Keywords Abstract
Hasell, Mary Joyce, and Mahalingam Ganapathy. "A Computer - Based Participatory Design System for the Creation of Affordable Housing Designs." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "In the United States, demographic statistics since the 1970s have shown a varied definition of "families', resulting in a departure from traditionally homogeneous housing needs. Changes in housing and land costs, as well as consumer expectations, have created a gap between median family income and housing affordability. For families below the median income level, affordable housing choices are extremely limited, especially in terms of house design. Often, low and middle income families must settle for older houses or those designed by home builders that are economically expedient but lacking in their ability to satisfy users' individual needs and preferences. We have designed a computer-based participatory design system for the creation of affordable housing designs to make it possible for laypersons to create their own individualized plans. Elderly people and young couples who need adult-centered houses and single parents with children who need child-centered houses were our target groups. Our research included the following five stages: 1) We identified a target group of 30 respondents within the affordable housing market; 2) We collected spatial data by using an open-ended schedule focusing on the respondents' manipulations of three dimensional models of house and furniture components. Additionally, we collected social data using a structured questionnaire that recorded social characteristics, household task behaviors, personality variables, and housing! neighborhood preferences; 3) We built a data bank of respondents' completed house plans and analyzed them using space syntax analysis; 4) We used multiple regression analyses to explore connections between person's spatial preferences and their social characteristics, behaviors and values; 5) We have designed an interactive computer system to build multiple designs based on options that are available within the program. Hence, laypersons can design and plot their own plans by using the menu-driven computer program - - Participatory Affordable Design System for Housing (PADS) Participatory Affordable Design System for Housing, is the interactive software system based on the commercial CAD software called AutoCAD that we are developing through this research effort. The software will work in conjunction with the AutoCAD software to provide an interactive graphic environment for the generation of affordable house plans. This system will provide producers of manufactured housing, mobile home builders, as well as, small home builders with a tool that can expand and improve the variety of their products by responding to individual customer's needs. We are assuming that when people have choices, they have increased control of their lives. Choice and control increase satisfaction among them, and their houses become special personal spaces. Thus, a participatory system will benefit people in the affordable housing market by providing a variety of house designs that are attuned to individual needs and preferences. Such a system will be judged successful by the variety of affordable house designs it can generate, and more importantly, how well these designs suit individual needs and preferences. This product has the potential to influence growth within the affordable housing market. This paper will describef the participatory process involved in the creation of the designs, as well as the integration of the participatory techniques within the CAD system. During this first stage pilot project we collected and analyzed the user data, and built the interactive computer program. We plan to begin field testing (PADS) in the near future."
Winston, Yan. "A Critical Review of Metamorphoses in the Built Form of Beijing a Behavioral Approach." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. A study of urban built form is justified when considering the fact that metamorphosis in urban form brought up by human beings would affect human beings' life afterwards. This justification is especially obvious when change in urban built form is significant and radical. Beijing, China, is well-known for its historical city plan and architecture. Since the city became the capital of the People's Republic of China in 1949, it has undergone extensive reconstruction. Four decades have passed and the reconstruction has resulted in enormous changes in the built form of the city. As a historical city, the metamorphosis in the urban built form of Beijing involves demolition of the old built environments, preservation of the significant historical ones, and construction of the new ones. The change in the built form has effects far beyond built environment itself. By tearing down an old or erecting a new built environment, what disappear or comes about is not only physical entities, but also the meanings and values embodied in the physical entities. Using questionnaire survey and interview as well as on-site observation as the instrument, the authors conducted a study focusing on people's perceptions and evaluations of changing Beijing in 1987. Based on findings of that case study, this paper first illustrates people's reactions to the demolition and preservation of historical built environments and to construction the newly built modern ones. It then discusses lessons learned through the experience of Beijing regarding impacts of metamorphosis in urban built form on peoples city image and city life. As for the preservation of historical built environments, this study found that the public's attitudes towards those environments generally follow a trend from depreciation to appreciation when the historical environments become rarer and rarer. This trend is evidenced clearly by the public's changing attitudes towards the demolition of some historical environments such as the old city wall, and by importance of the historical environments in people's images of today's Beijing. Many well preserved historical built environments are among the most dominant elements in images of the city. They play an important role in retaining the identity of the built form of Beijing as a historical one. Furthermore, this study has also found that the public's attitude towards the demolition and the preservation is a function of social, cultural, economic, and political context of which the actions take place. This functional relationship is especially clear when studying the public's reactions to the preservation of courtyard houses and neighborhoods. The reactions vary from time to time of often changed social, economic and political context, and among people of distinctive cultural, social and economic background. Examination of the public's evaluations and preferences of the newly built environments constructed since the 1950s presents a mixed picture. On one hand, those of the neo-classical style which adopts traditional architectural vocabulary and thus are in harmony with the old built form are much more preferred and liked by the public than new buildings of modernistic style. The former are the public's favorite largely because they have elegant appearance of aesthetic quality and possess meanings associated with the traditional architectural style. But on the other hand, the public felt that adding modernistic high-rise buildings to the city has risen the level of modernization of the city, which is highly desirable and appreciated. To a large extent, modernistic high-rise buildings match the public's expectation of what modern Beijing should be.
Erdogdu, Ozlem, and Seniz Cikis. "A Critical View on the Perceptions of Archeological Sites in History." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. It is generally accepted that, history is a vehicle which enables us to understand what the human did, so what the human is. The studies on history, therefore, had been based upon the historical objects which were understood as an easy way as either a source store for creating new values or just the living evidences of a continuous evolutionary process. Another view might be from the aspect of romanticism. This kind of popular tendencies on the interpretations of the past had been encouraged by the tourism desaster as well as the communication age which forces the people to know each other's culture. Archeological sites as the built-environments are the culture-made objects. There had been a real life in them by the means of the inhabitants, their religion, art, political or preferences, ethic and everything about we can talk today's life. Those sites have a raison-d'être and this is to create a residential area in which that life we described above may take place. The connections between the site which is visible and the life which is now invisible had been dismantled and the visible site had been tried to keep alive with new artificial orders though its raison-d'être had been disappeared. This is an interference to the natural process of the object and the life. We believe that archeological sites have a sacred code. Every year lots of people are visiting them. The articulation of the images of those sites to the popular culture and re-uses of the sites are the two faces of problem. This paper is aimed giving a critical view on the uses of archeological sites.
Marans, R, Yung Jaan, G L. Guagnano, and R. de Young. "A Cross - Cultural Comparison of Office Recycling in Taiwan and the U.s.a." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992.

In many parts of the world, household recycling has become an increasingly important activity reflecting a growing public awareness of the consequences of resource utilization and the increasing costs of waste management. While there are data from household surveys which document this behavior and its environmental and psychological antecedents, little is known about the extent to which recycling practices exist in the workplace and, in particular, in office organizations. Recent reports indicate that significant numbers of U.S. organizations have established recycling programs, and nearly two-thirds have done so since 1988.. However, the extent to which there are office recycling programs in other countries is largely unknown. Similarly, there is little information about the recycling practices of office workers, nor the degree to which recycling programs influence the environmental attitudes of individuals. Using data from office worker surveys recently conducted in the U.S. and Taiwan, this paper examines several questions including: 1. What are the differences in recycling practices and attitudes among office workers in the U.S. and Taiwan? 2. To what extent do office recycling programs affect environmental attitudes? 3. Do the recycling practices of individuals at work have any bearing on their recycling behaviors at home? 4. To what extent does the physical arrangement of offices facilitate or impede recycling?

Riley, Robert. "A Designer Approaches Person - Place Attachment." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "The bond between person and place is a broad and complex subject. The common, if seldom explicit, assumption that it is basically a stimuli-response phenomenon sets us off in a search for "archetypal" settings (i.e., stimuli), a search usually channeled into an evolutionary pseudo-science that produces at its more intelligent, a prospect-refuge, say, and its least intelligent, the Savanna silliness now in vogue in the U.S. This paper proposes, instead, some fragmentary approaches concentrating on certain recurrent aspects of the person-place-experience, leaving the unified feel theory for a later stage. Three of these aspects seem often linked--encounter, time, and fantasy. Encounter refers to a place attachment based upon what happens to us in a place, an experience, often interpersonal, of intense pleasure (or sadness) that is primary, for which place becomes a symbol. Time means conceiving place attachment not just as an experience in a file of emotional memory, but as a continuous processing in which recall and re-experience are as important as experience. Last, fantasy refers both to making or redesigning places in our head and to fantasizing our actions and life in places, both real and imagined. A second issue raised is whether attachment to place might be not some immutable Heidegerrian drive but a variable across people, situations, and cultures. As our functional relation to physical place changes, even withers, in a mobile information processing, media dominated, information processing society, what happens to emotional place ties? How valid are traditional core concepts like nature, home, insider-outsider, and authentic-spurious? Suggestions for future directions of inquiry are: less emphasis in searching for archetypal prototypical stimuli and more emphasis on people's active role in building, even manipulating, attachment, on the function of such attachment in individual and cultural life, and on the conceptualizing the varieties of such attachment and the differences between them."
Zimring, Craig, and Frieda Peatross. "A Framework for Exploring Cultural Effects on Business Organizations." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. In this paper we examine the changing relationships between white collar work organizations and their physical settings. We focus primarily on a problem that has motivated much of the recent interest in organizational culture: How individuals and work groups coordinate with larger entities. Whereas classic management techniques developed in the early years of this century developed mechanisms of control by designing simplified tasks for low level workers and providing clear spans of control, recent cultural approaches have attempted to develop more flexible forms of control that allow more individual discretion, such as by promulgating organizational ideologies, norms, symbols, and networks of communication; In this paper we discuss the design implications of a cultural approach to management. At the same time, the globalization of businesses and the growing ethnicity of many industrialized countries are increasing the significance of national and ethnic culture as factors to be dealt with in the workplace. The opening of Eastern Europe to investment, growth of the Pacific Rim, elimination of regulatory and trade barriers in the European Economic Community, and negotiations for a North American free trade zone are accelerating these trends. Companies, and workplaces, are increasingly multi-cultural. In particular, we argue that a reformulation of two emerging ideas in international management is useful for design research, organizational analysis, architectural programming (briefing), and design: 1) power distance, and, 2) individuality. These concepts can be reframed as the distribution of power and the distribution of responsibility within an organization. Research that we and others have conducted suggests that the distribution of power is related to symbolic qualities of office design, whereas the distribution of responsibility is related to spatial layout. For instance, many Japanese organizations have highly concentrated power but relatively broadly distributed responsibility; a few people actually make key decisions, but wide participation and input is sought for most tasks. This profile seems to be linked to office designs with clear symbolic languages that reflect power, such as having specific high status positions on the work floor, yet with layouts that encourage unplanned communications between workers. By contrast, many US organizations have both highly concentrated power and highly concentrated responsibility; this is linked to highly differentiated symbolic design languages and highly segregated layouts. In the paper we discuss several examples of organizations, discussing their designs and organizational characteristics. We propose an integrative framework for conceptualizing and measuring these concepts, focusing on the multiple levels that operate in a workplace: individual schemata, organizational rules and structures, and designs. We conclude with suggestions for future research and practice.
Ryuzu, Ohno. "A Method of Measurement for Visual Complexity in the Environment." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "In the context of the ever changing urban landscapes of our era, it seems to be well recognized that one of the major issues of environmental perception is perceptual complexity or diversity. The desired level of complexity in visual scenes in the city has been mentioned often, but the degree of complexity rarely has been quantitatively defined. This paper presents a method of measurement for two different aspects of visual complexity in the environment: one is visual diversity of a scene around a view point, and the other is a sequential change when the perceiver moves through the environment. A personal computer program was developed to assess an array of visual surfaces which surround an observer. The visual surfaces in the environment are first divided into basic units (components) on the basis of their meaning for basic human behavior or 'affordance". The units include such surfaces as pavement, earth, grass, trees, building and sky. The program then assesses surrounding scenes by numerous scanning (visual) lines radiated from a station point in all directions with equal density. Next, it creates a chart which shows the array of visible surfaces of various components. The resulting chart is divided into cells according to azimuth (72 partitions) and altitude (29 partitions) of the direction of scanning lines. Thus it has a total of 2,088 cells, each of which represents one of the components. With this data, the program then calculates number of partitions which divides two neighboring cells of different components. This measure is expected to describe the complexity of the visual scene surrounding the perceiver. As for the sequential variation, the charts obtained by assessing two consecutive station points along the path are compared, and the number of changed cells of the same position is calculated. n order to examine quantitative relations between human responses on the one hand, and the measures obtained by the program on the other, landscapes of nine different housing neighborhoods were assessed. A sequence of scenes along a typical path in each of the nine housing sites was presented to the 43 subjects by a series of slides taken at ten consecutive points each ten meters apart. The subjects were asked to rate each landscape using a bipolar adjective pair of "monotonous vs. varied". The data from this empirical study revealed that the complexity of a place can be well explained by the measures obtained by the program. Although it may require some effort to establish the data of the site for the program, once we have the data, it is quite easy to assess the visual state at any point in a proposed environment. If an environmental designer uses computer aided drafting , the data is obtained without extra effort, the designer can easily and interactively use this program in the design process."
Brown, Richard. "A Method to Present Changes Over Time in Perceived Downtown Boundaries." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "Not only is the downtown 'a composite of its multiple simultaneously perceived realities," but these simultaneously perceived realities are in a constant state of flux over time. Consequently, any downtown characteristic boundary (whether based on perception or any other criterion) can be expected to have a relatively short life. This paper demonstrates the utility of using oral boundary descriptions to present changes over time in perceived downtown boundaries. The Oral Method presented here, uses a phenomenological approach. On the other hand, most methods addressing downtown boundaries are based on rational or positive theories. These rational or positive approaches require researchers to predetermine what specific characteristics constitute the downtown, a difficult task given the downtown's history and its continuing change. To determine a perceived downtown boundary, individuals familiar with the downtown were asked to describe orally where they thought the downtown boundary was located (the Oral Method). As a check on this approach, they were also asked to draw the boundary on an oblique aerial photo of the downtown with a street map overlay (the Oblique Aerial Photo Method). The oblique aerial photo and street map overlay provided the participants with information not available when they gave the oral description. This provides the detail of a photo with the additional information of a map. This also reduces the level of abstraction found in conventional maps or aerial photos taken directly overhead. This oblique photo and map combination addresses the concern noted in the literature that respondents asked to draw the downtown boundary on a base map may not know how to read a map or may have forgotten the location of a particular feature. Based on a Tacoma, Washington, USA case study, the Oblique Aerial Photo Method did not provide significantly different results from those obtained using the Oral Method. The Oblique Aerial Photo Method's value is that it supports the reliability of the Oral Method, which is much easier to administer."
Amerigo, Maria. "A Model of Residential Satisfaction." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. The study of satisfaction with residential environment has been dealt within a lot of empirical research; nevertheless, there have been few attempts to systematize the different findings in a theoretical frame. Both in a basic and applied level, residential satisfaction has been treated from two different perspectives: A) as a dependent variable, it has been considered as a residential quality indicator and therefore, as a life quality criterion. Research oriented towards this perspective - esentially empirical research - seeks to establish which factors from the residential environment are predictors of satisfaction with such environment, attempting to guide architects and urban designers in making decisions about the planning of a new residential setting. B) Another group of works has stressed the importance of residential satisfaction as a predictor of several behaviours like residential mobility and it has been considered from this perspective as a relevant variable in the individual adjustment process to the residential environment. The aim of the present work seeks to integrate both perspectives in a systemic model of residential satisfaction, where the latter is considered from an attitudinal perspective as a positive affective state that the individual has towards his/her residential environment; such state arises as a result of a process in which several objective attributes from the environment are evaluated and this process will lead the individual to develop some behaviours destined to maintain or to raise the residential environment congruency. Through a methodology which employs multiple regression as a main technique of statistical analysis and the questionaire as an instrument of data gathering, is proved empirically the residential satisfaction model proposed.
Brown, Frank. "A Second Transformation: a Study of Building - Form and Building - Use in the Town of Swindon, England." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. Swindon is a medium-sized, provincial town, lying in the county of Wiltshire in the south of England. In its overall structure and pattern of land-use it is comparable with many other English towns of middle size (i.e. 50,000-150,000 persons), and may for this reason be seen as representative of its class. Swindon, however, has a distinctive history. Until the mid-nineteenth century, it was a very small market town with little or no industry. Its evolution was changed dramatically in 1840 by the decision of the Great Western Railway Company to make Swindon the site of a major railway depot. With the steady expansion of the railway works during the latter pail of the century, the 'New Town' of Swindon rapidly eclipsed the older market town and became one of the largest centres of the railway industry in the country. By 1900 the 'Old' and the 'New Town' had fused to forma single borough. In its physical fabric Swindon typified the railway town: a uniform, rectilinear pattern of streets was lined with two-storey brick terrace houses, accessed by back lanes, with little public open space, few leisure facilities, and no major civic buildings. Following a long period of economic stagnation, the town underwent a second phase of growth and transformation after World War 2. In the wake of a town development plan, which promoted new industry and an improved infrastructure, the town became, during the 1970's and 1980's, a major centre for new electronics and financial services developments. This explosive change, as dramatic as the impact of the railway, has given rise to extensive redevelopment of the New Town. In a recent research project, a comprehensive survey was undertaken of the south-western portion of Swindon, a pail that embraces both the Old and New Towns and contains the bulk of the shopping and office development. All non-residential buildings in the area, some 1500 in all, were visited and a record made of their physical characteristics (building form, roof type, no. of storeys, materials of construction, etc.), their functional uses, and their occupiers. The resulting database has been encoded in a computer-based Geographical Information System. Each building is represented as a polygon, or set of polygons, to which data are attached, and appears against a pictorial map background, entered from digital Ordnance Survey maps of the area.
