the image of Beijing today.The visual dominance and the use of both the walls and streets contributesingificantly to their rote in establishing the public image.3. Despite urban growth, the image of Beijing as a central city has notchanged. Centrally located, Tan-An-Men Square and the Forbidden City areimportant nodes in the public's image of Beijing today. The prominence ofTian-An-Men Square and the Forbidden City in the minds of the public isInfluenced by the significant visual quality of their buildings, and the social,cultural and political meanings attached to them. 4. The well-preserved and renovated buildings and public places in the oldcity and those new buildings which adopt a traditional architectural vocabu-lary are most liked by the public. They are preferred over new buildingsrelecting a modern western style becase of their visual quality and the cul-tural and historical meaning they convey. The historical elements of the cityare becoming more important to city residents, and their preservation andrenovation are more favored today by both residents and renovation aremore favored today by both residents and design professionals than theywere in the 1950s.The paper concludes that, although there has been dramatic change in thephysical form of Beijing, its image as a historic city is still strong in themids of both residents and design professionals. However, it is suggested thatcontinued change along lines of post-1970 design and planning will signfi-cantly impact the city's image in the future."
Grivel, F, X Berger, C Dah, J. J. Ruppert, and V. Candas. "Impact of Geographical and Cultural Settings on Environmental Predictions Derived from Current Standards: the Case of Thermal Comfort Standards." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. Current thermal comfort standards (ISO 7730, ASHRAE 55-81 ) are basedupon experimental studies carried out with persons maintained in their owngeographical and cultural settings, mainly European and North American.The opportunity was given us for measuring the climatic parameters andcollecting the associated thermal judgements expressed by persons living inIvory Coast (equatorial Africa), namely studentsin their class-rooms. Re-sults showed noteworthy discrepancies between predictions based on stan-dards and observations actually collected. Thus, application of the standardsto climatic situations such as those met in Ivory Coast would probably im-ply, for the persons involved, a permanent stay in derived climatized indoorsettings, i.e. an every day-life in conditions obviously different from theirusual natural and cultural environments. Since standards pretend to be con-sidered as universally valid decision criteria, it is concluded that someadjustments of the thermal comfort standards would appear appropriate.
Donald, l. J.. "Individual and Organizational Purposes in Office Evaluation: Compatibility Or Conflict." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. "Place evaluation has received criticism for being atheoretical and noncumu-lative (Center, 1983; Donald, 1985). In an attempt to over come this Cen-ter (1983) proposed a "Purposive Model of Place Evaluation" using the fa-cet approach to research. The facet model represents a general template forthe specification of the consituents place evaluation. The specific content ofthe model in relation to the environment under consideration is then de-veloped.In the present study three facets of office evaluation are proposed. The firstfacet deals with the scale of the environment being evaluated, and includesthe elements of office building, office, and work space. A second facet speci-fies the environmental referent which includes the element of spatial, ser-vice, and socio-spatial aspects of the office. Finnaly, the third fact specifiesthe organizational unit which represents the level of the goals people havewithin an organization in relation to the office environment. This consists oforganizational, group, and individual goals. A forty-one item questionnaire was developed from the facets. Responses toeach question were given using a 5-point Ukert type scale from "Hinders agreat deal" to "Helps a great deal" their goals. The questionnaire was dis-tributed randomly throughout four different office buildings. A total usablesample of 215 participants was achieved.The data were analyzed using the non-metric multidimensional scaling pro-cedure of SSAI. The analysis procedure provides a spatial representation ofthe assocations between the questionnarie items, and is used to test the va-lidity of the facets and their elements, as well as to reveal the empirical re-tionships between them.The results provides general support for each of the facets. However, nodistinciton was evident between the workspace and the office as a whole.Distinctions were evident of the elements of the referent facet also. The or-ganizational unit facet appeared to be a sub-set of the referent facet.A second analysis was made of the questions concerned with the socio-spatialreferent only. The results of this analysis showevd all environmental scalesto be differentiated. Additionally, support was found for a distinction be-tween individual, group, and organizational perspectives or purposes in theevaluation. Finally, it appeared that envrionmental factors related to cohe-sion in the organization were central to the evaluations, with communicationbeing peripheral.In addition to the results supporting the general model of evaluation pro-posed by Canter (1983), they provide a specific model of office evaluation.One of the central findings of the study is that people hold different perspec-tives for the evaluation of the office envrionment. Each perspective relatesto a particular set of goals. From organizational psychology it would be pre-dicted that there would be a conflict between individual and organizaitonal-perspectives. The present study clearly revealed this not to be the case."
UzzeIl, D. L.. "Interpretation and the Re - Presentation of the Past." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. "The last twenty years has seen an enormous growth in public interest In thepast: Some would say that this has been generated by the tourism sector todevelop what has become known as the "heritage industry". Museums , visi-tor centers and battlefield sides dealing with war are an important elementin this growth attracting millions of visitors world-wide every year. Butthere is a conflict between the need to present the past in an authentic waywhich reflects the tragedy and horror of past events, and the need to present"entertainment for all the family". This paper looks at the application of the concept of "hot cognitions" to the interpretation of war and conflict, andquestions whether these objectives can be realized. Should heritage inter-pretation move away from concentrating solely on hard information and cog-nitive change, to encouraging and extending people's emotional responses toimportant historical events in a way that may upset or offend ?The paper will also examine the way in which time and a receding past isused to sanitise history and make the past more acceptable. Case studies willinclude the interpretation of Nazi atrocities in France, trench life in theFirst World War as presented in the Imperial War Museum (London) andthe battlefield sites of the Somme, and fascism in 12th century York. Exam-ples from other parts of Europe will also be discussed."
Proctor, D. W., F. H. Sancar, and A. R. Alanen. "Interpreting Cultural History to Facilitate Socio - Economic Development: Participatory Planning and Design on the Geogebic Iron Range of Wlsconslon and Michigan." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. "This paper reports on a planning and design case study where the central is-sues involved cultural and historic resources. The main goal of this studywas to implement and integrative approach" to explore the role that historycan play in addressing current community development issues. Th integra-tive approach is based on the assumptions that (1) history is significant tothe extent that it is part of everyday life, issues, and decisions; (2) preser-vation related atcivities should be based on local pereceptions, initiative,and active involvement; and (3) planning and desugn efforts concerning his-toric resources should be integrated with other planning considerations.The study involved uncovering and documenting the "stories" that reflect the social life and material culture of the residents living in a now defunct mining region in northern Wisconsion and Michigan. A primary purpose of theeffort was to aid the region develop a more viable econimic and social basevia recognition of its unique cultural heritage. The outcomes of the integra-tive approach were 1) procedures which allowed the experts, the local pub-lic, and public officials to engage actively in historical research, interpre-tation, and decision making for the region's social and economic future; (2)planning and design proposals reflecting local pereceptions and concerns,including the participants views of the past and future; and (3) an evalua-tion by the participants of both the procedures and the proposals in terms of several criteria, including the degree of learning, individual participation,breadth, representativeness, cerativity and usefulness.The procedures were implemented in a series of workshops with local par-ticipants. The results of the workshops included definition of the regionalissue context, definition of the organizational context, a mission statementfor the participating group, prototypical "stories" reflecting local history and proposals for action. The results of each workshop were summarized andinterpreted by the facilitators and verified by participants. Each workshopbuilt upon previous ones, thereby leading to an overall planning strategyand specific proposals. The proposals offer planning and design interven-tions as well as historical documentation and organizational solutions fortheir implementation. The participants felt that the propasals, when imple-mented, would help "moderately" to "a great deal" in achieving several ob-jectives, Including promotion of regional unity, community pride, and thedevelopment of a context where stories of the past can live today."
Ahmad, A. M.. "Islamic - the Burden of Arab Architecture?" In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. "The so-called "Islamic Style" has clearly had an adverse impact on contem-porary Arab design. This impacty has been perpetuated by certain Arab andnon-Arab scholars and in each group by those who are biased in favour ofthe faith and those who are biased against it. This paper will attempt tohighlight some misconceptions e.g. the distorted Image of the "Muslim" inthe Western mind and the superficial and misleading view of most Arabscho-lars who confuse Islam which as a concept is as old as humanity, with theMuhammadan Message which is only fourteen centuries old, hence theirfoulty assumption that nothing of consequence existed before the messagethat could inspire the future. The paper will show that certain conceptswhich reflect on architectural design and town planning such as individuali-ty, monogamy and mixing of sexes are basic to Islam although the contraryis consistently portrayed.The nation's crippling view to history has all but turned heritage to an ob-stacle. The natural outcome of this is a degraded architecture rich in stan-dard cliché's and rather poor in essentials. The "Islamic Styles" has beenimposed on building types where functionally it was irrelevant and aesthet-ically it tended to confuse the required architectural expression.The paper will then suggest a possible direction for a contemporary ArabIslamic architecture based on a more liberal understanding of the Arab Is-lamic culture."
DüIgerogIu, Y, and N. Baytin. "Issues of Temporality and Continuity in Transition - Period Housing in Turkey." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. A transition - process is being gone throutgh in Turkey, one of the results of which is the migration from rural to urban areas. The social characteristics of the original culture of rural people reflect onthe built environment In a wide spectrum covering the construction tech-niques suitable for the available building materials in the region as well asthe building style and spatial organisations which had been found to be themost appropriate for the physical, social and economic environments of therural areas they live and for their individual needs.When rural people migrate to urban areas, they go through a process of'Gettint Urbanized' namely 'Transition - Period' which is known to takeplace in stages. During this process the elements of urban culture replacegradually the ones of rural culture that the migrant bring with them. Be-sides the characteristics of the physical, social and economic environments,the elements of built environment i.e. building materials, constructiontechniques, means and ways of landownership are different.Within this framework, kinds of spatial organisation and of buildings them-selves migrants live in, gradually change. However one can observe thatsome of the elements of rural culture change through the stages of transi-tion - period whereas some others are carefully maintained due to manyreasons and that both kinds are reflected in the built environment In urbanareas.Therefore, the aim of the paper Is to present an analysis of impact of soclo-cultural change on the built-environment the migrants live in, referringmainly to their dwellings, namely the 'Transition - period Housing'. Thereason for challenging this subject is that the issues of both temporality andcontinuity exist in this phenomenon.The search for answers to the following questions form the essence of theanalysis:- What have the migrants brought from rural areas culturaly & spatially?- Which elements of their original culture have remained unchanged andwhich of them have changed?- What are the changes taking place in the spatial organisations of theirdwellings and the built environment after settling down in the urbanarea as the result of the issues raised up by the second question? While the first question is related to ' Culture & Continuity', the last twoare related to 'Culture & Change'. The way to explore the issues related toabove questions will be based on two scales:- The cultural factors: At the scale of the family and the community,- The spatial factors: At the scale of dwelling mainly and the settlement.The starting point in history is selected to be 1930's the date after whichtransformation in the Turkish society began to gain momentum.
Sancar, F. H.. "Knowledge and Its Integration in Environmental Planning and Design." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. "The epistemological debate in behavioral sciences (environmental psycholo-gy, geography, anthropdlogy, etc.) centers around the "humanistic versusscientistic" approaches to knowledge generation. This debate has been inher-ited by the applied, professional fields striving for disciplinary status. Inenvironmental planning and design, knowledge is said to be captured in"normative" (I.e., "planning/design theory/criticism") and "postive" theo-ries (of the sciences). The methodological debate in this particular field re-volves around integration of scientific knowledge into application. One issulfacing the scholar In environmental planning and design in the past threedecades Is the "applicability gap" and the related dichotomy between re-searchers and planner/desilgners or research versus design departments inacademia. The reasons given for this gap fall into three categories: the "two communi-ties" or "ignorance" argument, the relevance or "not aksing the right ques-tion" argument, and the "shortcomings of the design process" argument. Thefirst argument emphasizes the lack of communication and understanding be-tween the two communities (one generates and the other uses knowledge) andreinforces the existing dichotomy, The second argument mirrors the epis-temological debate in the behavioral sciences in that the naturalistic view ofknowledge generation is questioned and characteristics of knowledge relevantfor the management of human systems are investigated. Concepts such aslearning in action and experiential or phenomenological nature of knowledgeare discussed. This line of thinking implies the role planning/designing inknowledge generation while providing little procedrual guidance for its in-tegration. The third argument emphasizes the differences between the re-searchers' view of how the planning/design process should be organized(I.e., along the lines of a rational, informational processing model) versusthe process that materalizes. Shortcomings of this process such as inadequte attention given to programming and tack of post-implementation evaluation,proclude the integration of various theoretical constructs and empirical ev-idence.Recent research in planning and design processes question the applicabilityAad desirability of the rational information processing model. In this paper,the studies describing planning and design as a cognitive, behavioral and so-cial process are reviewed. The use of mental consturcts such as proposi-tions, scripts, and schemata; cognitive and behavioral heuristics, and theargumentative nature of the social discourse during the process are dis-cussed. The role of "worldview" or "style" is emphasized. Their implicationson the form and content of "theory" in an environmental planning and designdiscipline are discussed along with methodological considerations for knowl-edge integration.It is concluded that a much stronger and intentional interaction between theart and science or criticism and research process is necessary to generatepositive knowledge useful and usable in environnietal planning and design."
Le Couedic, D.. "Le Regionalisme Architectural: Constitution Et Detournement - L´exemple De La Bretagne." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. conference:IAPS:11
Villanova, R.. "Le Reve Ou Le Retour - La Production De L´espace Domestique En Situation Interculturelle." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. conference:IAPS:11
Leite, C.. "Le Reve Ou Le Tetour - La De L Espace Domestique En Situation Intercuturelle." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. conference:IAPS:11
Leite, Valente Pinho, and R. Villanova. "Lereve Ou Le Retour Quand Les Migrants Construisent Au Village Natal." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. conference:IAPS:11
Ioviev, V. I., and A. A. Barbanov. "Les Aspects Spatiaux, Historique Et Cultureles Dans Les Etudes De La Composition Architecturale a L´institut D´architecture." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. conference:IAPS:11
Barabanov, A. A.. "Les Emotions Et Le Probleme De La Force Déxpression Du Milieu Spatial D´architecture." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. conference:IAPS:11
Walkey, R. B.. "Life - Making in the Balkans: the Legacy of the Builders Guild." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. "The builders guild has had an important role in the making of Balkan arci-lecture. This paper describes who they were, how they worked, and thebuildings they made in this land between two cultures. It concludes with anexplortion of the process used to create magnificent diversity within a cul-tural continuum.At the beginning of the eighteenth century, the villages and small Yugoslavia,Bulgaria and western Turkey were composed of compact, yet distinct sub-cultures working and living in a symbiotic way. The strong physical contin-uity of the dwellings throughout the area speaks of a unique building process that was able to embrace the many sub-cultures. While Turk, Greek, Bul-gar, Viach and Jew maintained distinct languages and beliefs, the housesbuilt for such a diversity vary only slightly in their plan and detail.The grand houses, major works of architecture though they are, were notthe product of trained architects, nor were they built by residents as part ofa layman's vernacular. Rather, these dwellings were the product of an ex-tensive network of "design build" teams, direct descendants of the Byzantinebuilders quild.Contact and competition between the teams produced powerful and uniquebuldings which are only recently being documented. Many centers into theform, detail, and decoration of their building. Descending from only a fewmountain villages, and speking a secret builders dialect, these teamscreated a building by calling on a number of rules, or central qualities thatwould suggest an iconic house. Such an image was flexible enough, and at such a deep level that it could not only adapt to site and client but to sub-culture as well. This was the result of the strength of interconnectednesswithin the guild and the power of the central qualities.The houses that survive from that sensitive and responsible system testifyto an integrated process of bulding and culture based on a shared vision inwhich designing and building were united in craft. The eight central qualitiesthat shaped each house have a lineage in time across many cultures. Theremay be lessons from these places that can speak to our contemporary searchfor continutiy with a human face contiuity that can emerge from our ownculturally diverse and pluralistic world."
Cohen, U. E., G Weisman, and A. Schnarsky. "Linking Applied Research, Facility Programming, and Design." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. "This paper addresses the issue of linking the often under utilized and dis-connected activities of applied research, faciltiy programming, and design.The need for a methodical yet engaging process linking these elements of thearchitectural process is critical both to design practice as well as teaching.The linkage of research-based programming and design is a topic of continu-ing experimentation and development in our teaching and pratice. Manyschools offer courses in methods and practice of applied research, but onlyfew systematically integrate research-based information with design. Thispaper desciribes our approach and the lessons of a recent case study con-ducted in an integrative facility design studio.Approach and Method:The main premise is that better architectural solutions are generated by In-formed designers who pursue pre-design identification of the major issuesto be resolved and the appropriate design principles to solve these issues.The goal was to conduct an integrative experience which links the analysis ofinformation, its translation into a research-based program, and its ap-plication into an accountable architectural solution.The context for our case study was the design of a 250-person law office in adowntown Chicago high rise building. The pre-design preparations includedreview of the literature, site visits and client interviews, analysis of pub-lished case studies and discussinos with experts on relevant topics. Theanalysis and syntesis of the information ond its first link to programmingwas formalized through several devices:An annotated bibliography and acase studies report were compiled. These documents provided not only de-scriptive information, but also required a systematic, critical analysis, clear identification of key issues, and an initial attempt at approaches fordesign. This analysis led to the formation of a set of key design principles(Exhibit A), which provided the needed link between programming and de-sign. For example, "Group Integration", addresses the issue of spatial rela-tionships between various workers, answered by the design concept of"Small Neighborhoods." These principles identified the issues , the qualitiesand characteristics of potential solutions, and the possible approaches to de-sign.Architectural solutions (Exhibit B) illustrate the main points of our integ-rative process: more responsive architectural applications can be facilitatedby the design principles and concepts, which in return are rooted in a betterunderstanding of the complex needs and issues of the facility."
Alonso, M.. "Local Urban Planning with Public Involvement. Bellavlsta Neighbourhood in Santriago, Chile 1985 - 1989." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. This paper is a synthesis over the cultural, social and historical conditionsof a particular neighbourhood. These conditions have allowed the spontane-ous participation of the residents of Bellavista in the defense and preserva-tion of the quality of life in their urban neighbouhood. This work deals with the problems of urban planning by local governmentswithout the participation of the community in this area of urban interven-tion. It is postulated that the determination and priorities concerning thehabitat require to recognize the participation of the specific social groupinvolved. Starting from a brief characterization of this particular sector, the mainpossibilities and drawbacks of organizing territorial participation are as-sessed. The concrete expression of this effort has been the creation of anon-government neighbourhood association. The outhor describes the experience from the perspective of an active mem-ber of the Neighbourhood Association of Bellavista (N.A.B. ) which makes itdiffiult to have an objective view. The description of the actors involved inthis planning prcoess is carried out from the perspective of the communitywhose interest is to defend the quality of life of their habitat over any con-sidiration. This methodological option has obvious limitations and possibilities of approach to the problem.
Franck, K. A.. "Lost and Found: History of Single Room Occupancy Housing in the U.s." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. Building types are as as much social products and social constructions asthey are physical artifacts. As social products they are the result of variouspolitical, economic and social forces. As social constructions, they reflect,even manifest, the ideas, assumpitons, and expectations that various inter-ested parties hold with respect to them. The processes of social productionand social construction affect the social and physical design of buildingtypes, their condition, and their very existence. As social, political or eco-nomic circumstances change, or as ideas and assumptions regarding thebulding type and its occupants change, its design may be modified or it may cease to exist and later be rediscovered. One building type in the U. S. that isa revealing example of such loss and rediscovery is single room occupancy(SRO) housing.SRO housing offers single furnished rooms for short or long-term rental.Bathrooms are usually shared and, if they are provided at all, cooking facil-ities are often shared as well. Historically SRO housing has included a va-riety of housing types: boarding houses, rooming houses, lodging houses,residences for single men and single women, and most recently SRO hotels.In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, many SRO types of housingwere built In downtown urban areas. After World War II, this housing wasdeemed legally substandart and declined in quality and in number of build-ings. Many were destroyed or converted to other uses in urban renewal andredevelopment programs. Now, witn a lack of low- cost rental housing inurban centers and the severe problems of homelessness, SRO housing is be-ing rediscovered.In this paper the history of SRO housing is analysed from the point of viewof social praduction and social construction. The following questions are ad-dressed. What were the political, economic, and social forces that affectedSRO housing during the three stages of SRO housing history? What were thesignificant perceptions (or social constructions ) of the SRO building typeand Its occupants? And what was the relationship between these two sets offactors, that is between social production and social construction? As de-scribed in the paper, economic, legislative and social factors all had a pow-erful influence on the condition and the very existence of SRO housing as didsociety's perceptions of the building type and its occupants.The paper draws heavily from previous work about SRO housing by this au-thor and others. The analysis is quite speculative at this point. I hoope it canserve as a basis for useful discussion, future investigation of the history ofSRO housing, and possible application to other types of environments. Theoutcome that is considered throughout the paper is the existence, the preva-lence, and the condition of SRO housing over time. The political forces con-sidered are legislative acts in the form of building regulations, federalhousing programs, and urban redevelopment programs. The social construc-tion of SRO housing is anaysed only as the perceptions of housing resaerch-ers, and policy makers.
Valera, S, J Bernaus, M Anches, A Olmo, and E. Pol. "L´impact Social Du a La Deviation Du Cours Dúne Riviere." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. conference:IAPS:11
Seguchi, T.. "Meanings of Places in Historical Castle Towns: a Case Study." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. We can understand a city as a mosaic pattern of many functions as well as a hierarchical pattern of residentil areas which shows their social status. InIhi way there are some differences from place to place in a city.This paper deals with differences of the places in the historical castle townsin Japan from a view point of city-scape. Many of historical castle towns inJapan have been built in 16th and 17th century.The points of a spatial analysis here are as follows. (1) Location of theBuddhist temple, (2) Visible are a of the castle tower.1) Location of the Buddhist temples; (a) Territorial meaning: One of thecastle town like Nagoya has the four Buddhist temples in four direction ofthis castle town which are located outside the town. The distances from thetown to the Buddhist temples are seven are eight km. People go to the templein the good direction which are designated every year and pray for their goodluck. The positon of these temples shows a ceratin sphere of peoples movement at the feudal age in Japan. (b) The back part of the castle town: SomeBuddhist temples just outside the town could be the place where the feudallord gave his prayers In the feudal times. These temples were treated as thespecial temple under the patronage of the feudal lords. And these temples be-came the back part of the castle town. (c) Front lines for defence: Manytemples were alloted at the boundary of the Castle town in a group. Thesetemples have large premises which could afford to accommodate many war-riors In case of emergency. These temple areas in the town could be a frontline for the defence.2) Visable area of the castle; (a) Symbol of the dignity: Many of the castletowns built on a terrace and the castles were located at the end of the ter-race. So the castle tower could be dearly seen from the outside of the town.The height and scale of the castle tower cut a prominent figure in the histor-Ical castle town. This has give the people some feeling of the dignity towardsthe feudal lord. (b) Representation of the dignity: Normally the castle towercould not be seen from inside of the castle town with some exception. But af-ter entering the main gate of the castle,the castle tower could be in sightthen go in behind the stone wall. This thing is repeated. People could be im-pressed that the castle is much larger and more magnificent than the real.(c) Excursion place for the citizen: The castle tower plays the part of addinga charm to a country scene.Be-came the place of an excursion forthe citizen. (d) Shakkei/Artificalscene: The castle tower could be used as a part of a fine view. A garden andresidence were built by using this scenery.
Klaus, S.. "Methodology of Learning and Guidelines for Designing the Multiple Layer Historical City." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. The multiple layer historical city is a living and functioning city, as anyother - it is inhabited by people, different activities take place in it, and itmust answer to various needs, according to its general definition as a city.But it has a distinctive dimension - the dimension of depth-, in more thanone sense: contents and values derived from its history, and physical multi-layered depth, where its hidden roots are contained. The character of thiscity is derived from that depth. Its physical layout is loaded with memories of urban structures buried beneath it, and their marks are revealed, invarious ways, above the ground.The aim of this research is to analyze and establish the methods of learningand principles for the design and development of a multiple layer historicalcity, according to its special nature. The city of Acco was chosen as a casestudy.The importance of learning and establishing guidelines for approaching thefuture development of the multiple layer historical city, increases with theunderstanding that such cities will probably not be created in the future,and therefore its number is limited. So, such cities are to be conserved as atestimony of urban-historical processes which have passed from the world.This thesis basic assumption is, that further stages in the design and plan-ning of the multiple layer historical city should be based on an ideology ofconnecting to the past.For that purpose a deep theoretical survey and discussion of four basic is-sues is done; the multiple layer historical city and its particular nature; thehistory of the city and its role in the city systems; the city and its compo-nents, and finally, the issue of conservation.Based on that discussion, conclusions for learning and designing the multiplelayer historical city are formulated. The special learning stages requiredfor such a city are described. Design principles, both in the ideological andphysical levels are, as well, established.Finally, the learning methods and the design principles for the multiplelayer historical city suggested in this work, are demonstrated in the designof the city of Acco. Guidelines for the design of Acco are presented, startingwith the whole town, through the old city and ending with a detailed descrip-tion of part of it.These design guidelines demonstrate how historical and multiple layer com-ponents can and should be combined in the urban system, as integral part ofits planning, and by this to contribute to an enrichment of its contents.
Karidis, D. N.. "Myth and Reality in Kambos, in Chios Island - Tradition Architecture and Modern Planning Problems." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. conference:IAPS:11
Kubota, Y.. "Notion of Alternative Landscape in Gardenization of Open Space in Japan." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. Rapid environmental change has been concomitant with economical growthand modernization of life style in postwar society of the world. There aremany incognizant or intangible forces on transformation of places causingsuch drastic environmental changes which deprived people of the sense ofattachment to places everywhere. This paper tries to describe the back-ground of transplantation of landscape or landscape transfer' observable asgardenization of public open space in Japanese cities, which is compensatoryconfiguration of the scene of place by reproducing landscape models in man-neristic way based on cultural tradition.Uncontextual juxtaposition of indifferent landuses characterizes modernurban scenes where decision made concerning the design of place lends to bediscontinuous and irrelevant of spatial context. Such decision-making onplace means displacement of landscape value. Their forms of expression maytypify the landscape of aspiration or exoticism, the landscape of futurization(Ralph) and the landscape of retrospection/nostalgia. The first two inevita-bly alienates adjacent places if the results are beyond cultural torrelance/acceptability. Within the degree of liberty, people try to recover the lostscene of lost place only remaining in memory. Local governments producegardenized steets for pedestrians in traditional manner and citizens volun-tarily condense the frontal space of their residence with greenery. Thesedeeds can be ascribable to the group memory on countryside and are re-trieval of the cultural dimensions of homeness of place. This artificial natu-ralization of ordinary landscape to provide coziness or shelteredness for thesake of cultural and mental stability in habitation as well as the personalcommitment to place in making alternative view/visual compensation forhumanized scene, that is, 'alternative landscape' (Higuchi), is the trace ofcontinuity. This attitude of contemplation with sympathy toward the nature is parallelto the prevalence of bonkei (table garden), bonsai (miniaturized tree) andikebana (flower arrangement), which provide substantial sense of cosmosor universality through specificity. The notion of person-in-nature in Jap-anese traditional culture influenced by ancient Chinese culture is trans-formed and superimposed into urban space of rationalistic modernity re-sulting in eclectic landscape of multi-paradigm.
Golgacheva, S, and Nickolov E. Peneva. "Old and New in Contemporary Bulgarian Organic Architecture." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. Old and new in architecture -a neverendin- theme always a source ofknowledge and inspiration. A theme especially topical at the present time,while looking for ecological conformity of buildings to climate and land-scape, the problems of equilibrium between natural environment and archi-tecture are of decisive importance for optimal phsycophisiological selfcon-fidence of men.Applying standard design technic for residential and public buildings havedeprived organity from architectural structures to the surroundings theyare sited in.Taking into account the specific environmental data for each macro and mi-croclimatic zone, available in this country, to consider their reflection inthe building architecture. Turning back to the sound principles of organicinterrelation between the natural site and the architectural expression fromthe time of Revival (18th -19th C.). Methods for the organization to ecology-conforming architecture are elabo-rated. The system approach is applied by means of basic data integration andsubjective human interpretation for versatile architectural solution.Supported and illustrated by authors' projects of dwelling and public build-ings.
Samizey, R.. "Order and Randomness in Patterns of Islamic Architecture and Urbanism." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. Among, humankind's old cultural heritages, Islamic architecture is a livingreality that continues to thrive, evoloving and renewing itself in newer con-texts. Lessons learned from the study of Islamic envrionmental design arenot only useful to the new generation of Islamic designers, but are also rele-vant to designers of other cultures. In this respect, architecture as an artform that can be esoteric and yet useful is a crcial reflector of a society'sspritual attitudes and daily customs, its me aphysical beliefs and pragmaticmorals. The language of Islamic architecture, therefore, like the architec-ture of a language, is a significant story-teller about Islam's intricately-woven system of beliefs and customs. Order and randomness in architectural productions are traits that not onlycontrast societies in their different stages of development (i.e., primitivevs. developed, pre-industrial vs. industrial), but also contrast culturesacross a differentiated specturm (i.e., Islamic vs. Christian, Asian vs. Eu-ropean). Such constrasts are furthermore mainfested within the same cul-ture as the context changes (i.e., religious vs. secular, residential vs. com-merical). In this connetion, apperances such as geometric and organicpatterns, formal and informal organizations do not remain detached, physi-cal entities, but are signifiers of a society's deeper adherence to social andspiritual ideologies.This paper, in accepting architecture as a vehicle that carries culturalmessages, uses this vehicle to explore the occurrence of order and random-ness in patterns of Islamic architecture and urbanism as a manifestation ofthe source culture's unique but hidden currents. This exploration revealsthe connetions that exist between form and content, between artifact and theknowledge the artifact carries; or to put it differently, between physicalpatterns such as geometric systems, spatial organizations and the social andspiritual messages these patterns convey. The exploration further revealsthe contrasts that exist in the patterns between informal rural layouts andformal urban layouts, between random residential environments and or-dered monumental complexes, between the vernacular and high style arcih-tecture.Drawing from a variety of examples, this paper identifies four types of or-der and randomness as they appear either in isolation or intermingle inmixed settings creating different patterns of Islamic designs in layouts ofbuildings, villages or towns. They are the unified order of sacred architec-ture, the lively randomness of vernacular architecture, the interminglingof order within randomness or randomness within order in mixed solutions;and finally the fragmented and divisive order of new subdivisions. Through astructural search we can discover the order and wholness that is hidden inthe random patterns or the fragmentation that is harbored by the orderedlayouts. The significance of these patterns and their connections to the innerstructure of the society from which they take source cah hep us not onlywith the understanding of the past, but also in the formulation of contempo-rary design applications.
Wolfe, M, D Chapin, and D. Choriki. "Ought to do and What to Do: Talking About Ethics and Values." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. The purpose of this workshop Is to begin a dialogue, within lAPS, about val-ues and ethical issues raised by our work as students, researchers, practi-tioners, and teachers. As members of the profession of environmental designand research, we want to explore areas of ethical conflict with other mem-bers of the profession in an open dialogue, and join with others in a searchfor the values and ethical processes, both explicit and implicit, which un-derlie our work and guide the professional decisions we make in our profes-sional lives. The workshop grows out of a research project we began last year. As part ofthat project we mailed questionnaries to people who had attended EDRA 17 or18, to people listed in the most recent EDRA membership directory, as wellas the International Director. (we received 88 responses from 425 mailedquestionnaires for a return rate of almost 21 percent.) Although the mainpurpose of the first phase of our research was to obtain bibliographic ref-erences and to identify people who had been involved in EDR projects whichwere used to implement environmetal change, we also took the opportunityto ask for brief answers to the following question:1) Please describe any values or ethical issues which are important to youin relationship to your research or practice (for example, relationshipswith clients or research participants and/or other circumstances underwhich you will or will not work: financial renumeratlon; uses of your work;sources of funds; and so on).2) Are there some particular professional, personal, or educational experi-ences or events that have led you to consider these issues to be important?Please describe.As part of our research we also analyzed the codes of ethics from a range ofAmerican professional organizations to which some lAPS members also be-long, for example, the American Planning Association,the American Instituteof Architects, the American Psychological Associtalon, the Society for Ap-plied Anthropology, and the American Society of Interior Designers amongothers.The preliminary findings of the work were presented at the EDRA 21 con-ference in a workshop whose goal was to begin a dialogue about these issues.The present workshop is intended to expand the dialogue to create an inter-national perspective on values and ethics in EDR. To further this goal, weencourage participants to bring codes of ethics from professional organiza-tions from the countries in which they have worked.The major portion of the workshop (at least one hour depending on workshoplength) will be an open dialogue between participants. We do not intend tostructure the discussion in any particular fashion, although we will presentfor consideration the question of what role lAPS can or should play in rais-ing certan ethical or value based issues. The workshop will be open to all at-tendees of the conference. In addition, we will mail letters to all of our re-spondents about the workshop, asking them to attend so they can give voice to their own views. If workshop attendees agree, we would like to tape recordthe session. We would take responsibilty for transcribing the discussion andmaking it available to participants as well as publishing an edited versionsIn one or more of our major journals.
Chapin, D, D Choriki, and M. Wolfe. "Ought to do and What to Do?: a Comparison of Personal Ethical Statements with Professional Ethical Codes." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. The purpose of this paper is to provide a basis for a long term dialogue,within lAPS, about values and ethical issues raised by our work as students,researchers, practitioners, and teachers. As members of the profession ofenvironmental design and research, we want to explore areas of ethical con-flict with other members of the profession in an on going dialogue, and joinwith others in a search for the ethical processes, both explicit and implicit,which underlie our work and contrast them with the codes of ethical behav-iors provided by professional associations.This paper describes the results of a research project we began last year.As part of that project we mailed questionnaires to people who had attendedEDRA 17 and 18 and to people listed in the most recent EDRA membershipdirectory as well as the International Directory. (We received 88 re-sponses from 425 mailed questionnaires for a return rate of almost 21percent. ) Although the main purpose of the first phase of our research wasto obtain bibliographic references and to identify people who had been in-volved in EDR projects which were used to implement environmentalchange, we also took the opportunity to ask for brief answers to the follow-ing questions:1 )Please describe any values or ethical issues which are important to youin relationship to your research or practice (for example, relationshipswith clients or research participants and /or other professionals; dissemi-nation of information; anonymity; the circumstances under which you willor will not work; financial renumeration; uses of your work; sources offunds; and so on). 2)Are there some part of particular professional, personal, or educationalexperiences or events that have led you to consider these issues to be im-portant? Please describe.As part of our research we also analyzed the codes of ethics from a range ofAmerican professional organizations to which some lAPS members also be-long, including the American Planning Association, the American Institute ofCertified Planners, the American Institute of Architects, The American Psy-chological Association, the American Sociological Association, the AmericanAnthropological Association, the Society for Applied Anthropology, theAmerican Society of Interior Designers, the National Association of Envi-ronmental Professionals, and the Human Factors Society.This paper will describe the range of issues people raised and the types ofexperiences on which these were based. We will also discuss conflictingviews which emerged. Finally, we will summarize how the issues raisedrelate to the professional codes of ethics we have analyzed.
Paciuk, M.. "Personal Control of the Workspace Environment as Affected by Changing Concepts in Office Design." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. A number of recent post-occupancy surveys in office buildings have pointedto reduced levels of occupants' satisfation associated with the loss of controlover environmental conditions experienced by many employees who movedfrom private or small group offices into large spaces, often kept at uniformand strictly controlled temperatures. Theoretical formulations in environ-mental stress theory have highlighted the importance control for self-efficacy and competence, and the negative effects that transpire when indi-viduals are not able to negotiate the envrionment in meaningful ways. De-riving from these formulations, increased user control of the workspaceenvironment is advocated on grounds of the enhanced satisfaction and re-warding experience that such an interaction could provide. However, inspite of the possibly significant role it might have in the everyday relationof individuals to their workspace environment, the concept of control hasremaind relatively undifferentiated, with little attention given to the effectsof exercised vs. perceived control and even less to the type and amount ofcontrol actually available across settings.This paper presents and discusses results of a study intended to clarify someof the mechanisms involved in the perception of control over nera by termalconditions at the workplace, and their contingencey upon the resources madeavailable by physical and organizational characteristics of the office envri-onment. Questionnaire and observational data were obtained from 511 officeemployees deployed in a variety of wrkspace arrangements ranging fromprivate offices to large open spaces, both with and without structural parti-tions. The estimation of control opportunities available at the different set-tings followed a detailed procedure involving not only quantifying the num-ber of available features in a given office space (building components andthermal controls) but also apprarsing them in terms of their proximity andaccessibility to the user, as well as of their ceas of operation. Organizationalnorms, varying from rather flexible to restrictive in regard to workspaceorganization and energgy management were also recorded. Subjective ap-praisals of control were evaluated by means of a scale specially developedfor this study.Perceptions of control over the near environment were found to have strongpositiv bearing on expressed satisfaction with the thermal environment. Thedegree of control made available by the physical environment was Instru-mental in enhancing employes' perceptions of control, and indirectlythrough it, satisfaction with the thermal environment. Empirical reltion-ships were established between actual and perceived measures of control, inorder to provide basic information on the control implications of office en-vironments differentially characterized by specific features, such as num-ber of adjustable building components, availability and location of thermalcontrols, and spatial configuration of the workspace layout. This informationcan lead to comparisons of effectiveness of different office design options inincreasing the degreee of conotrol perceived by employees.
Lee, S. A.. "Perspectives on Culture, Space and History as Charakterised by Iaps Members Research and Interests: a Review." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. conference:IAPS:11
Ramsay, A.. "Perth: from Railway Town to Key Administrative Centre." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. The physical changes to Perth which have occurred during the last 45 yearshave been strongly linked with a transformation in the sub-regional econo-my and have also reflected significant cultural changes in the sub-region.The paper defines these changes and theories as to causes and effects.Perth, one of Scotland's mediaeval capitals, lay at the cultural interface ofPicts, Celts and Britons. It occupies a key bridging position on the Tay,Scotland's longest river. It was also a major focus in the development of therailway networks across Scotland from mid-19th century until the 1950s.Since then, the decline in railways, in textile manufacturing and in dyeinghas led to significant redundancies of land and buldings In the city. Initially,however, most of these sites were retained by their owners; so that devel-opers looked farther afield for sites to accommodate new developmentsIn the 30 years from 1945 to 1975, the urbanised area of Perth expandedsubstantially whereas the population grew by only one thousand approxi-mately. Thus the physical character of this historically compact and conser-vative burgh was much diluted.In the last 15 years, growth has continued on the outskirts of the city buteven more so in the surrounding villages and small towns. Also in thes last15 years or so, the central area has changed dramatically through redevel-opment, though with some restoration. The years 1975 and 1979 can beidentified as turning points in local government administration and centralgovermnment policy respectively. Perth's position as an administrativecentre vis-a-vis Dundee was re-assessed widely; and the change to Conser-vative government at Westminster brought about some political favours for the town. More generally, increases in standard-of-living and in mobility, and external influences bringing about changes in patterns of social activity, have altered the sub-regional culture almost totally. The surrounding service catchment has altered greatly in extent and in its relationship to the city.The ethnic composition of the population has changed considerably throughmigration and the increased opportunities for meeting people who reside inpalaces remote from Perth. This has accelerated the process of change.
Sanui, J, and M. Inui. "Place Evaluation Research as an Aid for Environmental Design: a Proposal of the Non - Expert System." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. One of the difficulties in environmental design is the lack of direct commu-nication between the designers (experts) and the users (non-experts). Thenon-expert system, obtainable by combining the evalutaion research withthe expert system (type of Al) is proposed in this paper as an aid forbridging the gap between experts and non-experts. An empirical example ofthe model of evaluation for the system is also presented. A major aim of place evaluation research is to provide the knowledge of us-ers' evaluation to designers so that they can explore the optimum solutionfrom experts' point of view to maximize users' satisfaction. To make placeevalution research more valid as an aid for the environmental design, theauthors have developed the two-step research procedure (Saunui and lnui,1984, 1986) which consists of qualitative research methods.The non-expert system proposed In this paper is a product of this two-stepprocedure combined with Al i.e. the expert system. By feeding the physicalconditions of a given envlronmet into this system,, the system predicts us-ers' evalutaion on that environment (overall preference and the evaluationon the major criteria). Therefore,the system enables designers to knowwhether the plan is satisfactory for users, together with its reasons, whichwould be of great help to designers in finding tthe optimum solution in theirdesign.Since the non-expert system should house the statistically condensedknowledge of users' evalutaion to increase relatiabliity, statistical model ofplace evaluation ought to be prepared perior to the construction of actualsystem. An empirical example of the model has been obtained by our two-step procedure on the evaluation of the exterior of multiple housings.The model consists of 8 diagrams representing different types of evaluationobtained by the phenomenolgical sub-grouping approach (Sanui and Inni,1986), and each diagram was produced by the hierarchical regression anal-ysis. Thus, the causal relationship between the overall preference and themajor evaluation criteria as well as their relative weight was obtained bythe multiple regression analysis. The same process was obtained by themultiple regression analysis. The same process was used to establish therelationship between each of these evaluation criteria and the physical con-ditions of the exterior. The reliablity of these diagrams as the evalutionpreduction tool was reasonably high. The multiple correlation coefficientbetween the overall preference scores of the observed and the estimated(from the physical conditions) exceeded 0.8.
Schaar, K. W., and E. M. Moentmann. "Prehistoric Domestic Architecture: the Past to Explain the Present." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. Ideas and events of prehistoric Anatollan domestic architecture are em-ployed to construct a paradigm (Kubler, 1962; Kuhn, 1970) that, in thispaper, is used to explain the current condition of contemporary architec-ture (Harlan, 1989). The paper begins by describing the paradigm which isbased on patterns of alternating uniformity and diversity in domestic ar-chItectural space within and between the settlements of prehistoric Anatolia(Decker and Schaar, 1984; Schaar, 1987). Uniformity and diversity(WoIfflin, 1950; Frankl, 1968) are terms used to describe periodic spa-tial manifestations in the context of achitectural history.The current condition of contemporary architecture is characterized by avariety of design ideas, resulting In diverse spatial manifestations (Jencks,1977). The questions addressed by this paper are whether the prevailingvariety of design ideas is still part of Modern, whether it is a transitionstage between Modern and a new period, or whether it is already the begin-ning of a new period that is characteristically diverse.The paper addresses these questions by describing the condition of contem-porary arcitecuture as a phenomenon within a larger contex of architecturalhistory. The paradigm of prehistoric Anatolian domestic architecture iscorrelated with the alternating manifestations of uniformity and diversityreprsented by architecture of the Renaissance, Mannerist, Baroque, Nine-teenth-century eclecticism, and Modern period to show that an active ap-plication of precedents (Tafuri, 1980) can be used to explain how the cur-rent condition of contemporary architecture relates to its larger contex inhistory.
Conan, M.. "Public Housing into Landscape." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. The lack of common appreciation of modern architectural space by all in-habitants but a few has stirred a controversy between a few architects (LeCorbusier. Stevens) and a few painters in 1925. Despite a personal inter-est in wall painting by several architects no one did pay attention to thewarnings by F. Leger that architecture would ruin its reputation if it wereto loose touch with popular taste. Fifty years later large scale rehabilita-tion of mass produced modern architecture has shown this warning to beright.Bernard Lassus has been asked by a social housing manager to improve thistenants' environment through a step by step process. He hoped that coloringfacades would enliven the environment. Bernard Lassus is a painter. YetInstead of turning to F. Leger's teachings he choose to take a personal studyof working class inprovements of their housing environment as a startingpoint for an understanding of folk culture and aesthetics. This has proven tobe much at variance with several tenets of modern architecture aesthetics.This paper will provide further explanation about the approach of urbanlandscape creation that Bernard Lassus has chosen in this context. It doesprovide In effect an unexpected contribution to the history of contemporarypainting.
Putterill, M.. "Qualities of Life in Auckland Housing Policy Implications." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. Auckland is a city approaching one million in population celebrating in1990 one hundred and fifty years of partnership between indigenous Maorisand settlers from Europe as well as other Pacific Islands. The 'City of Sails'Auckland has a fine harbour and Its urban areas are all within reach of thesea. A pleasant climate, combined with employment opportunities, has madethe city an attractive focus for immigration. The predominant housing mode is low density, detached housing reflectingthe abundance of land and the wide use of private vehicles. The dominantculture is European and the style of government 'Westminster' yet thecountry borders the Pacific and over ten percent of citizens are ofPolynesian origin.This paper has three aims:(i) Introduce readers to the city by means of suburban prototyping basedon census data(ii) extend awareness of the quality of life differences by a focus on healthparameters in South Auckland(ill) draw attention to the need for greater flexibility in housing policy tomeet a wider range cultural and economic needs in the communityThere are many ways to begin to understand a city . Through the soles ofones' feet to hovering in a helicopter , each approach gives insights of greatvalue tro understanding the complex processes of urban life.One way of coming to grips with the apparent chaos is by composition e.g.isolating small units and then finding a pattern in their distribution.In the first section of the paper , 'Characterisation of Urban Auckland1976', population census data gathered in 1976 Is used to establish thebuilding blocks of which the city seems to be composed.Because traditional census tabulations hinder rather than helpunderstanding, some further transformation of data Is required. In themethodology described in the paper, data on the 168 census area units(CAU) of the city is related to a standard, e.g. total population , ranked andmapped. Items which are patently part of the quality of life are used to testthe similarity of any suburb (CAU) to each of eight prototype locations.This methodology produced a preliminary listing of the extent andcomposition of areas of similar character in Auckland.Section 2 Is more finely focussed on South Auckland, one of four submetropolitan of urban Auckland. The character analysis described above isuseful preparation for the discussion in this section of the health status,1986-88, of the area . Health is of course only one of many factors whichreflect the quality of life and life chances of residents, but It is clearly ofprimary importance in the interpretation of any built environment. The extent to which health related parameters differ from one suburb toanother Is marked in South Auckland. The picture shows a distressingconcentration of problems In localities where there is a high proportion ofunemployed, small children , overcrowding etc. From the characterisationanalysis it can also be established that the same locations have high levels ofstate rental housing occupied largely Maori and Pacific Island tenants.The long term implications of this set of conditions are highly disturbing andwarrant urgent policy reappraisal both in the fields of social welfare andhousing. The final section of the paper looks briefely at the problems of'tenant for life' families unable and perhaps increasingly unwilling to movethe 'steps' between the main forms of housing tenure are too high. The caseis made for housing policy changes which will break the debilitating effectsof well-meaning but inappropriate controls; increase self-reliance; andintroduce opportunities for 'sweat squity' capital formation. Neighbourhoodpriority setting, cooperative administration as well as cultural sensivityare additional elements in the chalenging exercise of transforming thecurrently impassable 'steps' into an enriching 'incline'.