Niit, Toomas. "A Solution for Housing Problems in the Land of Beggars. Youth Housing Complexes in the Former Soviet Union." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. The title of this paper is a quote from an Interview with one of the leaders of a Youth Housing complex in Kaliningrad near Moscow which was built In I 975,and formed the basis for a rather poular movement or housing experiment for the next 15 years In the former Soviet Union. The system of Youth Housing Complexes (YHC) has been an Increasingly popular solution for housing problems of young people in recent years. By now more than 300 YHC's exist in the large cities like Moscow, St. Petersburg, Vladivostok, Alma-Ata, Arkhangelsk, etc., as well as in several cities in the Baltic states. YHC's quickly became Institutionalised under the former Young Communist League, which helped to overcome several organizational difficulties at the local level. The YHC is formed by enterprises or ministry, which provide money, and in some cases, material for construction. People are selected from the housing queue at the workplace (- usually some kind of competition Is organised at the workplaces as well, to activate the applicants). The persons who are included In the YHC get paid from their workplace, but work actually at the construction site for 1 - 11/2 years. They can be involved in the planning and design phase of their housing as well, depending on their qualifications and work experience. Usually YHC's have more jointly used spaces, sports facilities, facilities for children, etc, than ordinary housing areas in the same cities. About half of the YHC's have turned into ordinary public housing, the others continue to function as organized communities which have their own service and production enterprises, day-care centres, possibilities for sport and cultural activities for the memebers and their children, and so on. The size of YHC's varies from 6 to 6,000 families. This paper analyses the consequences of the concentration of young families (need for day-care, schools, etc) as well as the sources of conflicts with neighbouring areas. Under a grant from the Central Research and Design Institute for Dwellings in Moscow, the Environmental Psychology Research Unit at Tallinn Pedagogical Institute (1. Nit, M. Raudsepp, K.Liik) carried out a research project on the problems of YHC's in 1990-1991. It included three parts: analysis of projects presented in an All-Union competition of social programs for YHC's, a survey of YHC leaders' opinions about the successfulness of this movement, and a questionnaire survey of YHC inhabitants in four different cities in Russia (Moscow, St. Petersburg, Gatchina and Sverdlodsk). The latter explores the real housing situation of inhabitants, satisfaction with it and other aspects of their life, the structure of leisure activities, relations with neighbours, need for services, etc., as well as attitudes toward the system of YHC's, its organizational aspects, readiness of inhabitants to provide services for other members of the YHC, etc. The paper presents selected aspects from these studies and tries to evaluate the fate of the YHC's In the context of recent political and social metamorphoses.
Murakawa, Saburo, and Nishina Daisaku. "A Study of the Evaluation of River Environment in Urban Areas Using the Montage Pictures Produced by Micro - Computer." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. When improving the river environment of urban areas, it is very important to examine the aesthetic influence of composed elements of the river environment. One of the techniques in this investigation is the assessment method utilizing pictures which are made by micro-computer. These pictures are evaluated by viewers through a color monitor. But, if we use this method, it is necessary to test the accuracy in advance. Therefore, we compared the evaluated results of the landscapes of the Ota river, which flows through the center' of Hiroshima-City, utilizing the monitor and those of three other techniques which had been carried out by us several yerars ago at the same location; (1) dweller's evaluation, (2) interviewee's evaluation of this location on-site, (3) viewer's evaluation using color slides of this location. From these analyses, we knew that the evaluated results of the technique using the monitor are similar to the results of the technique using the color slides. In this paper, we compare the results of viewer's evaluations of the montage pictures which are shown by three different presentation methods; two presentations were made from the bridge looking down the river - showing a down stream angle only arid three angles, one presentation was made from the bank - showing three angles. These results show that. the information received from the picture showing one angle is somewhat insufficient, and that the impact of the bank's environment received from the pictures of three angles from the bridge is stronger than the pictures made from the bank. Also, the pictures showing three angles from the bridge are given a lower preference than the pictures from the bank because the impact on the bridge received from the built up environment of the river sides is stronger. The feelings received from the pictures of the river looking from the bank are better than those received from looking from the bridge. Analyzing the evaluated results, we find out that the height of trees planted on the banks gives the biggest influence among the four elements, tree, building, flood plain and level of water, reflecting the people's aesthetic preference concerning the environment.
Nishina, Daisaku, and Saburo Murakawa. "A Study of the Inhabitants' Evaluation of the River Improvement Plans." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. Recently, improving on a river has been recognized as not only the necessary measure for flood control and water utilization, but also the method to raise the quality of urban environment. But, in most cases, improvement plans of a river are made without, considering the history of the river and the usual contact with the river by the inhabitants, so that the details of them are alike and often mismatch to the situation around the river. Then we selected the points from upper, middle and lower reaches of the Seno-River in the east of Hiroshima city respectively and conducted the quest,ionaire on inhabitants around these points. The purpose of this questionaire is to obtain the inhabitants' opinions about the Seno-River and their evaluation about the montage pictures of the Seno-River that are the description of 6 improvement plans of a river and presented in the form of a leaflet. As the results, the plan D and F shown as the following F'iqure.2 are more desirable than others. On the other hand, we analysed the relationships between the characteristics of inhabitants about the river by the Quantity Theory Cluster TIE and found the main factors to classify the inhabitants theirway of thinking about. the river, their recognition of the river arid their recreational use in the river. On the basis of these results, we analyzed the effect that these charcteristics have on p reference in the improvement plans by the Quantity Theory Cluster II. Then we found out that the plan D were more prefered than plan F by the inhabitants who attatch importance to flood control and safety.
Teymur, Necdet. "A Theory of Change in Architecture ( - with Limited Metamorphosis)." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. An abstract observation Applications of philosophical, scientific or artistic concepts to socio-spatial phenomena tend to have various epistemological effects: i. Such applications may make the reality of the phenomena more visible, more concrete or more graspable than they might be; ii. They may help define some new aspects and new problems which might hitherto have existed only as undefined occurances; iii. By concentrating on specific aspects of the phenomena they may make them look much more specific and much more theorizable than the case might be. The last point first: when, for example, the idea of 'change' is isolated as a significant aspect, it is (mentally) isolated from other, possibly contradictory, aspects and processes. It becomes the focus of attention almost to the exclusion of other considerations. Yet, the field described as 'socio-environmental' is not developed enough to take rigorous accounts of the social in the spatial and the spatial in the social. It relies on borrowed paradigms from social sciences and overlays them on a background of largely pre-theoretical architectural formulations. Change, which is already an unsettled concept in the former becomes an intuitive obvious in the latter. While paying attention to detail, we sometimes ignore the whole, or while metaptiorizing over generalities we fail to see what, precisely, is and is not changing, and how. The central thesis of this paper will therefore be that there are so many changes in socioenvironmental phenomena (a) that our disciplinary horizons do not cover them all, (b) that they are not all metamorphotic, hence, (C) that raising the ontological status of our object by attributing to it a radical capacity to change would be premature. A concrete proposal This paper will aim to provoke questions about the possible need for our own transformation and our own metamorphosis, from an unevenly developed discipline (or, an unhappy mutant, a hybrid, a graft) to a promising new species. It will reiterate the case that the global context made up of such developments as the collapse of the 'Walls' and 'Curtains' (hence, revealing the ever-presence of new ones), 'surgical bombing' of Mesopotamia (hence, civilizing them back into the middle ages), imposition of a 'New World Order' (an eclectic mix of the Po-Mo Classical and the military), or the retreat of the collective conscious (even in a Uniting Europe) does not provide promising ecological, cultural, epistemological and designerly conditions for a meta-metamorphotic change in our field. Therefore, what the research knowledge is for, what the designs are really designing and what sort of humanity are we supposed to be serving are far from settled questions. 'Change' that we will be talking about at the Conference is so complex, so uneven and so varied that we seem to be neither fully aware of it nor are we likely to be in control of it. The project of describing and analysing changes in socio-spatial phenomena must go ahead. But the least that a maturing discipline and its Association should undertake at its Conference would be to go beyond this belated discovery. We must undertake to critically analyse the possible distortions in our perception that might be brought about by such a selfimportant concept. This paper will therefore aim to present the outline of a theory of change in architecture that is less than (or, semi-) metamorphotic.
Gärling, T, E Lindberg, and H. Montgomery. "Adjustment to Suboptimal Residential Choice: a Personal Non - Metamorphosis?" In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992.

A broad conceptual framework is introduced in which housing choices people make are assumed to be mediated by their beliefs that the choices will lead to residential satisfaction. On the basis of this framework, a more specific model is derived in which housing attributes are assumed to be perceived as directly or indirectly (through the facilitation of activities) instrumental for the attainment of values important to seek in housing, like comfort, wealth, and well-being. In addtition, drawing on theories of decision making, how preferences for housing alternatives are formed is modelled. The ample empirical evidence for the models that exist is briefly reviewed. However, previous research has shown that choices of housing alternatives cannot be predicted from preferences. One of several reasons appears to be that housing alternatives which are more preferred than the present dwelling are frequently not available in the market. If households choose less preferred alternatives, the question must be raised whether it will result in residential dissatisfaction? Against such an expectation speaks the previous finding that households were as satisfied with choices of less preferred alternatives as they were with choices of more preferred alternatives. A study is reported aiming at replicating this finding as well as extending it to measures of satisfaction obtained several months after the choices were made. Forty six households searching for new dwellings were interviewed during the search process. After 12 to 18 months 19 of them had found a new dwelling. Thirteen were interviewed once again from 12 to 18 months after the move. Only 17% of the households, as compared to close to 50% in a previous study, chose less preferred housing alternatives. In these cases the households were satisfied with their choices. No changes in how the households perceived and evaluated the chosen alternatives were found after relocation, although there were changes in the importance placed on different attributes such as cost and location which were consistent with the choices made. These changes most likely reflected changes in perceptions of the housing alternatives in connection with the choices. Granted that both the households and the housing conditions should have changed during a period of a year or more, the results may suggest that people's views do not easily undergo metamorphises as soon as they have committed themselves.

Ambrose, Ivor. "After the Show Closed Down: a Post - Occupancy Evaluation Addressing Housing Policy Objectives and the Design of Experimental Housing." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "The concepts of social and functional integration have played a significant role in Danish housing policy and housing design for many years. In 1988 the Danish national housing exhibition estate, "Blangstedgárd" in Odense, provided the forum for a renewal and re-assessment of the goals and means of integration. The "experimental" housing estate is now a permanent residential area consisting of 600 dwellings with a variety of service facilities. There is a mix of housing tenure forms, single- and multi-family housing and housing for both the young and the elderly. A six-year, longitudinal study of the new neighbourhood, based on demographic data and participatory post-occupancy evaluation procedures, is currently under way. The evaluation model and methods involving dialogue with the residents, housing personnel and managers are described. Results from the first survey of all households are presented. Demographic indicators show that there are discrepancies between the intended and de facto pre-conditions for integration with respect to population and housing tenure; whilst the structure of resident and management satisfaction is outlined with respect to the integrational aspects of design, management style, services and residents' social activities. Concluding remarks address the general implications of this study for the empirical investigation of integration both as a policy objective and as an experiential facet of neighbourhood satisfaction."
Syngollitou, Efi. "Amenagement De L'espace De La Classe Scolaire Et Comportement. Les Effets Du Voisinage Des Ateliers D' Activite." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. conference:IAPS:12
Anastassiadis, A, E Dimitriadis, and P. Stathacopoulos. "Amenagement Urbain: Rehabilitation Et Renovation Du Centre De Larissa." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. conference:IAPS:12
Yoshimura, Hidemasa, and Masahiro Kawazoe. "An Approach to Measuring Pedestrian's Psychological Resistence to Height." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. Escalators, which convey many people continuously and efficiently, are getting longer, higher, and deeper with higher utilization of urban spaces, In Japan, most of the escalators have stairs alongside of themselves. The ratio of people who prefer escalators to stairs gets higher as the difference of height between both ends of escalator increases. In this survey, several appropreate places, where no factors except for height are found, are carefully selected as observation points. The flow of ascending pedestrians are video-taped and their number is counted.
Enninger, Werner, and Michè le Wolff. "Anabaptist Burial Places: a Proxemic Approach." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. This paper deals with Anabaptist burial places, particularly in eastern France, in contrast to most earlier studies it approaches burial places from the narrow perspective of their spatial organization. It seeks, fret, to show that the proxemic approach to perceptible features of spatial organization can reveal a number of imperceptible principles obtaining in the Anabaptist world. It seeks, second, to show that minor readjustments in the religious orientation of certain branches of Anabaptism are reflected in the spatial organization of burial places.
Groat, Linda. "Architectural Meaning in a Postmodern Culture: a Shift in Research from Meaning in Architecture to the Meaning of Architecture." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "From the earliest days of the environmental design research field in the 1960s, there has been a continuing research tradition in the area of meaning in architecture. Typically, this type of research has focused on how people interpret variations in the style or formal attributes of architecture--often with comparisons between designers and nondesigners. Such research has yielded important insights concerning: 1) the preferences which various groups of people have for certain types of architecture; and 2) the underlying constructs by which people interpret buildings generally. With the emergence of what has been labelled "the postmodern condition," however, the role of architecture as a cultural artifact is less certain. In this light, research which focuses on the likely interpretations of this or that formal attribute of a building is almost beside the point. The more pertinent question for the research enterprise is: what meaning can architecture have in a culture which is electronic rather than physical, global rather than national, knowledge-based rather than goods-based, and mobile rather than fixed in place? This paper will explore this question in light of three issues critical for the conduct of research on the meaning of architecture. The paper will conclude with specific suggestions for building a research agenda. 1) A New Basis for "User" Group Categories. Within the existing tradition of research on meaning in architecture, much of the work has focused on the differences between various user or interpreter cultures--designers vs. nondesigners, differences among nationalities, or specific explorations of a particular ethnic or class group. With the emergence of a postindustrial culture, a new user group designation may become relatively more significant for research. Specifically, Robert Reich in his new book TheWork of Nations has suggested that in the emerging global economy the major distinction will be between the relatively well-off knowledge-based workers (the "symbolic analysts") and the increasingly less well-off service or production workers. According to his argument, these categories cut across the entire developed world such that the relatively mobile symbolic analysts have far more in common with their counterparts in other countries than with their own countrymen. 2) The Disappearance of "High" Architecture. Much of the previous research on meaning in nonresidential contexts has focused on institutional and/or "significant" architecture. Recent trends, however, call into question the continued viability of architecture which either literally or symbollically linked to a relatively permanent or institional authority. Cooke, in his book Back to the Future has suggested that grand public building as "an expression of authority frozen in new architectural forms" is profoundly linked with the rise of modernism. The postmodern condition, on the other hand, represents a challenge to such central authority and this will likely be reflected in architecture. The Economist has not only suggested that the architect's role will be increasingly diminished but also that major companies will no longer be putting up "permanent" headquarters but will instead build more temporary homes. 3) The Changing Context for Architecture. Although the tradition of research on meaning in architecture typically has not explicitly articulated its basic assumptions about the cultural context in which individual buildings are irerpreted, the vast majority of research seems implicitly to have assumed that the buildings under study represent existing settlement patterns--namely the urban-suburban pattern common to most industrialized countries. Recently, however, a number of commentators have questioned whether settlement patterns based on such factors as proximity to resources, transportation routes, or infrastructure development are relevant in an electronic age. Thus a recent issue of Newsweek asks it cities are obsolete; a writer to the Wall Street Journal ponders whether in-place public works--and therefore cities--are disposable; and Robert Reich suggests that globe-trotting symbolic analysts live in geographically-interchangeable enclaves that have already in effect seceded from their communties."
Stanford, Anderson. "Architecture and Propensities." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. conference:IAPS:12
Krantz, Birgit. "Arcitectural Preconceptions Versus Everyday Experience." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. In any design process there are elements of uncertainty and new fields of knowledge to be explored. The design professionals have, due to training and experience, attained a reasonable skill to cope with unknown variables In their running practice. Mostly, however, they are supported by cases of precedent, or prototypes, examples and models. In addition, many design objects are fenced in by and subjected to guiding principles. When entirely new phenomena of social or organizational character claim for an appropriate built form and spatial order, the situation is different. The architects are then in need of specified strategies to meeting the new and unknown requirements. Hypothetically, three kind of strategies can be identified: relying on intuition and tacit knowledge; relying on documented experiences and knowledge; and establishing a direct communication with the users. With reference to the professional approach to the role of the architect, a Swedish scholar has distinguished three types which have some connections with the above strategies: the heirs, with artistic ambitions; the idealists, with the strong belief on laypeople's capacity to provide the guiding basis for the architect; and, finally, what she calls the syntezisers. This latter type of architects relies more on scientific knowledge and has a realistic attitude to design conditions. The objective of the study, which this paper is based on, has been to expose the strategies and the approaches used by architects involved in the design of housing in accordance with the new Swedish concept of collective housing. The crucial questions are how they met the design challenge; how they searched for knowledge; and, how they created a concrete vision of the new form of everyday life that the collective form of living represents. The cases selected for the study are all design processes executed in the same, large architectural firm with far-going delegations to the individual architects involved. The design processes were addressed to various types of collective housing with respect to size and type of builders. Participation methods were employed in some of the selected cases. Interviews with the architects and representatives of the builders were aimed at describing the design processes and interpreting of the strategies. Interviews with the users and evaluation of the built environment enabled us to estimate the extent to which the preconceptions of the architects matched the expectations and everyday experiences of the Inhabitants in the collective housing units.
Exarhu, Nancy. "Ariadnes Cerebral Gardens." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. For me, the point of departure in our understanding of space is the myth of Ariadne, Theseus and the labyrinth. The labyrinth is the dominant power's defensive mechanism. Nobody can unlock the spatial secrets of the king's maze; nobody can escape the Minotaur. Only Ariadne, a woman, can guide one out of the labyrinth and thus out of the king's dominance. Ariadne possesses the answer to the labyrinth's secret: a spool of thread. This rational and most domestic tool proves Theseus' might useless. In a heroic world where power comes first, Ariadne's ability to use her mind renders her dangerous. She is abandoned on the secluded space of the island of Naxos. I propose to explore the inherent qualities I perceive in fe-male space through visual metaphors applied in an installation prepared specifically for this conference. The installation will use the symposium papers as a springboard for further explorations into ucharted territories. The space is approached first through the ante-chamber, which then leads to the chamber, and finally the exit. The overall space requirement is approximately 15 square meters. Flexible divisions within this space, provided by the artist, define the sequence of passages. The ante-chamber is sparse; it defines space through elementary spatial division, preparing the passage to a more complex interior. The chamber is saturated with indecipherable signals and elements of spatial illusion created by the use of mirrors and other light-reflective surfaces. The ante-chamber represents the intersection between public and private space, between the outside world and the cerebral world. The chamber is a metaphor for a vault of information, written in code. Words remain indecipherable unless one possesses Ariadne's key. The key will be there, but the spectator has to find it and use it. The form and the layout of the installation will be determined by the specific parameters of the allotted space.