Badshah, A.. "Re - Evaluating the Role of Design in Housing in the Non - Western World." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. The search for solutions to the housing of a large number of people has beengoing on in earnest over the last 150 years. From the mid-nineteenth cen-tury various proposals have developed in Europe to provide the workingclass with a clean and healthy environment. The Garden City movement byEbenezer Howard to Le Corbusier's Radiant City, have all strived to developsolutions to meet the pressing needs of housing the middle and lower incomepopulation The Modern Movement woth its concern for a new standard ofliving and its development of an architectural language to represent a newutopia has come to form the backbone of the basic architectural vocabularyused in the developing world to solve its housing problems.The belief of the 1950's and '60s that housing (povided by national govern-ment) has proved to be an impossible dream. Yet housing (heavily subsi-dized by both governments and other development agencies) is being provid-ed even today. Even though land development policies locate areas anddirections for the future growth, the design of the physical environmentplays an equally important role. A sense of place also gives rise to commu-nity spirit, security, and a point of identification-perhaps even of identity.Desigh of neihborhoods and units themselves, of how people use space andhow it fits psychologically into their lifestyles, is the key to successfulhousing, as seen from the people's point of view. The question then is how does one evaluate design in housing? What criteriais to be used? How does one define quality, or even a sense of place?This paper takes a critical look at five housing projects in the Islamicworld, the two Habous projects in Casablanca and Rabat both developed underthe French, New Shustrar in Iran, The Asian Games Village in New Delhi adnSetapak Jaya in Kuala Lumpur to develop new concepts that allows us a bet-ter understanding of existing developments and how new settlements could be developed. The projects have been analyzed using five elements that havebeen selected because they allow analysis to both the traditional and the con-temporary fabric in terms of its principles:1. Urban Layout-the systems used and their overlays.2. Breathing Spaces-adaptability of uruban space without major modifica-tions.3. Facade Design-the character of the facades.4. Horizontal Rhythms-urbanity at the ground level.5. Resilience within buildings-ability of space to assume a variety of func-tions as well as meanings, without major disruption to the principles of thestructure of that space.The paper concludes that attempts are being made to rethink the way we de-sign our environments and our urbanscape, albeit guided by modern*zoning laws of segregating land uses. Yet a move from pure functionalisttrends, coupled with technological capability, to that of an architecture builtfor change Is urgently needed if we are to design houses that respond to bothfunctional and cultural needs of a society.
Aydemir, S.. "Recreation Pattern and the Needs of a Turkish City: Trabzon as a Case." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. Recreation can be defined as to made use of leisure time to renew the personphysically and phychologically. The previous studies indicated that the rec-reational attitudes and activities pursued vary not only by cultural habits,but also change by the amount of disposable time, sex, income level, educa-tion and occupational status etc. (1-3). In Turkish literature the proposals on urban recreation planning requirements are taken mainly from Eu-ropean countries. (2). However, there is no evidence to show that Turkeywill follow even broadly similar lines of European countries. On the otherhand, the Turkish official planning standarts on recreation are deprived ofpragmatic base.The central theme of this paper is to investigate, for a Turkish cityTrabzon, the interrelationship between the use of actual and potential rec-reation pursuits and socio-economic characteristics of the people. Thereare two aims of the study: one is theoretical- to explore the validity ofwestern recreational space and location standarts for a middle size Turkishcity, located in the Black Sea Region hence to make a small contribution tothe recreational pattern and the needs of Turkish city, the other is practi-cal- whether there is a need to adjust the delivery of municipal services todifferent part of the city that have unique soclo-economic characteristics.The paper will cover only the former aim.In this context, data is collected by employing the method of household ques-tionnaires by interview. The households to be interviwed selected by linesampling from area. The data is collected by line sampling from area. Thedata is analysed using elementary and multivariete statistical methods. Af-ter a brief view to literature and establishing research framework, the ex-isting recreational pursuits (classified as active-passive , formal-informal, Indoor-outdoor) are determined. Then the correlates of thesepursuits and their limiting factors (physical, organizational and cultural)with the household and individual characteristics (e.i. for the former,housing type, household size and composition etc. , for the latter, sex, age,education, occupation etc. ) are examined using factor analysis technique.The same researcH procedure is followed for the potential recreationalpursuits. Finally, some proposals are developed on the recreational spaceand location requirements basing on potential intensity of use of recreation-al pursuits. Also the findings' agreement with the proposals made for Turk-ish cities in the literature.
Hodde, R.. "Regards Sur Le Processus De Conception Architectural." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. conference:IAPS:11
Austin, M. R.. "Regional Identity in the Pacific." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. Amongst the peoples of the Pacific there are characteristic attitudes, valuesand behaviours which are often referred to as the 'Pacific Way'. Associatedwith this is a widespread, symptomatic mode of space organisation consist-ing of single celled pavilions associated with named open spaces. Aspects ofthis spatial system are used as elements of regional identity which tends tobe associated only with the indigenous. However it will be argued that colo-nial spatial patterns are also significant in giving local identity.Regional architectural identity is usually seen to derive from the landscape,environmental and tectonic characteristics of place, and there is a wide va-riation of these factors in the Pasific. For instance there is considerablelandform variations across the range of Pacific Islands and it can be shownthat in New Zealand, for Instance, the perceptions and attitudes to landscapevary form European to Maori culture. Historically too there has been a re-versal of response to landscape within European culture from the despair ofthe early settler to the enjoyment of the present day tourists. Similarly theclimate changes from tropictl to temperate (even sub-arctic in New Zea-land) and there is environmental variation from high islands to low islands.Available materials and technology vary considerably from Large islands(such as Papua New Guinea) to small atolls.Pre- European migration has continued across the Pacific for many centu-ries so that distinctions between groups are not as simple as at first ap-pears. There is on the other hand considerable variation in the treatmentand decoration of building forms from island to island and even within is-lands. European colonisation occured in the eighteenth and nineteenth cen-turies and was initially restricted to beach front settlements facing out tosea. Later colonial development has tended to hide and cover this originalbeach scene of exchange, confrontation and co-existence with planned settlements. The colonial phenomenon of mimicry where the coloniser imitates the formsof the parent culture produces breaks or slippages between the metropolitanmodel and the colonial copy. These misfits (the condition of almost the samebut not quite) are usually treated ambivalently in a way typical of colonialdiscourse but it is proposed that it is this very slippage that accounts forregional characteristics and differences. The pattern of mimicking andmocking persists today with the continuation of economic and cultural colo-nialism.Although colonial architecture constitutes the bulk of the built environmentin the Pacific it is either rejected, ignored or treated as unproblematic bycommentators and historians. It is still regarded as different to and opposedto the indigenous architecture although it is now used and inhabited bymembers of the local cultures producing yet more slippage. It is suggestedthat the distinction between the colonial and the indigenous architecturewill become increasingly blurred and that a future regional architecturewill develop from both sources.This paper will be illustrated with examples from Polynesian and Melane-sian Pacific Islands.
Bechhoefer, W. B.. "Regionalism and Culture in Design Education and Practice." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. "Regionalism has many advantages as a conceptual framework for designeducation, not the least of which is its empasis on process over style. Re-gionalism requires that architecture reflect its time, place and culture andthat it link the past, the present, and perhaps the future. In terms of educa-tion, therefore, regionalest approach must consider a broadly based human-ism as part of his/her professionalism.The paper discusses definitions of regionalism, contrasting Kenneth Framp-ton's ideas on "critical regionalism" with Thomas Schumacher's notion that*regional differences, like certain ethnic traits, are perhaps best left aloneto percolate up through the structure of more universal values. "The workof architects such as Goifrey Bawa, Luis Barragan, Hassan Fathy, Tadeo Andoand Sedat Hakk; Eldem is discussed to elucidate differing approaches to re-gionalism based on the interaction of contemporary issues and timelessqualities drawn from local culture.The paper outlines the skills specific to a regionalist approach. These in-dude the ability to "read" and analyze vernacular landscapes, urban formsand building typologies and the understanding of technological choices basedupon climate, material availability, and the economics and skill of the laborforce. A skill of a different kind is the ability to "read" culture, particular-ly as it is manifest in built form and to develop a cross-cultural viewpointthat recognizes that even wthin one country there may be distinct sub-cultures, despite commonalities. The work of Edward Said, Edward T. Hall,J.B. Jackson adn Christopher Alexander illuminates this point of view.As a case study in education, the paper outlines the teaching of regionalismat the University of Maryland School of Architecture, where regionalism Isthe conceptual basis for a graduate degree concentration in Design for Deel-oping Countries. Finally , the paper places the study of regionalism In the more general context of architectural education and suggests that regionalistvalues should bcome part of the sensibilities of students and practicing ar-chitects."
Dostoglu, N. T.. "Regionalism Vs Universalism: Architectural Imports in Developing Countrles." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. "In this paper, issues of 'regionalism/universalism', 'traditional/modern','old/new' will be evaluated first in general terms, and then giving examplesof 'architectural imports' in three developing countries, Turkey, India andBrazil, discrepancies between the architects' expectations and the realitywill be emphasized. Our basic hypothesis in this paper is that one of the ma-jor criteria for designing and implementing a healthy physical environmentis to envision the future simultaneously with the past. In other words, theconception of a 'new' environment since values and culture are an accumula-tion of all the experiences, abilities and traditions in societies throughouthistory.Issues of 'regional ism/universalism', 'tradition/modern', 'old/new' havegained new dimensions after the third quarter of the nineteenth century be-cause architects, who were traditionally responsible for the design and con-struction of buildings for wealthy clients with similar values as themselvesuntil the Industrial Revolution, have been confronted with the problem ofproducing settings and objects for the daily use of masses, since then. Inthis period of rapid industrialization and significant social changes, archi-tects have been faced with value dilemmas originating from the change intypes of clients and the demand for new types of buildings. The gap betweenarchitects and user clients widened in this period, and a strong dissatisfac-tion arose in relation to the built environment since the emerging productswere not suitable to the values and needs of the users. Dissatisfaction tended to increase more in cases when the aechitect was asked to design for usersfrom a defferent culture than his own because many architects believed inthe universality of the application of prototypes and thus proposed Western'architectural imports' for countrues with different socio-economic andcultural structures. In fact, an observation of the housing areas in differentregions of the world demonstrates that although vernacular buildings andsquatter housing units, which may be define as a special type and phase ofvernacular architecture, and their respective settlements reflect an accu-mulation of the experience, abilities and traditions of related societies,many housing units and areas designed by architects show no trace of such anaccumulation. Mass housing areas which have been proposed as alternativesto squatter housing areas in Turkey, Chandigarh new town in India and Bra-zil, all of which can be given as examples of architectural imports, embodymany descrepancies between the expectations of their planners and the actu-al situation. This paper will reveal these discrepancies and will argue thatvernacular architectrue has the potentiality of satisfying the interests,goals and values of the users, and thus bears lessons for contemporary ar-chitects who care about the livability of the environments they create. Thisdoes not imply that architects should literally copy the past, but rather it isan invitation to perceive "prototypes which make individual interpretationsof the collective patterns possible"."
Zeren, N, and G. Erkut. "Relevance of Socio - Economic and Physical Data for the Conservation of Istanbul Historic Peninsula." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. The aim of this paper is to portray the results of a survey which was car-ried out during the anlysis stage ofthe Istanbul Historic Peninsula Planningand Conservation Study (Ozde, 1988) with the objective of providing aphysical-spatial and socio-economic data base for the planning strategy.One of the major questions of the survey is to find out the inhabitants' degreeof avareness of the historic value of the houses they live in as well as theirattitude toward the conservation of historic houses and historic environ-ment.The paper is structured as follows:In the first part, the concept of urban censervation in Turkeystarting from1960's are analyzed and the results of two research projects carried out atIstanbul Technical University (Zeren 1981, 1989) are summarized. Then,the relationship between urban conservation and rapid urbanization is em-phasized by explaining standards and employment structure processes ofsquatter settlement formation,and deterioration and demolition of the housesat the historic core of the city.In the second part ofthe paper, the case of Historic Peninsula is taken as anexample ofthe process mentioned in the first part. Historic Peninsula ispresented In relation to Its' strategic location, and its' change of urban func-tions through history.In the third part, the findings ofthe survey (Erkut, 1988) are summarized.In order to do this, firstly the objective andthe method,thenthe sample casesare presented. Two cases from Eminonu District, namely the Quarters of Sultanahmet and SQleymaniye, and two cases from Fatih district, namely theQuarters of Kariye and Haydar are analyzed.The findings are given as per-centage distributions.The absolute number of housing units that have beensampled and analyzed are 82 from Kariye, 70 from Haydar, 61 from Sulta-nahmet and 34 from SQleymaniye. The findings are summarized under threegeneral headings.i. Findings related to the general profile ofthe physical environment and theresidential area,ii. Findings related to the socio-economic level of the residents,iii. Findings related to the public attitude towards the conservtion of histor-ic houses and environment.In the fourth and last part,the discussions and general conclusions of thestudy are presented.
Cevik, A.. "Representational Space in Western Culture." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. Human practices related to space has two aspects; creation of spaces andrepresentation of them. The theme of this paper is space as it is representedin Western culture. The reason of this choice is the prominance of centeralprojection in spatial representation. It is generally believed that perspec-tive is the climax of the efforts starting with foreshortening in antiquity. Itis also asserted that perspective is the most objective, scientific, realistic,and natural technique of representation compared to these evolved in non-Western cultures. Ready acceptance of perspective in the world provides asupport for the claims to its superiority.However, there is enough evidence showing inadequacy of perspective pro-jection In many respects. Firstly, the geometry on which perspective isbased, that is Euclidean geometry, Is not the geometry of visual space. Allthe experimental findings confirm that physical space is not perceived inEuclidean terms. So, mathematical precission of perspectives cannot be con-sidered as the measure of realism. Any correctly drawn (of computer generated) perspective is equally truewith respect to mathematical principles. But, it is a common experience foreveryone who is familiar with drawings that each correct perspective pro-jection does not provide equivalent visual quality. While some of them seemquite realistic, the others may appear distorted. For this reason strict rulesof perspective are modified even in Renaissance. After the principles of cen-teral projection were formulated by renaissance artists, several problemswere gradually identified. These problems are inevitable because it is im-possible to represent 3-dimensional extension fully on a flat surface. Con-sequently, deformations are inherent in perspective and flatness of the pic-ture plane always presents problem to any technique of drawing.Moreover, there Is rich variety of perception experiments showing insuffi-ciency of pictures relying on monoscopic retinal image. Visual perception ofspace is a dynamic process based on cues of retinal and extra-retinal origin.By utilization of perspective wholeness of perceptual process is neglectedand static Instantaneous retinal Image is overemphasized. Perceptual find-ings point out that projection of a 3-dimensional setting on a flat surface isinadequate for simulation of 3-dimensional percepts.Accumulation of information on problems of perspective and insistance onIts special status is an intriguing paradox. Although perspective was aban-doned in painting In 19th century, it gained superficial validity and objec-tivity by moving Into the field of pure mathematics. Foundation of its math-ematical bases In descriptive geometry, and advancement of photographysupported the views of some theorists who claim that perspective is the besttechnique for correct spatial representation.In spite of detailed information on problems of projection most of the theo-rists working on pictorial representation are perspectivists. Few theoristsasserting conventionality of pictorial representation oppose all the per-spectivist claims. The contrasting views on perspective is a subject thatneeds further investigation. Clarifying the reasons of this theoretical con-troversy will surely cast some light on the problems of perspective andnon-perspective pictures. Then, It will be possible to evaluate properly thenature of representational space both in Western and non-Western cultures.
Cakin, S.. "Research into Education: Towards a Model for Design Education." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. "This paper outlines major influences of the changes that have occured inSaudi Arabia since the discovery of oil, on the traditional settlements in theEastern Privlnce. Furthermore, an educational experince is presented inwhich students attempt to blend local tradition with universal design prin-ciples. The sudden increase in national and individual affluence has resultedin "fracturing" of tradition. People's attitudes toward traditional buildingsalso changed. Old dwellings are often seen to represent poverty and bacward-ness1. The emergence of contemporary institutions and public buildings tohouse these institutions, and the introduction of the automobile created anew scale in the built environment. The visual image of the towns and vil-lages rapidly changed with the new grid street pattern. New roads oftendamaged the grain of traditional urban texture and replaced traditional cul-de-sac's and public open spaces. Courtyard houses were replaced by villaswith much larger individual lot sizes produding lower densities. This , inturn, resulted In the loss of social interaction in the community.Fifth (final) year students in the College of Architecture and Planning atKing Faisal University were asked to investigate change and tradition withintheir communities and to produce designs reponsive to tradition. The com-prehensive final project was based on a research and programming docu-ment that contained the results of student's analysis of the physical and so-cio-cultural characteristics of the infill site. Community facilities whichwere needed at the site were identified and the functional, spatial and formalrequirements for these facilities were determined, before going into the de-sign of a pre-conceived building type. As a case study for this paper, one of the student projects in presented interms of its objectives, methodology of analysis and design. North Al-Ritaresidential quarter in Al-Hofuf was analyzed and a number of communityfacilities needed in the site were designed within the objectives of thecourse. Proposed facilities consisted of infill housing, a recreational centerfor men, shops, an open Thursday market, parking areas, an educational andrecreational center for women, a nursery and a clinic for the community."
Nakamura, V, and M. lnui. "Research on Evaluating Comfort of Office Environments." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. "Recently in Japan, a chage is coming over office environments because ofnew office devices such as visual display terminals and partitions. An officeshould be comfortable for the people working there. This research intends todefine the comfort of an office from the viewpoint of the office workers andto identify the physical factors which influence office comfort.First, we asked 16 subjects who had each worked in several different officesto coprare the comfort level of a variety of offices, then we asked them toexplain the reasons for teir evaluation regarding the comfort of each ofice.This was to clarify the evaluative constructs which went into deciding officecomfort.Next, 15 evaluative constructs including overall comfort were selected and30 photographs were rated by 60 subjects on the 7 points bi-polar scales ofthese selected constructs. The results of the rating were analyzed using theSSA1 to divide them into five groups. The analysis reveled that the comfortrating heavily depends on three groups of scapes, which are "serenity","relaxation" and "refinement." Furher, Hayashi Quantification 1 was usedto identify the factors which influence the rating of these scales. This re-vealed that the evaluation of "serenity" is closely related to the height ofpartitions and density. Likewise,the "relaxation" evaluation depends mainlyon layout, density, colors and plants, while "refinement" is dependent onlayout and plants.Furthermore, we attempted to discover what combination of layout, densityand partition (which proved to be the most important factors) produces thehighest comfort rating. To do this, We created simulation models which 31subjects were asked to rate in 7 levels for qualities of "serenity,""relaxation" an "refinement." As a result, we found that all three of the fac-tors influence each other, and we also found that the difference in layout (people sitting face to face, or facing in the same direction, or in random di-rections) is a decisive factor for obtaining the highest evaluation for densityor partition height.The above briefly describes the research and experiments we performed re-garding office comfort from the viewpoint of office workers. The. resultsgiven here should be extremely useful fordesigning offices which provide acomfortable environment for the workers."
Tipple, A. G.. "Self Help Transformations of Low - Cost Housing: Preliminary Findings and Hypotheses." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. There are an unknown (but probably very Iagre) number of small dwellingswhich have been built as completed units by governments and their agenciesor flats In multi-storey walk-up blocks. As their occupants require addi-tional or where cultural norms demand different internal layouts, thedwellings are subject to alteration and extension by the occupants. This isusually against building and planning regulations, and, where the unit isstill rented, contravenes tenancy agreements.The effect of transformation activity is to change an ordered, if probablyrun-down, environment into one which Is more chaotic, but usually morecared-for. Housing which was once uniform, of one tenure, and uniformlyresidential in use, is now varied in size and quality of unit, in tenure, andincorporates economic and social uses. Services which were provided for afinite and known population are now used by a larger and variable popula-tion. Households who were regarded as only consumers of housing have be-come producers and controllers of housing suitable to themselves and theirpeers.A recent research project, carried out on behalf of the Overseas Develop-ment Administration of Her Majesty's Government, has assembled the rathersparse existing literature on transformation activity in Algeria, India, Co-lombia, Hong Kong, Israel, Libya and elsewhere, and described brief existingcase studies from Egypt, Zambia, Bangladesh and Ghana, to begin to trace the nature and effects of transformations. The cases have not been specially car-ried out for the study, but they present a variety of responses to the oppor-tunities presented by the process. Within the differing circumstances, somefactors which appear to have causative influence on the occurrence of trans-formation activity have been identified. These include the attitude of the lo-cal authority, security of tenure, ability to recover the investment if thehousehold leaves, space around the dwelling, and a lack of, or serious absta-des to, moving to alternative accommodation.Attempts have been made to draw lessons from the literature and case stud-ies in order to focus future work on paths likely to establish patterns ofcausality, to increase the positive effects of the phenomenon, and to mini-mise its negative effects.
Giuliani, M. V., G Rullo, and G. Bove. "Socialization and Privacy Spaces Inside Homes: an Empirical Study." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. Current research on house form and meaning highlights a growing discor-dance between users' requirements and housing standards in western socie-ties. Among the major causes of this discordance particular emphasis is puton the dwelling designers' and planners' neglecting of individual differencesin dwelling habits (Lawrence, 1987). Individual differences seem current-ly to be magnified by socio-demographical changes in household compositionand by changes in systems of transmission of cultural models among differ-ent social worlds. A growing amount of theoretical and empirical studiesargue for a central role of household structure and socio-cultural variablesin affecting the meaning of home. However, little empirical evidence is yet available about the way in which different groups of people actually organizeand use their domestic space.In order to explore the way different households spatially realize daily liv-ing activities in an urban context, a questionnaire survey was carried out inRome. The survey sampled 500 households representative of the city popu-lation with respect to housing location and number of components.The theoretical assumption underlying this study is that the main dimensionin the ordering of domestic space is the socialization-privacy dimension andthat changes in meaning and use of the dwelling will affect primarily thisdimension (Altman & Chemers, 1980; Giuliani, 1987).Two dwelling activities -eating and sleeping- were analyzed in terms ofspatial, social and temporal qualities in order to individuate similarities anddifferences among households in patterns of socialization and privacy (Wer-ner, 1987). The spatial quality of eating as well as variations in the degreeof intimacy among participants (family, friends and guests) and the tem-poral aspects (daily cycle, holidays) were analyzed to define different pat-terns of socialization. The features of sleeping space of the household mem-bers (shared vs individual, primary destination of the room) were analyzedin order to define different patterns of privacy. The relationship betweenactual behaviors and utilization of an hypothetical extra room was also ex-amined in order to establish a hierarcy of spatial requirements. Socio-demographical characteristics of the inhabitants as well as physical prop-erties of the dwellings were considered.Multivariate statistical procedures were applied to the data to unify andsummarize in one comprehensive framework the several interactions un-derlying the observed data. More specifically, correspondence analysis andcluster analysis were selected in order to describe individual differences.
Tessarin, N.. "Socio - Spatial Patterns of Territorial Identity." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. "Recent developments of sociological theory are paying increasing attention to space as a cathegory of analysis.The concepts of centre and pheriphery, border, urban-rural settlement,town village etc. refer not only to different social organization processes,but also to their spatial basis. On the other hand they reflect the way social,political, cultural, ethnic, etc. factors organize space.In Italy spatial-oriented sociology has an importan and long standing tradi-tion, though different labels (and approaches) are attributed to the study ofthe links between space and society.Proceeding from spatial-oriented socilology in recent years empirical re-search has been directed towards the study of territorial identity."To be a member of", "the sense of belonging" is one of key concepts to un-derstand the behavior of social actor, his identity, his position inside socie-ty etc.The social actor is not only a member of a group, of an organization, a na-tion etc. but also a member of a territorial community. Under what condi-tions the space, the environment where people live, become a relevent ele-ment for the development of individual identity? What kind of relations exisbetween social and spatial belonging?The process of modernization, the development of-new communication technologies are reducing the particular features of local territorial communities. Starting from these basic questions the aim of the paper is to present theresults of a survey on socio-spatial patterns of community attachment.The data analyzed are derived from a questionnaire survey carried out in1986 on a large area sample of residents (1500) in four regions in theNorth-Eastern Italy. For each region the sample include residents of moun-tain, rural, urban and coast settlement.The paper analyzes the regional sub-sample of Friuli compared with theother regional samples.The central dependent dimension explored by the study is the socio-spatialattachment to community. This refers to the subjective sense of attachmentto a place, a space, that are characterized by: a) the existence or not of asense of attachment of some place; b) if yes : 1) geographical extension(from the local community through middle levels to higher levels: the wholeworld) (localism- universalism); 2) strength of tie; 3) type of attachment(motivations expressed by the subject and recognized as important for his/her tie with place).The independent dimensions analyzed are: ecological charactrisics of settle-ments, level of residential mobility/stability of the sample; social integra-tion; psychocultural features of individuals.The first part of the study resumes th theoretical background of the re-search.The second part presents the main resuts of the survey:a) defining patterns of territorial identity (through a multivariate model ofanalysis); b) analyzing an explicative model (through multiple regressionanalysis) of different patterns of attachment.The results support the strong influence of "ecological" variables on papt-terns of socio-spatial attachment. Residential stability increases socio-spatial identity acting indirectly through the integration in the social net-work."