Philippides, Dimitri. "Arsakeion - a Transformable City Block in Time." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "The goal of this paper is to demonstrate the survival merit of spatial and cultural settings when they manage to retain a high degree of controversial elements. This in turn would quarantee the possibility of adaption through continous transformation. The notion could be directly applicable to urban design situations where planners usually fail to recognize the importance of change. As a paradigm, this paper attempts to explore the fascinating interrelationship of ethical and cultural principles epitomized in a debate that raged in the 8Os, concerning the transformation through planning intervention of a central block in Athens. The property is owned by Arsakeion, an old venerated educational institution in Greece, established in 18... • In brief, the block (a donation) originally held three individual buildings, dedicated to tear down the lesser two of its buildings, construct a "passage" cutting through the middle of the block and create a continous front of shops and offices on all four sides of it. Another major change occured in the '30s when part of the original Arsakeion building was demolished to construct the cinema "Orpheus". In the postwar period, one-storey shops were added on the street side of the original Arsakeion building and later on an underground pocket theatre was designed underneath "Orpheus", where the K. Koun troup staged many memorable performances. The Arsakeion block started declining in the 70s and in 198... the institution decided to upgrade its derelict piece of real estate and commissioned DEPOS, a public planning agency, to undertake the project. A. S. Kaligas, an architect well versed in the demands of intervening on buildings, was then selected to come up with a design proposal. Aside from upgrading the "passage" and the 1900 addition, the plan proposed the demolition of "Orpheus" cinema. (no longer profitable), the reconstruction of part of the original Arsakeion building, the restoration of K. Kouns theatre (a landmark of central Athens cultural life), and the construction of a new commercial center overlooking an inner court. In examining this paradigm, our intent is to trace the tenacity in the face of chage of such unresolved issues as ideological status vs. economic survival or profitability of an institution; ideological justification vs. "serving the capital" policy in the rehabilitation of declining areas; manipulation of "public opinion" by the press vs. public concern for civic affairs."
Widdowson, William. "Art Versus Science in Architecture: Metamorphosis of a Debate." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. The special character of the discipline of Architecture places it in a central position in the traditional art v. science debate. As the institutions of Art and Science have both metamorphosed, the nature of the debate and its impact on the discipline of Architecture have evolved dramatically. A poet or a sculptor, on the one hand, or a biologist or a physicist, on the other, can choose to ignore the continuing long-term debate with relative impunity, isolated at what we generally imagine to be the extremes of two different universes. The architect, however, cannot afford the luxury of this attitude because of the simultaneous immediacy of both technical and esthetic requirements. The architect lives daily at the boundary and continually is faced with the real or imagined ambiguity that this implies. I propose to review some of the central issues in this process of metamorphosis, i.e., rationality, objectivity, creativity, intuition, etc. and I will argue that changes in the philosophical positions upon which the debate is carried on in the larger culture should cause us to reconsider the terms used and the positions taken in the debate as it is carried on in the micro-culture of architecture. It will be my aim to support the following conclusions 1. That the philosophical basis on which traditional Science relied to reject Humanism because of its reliance on intuition and the irrational, and which supported Science's reliance on inductvism as a method, on objectivism as an ontology, and on positivism as an ideology collapsed 70 years ago and, 2. That the philosophical basis on which traditional Humanism relied to reject the claims of Science to operate in the realm of human affairs, and which supported Humanism's reliance on interpretation as a unique method, on dualism as an ontology, and on Platonism as an ideology, challenged over two millenia ago by Aristotle and again by the Philosophes of the Enlightenment, has been further discredited by the same developments that brought down Newtonian positivism and ushered in the age of modern thought.
Marketou, Jenny. "Astoria / Dreams of New York: Dreams and Nightmares in the Public Realm." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "Beauty and the Bureaucracy have as much trouble coupling as all the rest of us. -Lucy R. Lippard, "Moving Targets, Moving Out." "Art does not have any more right to deeply offend people than people have to deeply offend people." The video (7 minutes) documents the actual installation "AstorialDreams of New York" at the Subway Center. The video was taken at different times on site and draws excerpts from the censorship and removal of the piece, interviews from Channel 7, NYC, and the interaction with the commuters when I was physically by my piece during rush hours after it was reinstalled. My project "AstoriaiDreams of New York" explores with photographs and text the current urban challenge to draw communities together and raises consciousness regarding urban experience. By using imagery and symbols of my own cultural background I want to address issues of social, political and economic polarization and alienation that we experience in our cities. My project also explores the public sphere with photography, not only as the factory of politics but photography and text as a means to produce a cultural space of democratic and active discourse. The censorship and removal of my work by the MTA officials as controversial, because some young commuters complained that I did not use black faces, seemed to enforce some views that I would like to discuss in my lecutre. The reviews which appeared in the mainstream press responded to the work within the context of censorship and of first amendment rights. One of the most disturbing aspects is that most recent arts controversies have involved multicultural issues and artists. The perception of multiculturalism and diversity from many of us have led to an organized backlash of cultural terrorism. The debate calls forth many of the aesthetic, social and legal questiohs. over what is appropriate for Public Art. What happens when public art is not about abstraction, introspection, minimalism, etc., but about issues, via images, and members of the community are horrified by this uncompromising confrontational aspects of the visual arts, especially photographs? I want to re-examine the public function of the arts today, and the relationships between the artist and the Public Arts agencies. I am interested in redefining Public versus Private, and defining, Who is the public? Through my project I want to address the question of culture and ethnicity and how it affects multicultural relations, and to what extent "political correctness" determines a piece of art's credibility or significance."
Gama, Monteiro Circe Mari. "Attitudes Towards Social and Environmental Conditions." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. This investigation explores people's attitudes towards frustrating environmental ani social situations they could face in their home environments. It was carried out in different types of neighbourhoods, in Recife, Brazil: poor settlements built spontaneously by the people according to their conditions, like slums and favelas; public housing estates presenting standardized housing solutions provided by the government, and middle class neighbourhoods supplied with infrastructure and all kind of services desired by their inhabitants. The investigation makes use of a projective technique based on Rosenzweig's Frustation P-F Study. There are twenty figures presenting situations where daily social, personal and environmental constraints are given by someone stating a problem. The subjects should present their attitudes to the situations giving their immediate responses for each case. The answers are categorized according to three criteria: 1. the perception of the situation (frustrating, not frustrating, frustration being minimized); 2. the attitudes' direction (aggressive, assertive, defiance, defense, conciliatory, conformist, inferiority, alienated); 3. the kind of proposed solution (by the subject, jointly, by others, by the government, absolving from solution, do not proposing solution and regarded as inevitable.) The results where analysed by multidimensional statistical programs (NSA -- POSA). The article discuss the different attitudes presented by these dwellers; regarding the social, personal and environments situations and develops a comparative analysis of results considering the influence of their present social environmental situaLions in determining people's attitudes.
Puy, Ana, and Juan Ignacio Aragones. "Attitudinal Dimensions Underlying Risk Perception." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. This research deals with the establishment of a hierarchical organization about risks perceived as threadiest and the attitudes underlying such organization. It is based on a preliminary study where the main perceived risks by an urban spanish population were obtained, following the psychometric model. To achieve this objective, a list containing the main perceived risks were presented to a sample of urban subjects with different sociodemographic characteristics. The subject had to chose fifteen risks from the list of all of them, considering which were the most probable for himself/herself to be exposed to, and which worried him/her the most. In order to determine the different hierarchical dimensions, a cluster analysis was carried out which permitted to infer several underlying attitudes in people, that facilitate several threats to be perceived as riskier than others. Within these attitudes we may mention urban pollution concern, house risks, attitudes on power sources and environmental concern. Subsequently, it was studied to what extent these attitudes were different according to several sociodemographic characteristics such as sex, age and learning level.
Walker, Jo. "Authenticity and the Attribution of Meaning in the Built Environment." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "This paper will examine authenticity of meaning in the built environment as an expression of the collective interaction of people with spaces over time. Accordingly, the designer's intentions alone cannot guarantee the attribution of specific meanings to space. Unintended meanings attributed to the built environment, then, may be more significant than the meanings intended by design. A study of the ways in which space takes on meaning through human interaction can inform design about the nature of authenticity and architectural space. Authenticity is defined as that which is "real," or "presents itself as it is." Conversely, inauthentic expressions deceive; they are not real. For example, split wood shingles are an authentic use of a material for roofing, but wood grain plastic laminates which only suggest wood are deceptive. Some deceptions, however, are understood as unreal but allow people to see through the sham. These may be considered authentic in their own right: Disneyland is a case in point (Eco, Venturi). This paper will explore the metamorphosis of spatial meaning from authentic to clearly deceptive and back again to authentic. The passage of time plays a crucial role for interpreting the sham as real. Motel architecture along Route 66 in Albuquerque, New Mexico is the focus for studying the metamorphosis from deception to authenticity in the built environment. Authenticity is a property of environmental meaning. Environmental meaning is a function of both process and relationship; both must be present in order for meaning to be attributed to space. This is the result of a long process of user interaction. This interaction is a type of communication. Architecture is also a form of communication. One definition of the language of architecture has been defined as "schemata", collectively understood codes that help users understand and appropriate the environment (Norberg-Schulz). The interaction of people and the environment is the way in which architectural language is communicated and meaning is attributed. When this attribution is particularly powerful, myth may be created. Myth binds people to space: when we occupy space, we interpret it through myth. Route 66 symbolizes the mythic romantic image of travel through America's wide open spaces. The romance of this highway has more recently been replaced by miles of impersonal freeway, yet the myth remains. Along the few remaining stretches of the original highway, those motels which were not demolished have become "authentic" Route 66 architecture: pueblos, haciendas and tipis built from concrete and stucco. How and why has this transition from the authentic to the consciously deceptive back to the "authentic" occurred along Route 66? Are there generic conditions for this transition which can be stated and analyzed? How can designers make places which allow the collective interaction of people and the built environment over time to attribute meanings to spaces?"
Selby, Robert, and James Warfield. "Beyond Edmund Bacon's Philadelphia: a Case Study of Urban Metamorphoses." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "My hope is to dispel the idea, so widely and uncritically held, that cities are a kind of grand accident, beyond the control of the human will, and that they respond only to some immutable law. I contend that human will can be exercised effectively on our cities now, so that the form that they take will be a true expression of the highest aspirations of our civilization. Edmund N. Bacon Design of Cities The growth of cities is often described as continual metamorphoses. On the one hand, it may be viewed as organic, as though a city is a biological entity following "immutable laws" of nature - evolution and natural selection, perhaps. On the other hand, Edmund Bacon's work and writings testify to human intervention as the controlling influence in this process. The planned evolution of a city can (must) be viewed as an inevitable consequence of a design idea. This paper will explore the metamorphosis of Philadelphia, past and anticipated, as a human construct - a social environment. Philadelphia is the United States' most successfully planned city and Edmund N. Bacon is its most notable planner. In his era of influence and power, Bacon harnessed multi-discipline teams of professionals - architects, politicians, sociologists, landscape designers. Their integrated efforts under his leadership are a legacy of urban achievements from macro-scale (Penn Center) to micro (Society Hill).As the 1991-92 recipient of the Plym Distinguished Professorship at the School of Architecture, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Bacon collaborated with a design team led by the authors and colleagues to critically address his work of the past 40 years and to create a vision for Philadelphia for the next 40. Bacon's charge: "Prepare drawings and models of the entire two mile extent of the Center City west bank of the Schuylkill.. . which stretches into the 21 st Century concepts, showing the opportunity to build a splendid city like none that has ever been built before."This paper will discuss the results of this collaboration among students and Edmund Bacon and it will consider its implications for succeeding metamorphoses of city environments in which groups and individuals can live, work, and play."
Leonardi, Lucia. "Biography of a Yard." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. This paper addresses the changes in the meaning and use of a yard over its 44 years of life. The yard under study is the heart of a public residential block in the outskirts of Rome. Since the construction of the block, the main changes which have occurred in the individual and social life of the inhabitants as well as in the physical setting, can be summarised as following: 1. Changes in the households' size and composition: the traditional large families that constituted the original population of the block have been replaced by smaller households of varied composition. In particular the number of children has decreased and the number of older people has increased; 2. In consequence of the urban expansion, the block, once isolated in the extreme outskirts of the city, has been more and more integrated in the urban context; 3. The standard of life of residents has improved; 4. In addition to children, adult residents have begun to use the yard for socialising; 5. The yard has turned from a gravelled bare area to an area cultivated, almost in part, as a garden. This change in the appearance of the yard was carried out spontaneously by the residents, who personally care this space; 6. The access to the yard has been progressively restricted to the inhabitants of the block and children from close-by buildings once using the yard as public play-space were no more allowed to do it. Using on site observations of behaviour and qualitative analysis based on in-depth interviews with residents of different age and length of residence, we try to explore the current use of the yard and the users' perception of change in their relationships with the yard over their life course. Responses indicate that the yard fulfils different functions for different populations: for instance, parents consider it mainly as a secure space for children while for elderly people the care of the garden is an important leisure activity. In addition, different usage relationships with the yard are accompanied by different perceptions of home boundaries and by a variety of territorial attitudes and attachment bonds.
Heynen, Hilde. "Body, Shape, Memory: About the Constituents of Urban Identity." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. Body, shape, memory: these are the guiding categories in the images we build of our cities. However, the metaphor of the body - so fertile in the 19th and early 20th century to describe the growth and diseases of the city - can no longer be applied in the same way, for the spatial transformations that affect most European cities today, cannot be grasped as simple phenomenons of growth or decline. Peripheral areas are flourishing while inner city neighbourhoods are neglected, boundaries between city and countryside are blurred, spatial experiences become more vague and indifferent. Thus it is increasingly difficult to 'read' the city as a living organism, as a body with a clear shape, as a palpable structure providing the material substratum for the collective memory. The question is this: when the urban body is desintegrating, its shape is being erased and its capacity for remembrance is diminished, what clues are left for constructing the identity of a city? Marshall Berman states that the experience of modernity is based on the feeling that 'all that is solid melts into air'. This means that every identity is subject to change and transformation: identities are r.ot fixed or stable, not permanent or reliable. Within a modern conditi:n identity is not some given, rnonocharacteristic substance: it has rather to do with a process of transformation, going through stages of negation, of destruction, of construction. When everything is thorn into pieces, identity can be found in the continuous trying to build with these piece's a new entity. An identity of this kind is flexible, adjustable and manifold, containing contradictions and complexities. Identity understood in these terms is related to processes of mimesis. Mimesis as a philosophical concept refers to a gesture of creative imitation: one has to do with a mimetical manifestation, when mimicking is not limited to simple reproduction, but leads to the emergence of something new - something which in resembling the mimicked unity also reveals a certain autonomy in its existence. According to Adorno this process of mimesis contains a critical moment: mimetically responding to a situation always means that a critical reaction is implied. Thus one can imagine that it would be posib1e for architecture and the city to be constantly involved in a critical process of mimetically producing and reproducing their identity. It is through such mimetical operations that one could formulate certain answers to the desintegration of the urban body. Such answers do not aim at a negation or a reversal of what is actually happening. They rather try to come to terms with these tendencies by enhancing their intrinsic urban qualities and by looking for new ways to relate spatial experiences, memory and urbanity.
Hartig, Terry. "Bonds Between Experiences of the Natural and the Built." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. A transactional consideration of human-environment systems holds that the various aspects of these systems are mutually defining (Altman & Rogoff, 1987). Experiential aspects of natural and built environments exemplify this; experiences of nature often are described with some reference to the experience of built living spaces. This mutual dependency is a pervasive theme in a large, multidisciplinary body of research that touches on nature experience in a variety of ways. In treating this theme, the paper starts by discussing evolutionary and cultural theoretical perspectives on factors guiding the emergence of environmental preferences. Seen in a broad temporal context, evolutionary and cultural determinants of preference reflect the mutualism of the natural and built aspects of the human-environment systems they respectively represent. Literature is then reviewed to highlight the reciprocation between nature experience and the experience of built, often urban, environments. Patterns of environmental preferences, motivations driving natural environment experiences, and benefits attributed to those experiences all speak to the existence of these experiential bonds. The paper closes with a consideration of strategies for future research.
Seidel, Andrew. "Breaking a Myth of Architecture Education: Effective Management and Effective Design Go Hand-In-Hand." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "Faculties of architecture often can be characterized as shunning the management aspects of the practice of architecture. Management is often described as a necessary evil given extremely little space in the curriculum and sometimes even less serious attention in classes devoted to practice. Focus is often placed on design studio where management practice may be rarely discussed. The "common knowledge" or "myth" is that management is necessary but just not very important. This paper reports on a survey of 1200 principals of architecture firms in the United Kingdom. The results and data that this paper reports clearly explode that myth. The respondents who consider creative design to be important elements of their practice also consider creative and effective approaches to management to be essential elements of their practice. In fact, one could say that those who consider management to be important also report that effective management makes more creative design possible. Those who do not value management as an essential element of architectural practice also do not value the contribution of creative design. They also report that the attention paid to the management of practice in the university education of architects is far less than it should be. This paper presents the results of this survey in detail."
Giuliani, Maria Vittoria, and Roberto Ruggeri. "Building Re - Use: How do You like a Fountain in Your Bedroom?" In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. The subject addressed by this paper is the assessment both from an architectural and psychological point of view of a recycling intervention in Amelia, a small historical town (Ca. 10.000 inhabitants) in Central Italy. In the last 20 years in Amelia, as in many other small historical towns, the urbanised area expanded substantially outside the historical centre. Pushed by the poor quality of old houses and pulled by modern housing development, a large number of inhabitants moved from the historical centre to the newly developed neighbourhoods on the outskirts of the town. Findings from a recent survey on housing preferences of Amelia population showed a widespread negative evaluation of the housing quality of the historical centre and a significant differ-ence in satisfaction with home between people living in the historical centre and in the modern neighbourhoods. Though the historical centre was rated higher than the new neighbourhoods with reference to a number of social and functional features of the urban environment, half of the respondents from the centre expressed the preference for moving to the new part of the town. In 1978 a special land use plan for housing renewal was introduced and extra funds were given to municipalities to rehabilitate old buildings. On this basis, a public housing project was carried out in Amelia. The first result has been the recycling of a XVI century convent which was converted in a low income apartment building. As the restoration of the building was aimed to preserve as far as possible the old structure, the result is a quite atypical residential environment. The purpose of the research is twofold: 1) to analyse the physical characteristics of the building and of the dwelling units in order to identify and measure the discrepancy with the current housing model; 2) to investigate the subjective experience of occupants and strategies adopted to cope with unusual features of the dwelling space. Each apartment was analysed as regards a number of features including lay-out, size, windows and ventilation, and evaluated through a comparison with prescriptions of available repertories for public housing. Residents were interviewed in their homes through a semi-structured questionnaire. The results are discussed with reference to the aforementioned larger survey on housing preferences.
Erdim, Murat. "Central Hall House - Type: a Tradition Transformed in Time and Space." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. Recent research has shown that the central hall house-type is a vernacular tradition found in a large geographical area covering the East and the North Mediterranean and the Balkans. It is also a shared opinion among the scholars of the field that the central hall house phenomenon cannot be restricted to local or regional findings of the studies since its widespread repetition and use in time and space requires further reseach and the inclusion of aspects which are not yet brought into the discussion. Therefore, in order to widen the spectrum of discussion, the presentation intends to stimulate interest around the findings in Asia Minor and North Cyprus. The studied examples will be used typologically to help develop definitions on the discussion of the central hall house-type. The second area of interest of the paper is to bring an explanation to the analysis made to understand the metamorphosis of this house-type in regard to its user's social and economic status, in time and location.