Memmott, P. C.. "Sociospatial Structures of Australian Aboriginal Settlements." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. This paper provides an overview of the socio-spatial properties ofAboriginal settlements, in both pie-contact (traditional) and post-contact(semi-sedenterized) contexts. The earlier ethnographic literature providesexamples of the division of settlements into spatial zones each occupied by anaggregate of domiciliary groups and possessing some common social identityand characteristic social structure. Several competing hypotheses weregenerated to explain such structures. However anthropological researchduring the last two decades indicates that such sociospatial patterns are farmore complex and based on a diverse range of generative principles, someregional in context, others widespread across the continent.The analysis is based on 15 case studies. These yield a number of categoriesof generative principles, used in large camps of up to 500 people: (I)avoidance behaviour prescriptions between certain kin, (ii) clusteringbased on economic dependence, (iii) clustering based on affiliations betweenmembers of language groups, patricians (or lineages), other groupsintermediate to the previous two in terms of their sociogeographicdefinition, and class divisions, (iv) orientation of clusters in the directionof their homelands. In many examples there were from two to four levelsof nested clustering, each based on a different sociospatialprinciple. Examination is made of some of the dynamic properties of thesesociospatial structures including the threshold size of camps requisite forsub-clustering and other types of internal transformations, Evidence isprovided of the manifestation of these soclospatial principles In other formsof camp behaviour, indicating a conscious awareness of these behaviouralnorms. Functional reasons underlying this phenomenon are summarized Inthe conclusion.
Speller, G. M.. "Some Psycho - Social Impacts of the Channel Tunnel Project: are Environmental Impact Assessments Adequate?" In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. The historic villages of Newington and Peene (ca. 100 houses) are now onthe edge of major construction works. The Channel Tunnel Terminal site will convert the area from a rural to an urban/industrial environment. Eighteenhouses have been demolished within the site boundary. Remaining residentshad the choice to leave or stay but compensation arrangements have causedThis paper examines the psychological responses of the villagers to the largescale reconstruction of their landscape. A research study was carried out bythe author between June and November 1988. Using qualitative analysisbased on In-depth Interviews, psycho-social effects were interpreted with-in a theoretical framework which Includes aspects of place identity, in rela-tion to self and group identity, rootendness and attachment; personal con-trol, Including issues of privacy, territoriality, predictability andalienation; and psycho-social transitions to evaluate changes to a respon-dent's assumptive world and to consider mental and physical health effects.Responses indicated a strong Identity with and a corresponding reaction tothe loss of their environment, e.g. views, footpaths, woods, hedgerows, floraand fiuna. An Inability to identify the site of former landmarks created feel-ings of confusion, frustration and disorientation, including anxieties overlosing memories from the past and not being able to project into the future.The erosion of the community (many young families have moved out leavingan elderly community behind) resulted in changes in the support structureand the loss of village traditions. They displayed an inability to interperettheir situtation in a way which allows them to perceive control or to predicteven daily events. Incongruency between their imposed life space and their-values was apparent. The consequences have included increased rates ofmen-tal and physical illness, martial difficulties, anger, frustration and cyni-cism including loss of faith in democarcy and the due processes of the law.Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA5) have not taken into account psy-chological variables such as place identity, personal control and psycho-social transitions. If the effects of the Channel Tunnel terminal site on theresidents of Newington and Peene are representative of large scale environ-mental projects, then there is clearly a need for EiAs to recognise the im-portance of these factors and to explore strategies for dealing with the con-sequences. Perhaps a prerequisite is to clarify and reinforce the fullmeaning of the EEC Council Directive 1985/337/EEC.
Matchett, E.. "Sophiagenics: the Educational Discipline for Producing Work of Genius Level." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. "Sophiagenics' - 'Sophia', Wisdom; 'genics' an abbreviation of genetics (i.e.pertaining to origin) - hence 'the getting of wisdom'.Sophiagenics developed from an extensive research study aimed at identify-ing the precise nature of creative genius, viz. the nature of the truly origi-nal mind that produces the 'step change', the 'new paradigm', the seeminglyimpossible.The researches revealed that the highest levels of creativeness which we la-bel 'work of genius', 'miraculous' etc., are not the output of a human brainworking more fully and efficiently than hitherto, but rather a natural con-sequence of its learining how to be totally sensitive and obedient to the di-rection given by 'divine wisdom', viz. the creative intelligence which struc-tures the whole of the natural order, the continuous 'primal' act of Creationthat has produced and which sustains our universe.It is when the brain discovers that it is a gross mistake to try to be self-sufficient ... that it must function primarily as an input device, a receivernot as a self-contained computer, that then - and only then - does realcreativeness and the real miracles commence.To reach this point, a condition of being "in tune with the infinite", requiresa process of education - or re-education - in which almost all of the com-mon actions of striving for achievement have to be turned on their heads.Then a person enters upon the same path as trod by the creators of modernscience or by those who founded, during brief periods of renaissance, greatworld movements or 'impulses' such as those of Buddhism, Christianity andIslam. He is able to truly 'learn from nature' because of a deep and intelli-gent humility. He is able to invite and encourage a genuine, continuous, ex-perience of optimal functioning, in which there is a deliberate sensitivetuning to experience the source of creation, so that all is done in accordwith its insight, is guided in everything by it and is totally dependent on it.Sophlae'nics Is the essential discipline for producing intelligent change andprocess .:.tnecessary new patterns and new orders; not a formula for per-petuating 'proven1 patterns and orders. It is hot merely the causal agent ofexternal change and progress, but also ofimpottant radical Internal de-velopments up to full maturity and being truly wise.'Self reliance' is exchanged 10 each new moment for a total reliance on Crea-tion itself: creation that structures and empowers all of the organisms ofnature. The continued practise of Sophiagenlcs converts logic based thinkinginto an exact instinct and illumination, in which 'media' (the creative actionof Creation) and matter (existing creation) combine naturally and organi-cally to make and extend meaning in and for each new moment."
Erzen, J.. "Space as Existential Paradigm Through the History of Painting." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. Painting owes part of its special status amoungst the arts to its being one ofthe most telling representations of man's relation to is environment. Itspeaks both on the denotative and connotative levels, thus revealing para-digms and their critique. So, a view of western painting from the quatrocen-to to the 20th century can in fact be an analysis of western man's orientation in his constructed world according to how he creates and conceives ofspace. The spatial construct being the basic stage for all cultural mecha-nisms, such a study would also be a search for the basic clues to culturalvalues. My paper will be a comparative analysis on chronological and cultural ba-sis, using western and oriental painting as subject matter. It will try to ob-serve differences and changes in cultural values and their aesthetic ramifi-cations. It is hoped that such a survey would point to the great potential forsemiological research in interdisciplinary approaches.
Sole, Jordi Pich. "Space Perception, Cognitive Development and Physical Child Environment." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. "To design "ideal spaces" that may contribute to a correct development ofchildren (physical and mental), is a general goal shared both by architectsand psycologists-among other specialists-. In the last two decades it hasbeen strongly impulsed by the progressive extention of preschool child-careInstitutions.In theoretical and methodogical terms, that purpose points out the difficultyto establish a clear relationship between cognitive development (impulsedby motor, perceptual and emotional responses to environmental changes ordisruptions) and a set of characteristics present in the physical environ-ment of the center, considered isolatediy from other sources of variationsuch as educational style of the center, for example. Spatial distribution,level of acoustic pressure and material infrastructure for the pedagogicalneeds seem to be important physical cues which may affect cognitive devel-opment.But even in recent reviews of the problem, one can notice an oversimplifi-cation In the psychological parameters related to this development, speciallyin the studies with better definition and control of built environment varia-bles (see Spaces for children, Weinstein and David 1987, Plenum Press).In the opposite way, this paper will emphasize the development of the per-ception and mental representation of space, from birth to the final assimi-lations of the Euclidean and projective relations among objects in the visualfield. This study suggests some general ideas about how the physical envi-ronment should be to strengthen the child development. In this context, the paper will point out:a) The necessity of paying more attention, in the design of the inner space ofthe center and its distribution, to its topological rapports (proximity, sep-arations, contours, order relations, etc, between components), which im-plies a great mobility af all these elements of the setting. In fact, these rap-ports seem to be previous (Piaget, 1947) to any mental or Euclideanrepresentation of space. They are prefigured in the tactokinessic activity.So, the design of the space must "provoke" the motor and perceptual activi-ty.b) In the chapter of the acoustical conditions, not only a convenient pertec-lion from loud noise and an appropiate stimulation of tonal proception arenecessary in the center, but also and adequate setting for the development ofspatial localization of sound sources. The paper includes some Ideas in thisway. Moreover, this perceptual activity plays an important role in the evo-lution of sensibility to spatial configurations.c) Necessity of more research by the environmental psychologists on thechildrens' emotional reactions to certain spatial configurations to determinemost comfortable settings. These reactions are probably related to earlyfantasies, and they are within the basis of primitive inside/outside notions.Cognitive notions such as "place identity" or "place belongingness" aresurely affected by these emotional reactions to certain physical cues thatfurther research in this field may reveal."
Hardie, C. J.. "Space, Viewed Historically, an Expression of Cultural Continuity and Chance; a Case - Study of Tswana House and Settlement Design." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. Investigation of the Tswana's use of space when viewed historically demon-strates the importance space has in expressing the cultural meaning andvalues of a people. This view is developed on the basis of research under-taken in 1928, 1978 and again in 1988. The continuities and changes inthe culture, influenced by economic and political development, become ap-parent through dissecting the spatial expression whether at the level of thehouse or settlement.This presentation will review initial findings from extensive research un-dertaken in 1978. At that time research unfolded the nature of the Tswana'sspatial expression and the way their values of social status, world view, In-dividual identity, cooperation, and economic well being were mapped spa-tially moderated by the context of the natural environment. Comparingdata gathered 50 years before it was possible to note the changes in this ex-pression and to discover what values continued to use space as a vehicle fortheir expression. Returning ten years later made it possible to consideronce again the changes and continuities which have occured and to reconsiderthe analysis of 1978. It showed that some predictions in the earlier re-search were unfulfilled. The reasons for this and the insight gained from thelongterm perspective may find use in other situations undergoing change.
Oktay, D.. "Space: the Medium of Urbanism." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. Presence of a direct reciprocal reationship between form and space (Joe-dicks 1985) makes it necessary to undertake an attempt to develop an un-derstanding of space urban space as such in order to identify the points ofdeparture of the investigation of formationof urban environmet. Since thegeneral term 'space' coprises a number of dirverse phenomena, and the dif-ferences between the various concepts are in themselves a source of misun-derstanding, the matter of what meaning space possesses in built environ-ment seems to be the basic issue in this context.The main point here should not be a notion of space in all different manifes-tations to be found in philosophy since Greek Antiquity; nor a mathematicalunderstanding of space, nor the abstract idea of space one encounters inmodern physics. We should be concerned with space In urban environmentwhich has been considered as 'the medium of urbanism' by Peterson (1989:76)Amongst the various types of spaces, 'existential' space/urban space hasbeen considered the most important one, as relevant to a phenomenologicalunderstanding of place. Existential space in urban level Is analysed and rep-resented by a number, of schools with different analytical techniques.Amongst these, Cullen's (1971) and Lynch's (1960) techniques have beenthe most influencing ones. Cullen's analysis, which is based on serial visionof spaces from the perspective of the person in the street, is too visual,whereas Lynch's is biased by being aggregated and mapped into the cognitivespace of formal street plans. However, these two approaches collectivelypresent some of the more significant elements of urban space and suggestsome of its structural components.Studies also showed that existential space is not a logico-mathematical termdealing with geometrical grids merely, but comprises the basic relation-ships between the man and his environment (Norberg-Schulz 1971; Ch.2). The important aspect here is that within the urban level, the individualpossesses his/her more 'private' existential space, but it is essential thatthis is understood as part of a larger whole. Such an understanding growstogether with man's gradual becoming part of a social context. 'Socialzation',thus, has to be accompanied bythe development of existential space to becomereally meanigful. What meaning the term 'urban space' holds within the ur-ban structure needs to be clarified to examine whether the concept of urbanspace retains some validity in contemporary town planning and on what ba-sis.The research into the existing theories/methods of urban spatial design re-flect the need for qualities of spatial definiton, connection and values of his-tory and culture. Therefore, we need an integrated approach to urban spatialdesign which responds to these qualities and incroporates change and inno-vation to give added maning for contemporary users.
Macari, H. R.. "Spatial Attributes of Human Scale in Twentieth Century North American Urban Design: a Descriptive Study." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. "The subject of human scale, while historically given importance in designliterature, has never been well understood or integrated into design praxis.A complex and definitionally varied conceptualization, the term is appliedequally to aspects of human dimensions and social actions alike. A review ofpublished design drawings in the United States during this century reveals anumber of conceptual shifts in the meaning associated with human scale thatparallel the introduction of changing design paradigms. Less clear, and thesubject of this paper, is the identification of the spatial attributes that havebeen historically associated with human scale.Most commonly used to describe the relative size of elements in the urbanlandscape, human scale is still one of the most important visual relation-ships associated with the design of urban space. Nonetheless, the term car-ries a range of meanings, which include: the size of objects or spatial ele-ments relative to the dimensions and proportions of the human body; thesense that places belong to people and that the objects of place are personoriented; and, denotes a function of "meeting" within topological urban spac-es - those that are clearly enclosed. In the twentieth century, the use of theterm in urban design clearly moved from a concern with the size and pro-portions of topologically defined urban plazas, described by architecturalelements lacking in the same, to that created by the "International Style",which initially focused human scale applications on urban architecturalelements, while ignoring the same in the design of urban spaces. And as anemphasis for human scale and enclosure returned to the design of urban openspace, it reciprically became less of an issue in the design of urban build-ings. Currently, a phenomenological perspective suggests that the urbanlandscape can be understood on at least four separate levels of scale - that ofthe entire city, that of the street or square, that of individual buildings or structures, and that of specific architectural elements - with the eye mov-ing among these various levels as it searches for meaning.A descriptive study of human scale was conducted to identify the significantattributes associated with human scale at these various levels. The study in-volved a review of drawings and photographs that appeared in popular designpublications in the United States during this century, since it was reasonedthat these sources represented normative spatial concepts of human scalefor a given period. A list of attributes were developed based on the frequencyof their occurance in the publications and a histogram produced based on thefrequency of their distribution throughout the century. This paper describesthe results of that study and discusses the implications of human scale at-tributes and their usage in the design and communications of urban space inthe future."
Yenen, Z.. "Spatial Organization of Turkish City of Ottoman Period in Relation to Wakf and 'imaret' System." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. The objectives of this paper, by approaching to the period of Ottoman Em-pire from the point of a spatial fromework, are-to reveal that Turkish cities have been developed in accordance with theorganization of the institution of wakf and 'imaret' system,- to try to show the meanings of service buildings for the city as an entityand their places inthe context of the entire settlement, to prove that the Turkish City of Ottoman Period has had a peculiar struc-ture.In order to do this, the principles set and applied for the constitution of themacroform of Turkish cities of Ottoman period at their settlement and de-velopment stages are anayzed as related with the following subjects:• spatial organization of Turkish City of Ottoman Period,• the institutional organizational level that has influenced the urban struc-ture (Wakf/'imaret' system),• the hierarchy of quarter/neighbourhood unit ('semt') depending on thesphere of influence of community facility buildings,• the relation between the complex ('kulliye') and city entity.The findings ofthe study can be summarized in the following way:At the stage of broadening the boundaries of the country towards West, inrelation to expansion policy of Ottoman State, a systematic approach hasbeen applied to develop the important strategic cities as administrative,commerical, cultural or regional centers. Thus, the Turkish City of OttomanPeriod.Turks have developed a settlement model in the process of transition to thesettled living order; andthis model is distinguished from Islamic City.Among the organizations founded to satisfy common necessities of urban cit-izens, the institution of wakf performed an important role for the develop-ment of Turkish City of Ottoman Period as a peculiar system. This argumentis searched through,the functions of vakif institution and 'imaret'system,the relationship between 'imaret' system and the creation and developmentof urban patterns. There is a hierarchy in Turkish cities of Ottoman period from the structuralpoint of view. This hierarchy has been revealed bythe location of community facilties, andthe scale of these facilties (small service buildings/complexes).According to thishaving first step service buildings at their centers, the quarters haveformed the neghbourhood unit,having complexes at their centers, the neighbourhood units have formedthe settlement.Complexes have been organized within a framework of a socio-economic in-stitution of the city complex. The functions of complexes areleading the development of the city by location choices (the targets havebeen showed for the housing areas by determining potential settlement areasaround the old fortified settlement),• determination of the macroform of the settlement (the nucleus of the quar-ters and the neighbourhoods has been defined guaranteering the developmentof the city through desired direction).This is not causal and unordered development of the city. The general settle-ment form of the Turkish City of Ottoman Period was determined by apply-ing the leading principles and vital organs of the settlement.
Erman, E. T.. "Squatter Settlements in Turkey and the U.s." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. "In this presentation and historical analysis of squatter housing in two dif-ferent contexts, namely, in the United States, a "developed" country (a cen-tral capitalist society) and in Turkey, an "underdeveloped" and, in someviews "developing" country (a society in the peripheral capitalist system)will be done. In New York, shanty houses appeared mainly at Central Park between1850-1900, when there was mass immigration from Europe and during theDepression (1930's), when unemployment was high. Ankara started to re-ceive a large number of rural-urban migrants following WWll who builttheir squatter houses in and around the city. Today in New York, the oneswhich were built at Central Park were demolished. However, there are stillsome squatter houses owned by politically conscious people as well as vacantapartments inhabited by homeless people. In Ankara, there have been chang-es in squatter settlements, some of them being replaced by apartment blocksas a result of the expansion of the city. The presentation will address the following questions:A. Appearance of squatter houses in New York/Ankara1. WHEN: When did squatter houses appear in New York/Ankara?2. WHY: Under what socio-economic and political conditions?3. WHERE: Where were they built? Were there particular locations wheresquatter houses were clustered or were they scattered all over the city?4. WHO: Who occupied them? What were their socio-economic status andethnic identity? What were the social images of these houses and their resi-dents?5. WHAT: How was a squatter house different from other types of houses?How were squatter houses defined legally, socially and physically?B. Chances in squatter houses over time in New York/Ankara1. What happened to squatter houses after they first appeared?2. Do they preserve their original identity (physical, social, legal) or werethey converted into something else? That is;a. Have there been changes in their physical appearance?b. Have there been changes in the kind of people who reside in squattersettlements? In the social images of squatter houses and their dwellers?c. Have there been changes in the legal status of squatter houses? If yes, howdid this happen?"
Hernandez, F.. "Stages in the Pictorial Representation of the Environment." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. This paper will Introduce the problematic of the representation of the envi-ronment with a pedagogic purpose, using constructive references derivedfrom studies of maps in a non-reactive way. These proposals show the pos-sibility of introducing different levels of complexity in the organization ofrepresentation based on a participatory observation of the process and re-sults.Cognitive maps are presented as metaphorical-analogical models of the rep-resentation of a reality (Stea and Downs, 1977; RIBA, 1958). The adapta-tion between representation (mental and depictive) and reality is an inter-vening variable in the construction of a map. Consequently, in the predictiveand evaluative use of the map, knowledge, skills and previous experience ofthe Individual in the environment have an important influence on this vari-able. In the relationship between representation and reality, several ad-justments and adaptations must be made in order to establish the connectionbetween: the structuring itself of the environment, the mental image, re-sources and depictive skills of the subject and the researchers' appraisal ofthe map.The proposals in order to approach this complex framework, since the firststudies of Lynch (1960), have been generally applied under a reductionistcharacter, and they don't always guarantee the connection of the representa-tion and its evaluation with the lifestyles of the subjects (Ladd, 1985). Thestudies on maps have failed to take into account the value of the representa-tional skills used by the subjects, or explore cooperative ways of analyzingthe results or consider the map not as an end in itself but as a result of alongitudinal process. Our work intends to make a contribution within the framework previouslydescribed. In this contet, a group of 30 second-year students of the Facultyof Fine Arts of Barcelona were situated in a village of the Ampurdán (Gero-na) previously unfamiliar to them. There, over the course of a weeknd, theywere told to confront different ways of seeing and represent the environmentwith the specification that it not be reduced to a mere spacial category. Inthe task, it was possible to take in other aspects, such as personal, cultural,epistemological, aesthetic and symbolic facets, that together with the spa-tial, would form a dframework of environmental Interrelations (Teymur1982; Hernandez, 1996).During the experience, the results were being organized and categorized ac-cording to the decision-making process that the subjects had made with theresearcher. Three stages of representation were exposed: (a) Photographic,(b) Differential and (c) Analitical, which made evident the complexity inthe organization of the structure of the environment. This paper elaboratesupon the process of encountering these three stages.
Aksoy, E.. "Symbolic Architecture Versus Vernacular Architecture." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. An important warning: The so-called new reginolism or neo vernacularism,which seems to be one of the most influential attempts of the post-moderndesign era hinders creativity.The vernacularist approach preserves the existing structures as a means of survival. The master builders of vernacular buildings are there to correctand readapt the vernacular system to changing climatic contitions.New building technics, new materials and transfer of new approaches causethe deterioration of the self regulating cybernetic system of the vernacular architecture. The oil crisis in the Western world necessitated the re-evaluation of the ecological context in architecture. The appropriate form gave priority to thepragmatism of the shelter. An architecture which contains the elements ofthe folk art of the locality became a valid design approach for many archi-tects who were exhousted by the energy consumption-principles of modernarchitecture. Here, architecture stood at a tool level. Despite all wellworking parts these buildings never reached the required level of symbol-ism. Man has always taken great care in forming his envieronmern with symbolic elements which transmit the wealth of a cultural legacy. The symbols of each culture group sharing the same language, mythology,religion and artform will have similar properties. The realm of architecture as a symbolic realisation process is the area ofanalogies and metaphores. The architectural symbols may be difficult tounderstand to the outsiders. The important task of the post-modern designer is to enrich the symbolic repertory of his culture. We want to argue that there is no treshold between vernacular and symbolicapproaches.
Qua, Hao Ran. "Tall Buildings of Ancient China: a Case Study." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. "Tall buildings of ancient China were built as early as three thousand yearsago. They and their own structural systems and architectural forms out-standing in the world.1. Philosophy Thought-- Taked a proiecting position to show one's power and influent.-- As possible as to near the sky where Gods lived in their mind.-- Put themselfes at a high seat to get a far distance view and abroad. mind for think and writing.-- Spied on the secret of to space such as the sun, the noon and thestars.2. Functional--Defence works of a city.--The ceremony place for feudal nobles or slave owners.--Landmarks of a place.--The focus or the crown in gardening.--The public space near a scenic spot. --Used for religious purpose.3. Achievements-- The height of itself.--The fine shape and the beautiful colour of wood constructions.--Free spacing in the interior of tall buildings.--The use of frame and pile structures. --Glazed tiles and bricks was used earlier.4. Formations--The platform was the oldest form of tall buildings of ancientChina. It was formed of a high pedestal and upper building whichwere inseparable.--The storied building was developed from the platform, with itsheigh much greater than its width. Its outline was tortuous andits floors were layer upon layer. --The pavilion was another kind of storied buildings. It was openerthan the former and was used for collecting and storing books andart treasures or for overlooking the scenery.--The chinese pagoda which was originally introduced from India, hadits own characteristics. It could be used for military purposes andfor overlooking the scenery as well as in religious.--Some ancient tall buildings of minority nationalities had importantpositions in Chinese architecture. A large religious Building oftenstood by a Mountain, "blind windows" being built on the retainingwalls In order to exaggerate the number of stories, such as thepotala palace In Tibet, which looked thirteen stories in outwardappearance, But actually it had only nine.Is it necessary to learn the history and culture in spatial planning and de-sign of the Third world today? Why and how?"
Riley, Robert B.. "Teaching Cultural - Spatial Issues in Design: a Personal Odyssey." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. "This paper describes the course the author designed and teaches, and partic-ularly, some radical changes in the author's attitude towards the course overthe three years In which it has been offered. Its purpose is to stimulate dis-cussion on the "why" of teaching cultural/spatial issues, in the belief thatthe "how" and "what" will follow.The first part of the paper will describe the content areas of the course: re-gionalism; some theoretical aspects of culture and environment; home through history; home across cultures; issues of class, subclass, and genderin the home; beyond the home: bars, streets and neighborhoods; homes inchange; and several sessions on designing for cultural change. The threegeneral themes that structure and organize the course will be discussed. Thefirst princuple is the progression of the course from the relatively famil-iar, the issue of visual fit and formal context, through the much less famil-iar terrain of cultural issues and factors, on to or back to, the role of thedesigner and the social secientist in coping with cultural diversity andchange. The second principle is that the generalized concept of "culture andchange" can subsume most relevant issues, such as the cultural imbedding ofarchitecture; cultural diversity; the problem of subcultures, including therelation between the four subcultures of designers, clients, users, and so-cial scientists; and the role of history and continuity the both cultural evo-lution and cultural revoulution. The third principle, the most thorny anddifficult theme, is that of the relationship between visal and formal con-cerns on the one hand, and issues of cultural and behavioral supportivenesson the other.The second part of the paper will present the author's thoughts on the valueof the course: the "why" of its existence. This is an account of myprogress.or maybe my aimless wandering, from the initial, simple goal ofmaking students aware of the cultural blinders we all wear on to severalother values. Among these are the celebration of architecture and the humanlandscape as the most comlex artifacts of humanity and the intricate rela-tionship between culture and these products; the realization, that both vis-ual/formal and social/cultural issues are important and it is their con-gruence that builds the highest forms of architecture and landscape; anunderstanding of relations between designer and social scientists; the not-to-be-mocked goal of the sensitive tourist and the problematic relationshipbetween the insider's world and outsiders world and the realization thatmost high-style designers defend and justify their work through culturaltheories of unbelievable banality. The last issue is waht now seems to me thegreatest value of the course: its role as a crucible for the students' examina-tion of their own personal and presonal and professional values. The third part, which seems much more simplistic than it turns out to be, isa discussion of the place and role of the course in the curriculum, its rela-tion across or between across or between departments, its relation to thedesign curriculum or the design studio per se and finally, the issue of thetransmission of information versus the stimulation of the students' own ide-as and reflections."
Akin, Ömer. "Temporary Permanence of Settlements: Some Observations on Idikut - Schari(1] (Gaochang) and Yar - Khoto(Jiaohe)." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. This is a study of human settlements as it is reflected in the permanence,and the impermanence for that matter, of architectural and planning ele-ments used over time, place, and religious and political upheavals. The spaclfic setting of this study is the Turfan Oasis in the Xinxiang AutonomousRegion of the People's Republic of China. The two settlements to be de-scribed and discussed are the ancient cities of idikut-Schari and Tar-Khoto,both located on the northern branch of the Silk Road.Idikut-Schari was established during the 2nd Century BC. It played an im-portant role In the establishment of the trade routes and urbanization of theUygur Turks during the last millennium. Var-Khoto, which rapidly grew toa size of 10,000 Inhabitants during the 9th and 10th Centuries, was esta-blished as a military outpost soon after Idikut-Schari. Both cities, devastat-ed by the armies of Cengiz Khan in the 12th Century, never recovered theirformer glory and were abandoned by the 16th Century.The two cities were bully entirely of rammed earth, adobe brick, archedopenings, vaulted and domed rooms. Forms such as, axis, courtyard, hier-archy were used as timeless principles of building in the Asian vernacular.The set of architectural and planning features discussed include construc-tion, courtyard house type, stupa, building compound and axial organization,These feqtures are in turn related to traditions found in other places andtimes, namely in China and in Asia Minor.
stünkök, O. Ü.. "Ten Years with Seventeen - Ten a Decade in the Conservation of Houses in Turkey: 1973 - 1983." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990.

The period from 1973 to 1983 occupies a special place in Turkey's relatively long history of the care and conservation of cultural property for anumber of reasons. Perhaps the first and foremost of these was the enactment, in 1973, of the Antiquities Law numbered 1710 (Eski Eserler Kanuflu) the provision of which, at least in theory, broadened the coverage ofconservation decisions to embrace the examples and ensembles of the traditional vernacular buildings. However, despite the officially initiated pilot schemes mostly undertaken bythe universities to lead the way, as it were, the number of practical implementation of conservation proposals during the decade remained far fromsatisfactory. What is more, the years from 1973 to 1983 also witnessed arather swift disappearance of countless fine examples of traditional vernacular houses in many parts of the country and, pradoxically enough, especially in settlement which contained conservation areas (am designated under the provisions of the 1710. An overview of the ten years during which the Antiquities Law numbered1710 remained in force may therefore point to a variety of conclusions thatwould be value, at least academically, for future reference. This paper attempts at a summary evaluation of the said Law primarily interms of a) the general statutory framework that existed then, b) the particular shotcomings of the enactment itself, c) the attitude of the Turkishpublic at the time, and d) the present and future prospects of conserving theremaining stock of the once rich tradtional/historical vernacular buildingsinthe country.

Evci, F, and A. Aytug. "Textural Properties of Traditional and the Possibilities of Using These Materials Today." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. Being the elements of architectural form, space, mass and surface vary inaccordance with the availability of structure and material. For this reason itis possible to state that the material Is a means of architectural expression.Morphological and qualitative chages in the outer forms of a material char-acterize the social and cultural efforts and the technical standards of the day,or period. Until the 19th Century old masters and architects who used to work with a limited number of material and traditional construction techniques, whileliving very close to the natural materials, knew the visual characteristicsof the materials like texture and colour, and in the light of intuitive as em-pirical knowledge, constructed the buildings.In regard to architecture, Industrial Revuluation has created changes in therelationship between industrial construction materials and constructionsector. In an age of mass production it can be stated that in terms of today's architecture, the observation of many of the informative and decisive ruleswhich make themselves apparent in nature, is being ignored and the respon-sibility of the architect has usually been shifted to the solution of the tech-nical problems. However, the industries which have produced textured andcoloured materials have been playing an essential role in the solution of thevisual apperance of our environment. For this reason the recognition of ma-terials by the architects and the designers must not only express the factthat the architects and the designers only know about the technical proper-ties and internal structure of the materials. While the architects who useform and material as a means of architectural expression, are selecting thematerial-the selection should be true to the nature of the material and makethe use of the material possible exactly in suitable situations-they shoulddevice on matters of designing by knowing aesthetic and plastic values of amaterial like texture and colour and keeping in mind that the material is ef-fective in perceiving space, mass and surface. Moreover, in'recent years theuse of traditional materials has become actual as a consequence of people be-ing conscious of the values of the traditional architecture which is composedof traditional materials, and environmental data. From this point of view, being the most important traditional materialswhich form the traditional space, wood and stone will be studied in terms oftextural properties. In order to introduce the research with examples, theArchitecture In the Eastern Black Sea Region in which wood tohgether withstone have been used perfecty will be handled as and example and comparedwith the research results obtained in the Faculty of Architecture at YildizUniversity and retatedlb the textures which are preferred in both inner adnouter spaces.In this declaration after the textural properties and expressions of wood andstone are examined respectively, the textural effects appearing because ofthe fact that these materials are used together to form a surface will bestudied.Then the place of surface effect in the texture of nature and the relationshipsin terms of landscape values will be expressed by exemplifying with the useof slides. In the last part of this declaration the relation of the visual effects of sur-face with texture and the relationship between colour and texture will bedetermined and the place of the textural effect of the traditional materialwhich develops spontaneously in our traditional architecture will be em-phasized and the areas of usage of the traditional material in today's archi-tecture will be investigated.
Corraliza, J. A.. "The Assessment of Urban Scenes from Madrid: a Psycho - Logical Account of Preference." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. "The study of scenery preference as a psychological process has been a majorresearch topic in Environvmental Psychology. However, research on thistopic has emphasised the study of the scenery preferance as applied to natu-ral landscapes. This research ( Kaplan and Kaplan, 1982; Herzog andsmith, 1988 ) has proved that there is no universal relationship betweenphysical features and psychological processes. On the contrary, it seemsnecessary to explore the experience of the scenery as a whole and its assess-ment as a function of the subject's involvement in it. In spite of the theo-retical import of this line of research, there are few empirical studies withurban scenes.Our research study is intended to determine the preference criteria in theassessment of 16 urban scenes from the city of Madrid found in a sample ofresidents in this city. The 16 scenes were selected according to the two fol-lowing physical features: Presence / absence of "nature" (trees, lawns,hedges,. . . ) and open vs. closed appearance of the scene. Subjects' re-sponses were variables similar to those employed by Herzog and Smith(1988) "mystery", perceived physical danger, perceived social danger,shadows, nature, and depth.Results suggest the need to analyse the experience of the city's architecturalshapes as a whole as well as the difficulty of assessing a single physical orarchitectural feature in isolation. We therefore underline the importance ofassessing "urban scenes" in addition to natural landscapes. Furthermore,our results show that preference should be considered in the context of thepsyshological experience of feature. Finally, our study stresses the impor-tance of "mystery" and "shadows" as appropriate predictors of preference inurban scenes."
Gür, S. Ö., and Z. Enön. "The Changing Socio - Spatial Aspects of Neighborhoods in Turkey and Its Design Implications." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. This study deals with human communities in the context of neighborhoods. Itinvestigates the traditional and current neighboring activities in Turkey andevaluates the spatial characteristics of the neighborhoods for the purpose ofmaking contributions to future planning proposals.There are three major obligations when dealing with human communities.One has to understand how communities operate, why they operate as the do,and finally to formulate opinion about the way they could best operate.Most traditional communities are structured in a way that gives free ex-pression to their own wishes. There are other communities however, thatunder the impact of physical structure are not operating in the way theywish but in the way they are forced to by the surroundings. The neighbor-hood which is the smallest unit operating in the city above the level of fami-ly is one such sociospatial entity.There are conceptual and methodological difficulties, however, confrontingthe researcher engaged in neighborhood studies, resulting from several factors: 1) Conceptual ambiguity, concerning the terms neighbor, neighboring andneighborhood.2) Contradictory research evidence based on ambigous assumptions and in-struments.3) The problem of rapid social and physical changes upsetting the tradition-al balance between neighbors and neighborhoods. To avoid these pitfalls, thisstudy adopts three important conceptual distinction:1) The neighbor is a special role implying a particular kind of social atti-tude to be distinguished from the role of a friend or relative.2) Neighboring activities associated with this role range from highly for-malized and regular neighborly rituals to sporadic informal and causal con-tacts.3) The neighborhood is either clearly demarcated spatial unit with vaguelydefined subpart of a town or city whose boundaries are only vaguely appar-ent and differently perceived by its inhabitants.1In line with these definitions this study dwells upon six neighborhoods,varying in terms of spatial configuration of territory and demographicstructure of inhabitants. It deliberately covers a range which reflects thechanges the neighborhoods underwent in the course of historical develop-ments, in Turkey. These spatial units, either with definite or vague bounda-ries are precisely defined by their physical properties which are groupedunder twenty-four headings. The physical properties range from the floortreatment, general topography and micro-climate of space to the municipal-ity laws and legislations conformed to in the realization of boundaries ofneighborhood territories.In this context, neighboring activities between neighbors are studiedthrough behavior mapping techniques at the behavior-setting level; andqualitative and quantitative aspects of neighboring activities are depicted.The social and cultural chracteristics of the inhabitonts as well as attitudetoward neighboring are investigated by the questionnaires, on a random ba-sis. Finally, the neighborhoods are compared and contrasted in the degree of in-tensity, traditionality and desirability of neighboring activities they elicit.Those which rank high in the comparison are brought fore and further ana-lyzed for their conduciveness with regards the spatial properties as theymay be the underlying causes of the desired level of neighboring relations.
Bartlett, Peter. "The City as Performance Space: Towards a Recovery of Urban Theatricality." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. The purpose of this paper is to visit the world of theatre, to examine itsperformance space, its occupants, their relationships and the architecturalcontainment of all these, and then, to explore from this heterotopic domain,the extent to which the surrounding city centre too is committed to such atheatrical identity and is indeed itself a performance space related to it, bothphysically and figuratively. Development trends of Auckland city centre arecharacterised, its main streets evaluated and some principles andprocedures suggested for urban design directions capable of enhancing thewider usage and theatricality of its public spaces.Central Auckland's range of provisions for urban life together with itsability to be urbanely unpredicatable are both shrinking. An unholisticmonoculture has been overwhelming it at the expense of 'the greater public'and many of the traditional retail and service functions to which popularmain street loyalties attach.Usage of this vast investment is increasingly selective, exclusive, evenpunishing of old and new ventures in diversity. By numerous consumermeasures, the new generation suburban centres are outpointing Aucklandcity centre in the shopping and social stakes.Faced with this trend, counteraction is under debate and under way - mostlyupmarket in new developments, but increasingly down-market too asbusiness and property slumps as well as land tax together wring from theolder quarters adaptive strategies long ignored.However, self-levelling as the market city may be in redistributingaffordable consumer services, it is arguable that their delivery and demandin the city will remain thwarted without radical urban and architecturaldesign contributions which excel (by comparison with suburban centres) intheir capacity to serve the diversely traditional and contemporary interestsof the greater city public. Some of these necessary design strategies will treat inadequancies ofaccommodation, comfort, security as well as retail viability; others willtreat visual, cultural and figurative inadequacies. Both strategic thrustsstand to gain from a conceptual engagement with theatre.Indeed, concerning theatre and all the moving encounters it embodies -between worlds of spectator and performer, of reality and illusion, ofprivate and public, of present and past, of the imaginable and theunimaginable - one can only continue to marvel at its validity as a modelerof the drama of urban life and as a metaphor for the urban life facility whichis the city.The paper examines the validity of the theatre model in addressing cityIssues and city fabric before advancing principles and typologies forreformations.
Manzo, L.. "The Crystal Palace as a Manifestation of Hubris Vs. Angst in the Late Nineteenth Century." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. "During the latter half of the nineteenth century, a number of tremendousstructures made of glass and iron, called "Crystal Palaces", appeared in Eu-rope and the United States as part of a larger chain of events leading towardsthe development of International Exhibitions. This paper will explore theevents and social, economic and political conditions which led to the appear-ance of such exhibitions at that time, beginning with the first Crystal Palacein London, England in 1851. Discussion will begin with an analysis of thevarious events and conditions In both Eastern and Western Europe which fa-cilitated the appearance of the Crystal Palace in England.Thus, the Crystal Palaces, when considered within a socio-political contextcan be seen as part of a larger movement of nationalism and celebration ofthe technological advancements brought on by the Industrial Revolution.Further analysis reveals however, that the particular nations and culturesin which these Crystal Palaces appeared were not necessarily more advancedthan the others, but existed in such conditions where they were able (andswift) to try to demonstrate their "superiority" over other nations. (e.g.France had developed much of the technology which was necessary in orderto build a Crystal Palace before the English did, and in fact, the glass work-ers who worked on the Crystal Palace in London were French).The analysis looks at the appearance of several of the Crystal Palaces, in-cluding one in Poland and one in the United States and reveals these struc-tures to be a manifestation of strong conflicting feelings about the humancondition prior to the turn of the century. For some the Crystal Palacescame to symbolize the culmination of human advancement and civilization,but they were also the symbol of a fragile ego, an existential fear of humanfallibility as progress also came to mean greater exploitation of the earthand its resources by dominant groups."
Nevanlinna, A. K.. "The Cultural Approach in Architectural Research." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. conference:IAPS:11
Lawrence, D. L.. "The Culture (And Space and Histrory) of Others and Ourselves." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. conference:IAPS:11
Symes, M. S.. "The Culture of British Architects: 1968 - 1988." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. Architests live in a world of their own. Membership of the profession isclosed. Methods of work are not divulged to building users or shared withcollaborators in the bilding industry. Architects have unique methods of re-warding success,their physical environment is highly specialised, theyhave developed a number of private languages. But this culture has beenchallenged in the last twenty years. Economic recession, social protests andmedia exposure have theratened its self-sufficiency. This paper discussesthese changes and some of their consequences for individual architects' ap-proach to their work. The development of the building industry will be outlined. The political con-text has been transformed. The welfare state and affluent socety with itsprogramme of housing, schools and hospitals largely designed in public sec-tor offices has given way to an enterprise society with an emphasis on officeand retail structures, privatised practice and competitive design consul-tancy. Professional firms have been restructured, consortia created, con-tracts reconsidered, energy consumption questioned. Small and large firmstake differing financial risks.The questions which have faced the profession in creatinga role for its mem-bers will be discussed. Architects have seen themselves as artists, a gentle-men with a social responsability and as entrepreneurs. Ethical issues havebeen raised and alternative role-models proposed. Relationships with gov-ernment and regualatory boies have altered. Codes of conduct have been re-vised and conditions of employment have changed. Practice overseas broughtmany of these questions to the fore: practice in urban renewal demonstratestheir importance at home. The credibility of the design professions is at is-sue.This period has seen the end of concensus concerning the modern movement.The debate over the need for rational solutions and the need for individualexperssion has been reopened but not resolved. The search for symbolicmeanings has been extended and regional languages of arcitecture have beenadopted. Aesthetic authority has been challenged by lay taste.The paper will attemp to show how individiul architects and the firms theywork with have attempted to cope with these unceretainties in everydaypractice but yet maintain a worthwhile vision of their work and its purpose.
Seldel, Andrew D.. "The Culture of Scholarship in Architecture." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. This paper addresses the history and culture of how knowledge of environ-metal studies is validated, encouraged and rewarded in its developmentwithin universities.Both in the loftiest theoretical and conceptual arenas and in the practicalrealms of university legitimation, faculties of arcitecture are facing seriouschallenges to their conceptualizations of what forms knowledge productionor scholarly activity. Quections are being raised as to what forms scholar-ship, both as creative activity as well as research and publication. Some-times these questions have been raised In the form of the university imposi-tion of guidelines, over strenous faculty objection, for what are appropriatescholarly ativities. Other examples come from within faculties themselves,asking how should we decide which efforts are a contribution to knowledgein our fields. From whatever direction it emanates, the question of whatforms scholarship in architecture and how do we seek to validate it, Is inserious need of being addressed directly,This paper addresses how scholarly activity is being defined and evaluatedwithin arcihtectural education in North America. It identifies the models fordefining scholarly activities that are being used in a number of universityschools of architecture. It also identifies how these definitions are used toreword faculty performance. The paper then compares and contrasts thesemodels and seeks to identify where these models may provide benefits to thedevelopment of scholarship as well as where these models may inhibitscholarly activity and, thereby, provides a description of the current cul-ture f the production of knowledge in environmental studies. The presenter is in a nearly unique position to compile and present this in-formation. From his position as Editor of the Journal of Architectural andPlanning Research and from having conducted a survey of architecture, hehas assembled this information describing the culture facing researchersand knowledge producers within the university setting.
Seidel, Andrew D.. "The Culture of Scholarship in Architecture." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. conference:IAPS:11
Wilson, M. A.. "The Development of Stylistic Preferences During Architectural Education." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. It has often been suggested that architects design buildings for the criticalacclaim of their peers, rather than for the people who will use and viewtheir buildings.The apparent differences in the appreciation of architecturebetween architects and 'lay' people has been the centre of considerable de-bate in the UK, and this has been further fuelled by royal interest. If archi-tects truly have different standards of appreciation to non architects, then itis most likely that these standards of judgement are acquired within theschools of architecture during the period of architectural educationThe paper describes a cross sectional study of the architectural preferencesof students at two schools of architecture in five different stages of their ed-ucation. Analysis of the students' evaluations of twenty-six examples of con-temporary architecture suggests a developmental trend In architectural ap-prectiation, showing differences in the type of architecture appreciatedrelating to the stage of the students' education. Further, the evaluations made by the students at the two schools become increasingly different from oneanother with each year sampled. These findings suggest a process of sociali-sation within the schools of architecture which instills an evaluative sys-tem specific to the school of training. The implications for architectural ed-ucation are discussed.When taken as a whole the students' evaluations of architecture allow thedevelopment of a model of architectural preferences. When classifying thebuildings according to their own personal preferences,the students gave avariety of explanations of why they appreciate the buildings they do. Howev-er, analysis of the associations between the buildings using Smallest SpaceAnalysis (SSA) shows that the underlying structure of the evaluations isclearly based on architectural style. It is therefore possible that sometraining in architectural history/criticism may help non architects to ap-preciate their built environment more.The potential for further development and application of the model is con-sidered.
Hilton, K. L.. "The Effects of Economic Change on Spatial Relationships in Housing: a Case Study." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. An examination of the changing pattern of housing in the Eastern Province ofSaudi Arabia shows that recent housing, constructed under Western heightand set-back codes, has resulted in a villa or apartment house form quitedisimilar from traditional housing. However, an analysis of plan type andlayout of the new villas reveals vestigal remains of traditional spatial rela-tionships both in plan form and house-to-house relationships.Recent house plans have become room specific in a manner which was notpossible in the past but the principles of segregation between male/femaleand family/visitors continue, and may even be strengthened, no matter how'western' the houses may appear externally.Even though the house may lack the traditional courtyard and even thoughfevestration appears on all four external faces of the dwelling; room fur-nishing and room arrangements are inward looking.The planning of such villas, by family groups around a shared space allwithin a municipal sub-division, also indicates th desire to use externalspace in the manner which the dead-end street made possible.Where less constraints are placed upon house form in rural areas, we findthat houses develop, incrementally, around enclosed lot walls to create in-wardly focussed caoutyard arrangements.
Armstrong, H.. "The Evolution of a Landscape Design Philosophy in Late Twentieth Century Australia - Which Cultural Continuity?" In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. What are the aesthetic and cultural precedents generating continuity of openspace planning and landscape design in a country with only two hundredyears of European settlement where the existing Indigenous people main-tained a nomadic culture using the whole continent as skilfully managed openspace?This paper will describe the influences on an evolving twentieth centurylandscape design philosophy in Australia. It will explore the interactions ofpolitical ideologies, social issues and aesthetic precedents which have gen-erated a twentieth century design approach to open space planning and de-sign. This interaction reflects an interesting interplay between 'old world'philosophies as exponded by European and British town planners of thetwentieth century and 'new world' ideologies from North America with par-ticular reference to the City Beautiful Movement and the environmentalmovement of the 1960s. As well, the significance of the indigenous land-scape as revered open space, a reaction to the previous century's abuse, isconsidered.
Rivlin, L. G.. "The Evolution of Institutions for Homeless Persons in the United States." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. Homelessness has become a national crisis in the United States with millionsof persons losing their homes. Various institutions have been created by lo-cal governments and private agencies to accommodate homeless individualsand families including large, emergency shelters, transitional housing andwelfare hotels. In order to understand how these places developed and thefunctions they serve in contemporary society, it is necessary to examine thehistory of homelessness in the United States, including attitudes towardspoor and homeless persons. Through an analysis of the roots of institutionsand their physical forms, the rationale for existing types and their policiescan be clarified. The have been indigent and homeless persons in the United States from thetime the first colonies were established but there are three main periods ofhomelessness. One occurred in the second half of the nineteenth century, onein the 1930's and the third in the 1980's. The policies and settings createdin response to the existence of homeless persons emerged from the culturalheritages of the early colonial period and the values and ethics of the colo-nists in the seventeenth century. They largely rested on English tradition-sand forms with major emphasis on Ioccal responsibility. During the second period of homelessness in the latter part of the nineteenth century, respon-sibility for the poor had moved from being a concern of the local community,family and neighbors to increasing use of institutions, including almshous-es, poorhouses, workhouses, and religious missions. Poverty was seen as aserious social problem requiring drastic social reforms. By the twentiethcentury, few of these forms remained. The Great Depression of the 1930'sand the ensuing widespread poverty led to the develoment of new institution-al responses such as work camps and shelters, increasingly involving thenational government.Through and examination of these facilities and the ideologies they repre-sented, an analysis of the contemporary shelter system wil be undertaken.The cultural heritage of the past will be used to illuminate some of the formscurrently in use.