Chi, Lily. "Change and the Architect at the End of Modernity; Or, Whatever Happened to Howard Roark?" In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. Today I / were to talk about architecture, / would say that 1 is a ritual rather than a creative piss. I say this fully understanding the bitterness and the conicri of the ritual. Rituals give us the comfort of contintllly, of repetition, conyeIling us to an oblique forgetfulness, allowing us 10 We with every change which, because of its inability to evolve, constitutes a destruction. 'great things are no longer possible' The brooding sentiment quoted above was taken from Aldo Rossi's Scientific Autobiography. In it is the expression of a rather un-modern disposition: not here the proud heroism of a Howard Roark, literary personification of the revolutionary spirit which so marked the treatises and manifestos of the first half of this century. Instead, a somber reticence; seemingly, a question put to that very model of the architect as creative instigator of progressive social change. Rossi's melancholic Memory offers occasion for an inquiry of a more reflexive nature. One of the questions which will be raised is why this model of the architect as co-author of change no longer thrives as a vital paradigm of architectural work. If architecture since the time of Claude-Nicolas Ledoux has had to take on the irrevocable responsibility of searching for programs of human life at the same time as responding to such programs, what happens when human reason comes to doubt in the most profound way its'own integrity--its capacity to engender those very programs of a 'better' future? From amongst the many possible routes to this question, I will focus on the change in the attitude towards change which heralds the 'end of modernity. For certainly one of the more substantial and profound articulations of 'post-modernity' lies in the understanding that the paradigm of time (and hence that of the goal and meaning of thought and action) which had overtly guided human affairs during the last two centuries, no longer holds as an unquestioned foundation. This is a temporality whose futureoriented movement is accomplished by 'revolutionary' acts, by the logic of 'critique', 'crisis': a paradoxically linear time which Hannah Arendt, for one, has identified with the ground of modern knowledge, politics and technique. The idea of the 'avant-garde' is its supreme expression in the realm of art and architecture. The focus of this paper, in short, turns about the status of 'change' in modem thought and politics and its implication in the perception of the architect's social function since the end of 18th century. This notion of change, and of the architect as author of change, offers an illuminating context for examining a number of more current trains of thought in architecture. In taking varying critical stances towards that model, the latter offer vivid dramatizations of problematic but seemingly ineluctible dilemmas confronting the architect in this role.
Saile, David. "Changes in Culture - Environmental Studies in Architectural Education in North America." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "This presentation will consist of observations about the changing nature of the study of socio-cultural aspects of environments in architectural education over the past quarter century in the United States. Observations will be based upon three areas of experience: 1) as a teacher, 1969-present in people-environment-relations at the Universities of Illinois, Arizona, Arizona State, Kansas and Cincinnati in architecture programs; each of these programs had different emphases due to their unique histories and university contexts, but each was affected by the national debates about the direction of architectural education; 2) as a member of the Cultural Aspects of Design Network of EDRA and as an organizer of Built Form & Culture Research activities in the U.S. since 1980; the first Built Form & Culture Research Conference was held in Lawrence, Kansas in 1984 and was organized by the new graduate program in architecture focused upon architecture-culture interactions. A network of people interested in the topic was formed under the leadership of Setha Low in 1985 and became one of the most active of the EDRA networks, and 3) as a participant in the EDRA 23 (April 1992) workshop on the role of socio-environmental studies in North American architecture schools; other participants had a variety of experience in architectural education through teaching courses in programming, postoccupancy-evaluation, person-environment studies, social aspects of design, housing evaluation, and meaning in environments, in addition to extensive research experience. Socio-cultural aspects of environments have been a growing focus of people-environment research in the past decade but despite this expansion in research, architectural education does not appear to have been changed in any significant way. There are, however, a few strands in architectural education which offer the most promise for integrating socio-cultural aspects of environments into their studies. Such strands in education include architecture programs with a regional or social-group focus, with a vernacular or social history emphasis, where research and undergraduate programs are less separated, and where there is an emphasis in theory of place and community. These strands will be reviewed briefly in relation to the presentations of the other participants in the workshop on "Evolving Roles of Socio-environmental Studies in Architectural Education: An International Perspective."
Brierley, Edwin. "Changes in Design Concepts Due to Cultural Attitudes and Environmental Aspects that Have Evolved from the Thinking of the Dutch Forum Group." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. The conceptual attitude of the architects and designers of the Dutch Forum group, first formulated in the 1960s, was in part a reaction to the analytical values associated with aspects of C.I.A.M. and was based upon observations of cultural attitudes and changes in society. The way we experience our environment and the result that the experience has on our lifestyle prompted Bakema, who with van Eyck and Hertzberger was a leading figure of Forum, to ask what was the function of formal expression and 'what kind of changes in society is developed by our designs'. Forum considered that changes in lifestyles could be reflected in the nature of architecture and in the way the user could participate in the creation of his environment. The urban architect ought to provide patterns which would allow man to identify his own personal space. This could be discovered in civilisations which had evolved in order that people could express in spatial terms their own way of life. Bakema felt this to be achieved 'less by designing complete types but more by designing conditions for the quality of life'. One question posed by this was, how can the changes in urban design occur so that unpredicatable events could happen. To achieve this Forum considered that an overlap between public and private concerns should be allowed in the decisions taken about social and environmental problems. The social responsibility of the designers was an essential feature of the approach of Forum and formal decisions were a part of the artistic and cultural will of the individuals. Aldo van Eyck emphasized that discussions should be 'critical and inclusive, never intolerant and exclusive'. That led to the initial programme of Forum which was related to The story of a different thought'. There was a concern for man's identity with nature and his experience of his environment. This also involved the transitions between the scale of elements and perceptual factors. One aim was to reflect upon the place of the individual and the changes in the structure of the community. On the whole the imagery and the way Forum sensed the needs of a changing society was reflected in observations of the way various cultures organised the physical form of their society. There was a feeling that too little scope was allowed by the patterns of urban form for the differences and diversities of human behaviour. One aspect of this was the disappearance of 'transitional motifs'. Context was important to Forum and to Bakema who emphasized the implications of continuity of form that allowed structural adaptability and this could also be discovered in examples from history. The paper draws upon research work into both the magazine Forum and the individuals n volved in the group.
Mukesh, Patel. "Changing Conceptions of Housing. Evolution of Housing Policy in Kenya." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. In this presentation we intend to evaluate the housing process in kenya with specific contention of Housing policy and the emergent built space with referece to House form. There is descrete relationship between Housing policy and Form of Housing. Housing Typology and Form are resultant of determinent policies which are realised through various institutions, incentives and instruments. Every permatation of these mechanisms generates different combinations of Housing scenario. We intend to explore historical dimension in this scenario arid trace the evolution of housing process in Kenya. The changing conceptions of Housing in Kenya can be traced essentially through historical shifts in the Housing policies. These trends are identified as (a) Pre-Colonial period of Traditional Housing, (b) Colonial Period (upto l940's), (c) Pre-Independence period (1940 - 60's) and (d) PostIndependence period. Recent experience and investment in Housing stock are critically evaluated with forsight towards housing in l990's.
Brower, Sidney. "Changing Patterns and Constant Images of Residential Settings." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "A residential setting implies corresponding properties of place and lifestyle. This mufti-dimensional notion is hard to conceptualize; it can be made easier if corresponding places and lifestyles are organized into types of settings which can serve as models and points of reference. Country, city and suburb are, perhaps, the most widely recognized and generally used types of residential settings. Each of these words signifies a place, and it connotes a way of life. In the first half of the century, the physical environment of the city was credited with creating a way of life that was quite different from life in the country -- a distinctively urban way of life. Later, with the growth of the suburbs the physical environment of the suburbs was credited with creating a distinctively suburban way of life. But the idea of mutually exclusive country, city and suburban lifestyles has been refuted; we now believe that people choose residential settings that fit their preferred way of life. Scholars have attempted to classify these different ways of life. What is needed now is a new way of classifying places. The country, the city and the suburbs have changed significantly over the past fifty years. Nowadays, there are country-type environments in the suburbs, suburban-type environments in the city, and city-type environments in the suburbs. Just as they no longer mean distinctively different ways of life, the words "country," "city, "and "suburb" no longer mean distinctively different types of places. The paper discusses using popular myths about desirable places and ways to live as a basis for classifying residential settings. Popular media and the arts help to give expression and shape these myths and are, in turn, a source of information about them. Four myths are described: Big-city, small-town, club and retreat. These categories are currently being tested in interviews with a sample of residents in Baltimore. The same interviews are being conducted in four other countries to test for cultural variation."
Zafiropoulos, Sarantis. "Changing Towards Permanence in the Ancient Greek Builtscape." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. These times of treacherous infiction of alien idols, images, and lotuses, the disclosure, reading and enhancement of the particular identity of a place and its people has become an issue of clear survival. A crucial characteristic of this identity is the environment (both natural and built). The ancient Greek builtscape, permeated by a sensitive sense of whole, a precious complementarity of built and natural, a definite human scale, and a venerated cultural tradition, acquired a clear and concrete identity enhancing human existence. This paper is a genuine, instinctive sprout of my personal living experience in and of Greece. Its aim has been to activate and cultivate a fresh reading of the ancient Greek builtscape which through gradual metamorphoses elaborates a permanent attitude towards landscape. The Agora in Athens gives an eloquent example of the idea of builtspace and the relationshiop of builtscape and landscape in ancient Greece. Its developement since archaic times up to hellenistic years epitomizes the etymology, syntactic structure, and perceptual organization of ancient Greek builtscape. A projection of nearly 50 slides will accompany this paper.
Geuze, Adriaan. "Changing Urbanity, the Necrology of the Park." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. The park is a typical 19th century invention. The early-industrial city, craving for an escape, applied for a non-urban atmosphere. This resulted in the invention of the public park. The lay-out of the new romantic philosophy, provided in the aged aristocratic estates in arcadic English garden style, suited incredibily well. It supplied all the symbols necessary for the urban society. The 19th century incorporation of these arcadic and pittoresc themes was so successful, that this park ideology is still one of the fundamentals of urban design; almost any new planned urban area will be filled up with greenery. At this very moment, urban designers and landscape architects are in a severe debate on the most contemporary park-design. This historical discussion which focuses on La Vilette and the new expressionism of the Barcelonese parks, marks the dying process of the pal-k. However, the revolutional change of the traditional cities into dynamic, urban districts (with many enclaves and subcentres, the colourful contrast with the underlaying landscape, the commercial provocation of cultural heritage, the blurring of boundaries between rural and urban districts) radically changes the perception towards nature, public area and parks. The socio-economic processes in this periphery connected with the already existing urban life, provide their own new symbols, (unlimited choice, movement and information, the freedom of the individual). This mass-society, this contemporary culture,. dances in euphoria, takes the'mountain slopes, the woods, the rural landscape, the beaches and the dams, the lakes and dunes. It flies to its favourite seasons and enjoys all the arcadic sensations in commercials, video-music, movies and sports. Does this urban society need a new park strategy ? The necrology of the park will be shown in an historical review, and illustrated by experiments for new strategies. - Recreation Terminal Vinkeveen (Amsterdam-Utrecht). The plan investigates the maximal provocation of a service for mass-culture in the Dutch landscape. It stems from an allergical reaction to common practice that always wants to fall back onto the remainders of historical patterns. - Landscaping Oosterscheldekering. Design and realisation of bird colonies in the Easterscheld eastuary, landscaping the remains of the works for the immense flood barrier. - Schouwburgple-in Rotterdam. Design for public space in the centre of the rebuilt city of Rotterdam. - Park Urbaine Lille. Designing a public park on top of the TGV-terminal in Lille.
Andriopoulou, R, I Grammatikos, F Daskalaki, and K. Tsoukala. "Children's Mental Metamorphoses of a Familiar Route." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. The mental processes transform real space loading it with subjectivity. These subjective readings of space integrate into the sensible data morphological elements in the context of psycho-social factors. Through this integration real space change and is endowed with different signification. This paper focuses on children topographical represenatations of their schools route. The target is to reinforce, with the help of architectural elements, certain aspects of children's mental development in relation to their position, their movement and their orientation in space. The research has been carried out in Thessaloniki in 1991 among 41 children aged 12. Important factors derermining the composition of the sample are sex and the means of tranpostation. Children from different regions of the city were intentionally chosen because the social background as well as the spatial features -both structural and functional- constitute important criteria for the sample's selection in order to be able to study and investigate other phenomena - aims of the broader research project. By addressing schools instead of families, we were also able to gain a faster and easier access, as well as the possibility to receive information on questions of educational method and educational practice, which are included in the independent variables of the broader research framework. By means of a questionnaire we tried to find children's activities in the specific area, not only during their way to schools but also during their free time (areas of play, shopping area, friends' houses, etc.). The methodological tool used for studying the construction of the represented space was the topological representations of the children. More precisely, children were asked to draw the route they follow every day on their way to school. Each child was examined on his/her own, without the presence of other children and without being submitted to visual stimuli of the area in question during the drawing process. Any seemingly spontaneous expressions of the child observed during the drawing were recorded along with the order of appearance of the elements of the drawing.
Andriopoulou, R, I Grammatikos, F Daskalaki, and K. Tsoukala. "Children's Mental Metamorphoses of a Familiar Route." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992.

The mental processes transform real space loading it with subjectivity. These subjective readings of space integrate into the sensible data morphological elements in the context of psycho-social factors. Through this integration real space change and is endowed with different signification. This paper focuses on children topographical represenatations of their school's route. The target is to reinforce, with the help of architectural elements, certain aspects of children's mental development in relation to their position, their movement and their orientation in space. The research has been carried out in Thessaloniki in 1991 among 41 children aged 12. Important factors derermining the composition of the sample are sex and the means of tranpostation. Children from different regions of the city were intentionally chosen because the social background as well as the spatial features -both structural and functional- constitute important criteria for the sample's selection in order to be able to study and investigate other phenomena - aims of the broader research project. By addressing schools instead of families, we were also able to gain a faster and easier access, as well as the possibility to receive information on questions of educational method and educational practice, which are included in the independent variables of the broader research framework. By means of a questionnaire we tried to find children's activities in the specific area, not only during their way to schools but also during their free time (areas of play, shopping area, friends' houses, etc.). The methodological tool used for studying the construction of the represented space was the topological representations of the children. More precisely, children were asked to draw the route they follow every day on their way to school. Each child was examined on his/her own, without the presence of other children and without being submitted to visual stimuli of the area in question during the drawing process. Any seemingly spontaneous expressions of the child observed during the drawing were recorded along with the order of appearance of the elements of the drawing.

Esmer, Özcan. "City Planning in the Era of New Transformations and Paradigms." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "We should liberate Greece from Athenian domination! The Thirty Years' Peace must be broken immediately. . . It is the right time to attack! . . . (Sparta, a speaker at the agora, 11th July, 431, B.C.) xxx Athenians! Countrymen! Lend me your ears! I came to speak of peace, not to praise war ... We should keep our word of peace that we signed with Sparta (Athens, a speaker at the agora, 12th July, 431, B .C.) xxxxx Thucydides, the ancient Greek Historian, tells us how Sparta declared war suddenly and the peace was brokendown.. . Of course, sudden changes do not occur only in history but observed in nature and experienced in our daily life also. Phenomena involving discontinuous and sudden changes traditionally have been considered beyond the reach of mathematical analysis. Recently, a branch of mathematics that can deal with the discontinuities has been developed by A. Thom during the 1960s called "Catastrophe Theory". (CT). During the last decades the attention of social scientists have been drawn more and CT has become the target of severe criticisms. This paper views that metamorphotic transformations can be interpreted as "catastrophes" in Thom-Zeeman sense of the term. Hence, the mathematical treatment of metamorphoses requires the use of a new qualitative topological language instead of classical analytical methods. As the author has argued in earlier papers, the existing concepts of cybernetics and system dynamics, based on such concepts as transformations, negative and positive feedbacks, homeostasis or morphogenesis, are not sufficient to cope with the sudden and discontinuous changes; and a new paradigm, the Fourth Cybernetics, should be replaced. (Esmer, 1986, 1989). The first part of the paper shall introduce the basic concepts of CT as a suitable qualitative language for studying and modelling the metamorphic events. The second part shall present the First, Second and Third Generations in the field of city planning that we witnessed during the past decades. In the third part a catastrophe model shall be applied to these changes of paradigms in the city planning field. The fourth part shall aim to evaluate the built qualitative model and to make some guesses for 1990s: Is the Fourth Generation of city planners on the horizon or not?"
Tombazis, Alexandros. "Climate, Nature and Architectural Design (Metamorphosis Or Paramorphosis?)." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. The process of architectural design, amongst others, can be likened to solving a crossword puzzle. Every little piece at some time must fall into place and, what is more, in a creative manner. In practice, it is only too often that we take a one side approach to design depending on our background, our interest, our talent or circumstances of the moment. We exaggerate part of the whole process and ignore what we do not want to address. The issues that enter the process of architectural design can be divided into the general ones that relate to every project, every time, in any part of the world, under any circumstances, and the specialised ones which only occur under special circumstances. One of the general issues which, during recent years, has been very much neglected is that concerning a sensitive bioclimatic approach to design. There are a number of reasons why this has come to be so. Many times it is due to a mislead architectural education or because the architect is afraid of and believes that these issues are purely technical, or because he believes that his artistic creativity will be restricted or lastly just because he can afford to do so. Unfortunately the waste of energy of our present day society has enabled him to behave in this irresponsible manner. There are far too many reasons to enumerate why this situation is both illogical and catastrophic. It has been proven that it is not enough to convince the architect by telling him that it is his duty to care, to take into consideration the depletion of nature and the breakdown of our ecosystem, to preserve our remaining natural resources and to save both money and energy.
Hadjimihalis, Kostis(et al.). "Communities and Countryside in Transformation: the Establishment of Refugees in Eastern Macedonia During the Interwar Period." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. A major demographic, economic and social issue of modern Greek history, the establishment of 1.2 million refugees at the end of the Asia Minor War (1922) Is examined with respect to the adopted spatial and economic patterns. After the Population Exchange with Turkey in 1922, the great majority of refugees established in rural areas of Macedonia and Thrace. Deserted villages were colonized, new residential areas were added in small towns and hundreds of new settlements were created. The region's social, ethnical and demographical composition was modified, along with the character and intensity of productive activity, and the size, hierarchy and spatial distribution of settlements. The abrupt restructuring of human potential went along with the reorientation of relations of production and the introduction of new cultural patterns. The establishment of refucc3 offered the opportunity for social and economic 13 reform and active state intervention: land reform, introduction of mechanization, establisment of agricultural loans and credit banks, sanitation campains, great public works (Improvement of plains, road construction, extension of ports and building of numerous housing projects) and also development plans for all towns of the area. The research is focusing on the relation between geographical and social- economic aspects of colonization and rural modernization in Eastern Macedonia, ar area which suffered severe damage during the wars (1913-1916).