Barnes, J. R.. "The Fate of Dervish Property Under Ottoman Administration in the Nineteenth Century." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. Under the Ottoman EmPire, the practice of creating religious foundations(vakif,pl. evkaf) expanded to embrace every from of religious, educational,and charitable institution in Islam, and was responsible for making the Is-lamic world much the way It was. What allowed for this expansion was thelegislation of Ebussuud, who was sheuhulislam during the reign of Suleymanthe Magnificent in the sixteenth century. In effect, Ebussuud declared thepermissibility of making state lands vakif. Although a fundamental requirement for a vakif to be valid in Islamic law was that the property to be be-queathed be In the full ownership of the founder, Ebussuud waived thistechnicality, allowing for vakif to be created under conditions of a perpetuallease, similar to Byzantine emphyteusis.The largesse of the state over the course of time became subject to abuse, tothe extent that much state land as a source of revenue was lost to the impe-rial fisc. By the second decade of the nineteenth century, the situation wasdecidedly reversed under the absolutism of Mahmud It. The very conditionsthat allowed for the expansion of vakif were now used by the state to re-strict it. Since most of the vakit of the empire was made from state lands, itwas, technically, quasi-legal, and not in the full ownership of the founder.Vakif landed property hitherto privately overseen by and infinitude of ad-ministrators now came under direct government administration.Under Sultan Mahmud II, the supervision of imperial endowments was takenfrom the great diginitaries of state and transferred to the administration ofhis own pious endowments. Thus, imperial vakif holdings under the Darus-saade Agasi, the Babussaade Agasi, the Aga of the 1-lanissaries, the Sheyhulls-lam, the kadis of Istanbul, and the leading members of the ulema weretransferred to Mahmud's vakif holdings to form the nucleus of the Evkaf-lHumayun Nezareti, the administration for imperial religious founda-tlons.This administration formally became a separate government ministryin 1826. The Evkaf Ministry during the period of the Tanzimat (1839-75)came to comprise all the major endowments of the empire,with few excep-tions.Included within the sphere of the Evkaf Ministry's administration was thevakif property of the dervish orders. From the outset of the Tanzimat in1839, the takeover by the government of pious endowments did not bodewell for the religious brotherhoods.Under the new order, supernumerary donatives that the dervishes had cus-tomarily received from provincial officials were summarily cut off. Bygovernment decree, rations were only to be given to those legally entitled tothem, which was demonstrated by valid documentation. Documentation wasincrasingly used by the Ottoman government to hold the line on expenditure,as a means of balancing income with expenditure. It occasionally had the ef-fect of disenfranchising dervishes from their property and their income. Anumber of dervishes and sheyhs were without title deeds to thier ancestrallands, and could not therefore prove the property they possessed was indeedtheirs.Apart from putting an end to the free disbursement of rations in the prov-inces, and occasional seizure of undocumented property, the most damagingpolicy of the Evkaf Ministry toward vakif belonging to the dervish orderswas to turn the business of revenue collection over to tax farmers. Since agood deal of vakif landand live stocks belonging to the orders was mixed withstate land, the multezim assesS the revenue of bothcollectively, treatingvakif property as state land. Invariably, what the multeizm offered asaprice for the produce was low, In spite of the objections of the vakif ad-ministrators, and he would proceed to sell the produce on the open market ata profit, thereby recovering the initial sum he paid for the right to taxfarm- and a good deal more besides.In point of fact, the actual business of collecting vakif landed revenue per-tained to the Imperial fisc, which turned over to the Evkaf Ministry a fixedsum on amonthly basis. Over the course of time, this omount was reduced toone fourth of the original sum, and the Evkaf Ministry thereby became de-prived of a considerable source of revenue.While the maintenance of religious foundation roofed property was a priori-ty with the first Evkaf Ministry officials, they quickly found their positionuntenable. Many vakif buildings In need of repair were either attached tovakif property that had ceased to yield and income, or belonged to vakZfproperty that was indebted. The gevernment resorted to borrowing moneyfrom the financially sound great selatin vakif's, but this soon proved a drainon the Evkaf Treasury. In addition, initial estimates had the habit of beingrevised, until the final projected sum to cover the cost of repair amounted toseveral times the original figure. From a policy of over-generosity, thegovernment was compelled to go to the other extreme, authorizing initiallyonly the ablolute minimal for repairs. Any further increase in costs wassubjecte to stringent review.Thus, Imperial policy which was responsible for the spread of religiousfoundations was responsible as well for its decline.
zcan, A. Ö.. "The Frontiers in Architecture." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. "We seem to be unsatisfied with our man-made physical environment. Anenormous bulk of publications and an important number of architecturalschools, an ever changing accumulation of building laws and practices, be-sides other activities from international symposia to informal chats of achitects in cafes, seem to take an important part of our lives, rightfully, because achitecture, our man-made physical environment concerns usdeeply. This paper consists of six sections:1) A proposal to design our buildings to change with the seasons, instead ofdesigning insensitive an irresponsive static statements which remain thesame in all seasons.2) More sensitivity and response to urbanity when designing our buldings.Cities mean more choices. Buildings should be designed with the idea in mindthat they should allow and initiate "more accesibility", within the urbanfromework, to urban institutions, to make our cities richer culturally andmore "educataionail" and more "recreational".3) MULTI USE AND FLEXIBILITY. These don't only provide economy, but alsopracticality and increased accessability.4) ECONOMY. The accent in design should not be on making them "cheap" asin communist societies, or on making them "expensive" as in the capitalisticsocieties. The accent should be on "Human use" and "care" for individuals'and institutions' spatial needs and requirements.5) SIMPLICITY-COMPLEXITY,HUMILITY. Solutions to complex problemsshould also be complex. However this Is so, we can still try to attain a sim-plicity and humility In our designs, not to make our buildings our"masters", but to make them our "servants",6) SENSITIVITY TO OLD VALUES. While searching for new values to widenthe horizons for our buildings, we must not forget the accumulation of oldvalues which have shaped our physical environment throughout the historyand use these old values seictively to complement our present and future."
Staats, H. J.. "The Future of an Old Landscape Type; a Dutch Case Study." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. European agriculture is changing at a rapid pace; due to new technogicalpossibilities and to a growing internationalization, traditional agriculture ishardly possible any longer. Apart from social and econmic effects this maychange the outlook of the rural land drastically. In this process landscapesthat are formed by centuries of agricultural labor will disappear. To find anew future for these areas is hard, preserving something of the culturalvalue of these landscapes even harder. One solution to this problem is toprotect these areas with financial aid, but this is cotly; it is a vulnerablesystem as well, very sensitive to changes in national and internationalpreservation policy. A better solution would be to create a future for theseareas in which they can maintain a self supporting role, by altering prod-ucts, farming methods or shifting to tourism and leisure as potentil sourcesof income. All these strategies are in discussion, at a national and a Europeanlevel.One landscape type that is under severe perssure all over Europe is a typethat can be characterized as small-scale; some four landscape types in Eu-rope fall under this general heading , one of these is found in the Nether-lands.In a study that was part of a national planning project, several alternativesfor such a small-scale, old, rural landscape were developed. Underlying theconception of these alternatives were estimations of the productivity and ec-onomic feasibility, in terms of efficiency of farming and costs of mainte-nance of natural elements, i.e., hedgerows and small forest elements, in thisarea.Three alternatives were foreseen:preserving the existing landscape- slightly altering the layout of the area, with a small increase in scale- a severe change in the scale of the area; magnifying it from an average of10 to 70 ha.Three studies were performed; the first concentrated on the productivity offarming in each of these landscape designs; the second on the socts of main-tenance of natural elements in these plans; the third was a study on theevaluation of these alternatives by the public, i.e., inhabitants and recrea-tionists.The third study, performed within an environmental psychological frame-work, will be discussed further.Environmental assessment of places that do not yet exist has to rely on arti-ficial material. For this study artists paintings were made of an aerial pho-tograph of the area. In these paintings the new landscape designs were visu-alized. Together with these aerial views, eye-level photographs were used.The photographic material was rated by groups of inhabitants and recrea-tionists that were very familiar with the area. A third group, of people un-failiar with the area, was also asked to rate the eye-level photographs. Theywere not informed of the fact that some of these landscapes did not exist yet.Results show a decline in ratings on diversity, historical character and at-tractiveness for the new designs, for all three groups, especially for thelarge-scale landscape design. Differentiation between groups makes clear-that inhabitants and reactionists react partly to change per se but that,naive subjects also differentiate between the designs, mainly between theexisting and the new small-scale design on the one hand and the large-scaledesign on the other.
Vakalo, E. G., S. R. Liou, and Y. C. Lee. "The Grammar of the Si He Yuan Plans in Beijing." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. "The proposed paper attempts to explore the morphological structure andmeaning of si he yuan plans in Beijing. Shape grammar is employed to con-duct the exploration. The term "si he yuan" refers to a plan type encounteredcommonly In traditional Chinese architecture. Literally, "si" denotes"four", "he" means "to enclose", and "yuan" is the term for "courtyard". Ar-chitecturally, the si he yuan consists of one or more rectangular courtyardsarranged in series. Each courtyard is enclosed on four sides by rooms. Thistraditional residence type has evolved gradually throughout Chinese history.Arguably, its morphological structure reflects past and present conceptionsof and attitudes toward habitation and residential architecture in northernChina. As a mailer of fact, according to Pai (1987:294), it constitutes "theculmination of the traditional house form expressed In Its function, form,spatial organization, fengshui and construction and decoration".In the first part of the paper, a brief, critical review of the literature onthe si he yuan is presented. Then, twenty representative Si he yuan plans inthe Beijing area are selected. These plans are analyzed morphologically toderive the set of rules that constitute the proposed shape grammar. Six setsof rules make up the shape grammar. The first four are employed to derivethe main courtyard, the front courtyard, the main entrance, and the rearcourtyard, respectively. The fifth set of rules can be used to modify theboundary of a si he yuan composition generated by using the four aforemen-tioned sets of rules. The sixth set is applied to terminate the processes ofplan generation and boundary modification. All the rules are expressed par-ametrIcally.It is argued that the proposed shape grammar can be employed to address twotypes of problems. The first is the classic compositional problem confrontedby the designer, the historian, or the student of Chinese culture who wantsto explore what forms the sihe yuan can assume. The second type of problem is the inverse of the first and entails "grammatical inference". Specifically,starting with n si he yuan plans, where n is a positive integer, say twenty, adesigner can not only reconstruct the n plans but can also generate new onesexhibiting the same morphological structure.Further, it is contended that si he yuan plans constitute a distinct class ofarchitectural compositions. Their persistent morphological structure ap-pears to reflect significant aspects of Chinese culture such as family struc-ture and function. For example, the location of a family member's room isdetermined by his or her position in the family structure. Rooms frontingon the main courtyard are assigned to "high-ranking" members of the fami-ly. As the distance from the main courtyard increases, rooms are occupiedby increasingly "low-ranking" family members.It is concluded that shape grammar can be employed as a framework for cut-hire-sensitive design. Specifically, it is suggested that contemporary ar-chitects interested in designing buildings whose morphological structureembodies important Chinese cultural attributes may employ the proposedshape grammar as a point of departure."
Yamashita, Y.. "The Historical Transition of Urban Space in Modern Japanese City." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. "In this paper a transition of urban space in Tokyo is reported from theviewpoint of urban design paradigm. The sample for survey is Marunouchi,a central business district in Tokyo, which has been developed during thiscentury-long Japanese rapid modernization. The author characterizes thetransition by three periods, e.g. befor World Var 2, after the war, and veryrecently. Before the war the district was developed after the model of vari-ous Western styles. So it was composed of four different types of block indi-cating the development stages, and there was an urban design code to har-monize those types. After the war most old buildings were reconstructedfunctionally and the space of the district became homogeneous. Very recent-ly under the circumstance of another large redevelopment wave, a new ur-ban design paradigm and a code are being discussed to conserve the history ofmodern eras in townscape for the coming century.The development of Marunouchi district, about 5Oha facing the ImperialPalace, started in 1894 when the first building was built on the vacant land.Since then building styles had changed one after another as Japan importedbuilding styles from Western countries to build a modern city rapidly.First, red-brick buildings were built on both sides of a street after themodel of Lombart street in London. It was called "one block London". Next,early modern style buildings stood around the block. Sone of them had a tasteof art nouveau or secession style. After the completion of Tokyo station in1914 large modern buildings appeared near the station. Their style or con-struction method was imported fromthe United Sates. Along the moat of Pal-ace grand or florid, rather classic style buildings were located- So, beforethe war the district was composed of four types of townscape which indicatedthe development stage and location. Buildings standing at the boundarycrossings of those types were designed strikingly as gates. This is an urbandesign code to harmonize the connections among the diffrent townscape ele-ments without losing their identities. But after the war when Japanese economy grew at a fast rate, many buildings were demolished and newlyconstcructed in the international style. No historical attention was paid tothe designs of new buildings. Because ofthe design and height standardization,the townscape was in good order but homogeneous. Since the first highrisebuilding in Marunouchi was constructed in 1971 after a great aesthetic dis-pute, there has been no urban design paradigm or code which characterizesthe district. Very shortge of office space and astronomical rise in land pricesin Tokyo. Against such plans as demolition of Tokyo station or "MarunouchiManhattan Plan", citizens' movement has arisen demanding forthe save ofprewar, citizens' movement has arisen demanding for the save of prewarbuildings which remind them ofthe Japanese modernization history. Now,planners, architects, developers, and citizens are debating how to conservethe history in urban space under the economical situation and how to har-monize the elements that are different greatly in design and scale."
Aksoy, A, and N. Teymur. "The Hollow City." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. "Times are seen as changing. The long post-war boom, of the 1950s and 60swhich was built on Keynesian economic policies of Fordist managementprinciples has been in crises since the recession of the late 1979s. Weare now witnessing a period of economic restructuring and socio-politicaladjustements. In an environment of rapid changes in patterns of demand,globalization of markets, expansion of competition, and radical shifts intechnologies, structures and their use of spatial dynamics. A newemphasis on flexibility, in the use of capital equipment, labour and spaceis emerging, shaped by a concern to sustain competitivness in an increasingly globalised world economy. The challenge facing globalcompanies is to trascend, on the one hand the vestigal national differencesin order to create standardized markets, but also to be sensitive to thepeculiarities of local markets and differentiated consumer segments. Themanner in which space is used under this new emphasis acquires newmeanings. Faster turnover times are exercized over increasingly flexibleand muultifereous uses of space. Productivity in the use of space isgreatly enhanced by the new information and communication technologies.Satellite communications and decreasing costs of communications areleading to the emergence of the possibility to spread corporate decisionsand control mechanisms over and ever wider and variegated space.Through the opening up of faster and efficient communication channelsthat allow more flexibility and speed, the manipulation of geographicallydefined spaces acquires multifereous and complex dimensions.Spaces, like cities and regions experience upheavals as a result of theshifting requirements of capital. As a consequence, we see the emergenceof new types of urban political responses and surfacing of new types ofinter-regional competitiveness aiming to "plug" the urban space into thenetwork of flows of capital. The task of local governments areIncreasingly framed within an entreprenerial philosophy. In order toattract capital, spaces such as cities are being marketed on the basis oftheir being "attractive" and conducive to capital and to "live in".The restructuring of corporate operations not only involve variegated usesof space as territorially and !geographically defined entities andfunctionalities, but also leads to the blurring of the social distinctionsbetween the spaces of work, home, community, public sphere and theprivate domain. Through the increasing automation and networking offunctions along electronic media, the distinctions between these well-defined spheres of activities lead on to new permutations of spatialdynamics . With the increasing integration of the home domain into thework environment through the spilling of work technologies into homes,the traditional role of the sphere of reproduction is thrown into question.In these turbulent times characterized by the displacement of recognisedpatterns of spatially defined functions, the relationship of the individual toany of these functions goes through a readjustement as well.Increasingly, individuals translate the need to stamp their identities in aturbulent world of changing cultures, populations, and functionalities, byretreating into purified and locally defined spaces. In this process, therole of ICTs in furthering the unpluging of private and domestic spacesfrom, what once was their defining characteristic, that is being an interdependent part of a public sphere , is cruical. On the other hand,these technologies create the means of plugging into a new kind of space andrelations, characterised by virtuality. Through virtual spaces ofcommunications and control mechanisms, households are able to fend off theundesirable parts of public experience.These two interdependent processes, that is the increasing flexibility inthe use of space and spatial dynamics through tne new logic of corporateoperations on the one hand , and the increasing need of individuals to stamptheir identities in a redefined sense of belonging to a puurified controlledand segmented locality on the other (which is encouraged and accentuatedby the marketing exercizes of local governments in their plight to attractcapital) carry the potential of the emergence of hollow spaces and cities.Today, the management of urban spaces around the notion that theclarity of an environmennt and its effectiveness era synonymous. The city,which is the instrument and an example of impersonal life in whichdiversity and complexity of persons, interests, tastes constitute the socialexperience is gradually turned into spaces of fragmented identities. Thecity turns into hollow one, emptied out of its heteregenous cultures, itstrades, sweatshops and its immigrants. The image and its tradition becomespurified and hollowed out in the ppursuit of capital, and the "right sort ofpeople". The architectural practice, then is faced with a prospect of havingto provide the "masking tape" in the form of interventions, that, in theirattempt to assertdifference as a marketing device using tradition are devoidof substance."
Valera, S, J Freixa, . J. Mollevi, and E. Pol. "The Image of the Districts of Barcelona Ii." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. This work collects the results of a study of how a number of urbanistic andsymbolical interventions have been integrated within the schemes of thesubjects of a series of districts of Bearcelona city tackling of these elements.We have also evaluated how these interventions have an influence on theidentification and the social life of their In habitants.The study is an extension of the work already started by us under the sametitle, adding a sample of one thousand twohunderd subjects for the procedureof the survey and covering other districts traditionally already consolidat-ed The results have permitted us to create a contrast among those quarters atthe same time as they have widen our krowledge of the identificated aspects of the districts in consolidation.
Manandhar, R.. "The Importance of Space in Traditional Papua New Guinea Architecture." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. Pacific cultures have a marked use of space be they within the buildings oroutside. Such spaces are often more important than the envelope or the architecture itself. Studies have been made often of the architecture of thebuildings often neglecting the architecture of spaces. This paper looks at the Importance of space both indoor and outdoor spaces intraditional Papua New Guinea communities. The study will focus on the au-thor's experiences of the highlands and coastal settlements of Papua NewGuinea. For the coastal areas, the study of traditional settlements along theRamu river in the Western Madang Province will be made while the discus-sion of highlands traditional architecture and use of spaces will be based onteh author's several visits to the Eastern Highlands Province in and aroundGoroka. Significances of these architectural spaces will be examined. Rec-ommendations will be made towards incorporating some of these traditionalideas into the design of modern buildings, spaces and settlement planning.
Linquist, M, and U. Westerberg. "The Influence of Housing Design on Social Interaction." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. Are social contact influenced by housing design? It is well known from sev-eral studies that social interaction between neighbours is more intense insingle family dwellings than in blocks of flats.But it is not easy to single outhousing design as the most significant explanatory variable because of thedifferencies in household structure etc that are usually found when compar-ing the two types of housing. We have studied a large residential block -mainly by mailed questionnaries-where half of the dwellings have a designsimilar to terrace houses with access from broad balconies, and the otherhalf are ardinary confirms that the households in the terrace-like houseshave more contacts with one another and are better known by the other ten-ants. There were no differencies between the tow dwelling types when itcomes to household structure, dwelling size or other kinds of social inter-action, such as with relatives friends, that could explain the diffrent con-tacts with neighbours.The large residential block that we investigated is built some twenty yearsago around a square yard. Two years ago this countyard was covered by aglass roof, incroporating all windows facing the courtyard. Most of thepresent residents lived in the block before this happend, and our study wasmade a year after. We have found changes in the residents contact withneighbours as well as changes in evaluation and use of dwellings, balconiesan private patios. All of these changes can be related to the glass cover. Therebuilding process in itself can generally be expected to have a positive ef-fect on contacts between neighbours. Our study gives some evidence of this.Still, type of dwelling-terrace house or ordinary flat- has had the greatestinfluence on the social interaction between the residents in the block.
Aragones, J. I., and B. D. Cones. "The Influence of Urban Planning on the Image of the City." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. The aim of this research is two-fold. On the one hand, it has a descriptiveaspect, in which it shows the influence of town planning carried out in Mad-rid throughout the twentieth century on the image the inhabitants have ofthe city. The second aim is an endearvour to show how certain urban struc-tures are frameworks around which the cognitive map of the city is con-structed. The sample on which the research is based consist of several hundred inhab-itants of Madrid, aged between 18 and 70, of both sexes and residing in dif-ferent pans of Madrid. The methods used were two questionnaires: One consisting of free recallwhere the subject is required to differenciate between centre and outskirts,In order to distinguish two significantly different realities of the city, froma perceptive point of view. The second questionnaire requires that the sub-ject estimate the distance between different places in the city, which formthe main urban structure of the city designed in the course of twentieth century. Both tests were carried out at the same time, but separately. The results show the image that the inhabitants of Madrid have of their city,that is to say, the elements of the city which give its shape. At the sametime, the Influence of socio-demographic variables such as sex, age, place of residence, etc. can also be observed. On a second level, the perceptive distortions that the inhabitants of Madrid have of the urban structure whic-forms the centre of the city are also considered.
Amerigo, M.. "The Perception of Residential Environment and the Environment Role." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. "This study attempts to investigate the different perceptions that husbandsand wives have of the same residential environment. This subject has beendealt with by several authors, who distinguish different perceptive patternsfor husbands and wives, and are able to observe the influence of the variableknown as "the environment role", which may influence decision-making inthe planning and design of residential areas. This research attempts to show not only the degree to which the perceptivepatterns of husbands and wives differ, but also the influence of certain var-iables, notably age and socio-economic status, on the establishment of thosepatterns. In order to attain these objectives, two samples where used: The first con-sisting of forty couples, residing in multi-family public housing,thus beingof low economic status and with a high average age; the second sub-sampleconsisting of fifty young couples of average socio-economic status, residingin one-family, prevate terraced housing. Both samples were taken fromresidents of Madrid. The technique used was a questionnaire on residentialsatisfaction, in which forty perceived attributes concerning neighbourhood,housing and the subjects' neigbours, were subjected to various techniques of multidimensional analysis. The results obtained indicate the Influence of variables such as stage in thelife cycle or occupation on the establishment of environmental husband/wife role."
Linzey, M. P. T.. "The Point of the Pyramids." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. What can be known about the architecture of a long-dead culture? What partcan history and epistemology play in a theory of people and their physicalenvironment? To give the question more point, what is the point of the pyr-amids of ancient Egypt? What are we to make in particular of the first pyr-amid, the stepped pyramid of King Djoser, whose apical 'point' is 'missing'or 'absent' in the masonry itself?The question of the point of architecture is critically revisited upon the fu-nerary architecture of the second King of the Third Dynasty. Following Ri-couer's reading of the Aristotelean Poetics, a distinction is drawn betweenthe muthos and the mimesis of poetic language. Muthos is the plot, the pointof a poem, and mimesis is its structure or the metaphorical embellishmentor composition of that point. In a poem or a saga the muthos usually outlivesmimesis. Whe know the story of Homer's Odyssey, but the way that a blindpoet may once have told the story is lost in translation from an ancient lan-guage and a culture that is no more. Mimesis of a poem has to be recon-structed with each re-telling of it.In architecture the reverse of this situation is usually true. The mimeticstructure of architectural masonry outlives our knowledge of its function.The singular point or purpose of the architecture may be lost, but its mi-metic force may survive for thousands of years. The physical and spatiallanguage of architecture is different in this respect from the narrative lan-guage of poetry. Various narratives, traditional, modern and post-modern, have of courseraised the question of the point of the ancient pyramids many times before.They are contradicted however by the actual spatial analysis of the mimeticstructure of the architecture itself, as it has been revealed in the carefulreconstruction of the work that has been going on for many years under thedirection of C.M. Firth, J.E. Quibell and J-P. Lauer. If we still cannot know 'the point' of the ancient work, yet a multiplicity of interesting stories arere-discovered in the embellished stone-work: the story of the life and deathof a God-King; the ascent of a new Sun-God into the sky; and the story of theorigins themselves of writing and architecture.