Lee, Sue-Ann. "Community Architecture in Action in Britain and the United States: Case Studies in Metamorphosis." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. In this paper the term 'community architecture' is taken to include the planning, design, development and management of environments with the active involvement of their users. The raison d'être is that a community architecture approach has short term and long term benefits for both the people involved and their environments. Because this approach usually involves changing existing roles and relationships for both designers and users, it is always a challenge and is often controversial. A review of the origins and metamorphosis of this approach in Britain and the United States will be presented, together with a discussion and comparison of selected community architecture projects studied in each country. The case studies will show that each community architecture project involves change - sometimes gradual, sometimes 'radical striking change' - for the people involved, for their environments, or both. The studies will also illustrate the variety of situations in which a community architecture approach has been applied. It concerns practitioners and/or academics, it can involve small scale or large scale environments, it can encompass a variety of disciplines and building types and has been undertaken with a variety of social/role relationships between designers and users. The paper will conclude with a discussion of the lessons from these case studies and from other recent research, for future environmental change taking a community architecture approach.
Anastassiadis, Aghis. "Concentration E Dispersion De La Polulation Etude Comparee En France Et En Grece." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. conference:IAPS:12
Moch, A., A. Barley, S Gamier, L Hamayon, A. Leobon, C Thfoin, and I. Sapaly. "Confort El Architecture Scolaire." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992.

"Principaux objectifs -Connaitre -notamment a travers une interrogation sur larchitecture scolaire -les besoins et exigences de confort de collegiens tels qu'eux-mOmes les définissent. -Etudier quels styles architecturaux sont les plus appréciés Method e Sujets: 814 élèves dage et de niveau socio-Oconomique comparables. Sites choisis: 4 colleges Parisiens de styles architecturaux différents -Un datant de la fin du 19 siécle,style hausmanien,en pierres de taille -Un ouvert en 1969 , de fabrication industrielle en série de mauvaise qualité style "Pailleron -Un ouvert en 1973 en bon etat et de bonne qualité de construction -Un dernier trés moderne ouvert en 1987 construit en beton brut extérieur et interieur Recueil de données Indicateurs sub jectifs: Questionnaire fermé relatif a: ['attitude globale vis -à -vis de I'établissement le degré de satisfaction cdncernant les divers espaces et paramètres physiques les propositions pour ameliorer le contort Indicateurs objectits: Relevé par les architectes des diverses surfaces (cours salles de classe cantines établissement des plans mesures diverses (bruit ,eclairage...) Premiers resultats(en cours ) lnterrogés sur ce qui compte le plus pour eux dans le college, les élèves citent en premier :le climat social(57%) suivi par les conditions de travail(35%) bien avant le confort qui nest mentionné que dans 6%descas. Par ailleurs ce qul vient en tête pour caractériser le contort de l'établissement cest quil sod propre (95%),bien éclairé (87,5%) quil n'y ait pas trop délèves(85,5%) , qu'il soit facile dy circuler (83%)et qu'iI y régne une temperature convenable(82%)) Ceux sont les colleges les plus traditionnels qul sont de loin les plus appréciés sur le plan de l'esthétique du caractere plaisant et gal L'établissement le plus recent est trés mal jugé par les élèves sur ces mêmes dimensions bien que le caractère moderne de son architecture sod bien identifié .... Interrogés sur les ameliorations quil voudraient voir apporter dans les divers établissements quils fréquentent,les jeunes voudraient pouvoir disposer presque partout dune surface plus grande , d'un meilleur aménagement de certains espaces et d' équipement de meilleure qualité (chaises, tables, meubles ....) Conclusion II semble que le climat social revéte une grande importance pour les élèves et que les facteurs d'environnement social l'emportent sur les conditions matérielles réelles de contort. En effet leur estimation subjective des lieux ne suit pas de très pres ,Ies critéres objectifs de surface, d'éclairage,de proprete.. Les nouvelles constructions scolaires ne semblent pas des plus appréciées des collégiens surtout sur le plan esthétique."

Watson, Butina Georgia. "Construction of Local and Regional Identity." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "There has been much concern recently that we have lost the vision and the practical skills of creating places that fulfil cultural aspirations of the users and reflect both the natural landscape and built form patterns of the regions. Almost everywhere seems to be getting more and more like everywhere else. This problem is especially evident in the design of new housing schemes, frequently described as anonymous "anywhere" environments, lacking in any distinguishable character. The same criticism applies to many new shopping precincts as well as to modifications being made to many historic town centres where the long existing qualities of traditional townscapes are gradually being eroded. Throughout the world both the users and the producers of the built environment are anxious to halt this process of producing "anywhere" architecture and townscapes. Both groups aim to find ways of constructing new local and regional identity and thus create a new sense of place. In their search to develop methodological approaches and design vocabulary to be applied in achieving new local and regional identity many schools of thought have put forward a variety of theoretical and practical propositions. Evidence of these approaches can be found in many European countries, in North America, Australia and more recently in the countries of Islam and in South East Asia. The first part of the paper outlines the relative value of these different theoretical and practical propositions to architects and urban designers today. These methodological and practical propositions range from urban morphology and contextualist approaches as found in several European examples to more recent ideas explored by cultural anthropologists and the cultural landscape schools of thought. The second part of the paper critically examines several built form patterns from Malaysia where the search for new Malaysian identity takes on board both the natural landscape qualities of the region and reflects a variety of cultural and building traditions. In concluding the question of relevance of local and regional identity today is raised and the way forward is proposed."
Relph, Edward. "Context and Ethnic Streetscapes in Toronto." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "Toronto has a multitude of distinct ethnic groups - European, Asian and Caribbean. Their visible expression in streetscapes ranges from the obvious, especially in retail districts, to subtle modifications of houses and gardens. However, all these ethnic landscapes have one fact in common - they have been adapted to an existing built environment which has little resemblance to that of the originating region, and are therefore in some sense out of context.. This paper examines the processes by which built environments are transformed as ethnic groups express their identity in Toronto's streetscapes through signs, symbols, structures, social facilities and street activities. The short-term effect is usually revitalized street life. Longer term consequences seem to involve the adoption of cliche images of ethnic identity and absorption into North American consumer culture. In these transformations how can the idea of 'context" be understood? Is it visual, cultural, symbolic, or international? It is argued that conventional ideas about landscapes being in context have little relevance to modern ethnic landscapes, which are less transplanted fragments of ethnicity than parts of international networks, linked both electronically and through frequent movements of people. These linkages create new relationships between the originating and host localities which require that ideas about designing to fit particular contexts need to be reexamined."
Randall, Jennie. "Contradictory Images of Home." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. This paper presents some specific findings resulting from ongoing (Ph.D) research and analysis of qualitative data (interviews and open-ended questionnaires), presented in quantitative form. It focuses on a group of people who, it can be argued, are at the centre of a transition - a consequence of environmental, cultural and economic processes. Home, as a concept, is socially created, its meaning having been negotiated over time and largely taken for granted without question. It is such that boundaries have been created between home and work, and in terms of time and space. Those who work from home can be seen to have crossed these boundaries; in post-modernist terms, they are not only part of a more fragmented society, but can be said to have transgressed. But, while most research has concentrated on contracted-out homeworkers, or computer based teleworkers, it is the independent professionals - the subject of this research - who are perhaps best placed to renegotiate meanings, legitimacy, and so forth. They have been increasing in number, and are likely to continue to increase, possibly representing a changing lifestyle and changing cultural and environmental values which will demand a change in attitude to homes. Their definition of the meaning of home, contrasted with their understanding of the general public's perception of home, is of particular interest here; the discrepancy between the two is problematic for them and needs to be treated as problematic by those of us who are interested in this subject.
Leger, Jean-Michel. "Conventions in European Housing: on the Design of Housing in France and Italy." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "The interest in a comparison of approaches taken to the design of housing in France and Italy lies not only in the possibility it affords for an understanding of aspects of European contruction practices, as percieved through the reality of construction in Europe: it lies as well in the opportunity the subject affords for bringing cultural characteristics of habitation into play, thus revealing aspects of the specific characters of French and Italian societies. With a view to providing a basis of comparison of French and Italian patterns of habitation, we have studied the typical processes of conception of public housing in these countries, based on the hypothesis that patterns of habitation are products of the interaction between, on the one hand, the physical form of the housing offered, and on the other, the typical requirements and wishes of users. Human needs and aspirations cannot be considered in isolation: they must be placed within the social and economic context of the society in question. A survey of French and Italian architects has revealed that, in Italy, housing production is at once more standardised and more attentive to public expectations than in France. The degree of control imposed by government officials concerned through urban design regulations and other means appears about equivalent, but in Italy the architects role is much more circumscribed: his responsibility is often quite limited while that of the officials taking the clients rOle is quite extensive. The carte blanche so often given to French architects by those to whom they answer would be entirely unthinkable on the other side of the Alps. As a result, the user's influence on the design process has less to do with the architects attitude or approach, and much more to do with the conscienciousness of the officials managing the project. A second aspect is that of the economic structures of the housing construction industries in the two countries: in Italy, the least economically significant urban center is still served by a labour force of small and medium-sized independant subcontracting companies. In France, due to the. dissappearance of such enterprises and the general deterioration in the quality of workmanship, the level of servicing and architectural finish-work is mediocre, in both private and public sector projects. Finally, the two countries have adopted nearly opposite positions with regard to modernity in architecture and related constructional practices. In France, since the end of the Second World War, following the directives of Le Corbusier, a powerful tendancy towards technical and architectural innovation has manifested itself, sustained by government programs such as c,Plan Construction.. Italy has known nothing similar. There, the influence of the Modern Movement has been much less pronounced, a smaller portion of the building recently undertaken housing, and the administration directing the creation of public housing more decentralised; for all these reasons, the avant-garde has played a much smaller role in Italy than in France. On the other hand, the Italian economic context has favoured the use of "fine" materials (stone, quality tiling and wood, etc;) in accordance moreover with the desires of users and housing professionals alike. Finally, if housing specifications (for floor-to-ceiling height, wall and floor finishes, number of washrooms, etc.) are more generous in Italy than in France, it is perhaps due to the fact that there the dwelling has been much less subject to an orthodox functionalist vision than in France. Italian housing design would thus appear to be more rational than its French in its conception. This is not to say that Italian architects are more rational: they are simply obliged to submit to much stricter rules."
Auliffe, Mary Mc. "Corpo - Reality: Altered Bodily States in Recent Architectural Theory." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. As Gregor Samsa awoke one morning from uneasy dreams he found himself transformed in his bed into a gigantic insect. And it was like a confirmation of their new dreams and excellent intentions that at the end of their journey their daughter sprang to her feet first and stretched her young body. Franz Kalka Both the opening and concluding sentences of Kafka's story Metamorphosis confirm the prominence of the body in the human perception of self and world. Consistent evidence of such anthropomorphism, whereby the symmetry, frontality, integrity or biology of the human body was advocated as an appropriate analogy for architectural production, may be seen in architectural treatises until the nineteenth century. As the functionalism and -progressivism of the Modern Movement continues to be excavated, it is interesting to note a 'reconstituted body' emerging within recent architectural criticism. This paper proposes to examine such renewed interest in corporeality by concentrating on three architectural theorists whose work develops aspects of phenomenological enquiry : NorbergSchulz and his concept of Genius Loci, Karsten Harries and his description of the natural symbol, and Kenneth Frampton's proposal of the tectonic dimension of a work of architecture. The underlying influence of Merleau-Ponty's later work, in particular his interest in the embodiment of perception, on this corporeal advocacy in architectural theory will be acknowledged. The 'body' invoked by such authors inscribes itself on the body of architecture as a site of resistance to the predominance of the 'visual' and the 'slipperiness of language' in current theoretical writing. It does so along two major trajectories: as an index of time in the experience of a building (both in its circulation routes and in its construction), and as a reminder of the importance of a sentient tactility (enlarged beyond the visual dimension) within such experience. Emerging from such a reading is a body-centered proposition which attempts to reclaim a specific ethical ground for architectural production. It is not, however, without its tensions, oscillating as it does between consideration ofthe body as both an anchor and as an instrument of connectivity between interior and exterior worlds.
Deshmukh, Ravindra. "Critical Appraisal of Space Around Historic Temple of Udupi." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "Temple areas in South India are the centres of multitude of activities: from small shops or kiosks selling religious commodities to large shopping centres, residential buildings in the form of monasteries or chaultnes to houses for priests, and jewellary shops to road side vegetable vendors. These activities represent a sizeable cross section of the economic life of the town. All these make the space around temple a complex phenomenon. Most of the temples offer "prasadam" or devine meal to devotees after daily afternoon prayer. Tens and thousands of meals are offered every day. This mandatory religious requirement itself brings about a tremendous momentum to scores of economic activities, viz. supply of perishable and nonperishable food material, fuel, huge quantity of water, liberal electric power supply, disposal of garbage and waste water. Efficient labour force is required to handle each of these requirements. This is a unique feature and has a profound effect on the space around. The temple town of Udupi is very old. In olden days the temple and the immediate surrounding area was considered to be the city centre. Now the city centre has sprawled over a much larger area with a variety of modern buildings added. However, the temple and the space around has surprisingly been almost the same. Only the generation of people move about in the area is different and shops are modernized. Age old proportion of the space is untouched. The lanes leading to the temple are well articulated. The space has excellent climatological considerations. The historic buildings around are the monuments of wealth their owners possessed. On festival days the entire space around the temple get inundated with millions of devotees, bringing them very close in crowding to appear as one group with a single religious zeal. This paper puts forth various building forms and their relationship with religion, humanscale, social customs, economics and the technological aspects of the past and the present. Also it assesses the demographic composition around the space under study, and effects of nearby developed areas on to it. The quality of space and the architectural principles involved are appraised through sketches and photographs. Areas of confusion and ignorance of local bodies and its effects on the quality of space is identified. The paper ends with an epilogue tracing the possible future trend of development and suggestive measures to set the development on its right track."
Hentilä, Helka-Liisa. "Cross - Cultural Comparisons of Finnish and Swedish Students of Architecture." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. In this paper cross-cultural comparisons are made between Finnish and Swedish students of architecture. In these two countries despite the geographical neighbourhood, historical facts and cultural connections - the role of the architect and the resulting architecture are quite different. The aim of this paper is to clarify some of the differences and find out if there is a special national character of architects to be. Data has been collected with a questionnaire in sprr;g 1292 at University of Oulu, Department of Architecture (Finland) and Royal Institute of Technology, The School of Architecture (Sweden). The first and the fourth yeear students were chosen for this study. They answered a half-structured questionnaire developed from existing studies and including 45 different questions. The questions focussed on interest profiles and social background of students, their reasons for taking up careers as architects, their attitudes towards the role of the architect, their career expectations and architectural ideals.
Low, Setha. "Cultural Aspects of Place Attachment." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. Place attachment is the symbolic relationship formed by people giving culturally shared emotional/affective meanings to a particular space or piece of land that provides the basis for individual's and group's understanding of and relation to the environment. This paper applies this definition of place attachment in order to identify a range of processes of place attachment in cultural terms, and to present ethnographic examples of each type. It is argued that while there are often strong individualistic feelings that may be unique to specific people, these feelings are embedded in an experience, and include cultural beliefs and practices, power relationships, and symbolic identifications that link people to place. A cultural definition of place attachment implies that for most people there is a transformation of the experience of a space or piece of land into a culturally meaningful and shared symbol, that is, place. The symbol (place) then evokes the transformed experience and reminds us of it cultural meanings and social implications. But for many places the relationship of space or land and the group is not necessarily through the transformation of experience. Place attachment can occur with mythical places that a person never experiences, or can refer to land ownership and citizenship that symbolically encode sociopolitical and material as well as experiential meanings. The most important aspect of the definition, therefore, is that there is a symbolic relationship between the individual/group and the place, that may in fact evoke a culturally valued experience, but may just as well derive meaning from other sociopolitical, economic, historical and cultural sources. This discussion focuses first on a cultural definition of place attachment, examines the implications of this definition in terms of the cultural processes that might be involved, and explores the interrelationships of those processes in parpue central of San Jose, Costa Rica. The paper concludes by arguing that place attachment is socially constructed through the passions, actions, stories, myths, conservations and exchanges of people's experience in the environment.
Turgut, HüIya. "Culture and Space: a Case Study on the Traditional Turkish House." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "The most essential issue in designing residental spaces is answering the question of "What would be the contribution of cultural characteristics to home environment" since the home is a reflection of relationships between culture and environment. In this context, Traditional Turkish House appears as a very good example to explore these interactions; representing the direct result of physical environment and the culture of Turkish people. Therefore this paper aims at examining the linkages between space and culture in Traditional Turkish House and to exhibit the home environment as a cultural product. In the first chapter, the linkages between culture and home space are introduced and discussed in general sense to develop a systematic method for further examinations. In the second chapter the method developed in the first chapter is applied upon a case study held on a Traditional Turkish House to exhibit the interactions between space and the cultural factors. Conclusions and comments are given in the last chapter to verify the validity of the theoretical framework set by this paper."
Drost, Uwe. "Das Neue Bauen and the Notion of a - Perspectival Space: a Re - Investigation of Early Modernism in Germany." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "Working by calculation, engineers employ geometrical forms, satisfying our eyes by their geometry and our understanding by their mathematics; their work is on the direct line of good art." [Le Corbusier 1923] "A polished metal sphere is without any doubt a fantastic phenomenon for our mind, but a flower is an experience. To value geometric forms over things means to make things uniform and to mechanize these things. We do not want to mechanize things but rather their production. To mechanize things means, to mechanize their lives - our lives - which mans to kill them. But to mechanize their production means to gain life. The form of things can be identical with geometric figures, like a crystal for example, but the geometric form found in nature is never the content or origin of the form We do not have to create our individuality, but the individuality of things. Their expression has to be identical with themselves." [Hugo Haring 1925] "...This world goes beyond our conceptualization. By the same token, the mental world once went beyond the experiential capability of mythical man, and yet this world of the mind became reality. Anyone who objects that the aperspectivai world is, in spatial terms, unimaginable, incomprehensible, impalpable, inconclusive, and unthinkable and there will be no end to such objections - falls victim to his own limitations of comprehension and to the visual representation imposed by this world." [Jean Gebser 1949] The dramatic changes in our lives and environment, in the whole nature of work, and in the forms of media, transport and communication mean that architecture and urban design have to search for opportunities to provide the public with possibilities of identification and orientation of their lives. Such a request is an inquiry of creative ideas and conscious concepts. The search for new concepts and the re-evaluation of existing and abandoned ones can only be successful if the process of this search is treated in a creative way. The pluralistic interpretation and integration of space and time, as well as of meaning, phenomenalism and honesty will establish the basis for active change. In a time where contemporary architecture is in desperate need of reconstruction and reconsideration, it is necessary to go back to the early years of modernism to analyze its roots and points of departure. With the end of the grotesque charade of post-modernism and the vi sep aux of deconstructivism, two directions in architecture which share the danger on the conceptual as well as on the built level, the danger of separation of form and function so far that architecture becomes a festival of never ending fashion. The reappearance of a nearly lost architecture based on reason seems to be recognizable and reachable. This architecture is available for a contemporary use after a comprehensive and careful analysis of previous solutions. A combination austerity and purism along with freedom and exuberance characterize this direction. Parts of this movement try to establish a relationship to the work of Hans Scharoun and Hugo Häring, but not with a search for another direction of modernism as in the 60's. The danger of mere borrowing is that the language of these early modern architects could adapted for stylistic reasons only. This strategy, on the one hand, risks to become inflexible through reduction into pure formalism, which is quite the opposite of the initial intentions of the early modernism. Instead, this architecture might be developed as a method which selects important thought process: this way the method could live up to the promises of the initial point of departure. Such extended understanding of space and meaning allows us to recognize the limitations of the orthogonal continuum of space, one of the main meanings of the Modern Movement. The study of expressionist theory and of the work of its pioneers confirms the limitations of restrictions established by the more celebrated tendencies in Modernism. It becomes obvious to us that this formal domination of Modernism is only part of the ideas 2 behind Modernism and only reflects a single part and therefore calls for supplementation and expansion. The relation of an extended belief will again enable architecture to produce a direct and emotional impression."
Franck, Karen. "Deconstructing, Reconstructing Self and Environment." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. In following the traditions of social science, environmental design research has largely adopted a conservative approach toward change. We frequently study changes in the environment that are problematic, that generate stress and discomfort. Then we tend to assume that the more desirable state is one of continuity and predictability. Often the changes in the environment that are problematic are made by outside parties and those occupying the environment have little influence over the change. When change is intentionally sought and is more directly influenced by those experiencing the change, as in travelling, renovating or redecorating a home, or some cases of moving, the change is more likely to be pleasurable. This paper explores the range of circumstances in which changes in the environment are enjoyed and why. It examines the ways that environmental changes contribute to changes in the sense of self and why. The paper draws upon existing research but is largely theoretical and speculative.
Tentokali, Vana. "Deconstructive Conceptions as Metamorphoses of the House." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "The deconstructive philosophy of J.Derrida arises out of a fundamental critique of humanist discourses and their conceptions of subjectivity and language. In his own words, he investigates "the law which governs the desire of the centre in the constitution of the structure". The deconstructlve endeavour of J,Derrida is to "decentre" discourses, such as the three types of centring: "phonocent.rism", "logocentrism" and "phallocentrisni" These types of centring consist of binary systems or pairs of oppositions such as: speech-writing, nature-culture, good-evil, presence-absence, man-woman, life-death, being-nothingness, light-dark. etc. "In these traditional pairs of opposition there is no peaceful coexistence of opposing terms but a violent hierarchy. The first term dominates the other (axtoingical ly, logically. etc), occupies the commanding position. To deconstruct the opposition is, above all, at a particular moment, to reverse the hierarchy" (from Positions) While structuralism in generally satisfied if it can carve up a text into binary oppositions, deconstruction, on the contrary, has sought to undo them. Since one of the most historically virulent binary oppositions is between man and woman, the deconstructive theory of J.Derrida was applied to the theories of gender. "French feminism" which is represented by H. 1 xous, L. Irigaray and I Kristeva has developed it further in philosophy, psychoanalysis and literary criticism. Architecture also has captured concepts such as "reason", "representation" and "history" in this new critique quite precisely The binary oppositions presence-absence, tupos-atopia etc have been analyzed by one of the most prominent deconstructionint architects, P. Eisenman in his theoretical work and design projects. In this paper, the discussion is focused on whether there is a meeting point, and if so where, between the deconstructive theories of gender and the architecture of the houses designed by P.Eisenman and Fr.Gehry. Binary oppositions such as public-private, outside-inside etc will be examined in terms of the theoretical arguments of deconstruction on the "written" texts and design projects of the above architects."
Motloch, John. "Delivery Models for Urbanization in the Emerging South Africa." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "This paper applies systems management and man-environment approaches to redefine urban planning and design as the management of ecological, physiological and psychological health. It addresses consistency and variability in human needs, motivations, preference and emotional response. It develops planning and design approaches, theories and models responsive to variable needs and perceptions. This paper presents a process for determining strategies for urbanization and affordable housing delivery. It addresses global apartheid, and unique opportunities for metamorphosis in the emerging South Africa, as it implements paradigmatic cultural change through evolving equilibrium structures. It applies metamodeling and metabolic planning and design theories, to address rapid urbanization and community-building, discover implementation roadblocks and gaps, and identify "change triggers". It presents consensus-building, conflict-resolution delivery models designed for South Africa's decision-making environments, developed from a systems management and community-participation approach. These models include an Universal Innovation-Intervention Delivery Model; evolutions to deliver appropriate decision-making environments, delivery structures and development patterns: and evolutions for retrofitting urban subcomponents. This paper benefits from case-study testing of one subcomponent model, the Formal-Informal Community Interface Model, to determine implementability in the emerging South Africa; and to identify implementation roadblocks, and potential "change triggers". It addresses applicability of models to other rapidly changing first- and third-world countries."
Kosmopoulos, Panos. "Delphi as a S - Topos: a Study of Mental Images." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "What is Delphi? Is it a place of attraction for an international crowd of tourists who seem to overrun the space there? Is it a holy place, the centre of intellectual world and a place for pilgrimage? Is it a small countryside town, with its local traditions and some antiquities nearby? What is Delphi for contemporary people? This is the main question of our research, that has been our Ph.D. subject at Surrey University. Therefore, this research study focuses upon the concepts of people concerning the place of Delphi. The relevant subjects that have to do with our approach, is the conceptual framework and the cognitive/mental images, and their meaning,that are related to our immediate environment and our interactions with it. Our specific subject consists of how people consider a particular place like Delphi, that includes a modern settlement, a natural landscape of extreme beauty,and an entire ancient settlement. The proper scope for an approach of such a particular environment, we believe, Ls the wholistic approach of environmental social psychology. And the centre of interest, is the concepts of the common people who interact with Delphi, and not the scope of specialists from several disciplines, that also approach this area of interest. Our subject consists of the presentation of our research data and conclusions that have been collected at Delphi, concerning people's conceptions about this place. The results of the research are presented analytically, according to three groups of persons that have been contacted with interviews,questionnaires and sketch maps: foreign visitors, hellenic visitors and inhabitants. Then, a discussion follows under the scope of Mental Morphology and Sociosemiotic Analysis,as they have been for the first time applied by us,as method of applied research approach, in our previous researches (1974, 1975, 1966). Finally, our research conclusions concerning the Mental Morphology of Delphi are presented, together with our theoretical proposition for the consideration of S-Topos, that concerns the approach of the semantization field of a settlement or "place"."
Bechtel, Robert. "Depressing and Happy Places." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "During the many transitions in life people encounter places that make them happy and sad. More than 1,000 graduates were asked what places they encountered in their lives were most depressing. They were then asked what the opposite of depressing was, and then, what place made them the most like this (usually happy). The Theoretical basis for the questions was the assumption that the most depressing place would be a place of least control while the happiest place would be an environment of maximum control Nursing homes, funeral homes, cemeteries and hospitals were places most named as most depressing but so were countries such as Mexico. Happy places were places like "my home," disneyland, family gatherings. There was a curious overlap with some people, i.e. the same places were both most depressing and happiest. Sex and age differences were not significant nor were differences between outdoor and indoor places. Adjectives most frequently mentioned for depressing places were dirty, sad, poor, lonely. Adjectives describing happy places were happy, peaceful, friends. Generally, the results support the theory of control and are consistent with other research."
Voordt, Theo. "Design for All - Building Adaptable Housing." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. Dwellings with too narrow doors, too high sills, steep staircases and insufficient room for people on crutches and in wheelchairs to manoeuvre, particularly in bathrooms/toilets and areas where people circulate, do not exactly testify to building for everyone. Anyone who becomes handicapped through illness or an accident must in many cases make expensive alterations to adapt the dwelling to the new requirements. Regularly the costs become so high that one is obliged to move house. These problems could be obviated by already making allowance in the design stage for (future) use by someone with a physical handicap. This does not mean that all conceivable adaptations must be incorporated immediately. It is essential that later adaptations can be made simply and relatively cheaply. And further that handicapped persons can visit the dwelling right away. In 1985 the National Housing Council, a coordinating organization of housing corporations, started an Experiment with Adaptable Building. The aim was to see to what extent both objectives - visitability and adaptability - are actually attainable within social housing. In the theoretical phase of the experiment it was established per category of the handicapped for the usual domestic activities (entering, moving through the dwelling, sitting, cooking, sleeping, using the toilet etc.) which spatial /structural requirements must be met to be able to speak of an adaptable dwelling. In the practical phase 40 projects were performed with these Requirements for Adaptable Building as the point of departure. In mid 1991 the National Housing Council published the results of six years' experimentation with adaptable building. At the same time the Recommendation of the Steering Group for Experiments in Housing regarding this experiment was published. The results are highly encouraging, but also give rise to discussion. In the paper to be presented the findings are summarized concisely and commented upon.
Anthony, Kathryn. "Design Juries on Trial." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "It's very inefficient. And it's very undisciplined... f they taught medicine this way, we'd all be dying.-Laurence Booth, Fellow of the American Institute of Architects (FAIA) "I know people who were devastated by this experience and really never recovered. "--Donald Hack!, FAJA the jury sometimes becomes a 'festival' or 'bloodbath', a trauma... even the nomenclature implies that the student is defending his or her project to the jury... And to adopt that attitude with a client is disastrous. "--Charles Moore, FAIA "A humiliating and personally degrading bootcamp of a jury can be much like Drano in the eyelids for a student"--Editor of an architecture student newsletter Juries have been firmly in place for decades as the predominant method used to evaluate students' design performance. Although they may go by different names, the format of design juries is virtually the same in every architecture school in the English-speaking world and in much of Europe as well. In practice, juries are one of the primary means of establishing professional recognition among peers. To date, however, for the most part, juries have remained a "taboo topic", that sacred turf upon which one dare not walk. What's wrong with the jury system? Although it may work well for some students, the result is often chaos. Some faculty liken juries to the classic hazing rituals that young men undergo during their induction into a fraternity. Too many students leave the scene distraught, angry, and humiliated over their poor performance and loss of control at the jury. Many women and students of color--grossly underrepresented in the design professions--find the jury especially gruelling. Tragically, some practicing architects have been scarred for life by devastating jury experiences in school. To many practitioners, juries in practice remain a mystery too. Architects spend hundreds of person-hours and thousands of dollars on professional awards and competition submissions, often without the slightest clue as to how their work will be judged. When the results are in, they often feel discouraged, depressed, bitter, and abused. Design Juries on Trial: The Renaissance of the Design Studio removes the cloak of mystery that surrounds juries by exploring their rationale, their history, how designers can improve their skills, how jurors can be more effective, and how juries can be enhanced to meet their full potential. It offers design students, educators, and practitioners strategies for preparing successful submissions to juries, awards programs, and design competitions. By applying the principles outlined in Design Juries on Trial, students can more successfully make the leap from school into practice, and practitioners can develop more productive relationships with clients, co-workers, and others, creating a more favorable public image for the architectural profession. Guidelines are based on seven years of extensive research with surveys, interviews, observations, and diaries of over 900 participants. Among those interviewed were 30 award-winning architectural, landscape, and interior designers, including Peter Eisenman, Joseph Esherick, Michael Graves, Charles Gwathmey, Steven Izenour, E. Fay Jones, Richard Meier, Charles Moore, Cesar Pell4 and Robert Stern. Three are American Institute of Architects' Gold Medalists. The lAPS 12 presentation will include highlights of the book, focussing on excerpts from interviews with wellknown designers calling for the metamorphosis of design education and practice."
Watson, Phil. "Design Process in Architecture." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "The design process in Architecture has been described as:'The performing of a very complicated act of faith" -'Jones, (1966)'. Various attempts have been made to construct 'maps' of the design process. Unfortunately, most of the route remains hidden - for it is what goes in the designers mind that really matters. 'Lawson, (1982)'. Most recent work on design has been derived by methodologists who tend to logically describe sequences of activity relationships which imply the broad generalisation that design can be characterised as a choreography of events. This position is descriptive rather than experimental and does not differentiate between individuals and what they actually do. Work on differences between designers has been undertaken by Mackinnon on the basis of personality traits. There is little evidence of experimental work which attempts to describe the implications of other DIFFERENCES which exist between designers. To assess learning outcomes in design based Courses in Architecture, there should be some understanding of these differences. At present, our teaching methods address everyone with the same criteria and consequently fail to recognise the differences that exist in abilities. This is further complicated by the differences that exist between assessors where their expectations and thereby assessment of achievement are often different. One of the critical issues is whether or not the abilities of individuals to design are significantly different, and if they are, what the implications may be. The application of practical knowledge to design tasks is a skill which depends on a sophisticated understanding of the issues involved. Distinguishing between the ability to apply knowledge and the ability to design requires clarification of what we mean by design. It is a contention of the author that design is an activity which demands more than the ability to apply practical knowledge, that it requires the ability to transform rather than restate knowledge, that replication alone cannot be considered as design. The following observation from Professor Symmes (1989) identifies a paradox which has persisted in architecture. "Many of the problems of architectural design education stem from the fact that its content is broad and much of it naturally directed towards practical ends. There is a stress on skills and techniques which puts them in constant tension with abstract and theoretical knowledge." This statement implies that differences in outcomes may be attributable to the differences in demands between the application of known or established understanding and other less tangible concepts. The statement does not however address the more fundamental issue."
Staats, Henk, and Jasper Kips. "Determinants of Environmental Preference: an Empirical, Comparative Study of Two Theories." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. In the domain of environmental perception and evaluation several theoretical positions are being developed. One prominent theory is that of Kaplan and Kaplan, who focus on structural or informational qualities of the landscape. Their main hypotheses are summarized in the Landscape Preference Model. These state respectively: - preference for landscapes is dependent on the satisfaction of two separate needs, understanding and exploration; - satisfaction of these two needs is in a linear way dependent on the perceived presence of four characteristics of the landscape: Coherence, Complexity, Legibility and Mystery; - Coherence and Compexity are mutually independent perceived landscape properties: the same applies to Legibility and Mystery.The other theory is being developed by Purcell. It is strongly based on the work on categorization as done by Rosch, Tversky and Hemenway, and others. Purcell's theory has, as a main hypothesis, that preference for an environment (landscape, building etc.) is dependent on the psychological distance between the environment perceived and the prototype of the category it is considered to belong to. Preference wil be strongest if the environment perceived is slightly different from the prototype.Research Goal Investigating differences and potential similarities of the theories described, as discovered in the data, with, as an ultimate goal, to come to a synthesis.Method Two sets of environments were rated; the first is a group of (slides of) rural environments (N=76), the other a group of urban scenes (N=44). All environments were rated on the four properties of the Landscape Preference Model, on prototypicality and preference. Panels of 12 university students have rated the six properties described, each panel rating only one of the variables.Results for rural environments 1. Results show a marked discrepancy between theories to explain environmental preference, in favor of Kaplan and Kaplan's theory. 2. The relationship between prototypicality and preference appears to be curvilelinear, as predicted by Purcell. 3. The concept of Prototypicality adds explanatory power to the four characteristics of the Landscape Preference Model in the explanation of preference. Prototypicality is not well explained by the four informational qualities. For rural landscapes only the variable Order (taken from the Coherence concept) is related to prototypicality, the others are not.
Filor, Seamus. "Development Opportunities in the Natural Environment: Two Case Studies from Highland Scotland." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "This Paper is based on two recent studies undertaken by landscape architects in the Department of Architecture at the University of Edinburgh. To visitors and tourists, the Scottish Highlands represent a sublime landscape of rugged hills, narrow glens, deep sea lochs and untamed nature, allied to a romantic culture of kilted clansmen, Celtic and Jacobean legends and the music of the bagpipes. Ecologists and conservationists, however, see a different picture. To them the region is a major ecological disaster, the result of decades of mismanagement of the basic natural resources. Overstocking of uplands with sheep and red deer has led to loss of habitat diversity, depletion of food sources and poorer quality animals. Rivers and lochs are losing nutrient levels while increasing in acidification. Native woodlands of oak, pine and birch are being neglected to replaced with exotic coniferous species. National and regional authorities have attempted to counteract this resource and habitat depletion by legislation and management conditions. These, however, fail adequately to improve the general condition, and more often antagonise the landowners, large or small, who have to make a living hemmed in, as they see it, by restrictive controls administered by remote, dogmatic bureaucrats. The National agencies and the Regional Council recognise the problems, and commissioned a report (Development Opportunities in the Natural Environment") DONE, to investigate possible solutions. The broad remit was to look at the potential of Interpretation and Nature Conservation in increasing the biotic and commercial wealth of the Highlands. The team - consisting among others of landscape planners and managers, economists and interpretation specialists - investigated several land use/management development and marketing options, applied at both regional and local scales. They identified a number of themes and projects, two of which the University of Edinburgh team examined as pilot studies. These were the Landuse Enhancement Project (1990) and the North Coast of Sutherland Study (1991). The Landuse Enhancement exercise used two Highland Estates to evaluate the conservation, economic, social and scenic benefits arising from a policy of restoring the natural habitat through active policies of natural resource management. The proposals included an increase in native pinewood and wetland, lower stock rates of sheep and red deer, positive marketing of "conservation' tourism, and expansion of recreation opportunities for visitors at a local level. The North Coast of Sutherland Study (completion February 1992) is based on a 30 kilometre stretch of the north coast of Scotland, a varied landscape of rugged sea cliffs alternating with sandy bays. The area has a rich cultural and social heritage, with many bronze age, Pictish and more recent artefacts. The study will prepare an audit of the natural resources of the area in order to identify their potential for stimulating the local economy. The Paper will sketch in the historical background to the depletion of natural resources in the Highlands; outline the findings of the "Development Opportunities in the Natural Environment" Report; describe the methodology and results of the two University of Edinburgh studies; and in conclusion discuss their likely impact on the economic, social and political landscape."