Andrew, C. A.. "The Psychological, Aesthetic and Physical Effects of the Cleanning of Building Facades in Scotland." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. The character of many urban environments in Scotland and throughout theUnited Kingdom Is being significantly altered by the large scale cleaning ofbuilding facades. The cleaning of buildings is being instigated by both pri-vate and public agencies and is carried out by a number of building contrac-tors. These contractors employ a range of chemical and physical means toremove dirt and staining from stone buildings. The cleanin of buildings raises questions at a number of levels. At the phys-ical level different methods of cleaning result in changes to the texture, co-lour, physical structure, and final appearance of the stone. Some techniquesfor the removal of dirt can result in the loss of architectural detail due tothe removal of stone particles as well as uncovering previously hidden de-fects in the stonework such as staining, biological growth etc. The subse-quent effects of weathering on cleaned buildings can also be unpredictable.At a physical level the decision to clean involves consideration of a numberof technical factors, evidence suggests however that some clients base deci-sions as to whether to clean buildings and on the method of cleaning on main-ly economic rather than technical grounds. At an aesthetic level the cleaning of buildings has implications for the way inwhich buildings are perceived. Deposits of dirt may hide the original inten-tions of the architect in relation to shadow, light, color etc. Converselylight deposits of dirt may enhance the shadowing effect particularly in atemperate climate and thus add to the buildings visual appeal. In additionmost buildings which are cleaned are one element of an urban group, thecleaning of one building needs to be considered in and overall architecturalcontext. Evience from urban environments in Scotland suggest that manybuilding groups in the urban landscape originally planned to be seen as asingle entity now due to different cleaning methods which result in varia-tions of stone colour after cleaning loose this unity. Once the decision toclean a building has made been questions arise as to what is the appropriatelevel of cleansiness to be achieved. Should buildings built 200 years ago beas clean as recently consructed buildings? Does leaving some dirt on thebuilding help add to the percepion of the age of the building or does the re-moval of any deposits of din tend to destroy its character? At the psychological level the preferences of residents in urban environ-ments regarding changes brought about by stonecleaning has received rela-tively little attention. To what extent is surface texture of buildings impor-tant in the cognitive schemes of individuals? The changes in perceptualevaluations brought about by the cleaning of buildings in relation to the cul-tural and historic significance of and area are issues to be considered beforea building is cleaned. The motives and perceived benefits/drawbacks forundertaking stonecleaning may vary between clients, archtiecs, contractorsan the residents of and urban area. The present paper will report results from the stonecleaning research pro-ject at Scott Sutherland school of architecture into the physical, psychologi-cal and aesthetic effects of the cleaning of building facades in Scotland.
Brierley, E. S.. "The Reaction to C.i.a.m. by Architects with a Social Attitude to Design." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. The reaction to analytical functionalism and to the socio-economic thinkingof the 1930s C.I.A.M. movement was, in part, one of attitudes to both cultureand society. Central to the ideas discused by C.I.A.M. in the 1950s and to theensuing Team X group was that spatial form was less an attribute of func-Oonal concern and more one of inductive thought. The conceptual attitude todesign of the final years of C.I.A.M. and of the formative work of Team X canbe found In the contribution of the Dutch architect and urbanist Bakema,whose work with the 1950s can be considered to be of a similarstanding to that of Gropius with the pre-war meetings of C.l.A.M.The paper is the result of a R.I.B.A. research Award study: 'J.B.Bakema, anarchitects social attitude to design, and refers to Bakema's writings from the 1940s to the 1960s. Bakema held leading positions with the Dutch Op-bouw group, which was a part of C.l.A.M.; with Team X and with the DutchForum group of the 1960s. In the reaction to the functionalist and economicideas of C.I.A.M. reflected in the Athens Carter, Bakema and his colleaguesconsidered that In the development of both society and art, architecture andurbanism ought to satisty: a programme which served social needs; spatialIdeas which were cosmic; and form which should be symbolic and organic.There is a tendency to think of C.I.A.M. simply in terms of the Athens Char-ter of 1933, but that would be an oversimplification. Possibly the contrastin viewpoint between the 'analytical-statistical' thinkers of the pre-waryears and the 'synthetic-reflective' people of the post-war years is of equalimportance to that of the aims of the Athens Charter. Bakeme was identifiedwith the 'synthetic-reflective' attitude and saw the change from 1930 to1957 to be one from specialisation towards integration and that includedspatial concepts. In 1930 the relationship between architecture and spaceresulted from form following the analysis of function. However, in 1957 thearchitect could be more flexible in his expression of design and in the wayspace was conceived.A clear change of attitude from that of Gropius appeared. Gropius felt thatthe architect's skills gave him a responsibility to show society how to forma new environment. Bakema was more concerned to learn from society theway new ideas may evolve. This opposition of ideas was reflected in the con-viction of the post-war C.I.A.M. members. Gropius' idea was considered bythem to be directive. Whilst that of Bakema and his colleagues allowed thearchitect to seek out existing structures of the community and to allow themto develop in a positive direction. Bakema's publications of the 1960s pre-sented ideas concerned with people and space to provide 'an architecture ofsociety']The paper refers to the R.I.B.A. Research Awand study and to the writings ofBakema and others involved in C.I.A.N. and team x from the 1940s to 1960s.
Schwartz, H.. "The Search for Transcultural Space." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. "This paper aims to explore the nature and validitiy of conceptions of archi-tectural space, which are the outcome of cultural symbiosis, generated ei-ther by a process of balanced inter-influences or by a conscious act of crea-tivity.A distinction should be made between universal spatial archetypes and cul-ture conditioned ones. The former derive from the way we perceive, relateto and organize the physical environment and conduce to topologicaly simi-lar mass-void configurations (the Western Court Building an the EasternKhan as embodiment of the idea of enclosed space).These generic constructs are culturally qualified and transformed throughspecific concepts of spatial order, which differ in place and time, there cat-egories will be discussed:TRASPLANTED SPACE resluting from cultural impostion or assertion (i.e.early Colonial architecture in Ibero-America, or Crusader and 19th Centu-ry architecture in Jerusalem).CROSS CULTURAL SPACE generated by lengthy processes or interactionproducing multi-layered and idiosincratic phenomena like American Ba-roque, Mudejar architecture or the singular case of the Carmenes in Grana-da, Spain.TRANSCULTURAL SPACE CONCEPTIONS and their actuality in the era of the"Global Village". Conscious symbiosis between abstract-universal constr-cuts and culturally rooted ones. Historical precedent, like Palladlanism inEngland will be compared with contemporary developments, particularythrough the metamorphoses of the Modern Movement in Mediterraneancountries and the question of regionalism. Erich Mendelson's paradigmatic work in Germany, Israel and the United-States will be analyzed as an example of the quest for this symbiotic condi-tion in architectural space."
Schone, J. F., and J. F. Coeterier. "The Significance of Rural Roads." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. "The technical meaning of the term "Rural roads" differs from the meaning ithas for ordinary people. In a technical sense it comprises a whole hierarchyof roads. For ordinary people only the lowest categories are rural roads. Theother ones are highways. The main difference is that rural roads leadthrough the landscape , while highways run alongside the landscape. Ruralroads form an Integral part of the landscape, but highways are a worldapart: they do not adapt to the landscape, the landscape is adapted to them.This difference can be described by a whole series of opposites, e.g. quiet-crowded, natural-artificial, historical-modern, part of the landscape -apart from the landscape. The fact that a rural road is seen as part of thesurrounding landscape has several consequences for its design. Its courseshould be adapted to local terrain characteristics; vegetation along the roadshould not be too dense so as to permit a view on the surroundings and itshould be typical for that region. But rural roads have other properties aswell. They are considered by local people as their territory. They meeteachother there, they greet eachother and they talk with eachother. They donot want these roads to be modernized, i.e. broadened, straightened and as-phalted, because that attracts outsiders, which depersonalizes their commu-nal territory - Furthermore, the new roads are unsafe because people drivetoo fast. As a consequence, they are less used than the old ones; they even canbecome barriers, which diminishes people's life space again. Another func-tion of rural roads Is a recreational one. 1. They give an impression of beingin nature. 2. They give a feeling of freedom, in a double sense: a freedom asan absence of rules and regulations by traffic signs, traffic lights, etc.3.They are quiet. 4. They are often curved which gives a continually chang-ing view of landscape. Designing a rural road to fit these purposes is not dif-ficult. People are satisfied with a bench and a dustbin, i.e. as few provisionsas possible. Concluding, it can be said that modernizing rural roads means agreat loss for people because: 1. There occurs a standardization and normal-ization of roads. 2. A loosening of the road from its context occurs. What wasonce an integrated whole becomes two separate worlds that often do not fittogether. 3. A common territory for village people disappears. 4. The newroads are unsafe. 5. As a result the ties that people have with their environ-ment are severed. 6. According to psychologists motorways have an asocial-Izing effect on people, while rural roads have a socializing effect. 7. Last butnot least, a great source of inspiration for painters is lost. Clearly, thereare opposite interests at stake. Town people, which are 85% of the popula-tion in the Netherlands, want accessibility of the country side while for thepeople in the villages rural roads have many other functions beside trans-portation, collective and individual."
Ovsyannikov, V. A.. "The Social and Cultural Typology of Life Activity in Residential Environmental Design." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. "The question of environmental typology in conditions of mass-scale con-struction of multistorey apartmental buildings ( e.g. municipal ) has be-come extremely urgent. Environmental subject ( ES ) of dwelling ( consu-mer ) is a historical phenomenon and depends on many social and culturalparameters. It is possible to consider the historical dynamics of ES ofdwelling and its modern typology in connection with this dynamics. The his-tory of totalitarian environments brings to light a discrepancy between thereal and verbal ES's, the structure of the former being more complicated.Even with availability of the real subject typology it is impossible to workout an adequate environmental typology. The whole modern history of scienceand practice of dwellings convincingly proves this case.The traditional architectural environmental typology is mainly formed inaccordance with technological signs (technology of function or constructionwith prevailing economic criteria ). The function of social environmentalsubjects is modeled in attempts to elaborate a social typology environment.The result , as a rule, is inadequate to life activity of real subjects. Envi-ronmental approach to design of residential environments is considered as aunity of subject and his environment. Therefore the environmental typologycan be assumely obtained only through typology of subjects and environ-mental relations ( SEA ) . SEA is not every human activity in environment(thinking, e.g.) but only the one directly associated with it. That is why fac-tors of material culture in man-made environment together with culturaland historical traditions of way-of-life are dominant in the SER structure.A principal methodological transition from non-environmental subject ty-pologies to those of SEA is most important. The enviromental subject canvary from individual to social community of any level. In this sense the en-vironmental typology follows social in non-space problems an inverse wayfrom the real and project SEA defined by test system to various typologies of subjects is possible. The purpose of thic work is to elaborate the principlesand methods of environmental typology or, in my term, SEA typology. Theconflict between the subject and his real environment is the main principleof SEA typology. Some of the major parameters of the typology are a level ofreal environmental satisfaction, a character of prefarable environments,efficiency of life activity. It is important to assess the idea of people abouttheir future residential environments. It is also necessary to obtain a limit-ed number of SEA characteristics ( syndroms ) and to interprete them inresidential design. The first of these problems is auxiliary for it depends onintuition of the Investigator. The second one has been solved practically forenvironmental object "residential cell-flat" . The respective method hasbeen used for the last 10-12 years. It can be described together with re-sults of our investigations in 20 cities of the USSR and recomended for usein similar situations. An identical method for such objects of residential en-vironments as a residential house, a yard, neighbouring spaces etc. is beingcompleted. Its main problems are location and identification of social andenvironmental subjects in SEA dwelling system. The key principles and re-search ideas of this method can be further investigated and specified."
Manzo, L, and M. Wolfe. "The Social Production of Built Forms Environmental Settings and Person/ Environmental Relationships." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. conference:IAPS:11
Strassoldo, R.. "The Sociology of Space." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. "Space has beend sadly neglected by mainstream sociology in the present cen-tury, although the "geographical school" was prominent in the previous one,and despite the tact that important insights in this tied can be found in thewritings of some of the founding fathers of modern sociology, especially inSimmel and Durkheim.Since the '70, there seems to have been a renewed interest in this dimensionof social reality, thanks to a series of separate developments, like a) thegrowth of space-related branches of sociology (urban and rural sociologythe sociology", of urban and regional planning "social ecology", etc): b) thedecline of the structural-functional approach to social systems, and thegrowth of quite different approaches, like the evolutionary-ecological andthe phenomenological ones.The proposed paper, of conceptual-theoreticalnature, advances a set of distinctions and typologies (taxonomies) that aredeemed useful for the clarification and analysis of the socio-spatial phe-nomena: a) the distinction between "space" "terriotory" "place","environment", etc; b) the distinction among the several "scales" of com-munity" (from the indivitual and the room to humankind and the planet,through small communities, regions, nation-states, etc): c) the distinctionbetween the several "types" of social space, beyond the simple dichotomlza-tions of physical-symbolic, geographical-sociological real-perceived, etc..Building on the work of E. Cassirer, C. Norberg Schuls, Y-fu Tuan and oth-ers, we suggest a taxonomy of ethological, personal, lived-, symolic, eco-logical, and organizational spaces; d) the distinction of several socio-spatlalstructures (or forms in Kantian sense, or qualites in Simmel's): the center,the boundaries, verticality (up and down), front-and back, laterality(right and left), distance (near and far), North-south, East-west, territo-ry, door, bridge, etc.: e) further, we suggest a taxonomy of spatial models ofsociety implicity in most sociological thinking (anthropomorphism, map,grid, amoeba, chart, blocdiagram, network, criss-crossing circles, concen-tric circles, pyramid, ladder, atc.). Finnaly, the possibility of developing a set of theoretical propositions con-cerning the relationships between space and society (or the spatial dimen-sion of society) is explored."
Nankervis, M. W.. "The Transformation of Urban Space: Politics, Culture and Economics at Work in the Evaluation of Australian Urban Landscapes." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. Urban space is space in flux. Over time, land use, land patterns and builtform alter, either by gradual accretion or by redevelopments of varyingscale. In particular the late twentieth century has produced the to the tech-nology to enable sweeping changes to the urban environment, often in theprocess obliterating all evidence of the past.While the patina of a city is the result of a complex interaction of historyculture and politics, this paper argues that the underlying dynamic of thetarnsformation is the dominant economic mode of the time. Thus for exam-ple, buildings built for single family residential are converted for multiunit use, or industrial buildings are converted to commerical use astheirformer status becomes obsolete and incompatible with current economicneeds and demands. Nevertheless, the built environment does have a certainpermanence and traces of the past often persist and meld into the presentuse and development despite the power of our current technology to obliter-ate. In fact, much current architecture makes a virtue of combining the past and present, while the overall uneven patter of the city development is amicrocosm of uneven international development.Austuralian cities are some of the worl's youngest, having been imposedupon a virtual rable fasa following the late 18th and early 19th century ar-rival of permanent European inhabitants. Since then the country can beshown to have had four identifiable periods of phases in its economic histo-ry, which have become reflected in the urban built environment.The phasesare:1) the colonIal/administrative period prior to the 1850s gold rushes whichproduced significant administrative function buildings as well as a few elitelandholders' residences;2) the coionlaticommerlcai phase of the secod half of the 19th century whenthe emphasis was on transhipment or the export of raw materials and im-port of finished products from the mother country, as well as the requisitefinance and associated services;3) the Industrial phase which covers the period spanning the two worldwars when many small and medium sized imdustrles were set up creatingnew housing and service demands; and4) current corporate/administrative phase which has produced yet againdifferent residential demands as well as a seemingly inexhaustible demandfor office space to house the complex array of sophisticated services whichare part of the Internatlonailsing of the capital and labour markets. In the example discussed the urban landscape effects ofthe latter three ofthese phases are traced via a detailed examination of the time space trans-formation of an Indicative section of Melbourne.Using a synthes of data de-rived from maps, documents and illustrative material the relationship be-tween the shifts in the economic mode and the form of use of the builtenvironment is demonstrated. The results can be most effectively seen from a series of maps which have been developed. In general the study the inexorable nature of the changes as adaptations aremade to enable extraction ofthe highest and best use of a site compatiblewith the economic mode of the time . But it also demonstrates the unevennature of the process, such that traces at all periods can be found in thesame environment.
Peatros, F. D., and M. J. Hasell. "The U.s. Domestic Kitchen: Genoer Roles, Behavior and Space in Transition." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. "Changing attitudes and expectations about gender roles in the united Statesare effecting traditional assumptions about the spaces in which men andwomen Interact. Rock, Torre & Wright (1980) have argued that as womenincrease their public profile, they will seek more open spaces at home thatallow multiple uses to occur simultaneously. With regard to kitchens theyargue: "High visibilty and accessbility of all the tools and the means forshopping, planning, preparing, eating, cleaning up and storing after mealspromotes participation in these tasks by all members of the household" (p95). These arguments require empirical testing. As befits an exploratory study, our goal was hypothesis-finding, not testing.We wanted to discover if there were connections between: 1) sociodemo-graphic variables and space, 2) gender role orientation and space, socio-demographic variables and space, and 3) kitchen task performance andspace. We wanted to discover finally if sociodemographics were related torole orientation and if role orientation was related to household task perfor-mance. Through interviews and self-report questionnaires, data were col-lected from 36 married couples. Three-dimensional scale models of fourkitchens were used as the measuring intrument for ascertaining degree ofpreferred kitchen openness.It appears that some support for Rock, Torre & Wright's thesis exists. Wediscovered empirical evidence to support the following generalizationswhich need further testing.CONNECTIONS BETWEEN SOCIODEMOGRAPHICS AND PREFERRED SPACEIf women work full time and are a pan of a dual career couple, they willprefer open kitchens with multiple uses.CONNECTIONS BETWEEN ACTUAL BEHAVIOR ADN PREFERENCE FOR MULTI-USE KITCHENS.If males are responsible for cooking and take greater responsibility forkitchen tasks than the female,there is a preference for open kitchens withmultiple uses.RELATIONSPHIPS BETWEEN GENDER ROLE ORIENTION AND BEHAVIOR.If males have non-traditional gender role orientations they will increasetheir use of the kitchen and cooking.In young couples males are more eglitarian in doing kitchen tasks.If couples have few or no children, males are more egalitarian in doingkitchen tasks.In summary, there was an indication that couples with more traditional roleorientation and behaviors preferred kitchens supportive of genoder separa-tion, while couples with more non-traditional gender orientation and be-haviors preferred kitchens more supportive of role interchangeability. Thefindings also suggested a modification of the measuring intrument from oneof spatial openness to a more precise mesure of accessibility and dual use ofspaces."
Mwendwa, S. K. K.. "The Unspoken Built Environment." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. "INTRODUCTION:In the past the concept of 'Phenomenal Absolutism' dominated the thinkingprocess. This concept, based on the assumption that all people perceivealike, also governed spatial planning and design. Unfortunately, the implica-tion of this assumption on cross-cultural interaction, including the builtenvironment is often still under-estimated. The designed environment has asilent language. It manifests itself in the behaviour of its, inhabitants, whichin turn governs the use of space. The spatial goodness depends on the degreeto which this language fulfils the inhabitant's 'ideal environment'.OBJECTIVE:This paper attempts to first, illustrate the fundamental principles and' im-plications of cognition and perception on the built environment. Rapaport'sconcept of 'genre-de-vie' will be referred to, and be examined in relation toresearch on time concepts, within different cultures, and the brain. Second,this paper amplifies how cognition and perception affect behavioral pat-terns, thus spatial development, using an educational facility to demon-strate.ASSUMPTIONS:The objectives have been based on a number of assumptions.i) Spatial design refers to the built environment. However the principlescan be applied to any spatial planning and use.ii) The built environment is a human scale product. It is a three- dimen-sional embodiment of culture besides being a physical representation of hu-man functions.iii) Time is the core of cultural communication. It is a primary organizer,synthesizer and Integrator. Thus the consistent factor to assess socio-cultural built environments as well as integrate the thought processes of thebrain hemisphere.iv) Humanity perceives and comprehends their environment through theirbrain. Only the right and left hemispheres of the brain, will be referred tofor simplification.v) Education is the machinery that manifests culture or cultural change."The environment of education is not peripheral to the central issue of edu-cation itself". (1)Conclusion:In the final analysis this paper attempts to highlight the possible dissonancebetween spatial planning and behaviour, due to acculturation. The suggestionto fathom time concepts and basic behavioural patterns, [situational frames(2fl, and apply them to cross-cultural planning, design and use, may be apossible resolution."
Boden, R. T.. "The Urban Designer as Interpretant: a Case Study from a Developing Country." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. "Postwar urban development in developing countries has often been charac-terized by insensitivity to cultural norms and associated typologies and ur-ban morphology. New "universal" styles, whether modertn or postmodern,infrastructural and urban models, are imposed without reference to thepre--existing matrix or its generative values. Urban design as the mostrelevant specialisation has not contributed much in theory or practice to theresolution of these contretemps. This failure seems fundamentally due to theabsence of an agreed role construct for urban design in developing countries,and the absence in established urban design programmes of culturally or-ientated procedural and substantive theories.Urban designers ought to interpret the spatial, built and settlement pat-tern-linked meanings in their designs, but have instead often produced across-cultural hiatus, since either the designer or the methods adopted areforeign to the local culture.The aim of the research reported in this paper was to develop and approachto urban design, philosophically rooted in a relativistic anthropologicalstance combining Rapoport's (1982) non-verbal communications methodand Daniel's (1984) Piercean influenced conception of the anthropologist asinterpretant, with Crane's and Wolf&Shimms's (1970) models of the urbandesign process, to arrive at a culturally responsive procedure, geared toconditions in developing countries.The approach was tested on the twin city of Mmabatho-Mafikeng, Bophutat-swana, South Africa, an almost ideal case since it:-Consisted of a planned city, comprising a new Capitol, two types ofhousing areas, and a popular-vernacular settlement, -Included a largely English-speaking local population,-Included several projects highlighting difficulties desiging for-cross-cultural meanings.The study concluded that:-The approach adopted successfully explained residents attitudes towardsexisting and projected contemporary schemes, and traditional unplannedsettlements; "foreign" expressive cues and structuring elements could beinexpensively identified.-Designers are unwise to attempt cultural cue transformations, oftenpossessing multiple meanings, without validating them through nativeinterpretants.-The urban design activity is defined for developing counbtry contexts, butseveral principles identified are also relevant for the first world.-The urban designer is faced with extra-ordinarily 'wicked' problems(Rittel 1972) , incorporating cultural heterogeneity, rapid urbanization,major infrastructural shortcomings, and totally inadequate financial andhuman resources. These render contemporary first world urban design con-cerns and proposals largely irrelevant.-Relevant historicial evidence in many developing coutries is limited forprecolonial times to oral tradition or archaeological evidence."
King, Anthony D.. "Theorising Difference: Culture, Globalisation and Space." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. conference:IAPS:11
Matsumoto, N.. "Thinking Way of Residentiary on Sensui: Traditional Pool Systems of Former Samurai House Gardens in an Ancient Castle Town." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. In Matsushiro area of Nagano-city, there have been a lot of traditional waterpools called Sensul in the garden of former samurai houses since the Edoperiod. They have been the main elements of the garden and have played animportant part in the resident life. They are chained and are led by smallstreams from one house to another house and make unique water pool sys-tems. But nowadays these systems have been causing many problems andhave been changing with the transition of life style.The purpose of this study is to furnish planning materials for the traditionalliving environment with Sensui in Matsushiro. For this purpose, surveysof the fields about the present situation were carried out first. Then everywater courses in the area were traced clearly. Sensui are widely distrib-uted and number 268. The form of the residential site with Sensul is vari-ous and the size is about a thousand square meter on an average. Sensul are located mostly in south and south-east direction from the house. The spacebetween Sensul and the house is almost two to four meter and irs verynarrow. The flowing patterns of the systems were able to be classified intosix types according to their order of connection.Secondly, an inquiry into thinking way of residentiary who possess Sensulwas made. Sensul systems had been used for garden visual element, firefighting water and life water. But now the use quality has changed, and onlyfor visual and life defense use are barely continued. Sensul are very closeto everyday life and almost all residents hope to keep the systems for the fu-ture. The main problems of the Sensui systems are pollution of the water,lack of water, overflow and moisture in surrounding area and soil sedimen-tation. The main physical cause of the problems are water source of the sys-tems, location and connecting order of them. The human cause are lack ofcommunication between residents and between residents and administration.Residents are on the one hand considering counterpian, and on the other handdemanding the public movement for, the conservation which is not resolvedby private efforts.. Keeping clearness and volume of water, residents hopemany kinds of fishes, aquatic inserts and water side plants continue to in-habit and a characteristic environment has been maintained.After all, the following results were obtained: the consciousness of Sensuidiffer regionaly, but Sensui have been Integrated into every residents lifeand residents have been becoming attached to Sensul systems; it is impor-tant not for conservation of the historical heritage but for fertile humanliving environment to maintain these Sensul systems. Therefore adminis-trative participation In water purification and supply and cummunicationand consensus of opinion between residents are indispensable to this area.