Palmer, Alvin. "Diversity / Publicity: the Changing Landscape of Contemporary Culture and Its Implication in Architectural Education and Practice." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. Surveying the territory of the built environment, the casual observer must be struck by the repetition and duplication, even the apparent interchangeability, of architectural form that is emerging throughout the world. From Chicago to Singapore, from corporate skyscraper to private house, architecture transplants and replicates itself with astounding regularity and uniformity. When this occurs and why this occurs is discussed with plausible explanation. Whether this sameness should occur is a more fundamental question which not only focuses on issues of appropriateness and meaning in architecture but also on the role design professionals and educators play in planning and design. Can a building be transplanted from one culture to another and be meaningful? Can architectural innovation be duplicated? Is our educational system preparing design students for the changing landscape of contemporary culture? This paper explores the question of duplicity in architecture and proposes diversity as a viable alternative. Duplicity is used here not in the sense of its modern English meaning of deceitfulness or doubledealing--although this definition may poetically apply--but rather in its root meaning of doubleness. Duplicity itself is at least double; it is the state or quality of being numerically doubled. The paper speculates on three possible explanations of why we are seeing such duplicity, repetition, and uniformity in architecture. The first explanation relates to a technological disposition where duplicity in architecture is justified through the premise that what works well in one place will work equally well in another. Here the replication of function and technology limits innovation at one level while insuring some preconceived definition of success at another. A second explanation pertains to economics and perhaps more directly toward corporate profit. Standardization of program, form, and materials reduces (or even eliminates) time required for planning and design as well as shortens the period during which interest, or cost, on money is necessary without a profit return on that same money. The third expiation is derived from image and identity that manifests itself at both institutional and individual levels. At the institutional level, the corporation has become a primary player in the production of culture which not only creates and produces cultural messages but extends its dominance by replicating its corporate image in each landscape within which it is found--irrespective of cultural context. At the individual level, this issue of dominance, for all practical purposes, does not exist. The individual is more interested in being identified with and fitting into a preconceived notion of what is acceptable, and replication of current sylistc and fashionable conformity--as portrayed by news and information media--insures this identity.The concept of diversity, by definition, is antithetical to duplicity; it pertains to difference and variety. As defined here, diversity expands the range of response thereby accommodating adaptation to change over time. Here, architectural sameness through duplicity cannot be considered a viable option, and commonality primarily exists in the invisible structure of culture. An architecture of diversity is one which responds to and becomes an extension of its physical as well as cultural contexts. It pertains to what is meaning and identifiable--a person, a place, a thing and the unique quality that makes a thing what it is.The paper argues for an architecture that acknowledges both the commonality and differences within and among cultures. It argues for the production of an architecture that goes beyond commodity and consumer imagery and challenges our educational system to distinguish one thing from another.
Ekmen, Zeynep Mennan. "Du Logement a L' Appartement: Une Intervention Philanthropique Au Mode D'habitat Des Classes Laborieuses." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. conference:IAPS:12
Teymur, Necdet. "Education for a Global Architectural Practice?" In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. (* 'GLOCAL' is a neologism coined with the aim of encompassing the concepts of 'GLOBAL' and LOCAL' and, by neologistic licence, incorporates a time element which the two largely geographical concepts tend to ignore.) Following the age old practice of exchanging building materials and technologies, it is now becoming equally common for the whole design and building industries (e.g. architectural offices, construction companies, consultancies) to 'travel', or to be 'exported', 'bought', 'sold', 'taken over', 'merged', 'diversified, 'branched out' or increasingly made into multinational corporations. Take the following hypothetical example: a piece of land in London owned by an Australian corporation is being developed by an American company into a hotel / conference centre to be run by a consortium of Dutch and Italian companies on a design by a French signature architect who delegates the detail design to a British architectural firm and the interior design to a Finnish design consultancy; the project management is being undertaken by an AngloCanadian firm; the construction management is being handled by a Japanese corporation and much of the components and materials originate from seven or eight different countries. Now, as is to be expected, in the process of realizing such projects fundamental shifts of power, influence, emphasis and priorities are bound to take place. • Is this internationalization or globalization of architectural and construction practices led by, and manifest themselves in, changes primarily in architectural form or, say, those in world economy? • What is the relationship between the quantitative background and consequences of these changes and cultural, institutional and spatial ones? • What are the possibilities of having a view of the above that is critical (as distinct from professional or commercial) and educational (as distinct from vocational training)? • What new opportunities and challenges are there in which of these developments (a) for the profession, (b) for the society, the cities and individuals, and (c) for architectural education? For the practice these imply the question of whether it is in a position to grasp this challenge and attempt a self-definition, a de-/earning and a re-learning process in the face of increasing globalization? For education, however, the challenge is even greater: The question is whether traditional patterns of educational practice can meet these challenges and use the new opportunities to evolve a genuinely glocalistic education with all the new attitudes, new knowledge and new skills that should go with it? And, what should the relationship between the profession and the education be in this new project? Can education lead architectural profession, rather than be continuously led, validated and examined by it? Or, can it join forces with the profession to create what we are proposing to call a glocal architectural practice? The paper aims to present an outline agenda for posing such crucial research questions and develop new concepts with a view to establishing CPD, CPE, undergraduate and postgraduate educational programmes.
Guardia, Joan, and Enric Pol. "Elaboration and Analysis of a Questionary for the Appreciation Quality of Life in the City." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. In the last years, and more and more frequently, people are going over the graphic analysis as a favourable vehicle for obtaining statistical studies in situations in wich measure objects make difficult a direct appreciation. The graphic analysis, with a great tradition in the social science ambit, allows, on one hand, the consideration from the information less inflexible than with the application of the classical statistical technics and, on the other hand, the incorporation of new performance forms that are not close to inflexible statistical judgment. In that way the classical evaluation instruments in the ambit of the Environmental Psychology (P01, 1989) are build for incorporating different factors entailed with the measure object. In that writting will be analized experimentally a questionary referred to the quality of life in the city, defined and based on the inclusion of different topics connected with it (apartments, services,...). That parciality forced to analize each one of those appreciation realities for getting the best measure instrument with wich it could be established the interval structure of the questionary. (Pol et Als., 1991). The different technics that allow that reduction are majority searched, in the consideration of the information as interval scale, being, really, common to work with nominal and ordinal scale.So, here, it is proposed to explain the use of technics that look for that situation, preferentialy the Multiple Correspondence Analysis (Lebart, Fenelon, Morineau, 1985) and the Facet's theory (Canter, 1985), for the purifying of -the cited questionary and reexpound it down from the results.
Koutoupis, George. "Elements of a Study on the Transformations of the City Plan of Thessaloniki During the 20Th Century." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. The aim of this announcement is the presentation of the process and results of a study on the morphological and syntactic characteristics of the city plan of Thessaloniki. The study has an euristic and experimental character on the nature of the transformations of the city plan during the twentieth century. Hypothesis 1: The city plan of Thessaloniki, designed by H. Hébrard (after the fire in 1917) is considered as a result of the adaption of a design model upon an application area with a certain inflexibility (i.e. the city before the fire in 1917). Proposition 1: The former (urban) design model is only a methodological supposition. Its main contribution is to give a description of the persued (by Hébrard) morphological and syntactic characteristics of the city plan, with a sufficient clarity. What interests is to be recognized the nature of a transformation process of the former characteristics during the design and application of the final city plan. Hypothesis 2: The general character of the present city plan of Thessaloniki derives its origin from Hébrard's project. Proposition 2: The study of this evolution, under the former process of transformation, has an euristic and an experimental character, according to the direction (past-future) this operation proceeds.
Tsouderos, Jean. "Enchainement Des Phases De Developement De L' Industrie Urbaine." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "The consecutivenes of phases are shaped Thematically (branches 20-39) and Geografically, by distinguished and self-sufficient forms. 1. Thematically the phases are shaped by the successive development of the number of installations and the number of employees of the 6 main components of industry, in a circular form procedure. PHASE 1 : Creation of new establishments and increase of the number of employees of the "Permanent Goods" industries. PHASE 2: Increase of the number of employees of the "Personal and Residential goods" industries, and simultaneous creation of new establishments of "Shell construction" industries. PHASE 3: Creation of new establishments and increase of the number of employees of the "Machinery" industries. PHASE 4: Increase of the number of employees of the "Shell construction" industries, and simultaneous creation of new establishments of the "Personal and Residential goods" industries. PHASE 5: Creation of new establishments and increase of the number of employees of the "precision objects" industries PHASE 6: Creation of new establishments and increase of the number of employees of "Primary treatment of Wood and Textile" industries. These components are expressing the successive reasoning which is formed by the need of survival and development of a mankind and manfilled city. 2. Geografically, this development is realized on two axes: - The one of successive concentric circles which constitutes the basic frame of the development which is determined in 2.4 km (defined by the technological means available of each era). - The other on the main axes of communication between the city and its surrounding vital area. These axes are coopetating with each other and they influence the thematical-geographical relation. This relation influences the thematic specialisation of the areas, via their relative positions in the totally available area."
Samizay, Rafi. "Environment Sieged by Armed Conflict." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. While wars have always adversely impacted the built environment, their effects during the last two centuries have been the most destructive. Damage to archeological findings, buildings, cities and regions have been more extensive in recent history. Furthermore, wars are increasingly fought on the soils of economically deprived nations adding to the magnitude of their socioeconomic miseries. The enormous difference which exists between the destructive capability of modern weaponry and the healing capacity of traditional environments has made the problem more acute. The end result has been irreparable damages to landscapes and builtscapes ranging from loss of artifacts to changes in the ecology of a region. From Kampuchea to Iraq, from Afghanistan to El Salvador, cities and villages throughout the underdeveloped world are torn up disrupting the healthy process of environmental growth and leaving millions homeless, not to mention the loss of human life. This has led to widespread growth of refugee camps •and the emergence of new forms of spontaneous developments bringing about new challenges for addressing the issue of mass housing and settlement form. The problem of refugee settlements caused by armed conflict and its impact, in turn, on the delicate balance of the invaded regions is the ever increasing environmental problem of this century and the next. This paper explores the effects of armed conflict and its consequential forced transformation of ethnoscapes, landscapes and builtscapes. Unlike the gradual transformation which happens under a process of adaptation and regeneration, war damages are abrupt and devastative affecting the entire process of urbanization and social change. The mushrooming refugee camps, their uncertain situation and yet their metamorphosis into permanency, is a challenging issue facing architects, planners and environmental scientists. Its complexity requires new outlooks and methodologies in dealing with urbanization and settlement issues. In a certain way, it may even redefine the ethical responsibilities of the professional. The paper will specifically look into the environmental effects of the fifteen-year-old foreign invasion and civil war in Afghanistan, familiar to the author, and will draw lessons from the catastrophe about the broader issues of environments plagued by war and the implications such issues will have for responsible professional practice. It will study the phenomenon of displacement and its impact on the process of urbanization which can lead to a different analysis of the metamorphosis of the builtscape in these extraordinary conditions that are increasingly becoming pervasive. It will investigate the pragmatic and theoretical implications of a living and working environment increasingly subjected to war, and the role of participants engaged in the design and planning process, including issues of urban growth, architectural transformation, and historic preservation.
Kruse, Lenelis, and Carl Graumann. "Environmental Metamorphoses of the Life - Span." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "The paper presents a phenomenological approach in which metamorphosis is introduced as an interactional concept. For a traditional psychology of development the basic assumption is that of a constant environment as the objective context for an individual changing from child through adulthood to old age, adapting to the environment in accordance with his or her changing abilities and skills. If applied to this positivist conception, "metamorphosis" would merely mean the experiential and behavioral changes from child to adolescent to adult - an impoverished notion of the really ongoing changes in and through the life-cycle. This positivist conception is contrasted with a phenomenological and contextualist approach. Based on the concept of an intentional environment, i.e. the world as it is experienced and acted upon, the focus is on the different meanings and functions that differentiate a baby's world from a child's, an adolescent's, an adult's, a senior's environment. As a necessary addition the idea of gendered environments is introduced, which permits of distinguishing between boys' and 'jirls', between men's and women's environments. In the phenomenological framework "metamorphosis" refers to the change of lived worlds through different stages of the life-cycle. "Lived world" is used here as an interactional construct meaning both the environment as experienced (i.e. perceived, thought of, felt, remembered) and as acted upon and hence modified by the actor. While it is difficult (and, within a paper, impossible) to describe metamorphic developments of whole age-related environments, it is possible to exemplify such changes for certain essential features of person-environment interactions. Hence, in its second part this paper will focus on developmental changes in the experience of ranges, borders, and barriers of activity as constitutive elements of socio-physical space. Mainly with respect to these features it will be demonstrated that with developmentally increasing and (in old age) decreasing ranges of activity the meanings and functions of physical as well as social barriers and borders change. They change, for instance, from insurmountable obstacles and impassable limits to means-to-ends, even challenges in themselves, and, later in age, "back" again to inhibiting environmental features. Data from developmental and gerontological research in home and urban settings corroborate this interactional conception of metamorphosis."
Germanos, Dimitris. "Espace Bati Et Metamorphoses Pedagogiques." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. conference:IAPS:12
Papapetrou, Maria. "Est - Ce La Ville Moderne La Solution Ou Quelque D' Autre?" In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. conference:IAPS:12
Matei, Adriana. "Etude De Specificite Visant Lhabitat Demicollectif Sur Les Terrains En Pente." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. conference:IAPS:12
Anestis, Nicolas. "Euro+Ethni+Cities." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "From most indications Europe of tomorrow is going to be a different place to be economically and socially. One can only safely assume that the environment and architecture will reflect those changes or, will invoke their own Until recently we used to think that modern architecture had no country. Also, preserving what we had architecturally and environmentally -heritage, tradition- was the correct approach, therefore new architecture in distinct environments needed to be contextual. On the other hand, architecture is largely known as the ambassador of a culture. Although the international corporate clients are not very different between the European, American and Asian Metropolises, the resurgences of ethnic identities all over Europe -and the world- and the recurrent desires to bridge the discontinuity between technology and the historic origins of place begin to define a different arena of ideas and actions. Such current contradictions blur definitions in an era where cross-cultural polinations become the norm. What might happen in the future of possible cultural mass migrations in Europe? Would, say, parts of Greece be infused with an inherently Northern European spirit -if and when some kind of colonization occurs- of architectural vocabulary and view of nature and the landscape? How would being in a Greek town environment differ from a potential Greek town elsewhere. outside the conventional Greek borders or even from a greek-theme development (ie. Disneyworlds - a phenomenon of the '90's- in the US, Europe and Japan can be quick in (re) -producing ethni-theme parks). The discourse is applicable throughout the continent and needless to say- not limited to Eurocentric traditions. Topophilia versus ethnocentrism, local conditions versus trans-national markets and other "de-stabilizing "factors will be the new dynamics on the European landscape, while the primarily "linear" evolution in Europe may be replaced by a "nodal" evolution not unlike the one observed in the US. Navigating through terms of treacherous connotations one needs to define certain essential properties of culture and expression in space. This paper lies somewhere between being a critical speculation and a manifesto. It reflects on the potential implications of future mixed populations on the urban and rural environment and suggests their potential for architectural strategies. The American example of environments created and inhabited by various social and ethnic groups offers a point of departure and reference on contemporary and existing environments of cultural "grafting" with their present or suggested impact. The case study of Manhattan serves as an adventurous springboard for launching these ideas."
Mikami, Yasuo. "Evaluation of the Amenity Water Sound at Housing Complexes." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "I. It's night be enjoyable to site by and look and listen to the flowing water. But the same this pleasant sound could turn to a disturbing noise at night when one tries to sleep. 2. Noisy sound of a falling water in a quiet place may turn into a pleasant sound in heavy vehicle noise. 3. Jet sound of a fountain or splashing sound of water on a rock maybe is riot as preferable as the sound of running water. 4. Today, we see many fountain and fails being installed in many housing corn-plexes. They are for resident's pleasure. We call such a facility "amenity water facility". But it is reported that there are not a few cases which turned off such facility because of a noise problem. 5. Therefore we conducted the following surveys: 01 Resident's evaluation of their amenity waters with different types of water facilities, and different types of road traffic noise environments. We handed out the questionnaires to 621 of the residents in 4 complexes at different distances from the water facility and also asked the same questions at their different behavioral situations --- while they are dining or trying to sleep. We also determined visibility of the facility from their houses. Further more, we asked about personal experiences of the water in their past. (c) Visitor's evaluation of the same facilities with comparable situations to the r*derits. 7he visitors were 20 students in architecture of our college. esi (c) Visualization of each water sound by means of sound spectrum analysis and photographs. 6. Results We could confirm the importance of the following factors in planning and design of amenity water facilities in housing complexes. (1) Resident's behavioral situation: when one is trying sleep, water can sound noisy. (2) Environmental noise: when it is reduced at night, water can sound noisy. (3) Type of water: the sound of running water was generally prefered with little difference in opinion. A snail fountain was reported noisy when it was very close. (4) Distance between water, ( sound source ) and a residence: a small water fall of 10 cm drop was audible at a distance of 40 meters. (5) Visibility of the water: when the water was not visible, people tend to evaluate it as less favorable. Therefore visibility of the water becomes an important factor in the layout of housing."
Kawasaki, Masashi. "Evaluation Study on Shadows." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "This paper is a study of the emotional effects of shadows, found in both traditional and urban districts in Japan. In our modern, urban environments, beautiful shadows can be found in only a few townscapes. In this study, we attempt to understand what the elements of attractive or inhospitable shadows are and how they affect the ordinary person. Some examples of increasingly rare and beautiful shadows can be found in the towns built around the shrines and temples in Japan. The atmosphere is based on their exceptional compositions of architecture and their external approach to space. In these places, beautiful shadows are formed by unseen patterns that take into account the cultural climate. Some examples are the gentle light created by the illumination of paper, and other amiable shadows produced by organic substances such as trees and wooden houses. Shadows and light can deepen a space and transform the atmosphere of a place. Faint and dusky shadows create a realm of mystery and remind us of the ties we have to the past. These shadows are very important in creating traditional Japanese spaces. It is felt that shadows sould be re-evaluated for the possibility they offer in shaping the metamorphosis of our increasingly modern townscapes to give them a more human, more life-enhancing quality. As modern materials and architecture are turned into "modern" buildings, towns, and cities, the metamorphosis of the townscapes we inhabit continues without letup. Even though new materials are used, can we nonetheless recapture a townscape with the same kinds of beautiful shadows as are found in traditional settings? Pictures of shadows can be used as a representative models distilled from the essence of the townscape. Modern and historic townscapes might be linked together by means of their common media, that is, the shadows. If so, the essence of the culture can continue on into the future. The question to be considered is whether or not the traditional essences can be woven into the ongoing metamorphosis of the images found in our cities and towns. In this paper, some characteristic of shadows were identified by performing psychological experiments. The shadows used in our research came from the traditional districts in and around the temples of Kyoto and from the cityscape of the contemporary urban districts around Kyoto and Osaka. These shadows are classified by image analysis and their features are compared and summarized."