Wang, J. C.. "Three Episodes: a Study of Urban Housing in Suzhou, the People's Republic of China." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. "China's "greatest ressuree," the human has presented the architecturalprofession with its greatest challenge: the planning and designing of urbanhousing to accommodate the ever growing population.Handicapped by a nation-wide shortage of architects and planners in itsstate-run design and planning institutes, and constrained by a lack of capi-tals for construction investment, the government's ability to provide equi-table housing for its urban dwellers lags far behind.The proposed paper will present several scenarios in which human ingenui-ty of the inhabitants has played a role to alleviate some of the problems.Only one seenario involved the participation of professional architects andplanners. But the scheme missed several culturally sensitive considera-tions and was met with resistance. The case studies were undertaken in1985 in Suzhou, a medium-size city located in the prosperous YangtsuRiver Delta region of Southeastern China. Photographs and diagrams willillustrate the paper when appropriate.EPISODE ONE describes the transformation of the traditional urban housefrom one-family occupancy to multi-family use. This form of transforma-tion is widespread and common in China today. The recorded case in Suzhoucan be seen as a typical example in which a single family court-yard com-plex of the past has now been subdivided into the living units of some twen-ty-six households of average size. Issues discussed in this generic case willinclude: criteria for the minimum livable space, communal spaces for col-lective living, and human and physical factors for design in terms of publichealth, amenity and privacy. EPISODE TWO reports on Suzhou's citizen housing exchange activities, aunique Chinese invention. Since there is no vacant housing available in thecity, or elsewhere in China today, the only viable way of relocating one'sliving quarter is to trade it with those families that share the same degire.Information on prospective houses for trade are posted at the office ofHouse-Exchange Bureau, a quasi governmental agency which oversees thehousing exchange program. It is a free-wheeling process. Participants areresponsible for making thier own negolitations which, in some cases, wouldtake months to make a deal. The role of the House-Exchange Bureau is nomore than helping participants formalize the exchange agreement.EPISODE THREE analyzes the decision to institute a height limit on new con-structions in Suzhou's historical urban district and establish new residen-tial villages In the city's west suburb. Despite improved amenities andgreater floor spaces per person at the new housing district, most citizensopted to remain in the urban center for the sentimentality and history of theplace.EPISODE ONE represents successful short-term responses to a major"crisis"; EPISODE TWO demonstrates the benefits of a thoughtful organiza-tion of (existing) resource management; EPISODE THREE displays the fail-ure of applying modern (Western) planning principles in an Eastern context. Is EPISODE FOUR on the horizon?"
Warfield, J. P., and J. V. Hammond. "Tourism and Preservation: Addressing Spatio - Cultural Change in Historic Chinese Watertowns." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. "The Vangtze River Delta of China is famous for its "watertowns" with theirpeaceful canals, arching bridges, and classical Chinese gradens. In cities likeSuzhou, famous gardens such as the Tiger Hill Pagoda and the Garden of theHumble Administrator are easily identified as historic landmarks and arenow preserved by the Chinese government. Unfortunately, the same effortshave not been made to preserve the ancient urban fabric of the small water-towns ofthls region whose merits are more subtle and delicate spatial rela-tionships.In watertowns like Zhou Zhaung, significant cultural spaces like the manytiny plazas at the water's edge are lost forever if even one defining buildingis removed. Vet in many such watertowns, ancient arching footbridges arebeing replaced with auto bridges, canals are being filled in, and narrow al-leyways are being widened to accommodate motor traffic. In Zhou Zhaung,Ming Dynasty houses and temples of great historic and architectural interestnow serve as multifamily residences, warehouses, and government offices.These buildings are presered largely by the circumstantial poverty of theirinhabitants who cannot afford to modernize them. However, as China devel-ops economically, an unfortunate side effect is the destruction, through im-provement, of the ancient character of these towns. The authors believe that these heretofore overlooked towns and the country-side around them are worthy of preservation. The ancient but still livingfabric of a watertown like Zhou Zhaung with its canals, urban spaces, and-shops and with the comings and goings of its farmers, merchants, and trad-ers represents the genius of an entire people, from peasants to aristocrats.Such watertowns may still be observed not as museums but as a functioningpart of the unique Chinese agricultural ecosystem. Each town is surrondedby its own rice paddies, fish ponds, and vegetable gardens, which are workedby the townspeople and fertilized largely by their night soil. The canals of-the town connect with a maze of channels, lakes, and rivers which serveboth the local watermelon farmer bringing his produce to town, and for longdistance hauling as far notrh as Beijing.In this paper the authors will describe the unique character of these water-towns and present a proposal to preserve them and their surronding coun-tryside by introducing and planning for a low-density tourisf industry.Sessions, Case Studies: ldentitiy, Change and Spatio-Cultural Interaction inTourism Environments.TM The authors are educaltors and design propession-als. This paper Is based upon their joint research and travel in China in1988 and 1989. It is illustrated with original photos and architecturedrawings."
Vernex, J. C.. "Tourisme, Culture Et Paysage Urbain: L´emergence Dún Espace Propre Et De Prestige a Annecy." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. conference:IAPS:11
Arbi, E.. "Towards a Malaysian Identity in Architecture: a Case Study." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. In a multi-racial country like Malaysia, the need to create a national cul-ture is not only for projecting a cultural identity overseas, but more im-portantly because its very validity as a national entity depends a great dealon the cultural unity among its various communities, comprising Bumipu-tras, Chinese and Indians. Towards this end a National Cultural Congresswas convened in August 1971 that gave birth to three principles for theformulation of the national culture; firstly, that the Malaysian national cul-ture shall be based on the indigenous culture of the region; secondly, thatelements from other culture which are suitable and appropriate may be ac-cepted as elements of the national culture; and thirdly, that Islam shall be animportant factor In the formation of the culture.Since architecture is one of the most inportant manifestation of the cultureitself, it is only natural that the three principles become the guidelines forthe efforts to evolve the architecture with a national idenity. These effortsbecome all the more necessary because of the two-way relationship betweenman and his environment.The paper first looks into the development of architecture in Malaysia dur-ing the last two decades. The overall picture is that of confusion. Most Ma-laysian towns and cities have been filled with buildings that are out of con-text, unsultale for tropical climate, wasteful in the use of energies,expensive to maintain and alien to the local way of life. In the meantime some attempts have been made to incorporate Malay vernacular features inthe design of public buildings with various degrees of success. There is atendency to over emphasize the physical form in the expression of identitywithout giving due respect to other aspects such as human activities.An analysis will be made in relation to the role of government and its agen-cies, the idiosyncrasy of the clients as well as the attitude and background ofthe architects. The majority of architects currently practising in Malaysiawere trained overseas. Having been influenced by the modernist and post-modernist movements they are no longer appreciative to vernacular and re-gional characteristics. It seems in the long run the only way to realize theaspiration of the nation is to rely on home grown architects who understandlocal environment, climate, materials and techniques and respect the cultu-ral heritage of the country.
Akcura, N.. "Transformation of the Built Environment in Historic Areas with Reference to House Forms." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. conference:IAPS:11
Akcura, N.. "Transformation of the Built Environment, in Historic Areas with Reference to 'house Forms'." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. A brief discussion on and evaluation of habitation in general, house forms inparticular, in Ankara, within the last 150 years. Special reference will begiven to the concept of conservation and rehabilitation. The development ofthe house forms will be discussed in two different lines:-The emergence of new house forms, within architectural vocabulary; thetypes which can be identified; the social, economic and cultural contextwithin which new forms are defined; types and typologies of these forms.-An evaluation of the continuities in the housing stock; the variety present-ed by the contemporary physical environment and conservation.
Deshmukh, R. P., and A. Gupta. "Tropical Cyclones and Built Forms: a Case Study." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. "Natural disasters like earthquakes, avelances, floods and cyclones have beenmutilating the face of the earth since time immemorial. Whatever be theircause, their result is only one: widespread destruction and damage to prop-erty, loss of life and agricultural land, and socio-economic upheaval. In de-veloping countries like India where a majority of the population is below thepoverty lime, people live mostly in "Kutcha" or non engineered structures.Such houses are one of the first casualities. A survey conducted by ftheUnited Nations has revealed that through earthquakes cause the maximumnumber of people homeless.A home is a sensitive issue. It is where people start from and where theyreturn to. It is where people start from and where they return to. It is themost immediate and intimate environment to them. To make people happy intheir domestic shelter and protect them from life threatening and propertyravishing events of natural origin, requires more than traditional qualitiesand quantities. It is an established fact that the acceptance of any cyclone re-sistant design depends on many subjective things eg. Socio-cultural and re-ligious beliefs on the people, their living habits, the prevailing climaticconditions, occupational trends and the type of construction methods, designsand building materials used traditionally. During the course of study it hasbeen observed that the real sbstacle in the whole process is the 'technologytransfer' - getting research findings and recomendations into the operationmanuals of architects, planners and developers on the one hand and compre-hensibility of some of the techniques to users on the other. Also importanceof locally available materials in such situation cannot be undermined. But ina special situation where a cyclone comes into picture, one has to use mate-rials that will first and foremost resist the cyclone. The present paper givesparticular stress on: settlement and unit resistance to cyclone and its suit-ability to lifestyle of the of the comunity. With the help of a case study con-ducted in the village Rapur in the cyclone prone area of Andhra Pradesh, In-dia, this paper tries to establish a methodology for designing units andsettlement succesfully in similar regions. This paper is applicable to cases where only the wind and rainfall components of the cyclone cause damage andnot to the coastal areas where storm surges accompany the strong winds andheavy-rainfall."
Scaltsa, M.. "Two Exhibitions of Works from the Same Art Collection: a Case Study." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. It is taken for granted nowadays that the task of organizing an exhibition ofpainting or sculpture envolves for more than responsibility for seeing thatthe work are full documented and presented to the public in the most appro-priate way. Account has to be taken of the particular section of the publicwhich is being addressed, of the form and scope of the information to be con-veyed, of the characteristics of the exhibition area, and of a host of otherminor considerations no less vital to the proper presentation of the materi-al. A rich bibligraphy exists on this subject, leaving no clout of the problemsentailed, as well as of their variety and complexity1.An account of two exhibitions of works of art from the same collection isthus not without interest, when these occur in the same city, but at two dif-ferent moments in time, in two buildings of contrasting character and quali-ty, with financial backing of a widely differing order. These two exhibitions contained works of 20th century greek painting andsculpture owned by the Cultural Foundation of the National Bank of Greece.Part of this collection went on show for the first time in 1987 in an exhibi-tion hall at the Thessaloniki International Trade Fair. Another group ofworks, including paintings and sculptures that had been shown on the previ-ous occasion, were exhibitied in 1989 in a traditional fin de slecle buildingwhich belongs to and has been restored by the National Bank of Greece.A. S. Miles et al, The Design of Educational Exhibitis, 2nd ed., London, UnwinHyman,1 988.The first o f the two exhibitions was held in an unadapted rectangular hall200 m2 in area, with a ceiling 4 m high, situated on an extensive groundamong Windings devoted to exhibitions of a commerical character. It wasdirected towards people who would stroll into the art exhibition after theirtour of the various trade pavilions. The finance available was very limited.The second exhibition was held in a three-storey former town house withseparate rooms, painted ceilings and curved doors and was intended for peo-ple who would come especially to see both building and art show. No limita-tion was placed on the cost of mounting the exhibition.In the first case an impersonal hall in mediocre condition was required totake on character, become attractive and communicate information to alargely Indifferent, unspecialized public.In the second case a building with strong personality needed to be shown oftto best advantage, but not to the detrminet of the art work. It was hoped thatthe visitors, who were expected to have some knowledge of art Without beingspecialists, would enjoy the building as much as the work themselves.
Greenstreet, R. C.. "Understanding the Urban Fabric: the Implications of Legal Prescription on the Development of the City." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. In order to help to redress some of the problems of habitability experiencedin many cities, it is first imperative to establish a through knowledge of theforces which have hitherto shaped them. Many of these forces are wellknown and documented, and cities can be viewed in relation to the social, po-litical and economic factors which have exerted influence on their develop-ment. Similarly, city structure can be analyzed in termss of urban theoryor even by reference to the physical elements -materials, constructiontechniques, shapes and forms, etc. -which comprise the overall fabric.However, a factor which is rarely given serious consideration, and yet onewhich can exert a profound impact on urban development, is the instrumentof law, including both statute and common law. The former, a codified formof legislative enactment, Incorporates zoning, building regulations, ordi-nances, by laws and associated codes, and lays down specific requirementsand minima for development. While individually such laws can provide de-monstrably beneficial effects, studies indicate that the cumulative impactover time of a plethora of separate controls can have a considerable, and po-tentially detrimental, impact on the quality of the urban fabric. Common lawon the other hand, the body of recorded cases decided by civil law courts inmany western countries, collectively establishes the permlssibile actions ofgroups and individuals both working to improve the city and those living init. These too exert a considerable influence on the characteristics of the cityand its inherent livability.The purpose of this paper is to critically assess the overall impact of lawupon the city and to demonstrate its considerable influence on urban devel-opment. By reference to historical data collected from a number of citiesworldwide, it will be possible to show how legal action has helped to deter-mine urban structure (London, Paris, New York), building height and form(Chicago, Rome, Berlin) and even architectonic appearance (London, Chica-go). Case law analysis further provides the basis to assess human behaviorin regard to the city and the factors which affect the habitability of the pub-lic realm.The paper is intended as and overview of the collective influence of legalcontrols on the structure of the urban fabric. It intends to highlight the ma-jor determinants of development and establish their relative impacts, ena-bling a greater and fuller understanding of the forces which shape cities. Indoing so, it helps to establish a stronger base for those working towardschange and the improvement of the quality of life in modern urban environ-ments.
Brower, S. N.. "Urban Residential Settings: Precedents and Prospects." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. The paper describes four distinctive types of urban residential settings,each of which has been around, in some form, for a long time, and each ofwhich is considered, according to taste, the most desirable place to live.These settings are characterized as:Pares A somewhat romantic vision of the city as the center of opportunity,entertainment and culture, a marketplace of goods and ideas; a center ofsophistication, fashion and diversity; a place of important monuments,impressive buildings, and grand public spaces, where associations are richand layered.The Hamlet The urban equivalent of a small town. A part of the city that hasits own name, that provides most of the basic necessities of life, where youknow most everybody who lives there and they know you, where theinstitutions are small and locally run, and serve as common meetinggrounds.The Club A residential community with its own facilities and amenities, thatforms a protective cocoon with selection procedures, and covenants andregulations, and often its own system of governance, that protects residentsagainst outsiders and undesirable developments.The Estate A retreat, removed from the hustle-bustle of the city, where onecan enjoy the simple life, commune with nature and enjoy, undisturbed, thecompany of friends and family. There is likely to be a considerable amount oftravel involved in getting to work and services.Each of these types of setting has its own particular qualities of form andappearance. Each has a different way of dealing with basic issues of privacy,security, community and self-identity. Because each satisfies the housingpreferences and lifestyle needs of a particular segment of the urbanpopulation, each should be present in every metropolitan area.During the past forty years, most residential growth in American cities hastaken place in the suburbs and, until recently, most new settings have been of the Club type. Old Parees and Hamlets were allowed to deteriorate. Now,dissatisfaction with the Club is resulting in a resurgence of interest inParee and the Hamlet. We see new forms of development in the suburbs andof redevelopment in in-town neighborhoods. Many of these forms, however,emphasize club-like qualities.It is useful to develop an understanding of historical setting forms. It ismore important to understand the essential qualities of each setting typebecause as conditions change, old forms must be re-interpreted.
Laike, T.. "Using Old Methods in a New Way to Help Understand the Impact of the Environment on Child Development." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. Psychology has generally dealt with child development in terms of the socialenvironment. This is no longer appropriate. We have to look at both thephysical and the social environment, and not only in home but at day carecenters as well, where children in the western society get a large propor-tion of their daily care. In order to do so we may use well-proven techniquesin new ways. The studies carried out so far show that it is possible to employsemantic scales with only two or three subjects making the judgementswhich also opens up the possibility for large-scale studies.This present study consists of two pans. Firstly, a study of the environmentat the day care centers using assessment scales in the conventional way, andsecondly a study of the social and the physical environment of the home usingsimilar scales, but in a new way. The study is based on the research modelproposed by KUller (1987) where both the physical and the social environ-ment is taken into consideration. While the child is considered to be activat-ed by both the environment and the social network, this will be mediatedthrough the child's resources, constitution, earlier experiences and strate-gies. In order to assess the physical environment we used semantic scaleswith both the parents and the staff at two day care centers, one situated in ablock of flats and one situated on freehold land (Laike in prep). We foundnodifferences between the assessment carded out by parents and staff butdifferences in four out of eight dimensions between the two day care centers.This indicates that the test instrument is sensitive even with rather smallgroups (n 11). Turning to the question of the physical and social environ-ment of the home one major problem was that the number of judges was evensmaller. The aim was to find an appropriate way to assess the environmentwhich was not cumbersome to handle but still reliable and valid. A brief lit-erature review showed that most existing methods were complicated to ad-minister and very time-consuming. Only one method met our demands, thesemantic scales. However, these were never before used with only a fewjudges. We therefore conducted a study involving fifteen families where bothmothers and fathers made the assessment. The physical environment was as-sessed by the interviewer as well. The results were then analyzed accordingto the interjudge reliability and construct validity with Pearson's product-moment correlations. We found high correlation between the judges for thesocial environment scales in four out of five dimensions. Also the correla-tion between the size of available space and the dimension of social intensitywas high and negative as predicted by KUller (1988). The results for thejudgement of the physical environment were less clearcut. However, a highcorrelation was obtained between assessed affection and the age of the build-ing as predicted by KUller (1972). To summarize, the results indicate that,used in an appropriate way, it is possible to use semantic scales for smallsamples and still get reliable-group results when assessing the home envi-ronment both seen as physical and as social. Thus it becomes possible to in-clude large groups of participants because of the easiness of administeringthe tests.
Bergil, M. S.. "Was the Dialectics of the Lateralized Cerebral Processing of Spaces Better Catered for in the Past?" In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. "Based on experimental findings, we propose a tentative model concerning thecerebral processing of architectural spaces, with its possible relation to theconcept of "aesthetic perception". And we try to show how, in certain as-pects, the architectural milieu of yesterday seems to be better suited to suchprocessing than that of today.Our brain is lateralized so that the cerebral hemispheres are asymmetric intheir function. As the right hemisphere (RH) is specialized to respond to andprocess body-environmento-spatial inputs, it should be considered to be ofprime importance architecture-wise. Tending to deal with information per-ceived as a whole, It reads the spatial stimuli globabally. More emotionallypredominant, depending on the afective tone of the spatio-configurationalimpact, it is apt to experience an emotional arousal. And the verbally domi-nant left hemisphere (LH) has the peculiar capacity to be triggered by RHarousais without actually knowing their nature. When thus activated, the LHcharacteristically tries to account for such and emotional stimulation,which process it may carry out through visual as well as verbal means. Vis-ually, unlike the RH, It picks up the various spatial components to compareand relate them so as to present a sensible "explanation" to the consciousmind. Such a parallel global/multipart and affective/rational scheme of spatialcerebral processing set up dialectically across the hemispheres may actual-ly be responsible for what is called the "aesthetic experience" of architectural space, provided that: (a) the RH is fed with such a configurationalcomplexity as would hit the optimal affective tone, and (b) the interrelationamong the perceived visual elements maintains the level whereon the LH canbuild up a rationale out of the multipart coherence inherent In such attrac-tive complexity.Considered in a historical perspective, some factors do appear to give yes-terday the edge on today in terms of an aesthetically satisfactory perfor-mance of our model.Such that:--Once architects based the spatial configurations of their buildings ontraditionally inherited diagrams and / or volumes which are alreadypossesed empirically validated RH advantages. Today we largely rely on theoretically self-justifying programmeswhich render the very basis of our approach a LH job.--Recruiting architects from the ranks of craftsmen produced anadvantage In favour of their skill to impress the RH, while the diverselyemployed "special effects" enhanced the affective impression of theoverall space.Today both of the above have largely fallen from grace.--The way the spatial elements were handled as regards their diversity,affinity and contrast created a semiologically vibrant visual milieuwhereby a substantial LH processing could be sustained.Today, judging from the latest trends, we seem to be heading for thesame type of understanding on the handling of parts.--Constellating Proportioning Systems (CPS5), when implemented, (a)created a synthetic tension between complexity and constraints directlyreflecting the optimal regulation of the asymmetric hemisphericprocessing of spaces, (b) established a subtle background for a basic LHactivity.Today we have shunned such CPSs only to replace them with the tooobviously revealed grids or patterns of static proportions."
Cold, B.. "What is Good Arcitecture?: a Discussion of Modern and Postmodern Views." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. "The quality that we seek In an artefact, a building or an environmentdepend on the time, place and the culture to which we belong. In the post-war period, that culture was heavily influenced by modernism, a school ofthought that is now challenged by new 'post-, neo-, rational and spiritual'ideas and styles. Modernism itself was not only a style: it was also a valuesystem or a world view including life-style, communication and welfare. ItIncorporated a search for honesty and simplicity in architecture and thearts In order to gain an authentic expression of 'our time'. Architecturalmodernism was at its best at the relatively small-scale and mostly failed inthe larger scale of mass housing. Are the ideas behind moderism still valid? In this paper we discuss the qualities and attitudes of small-scale mod-ernist architecture as compared with some some examples of present-daypost-modernism. The nature of modernistic attitudes to architecture willbe analysed by considering the quality criteria employed over the last 25years by the juries and prizewinners of the 'Woodprize' -- a parize givenin Norway to architecture of high technical and artistic quality. These valueswill then be compared with the classical-nostalgic' view of Prince Charles,the dialectically 'populist-spiritual' view of community architect RodHackney, and the 'artistic-revolutionary' view of the Austrain architecturalgroup 'Coop Himmelblau'. I finish by asking if architectural quality is aquestion of authenticity in contrast to fakery, facadism and pastiche.Authenticity is a quality that stems from the development of traditional ar-chitecture, from experiments with ecological, aesthetic, technical, so-cial or economic approaches to gain new knowledge, and from artistic endea-vours that break with all conventions and norms. It is not captured bymanipulation of form but stems from a genuine interst in cultures and inpeople's lives, a deep respect for place and the earth in both social, aes-thetic and ecological terms, and a knowledge of how to undertake architec-ture. In this respect, I argue that the core of modernist values did not lie inquestions of fashion or form but stemmed from and authenticity arisingfrom a true engagemen in "today's" and "tomorrow's" porbiems and needs,ideas and dreams of the future."
Wilson, M. A., and D. Canter. "Who is Who in Architecture: a Study of Architectural Heroes." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. conference:IAPS:11
Monteiro, C. G., and D. V. Canter. "Your Place Or Mine: the Social Representation of Favelas Inbrazil." In Culture-Space-History: Proceedings 11th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Ankara, Turkey: METU Faculty of Architecture, 1990. conference:IAPS:11