Kose, Satoshi(et al.). "Examination of Design Effectiveness of Special Housing for the Aged: is Japanese Silver - Housing a Success?" In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "The Japanese society is quickly emerging into an aging society. It is estimated that in the year 2020, about a quarter of its population be those 65 and over. It necessitates newer policy developments of housing the aged persons because previous way of living as an extended family is losing its ground in the social system. "Silver-Housing' is one of the solutions to the problem of housing the aged persons. It is a form of special housing scheme for the aged, proposed by the Ministry of Construction which is in charge of housing supply in cooperation with the Ministry of Health and Welfare which is responsible for social services. Its basic concept comes from the sheltered housing scheme in the U.K. An in-depth survey of age-conscious design features of the silver-housing was conducted in order to critically examine their effectiveness. This is because no standard guidelines were available to design such schemes. Most of the references for design have been based on the recommendations of barrier-free design for wheel-chair users and it was clear that great gaps exist between two user groups, i.e. the elderly and the wheel-chair users. Five schemes were surveyed with detailed questionnaire form focusing on their special design considerations. Design features commonly adopted include: hand-rail installation; emergency response systems; and lever handles for doors. It was intended to find out problematic design mistakes for future references, as well as to know characteristics of aged residents in such special dwellings. It was hoped that physical characteristics of the aged be examined from practical point of view: to what extent they can live by themselves and to what extent they have to be cared for.The results of the survey suggest that: 1) The residents are much healthier than normally assumed. 2) They are enjoying their life in their "Silver-housing." 3) They already have minor troubles in and around their dwelling units. 4) Some design considerations are inadequate to the aged residents. 5) The warden, "Life support advisor," is experiencing trouble because their responsibilities are not well defined. 6) The lack of integrated social services seems to accelerate complaints among residents. If similar physical design features are introduced to ordinary dwellings, they will surely support aged persons, even without resident "Life support adviser."
Yamada, Yukiko, and Hirao Yosihiro. "Factors Influencing the Evaluation of Street Environments by Japanese Subjects." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "When the street environment are evaluated, the visual impression is the most important. This paper reports on the some experiments on the assessment of various kinds of streets from the visual standpoint. The subjects were 24 Japanese students (12 males and 12 females). The 48 streets were selected from Japan and Europe and they were taken photographies as slides (2 or 3 scenes for each street ). The subjects were shown the slides and assessed them by Semantic Differential Technique. The 24 semantic differential items were selected from the words used as environmental descriptors. They are words concerning impression of the architectures, density of buildings, trees, passengers, noise and so on. The assessors rated each item on 34 seven-point scales. As the same kind of this experiment started in Germany, the 34 pairs of the words are originally German. But for Japanese subjects, they were translated into Japanese and in this paper furthermore into English. The results of this data were analysed as follows. The mean score on each scale was found for each street, and a scale-by-scale correlation matrix was used as input for a factor analysis. For the factor analysis the "Principal Component Solution" was used. Finally 4 factors were extracted. The first factor consists of more than 15 words concerning "Satisfaction", for instance, beautiful-ugly, comfortableuncomfortable, quiet-noisy, etc. In regard to the second factor "Familial ityll, the words familiar-unfamiliar, sharp-dull etc. are included. In the case of the streets in Europe, the distribution of variance of the first factor is 45 %. When the streets are woody and well kept, the assessors rate them as "satisfying" streets. On the other hand, •a street with many pedestrians or much traffic are assessed "uncomfortable"."
lrkli, Demet, and Tansel Fatos. "Factors Related with Structure, Building Materials, Function and Economy in Changing Process of Old Ankara Houses (19Th Century - 1923)." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "Ankara town spatial structure was stable until the mid-19th century, however a changing process began at the end of the century due to external effects. New and different "Bosnak" district began to develop consisting of a house pattern surrounded by widely spaced vineyards houses and vernacular town border. Construction of "kagir" buildings and perpendicular roads were supported by "Nizamnames" (new regulations). The house promoted the use of horse-drawn carriages. At the end of 19th century, the region entered a market economy with the building of the railway in 1892. Different social structures appeared in the life-style of people when the function of capital city shifted to Ankara (13 October 1923) and the Republic was declared as a new administrative form (29 October 1923). The aim of this study is to examine changes in the socio-economic structure and its reflection on housing; to set up the relation between structure, building material, function and economy, and to analyze these factors in the case of the 19th century Ankara houses."
Wang, Ming-Hung. "Factory - Villa: a Case of the Emergence of Type." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. The form of built environments is aeemi-tonomous entity: it h an Initiato resist changes until its capacity is exhausted to accomodate new progranme. It follows that new forms must come out of the old ones, and the courses e evolutionary rather than revolutionary in nature, which suggests that the line of transformations can be retraced, and can be made explicit, at least conceptusily. This is the background idea as well as the central issue to which this study intends to address. In the last few decades Taiwan grew into a new industrialized country with remarkable economic success, but so experienced unprecedent, and so unpleasant environmental changes: wasted fm land, uncontrolled urban expansion, and overloaded traffic systems. This ilt-managed growth however provides filylae nountotdatainteresting to the studies of the transformations of built environments In relation to the socio-economic developments. This per investigate apcula phenomenum concerning the emergence of built form type, which is always an stimulating topic for those who care about, and so would like to te pal in building our everyday life environments. FACTORY-VILLA: AN EMERGING NEW TYPE Factory-villa is a new naiie of the building that mixes adwelling unit and asml factory. As a type of living, it is not a new invention, and can be dated back long before the modem life divorced the living and the working. But the type as a built form deliberately produced and marketed is rather a recent and local event occured only afew yeas o in most couniryskies of southern Tawan where form lands become available for new developments. The land pattern of a typic southern city that constitutes pat of Taiwan's mor manufacturing region can be characterized as an urban core surrounded by many factories of which near 80% are small and medium in size operated on the family basis. These factories we independent, yet informally networked to form an efficient and dynamic working system that contributes significantly to Taiwan's economical growth. Although shifting from forming to industrial works, the family structure largely leaves intact. The first generation of this socio-economic change is physically manifested by a multistoroy residential structure with an attached factory to keep the whole family still under one root, which Is not unlike the traditional life in the courtyard house. As the younger generations form their own fanillee and start their independent manufacture, the demand for asml house with a proper factory for the new couple and a few employees becomes a rather urgent and profitable business. Agnsi this background the so called factory-villa peas in the scene. EMBEDDING RULES N FORMS Factoryvilla has many variations. This par provides detailed descriptions and analyses such that a rule system cat be formulated Into guidelines for further development of the type. In this study we have witnessed the emergence of a built form type which vindicates to us that the type is the result of a long course of building evolution seeking a particular spatial arrangement in which the socio-economic needs and environment requirements can reach astIe state of relations. Form is organic, it transforms as the life in it develops.
Canter, David. "Failure of the Future and the Search for Place." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. conference:IAPS:12
Fortier, Bruno. "Faut - Il Aimer Les Villes?" In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. conference:IAPS:12
Okajima, Tatsuo. "Fractal Stripe and Its Visual Effect." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. Fractal geometry Most of the configurations of natural phenomena such as crystal of snow, outline of clouds, structure of trees have common patterns between the whole structures and the substructures. This theory built on the system of self-similarity is developed by Benoit Mandelbrot and is called to be fractal theory. In the field of Computer Grafics, this theory is often be used for simulating the natural phenomena. Spectral concept Analysing those fluctuating physical phenomena by use of power spectral concept, spectral functions of some of these phenomena are reciprocal of the frequency. This finding is also obsearved in human physical conditions such as brain wave, heartbeat and so on. Professor Musha implies that the fluctuations which follow this finding make us find them natural and affective. Scope This paper discusses the visual response to various vertical stripe patterns: a) fractal stripes b) stripes of which specra are reciprocal of frequency c) an equi-spaced stripes d) random stripe patterns ) Traditional patterns in Japanese architectural works Conclusions (1) the general flow of the computer program to generate stripe patterns were presented which follow the fractal concept and power spectral one. (2) fractal stripe patterns make us find them natural, and naturality is a linear relation to the similarity dimension. (3) the stripe patterns which follow the spectral concept make us find them natural and affective.
Sime, Jonathan. "From Access to Egress: Life Safety of People with Mobility Difficulties in Buildings." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. The issues raised by attempts to reconcile the demands of access and safe egress for 'handicapped' people in public buildings are outlined. It is argued that the current international concern with barrier free egress is likely to remove a major historical obstruction to the implementation of access codes and standards. The new British Standard Code of Practice for Means of Escape for Disabled People (BS 5588 Part 8) and changes in life safety codes in other countries, may prove to be a starting point for a major change in the life safety philosophy of codes and standards. This should eventually contribute to the greater safety of all building users. With the advent of principles of 'Assisted Escape,' it should become recognised that all building users are handicapped as much by a building as their own capabilities. Movement in a fire is regarded as a problem of effective communications, as well as an ergonomic design problem, in which people have insufficient time to reach safety. Different social, psychological and physical barriers to movement in a building and potential design solutions (eg. protected refuges) are discussed in relation to recent research. A plea is made for the closer integration of evacuation procedures and design codes, greater recognition of the association between the building as used in normal circumstances and in an emergency, and international pooling of the knowledge gained from future research of difficulties faced by people with a range of physical and sensory handicaps.
Loeckx, André. "From Desurbanization to Re - Urbanization? Spatial Challenges for a Contemporary Urban Culture." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. Until recently, the European city has been able to absorb societal shock waves such as industrialization, rural-urban migration, world wars, emigration, not without experiencing radical ruptures and thorough transformations but however without questioning its very, urbanity. Since hardly twenty-five years, a number of phenomena, originating in the 19th century and gradually developing during the 20th century made a quantitative and qualitative jump and started to turn inside-out the city itself as a social and built space fostering modern urban culture. Two phenomena will be highlighted. The traditional bipolarity between city and rural areas - one of the fundamental characteristics of European settlement history - is increasingly disappearing because of the generalization of a third type of built space: a non-rural non-urban realm unjustly designated as although it already spreads far beyond the urban fringes. All kinds of constellations which are hard to define - satellite settlements, ribbon developments, suburbs - originate in this space, constituting often chaotic nebulae (Heynen, Loeckx, Smets 1990). Urban functions - dwelling, business, recreational - leave the city and are being scattered over the former countryside without major logic. In the periphery urban fragments form ad hoc superpositions and juxtapositions without achieving urban symbiosis. Very seldom an identifiable entity is created; almost never a consistent public space emerges. Vagueness, isotropy and fragmentation characterize this periphery. The phenomenon can be considered as a loss of centrality, together with the generalization of a peripheral condition in both the city and the former rural areas. This leads in the city to functional impoverishment, physical degradation, social marginalization and loss of identity. In the former rural areas this peripheral condition is expressed by a spread of an indifferent built space, by insufficient connections, equipments and facilities, and by a new kind of social marginalization affecting particularly those already less mobile and less informed population groups. A second phenomenon of societal transformation affecting urbanity itself has to do with the generalization of networks: road network, metro, bus, water mains, postal services, telephone, telefax, store and fast food chains, mail-order firms, TV, computer ... (Verschaffel 1990). All of these are constituted by circuits and terminals. Networks take no account of streets, squares and houses, 'they only consider trajectories and addresses. Moreover, networks transporting people and matter and therefore somehow defining places (metro stations, post offices) are completed by and even make way for networks which are place-less (or atopical) and which transport only information (TV, fax, computer). Network culture breaks up the urban mass - which guarantees the necessary powers of inhabitation in both private and public urban spaces - into individual subscribers. The TV-screen replaces the city square as a public forum. Whereas public places to a certain degree constitute free urban scenes offering multiple opportunities for mediation, networks operate on a commercial basis defining strict rules for access and exclusion. Here one faces another threat of marginalization since a certain amount of information and financial capacity are essential for the good use of them. Networks spread over both city and periphery. Large distances and dispersal of functions however, particularly make peripheries a suitable terrain for a-topical networks. This also reinforces the absence of real public places in the periphery. Periphery and networks both stimulate a tendency of desurbanization that affects urban space and culture. Desurbanization raises the question of a multifaceted and somewhat in social problem: the urban design issue is only a small part of it. However, design allows to investigate the spatial aspects of desurbanization within a concrete site and to propose tangible approaches for an eventual re-urbanization. The results of several recent design competitions and assignments organised by municipalities, housing societies or private developers in Belgium are on these lines. Going from the city centre to the outmost periphery, several designers are trying - with varying success - to create a built space capable of generating new urban impulses. The revalorization of public space, as a counter-move against spaceless network culture, receives quite some attention in those efforts. However most design efforts seem to concentrate upon the reappropriation of lost spaces in terms of wellknown urban typologies: streets, parks, squares, canals. The question remains: to what extent can the often contempted network places (bus terminals, gas stations, supermarkets) be redesigned into recognizable and inhabitable public areas? Apart from injecting 'traditional' urban typologies it seems to be essential to develop other types of spatial counter-forms to answer new modes of distance, difference and connection emerging in urban and non-urban peripheries. Some designs, offer a first attempt in this direction. Examples: designs for the so-called ((Crossroad Europe)> in the centre of Brussels, designs for the reconversion of the former coal-mine settlement Waterschei (Genk), an urban development study for the renewal of the obsolete canal zone in Leuven, a design competition for renewal projects in the dilapidated immediate periphery of Ghent, an international multiple assignment for the re-organization of suburban areas near Kortrijk and another for the design of a seaport trade center in Zeebrugge.
Schwartz, Horacio. "From Edinburgh to Jerusalem. the Imprint of the Garden City Concept on Urban Patterns in Tel Aviv and Jerusalem." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "Ideas travel well. In the field of urban planning, generative concepts are adopted, adapted and transformed far afield from their places of origin. This paper explores the particular case of some specific urban spaces and patterns whose origin can be traced to the late 19th century idea of the Garden City, and specially to the thoughts and deeds of the Scottish Planner Patrick GEDDES, during the 20's. We will focus on three issues: * Patrick Geddes, whose Anarchist woridview and commitment to the Garden City ideal, permeate his formulation of the 1924 Urban Plan for Jaffa-Tel Aviv. It is an irony -. worthy of an Umberto Eco novel - that the graphic documentation of the plan has disappeared, but the written description, and above all spirit of the plan, remains. Together with the activities of a number of other European educated architects and planners working in Mandatory Palestine, produced the two idiosincratic urban phenomena analysed: * The "GEDDES GARDENS" and "ENCLOSED AVENUES" of Tel Aviv. Interspersed in the fabric of the city, these are remarkable forms of urban public space. Flanked and defined by buildings whose mass outgrew the original design of small town houses, they are connected by narrow streets or paths to the surrounding grid of the city. Both the gardens, actually a kind of urban interior space and the "Avenies" - wide streets cum elongated piazzas provide a singular and effective solution to the apparent dichotomy between intensity of urban life and the environemental conditions required in housing areas. A most remarkable phenomenon is now taking place: Socio-cultural functions are springing up in these areas, from kiosks to artists Studios to avant garde theatres. * The Garden Neighbourhoods of Jerusalem. Planned by Richard Kaufmann, born and educated in Germany, are sui-generis implementations of the garden suburb concept. The pervading influences of the period and the sensitive response of designers to locale and climate, produced the distinctive townscape, describable as "Bauhaus in Stone" Architecture amidst th Garden Suburb. * Finally, an assesement of the actuality and validity of these patterns as a social-phisical model for contemporary planning."
Tournikiotis, Panayotis. "From Interpreting to Practising Metamorphoses: the Case of Kleanthis House at Metaxourgion." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "Intervention in preexisting "historical" environment of urban centres in the way of rehabilitation, is a major problem both for the architects and for the theory of architecture. This paper attempts to discuss this problem through the presice data concerning the rehabilitation of a single house sited at Metaxourgion, besides the center of Athens. First, there is a reconstitution of the genealogy of this house, beginning from the very creation of its parcel, which faces a narrow street, itself created at the same time in the middle of a large plot divided in smaller lots. * Second, there is a confrotation between the actual situation of the social and built context and the real conditions of the architectural command. * Finally, there is an attempt to examine the principal ambiquities determining the nature of intervention vis a vis evolutionary process in the built environment: * On the one hand, the question of time. That is whether the building and the context analysis preceding intervention must be elaborated in the synchronical or the diachronical dimension. The analytical recording of the present and gen'erally visible situation of the builtscape is opposed to the reconstitution of its history which, although partially invisible, has certainly impregnated in a durable way both memories and forms. * On the other hand, the question of the whole. That is whether intervention in preexisting "historical" environmnet, generally considered like a complex petrifaction of all the contradictions which define the Ion gue durée of social life, must generate the evolution or the "achievement" of the builtscape. Otherwise, the urban collage and his reproduction by a kind of architectural bricolage is opposed to the rehabilitation of "coherences", whose projected whole has never had any real existence."
Margaret, Wilson, and David Canter. "From Layman to Architect: a Metamorphosis." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. The apparent differences in the appreciation of architecture between architects and 'lay' people has been the centre of considerable debate in the UK, and this has been further fuelled by royal interest. If architects truly have different standards of appreciation to non architects, then it is most likely that these standards of judgement are acquired within the schools of architecture during the period of architectural education. The paper describes a cross sectional study of the architectural preferences of students at two schools of architecture in five different stages of their education. Analysis of the students' evaluations of twenty-six examples of contemporary architecture suggests a developmental trend in architectural appreciation, showing differences in the type of architecture appreciated relating to the stage of the students' education. Further, the evaluations made by the students at the two schools become increasingly different from one another with each year sampled. These findings suggest a process of socialisation within the schools of architecture which instills an evaluative system specific to the school of training. The implications for architectural education are discussed. When taken as a whole the students' evaluations of architecture allow the development of a model of architectural preferences. When classifying the buildings according to their own personal preferences, the students gave a variety of explanations of why they appreciate the buildings they do. However, analysis of the associations between the buildings using Smallest Space Analysis (SSA) shows that the underlying structure of the evaluations is clearly based on architectural style. It is therefore possible that some training in architectural history/criticism may help non architects to appreciate their built environment more.The potential for further development and application of the model is considered.
Vale, Lawrence. "From Public Housing to Private Home: Socio - Environmental Metamorphosis in a Boston Project." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "American public housing is often characterized by reference to its most extreme failures. Though the dramatic demolition in the 1970s of much of the infamous Pruitt-Igoe project in St. Louis was a clear indication of an institution gone awry, the great majority of American public housing remains intact and largely without such severe problems. Nonetheless, studies conducted during the past dozen years have determined that nearly 10% of American developments require large-scale redesign in conjunction with a reconsideration of policies regarding such things as management and the provision of social services. This paper examines the comprehensive redevelopment of one such place-South Boston's "D Street" public housing project-- an effort which may well be the most thorough attempt to confront the problems of a large public housing project yet undertaken anywhere in the United States. In examining D Street (now renamed "West Broadway" as part of its overall transformation), the paper investigates several interrelated questions of significance for housing policy and design. What can be done about a decaying stock of large-scale public housing projects, many of which have simultaneously fallen into a state of both social and physical disrepair? What is the relationship between the changes in design and the simultaneous changes in management and services? What is the best possible socio-environmental package of change? Finally, how can the redevelopment approach best help to reduce the enormous stigma that has grown up around such places? The West Broadway redevelopment strategy assumes that successful housing must involve not only accomodation for a low-income population but accomodation with the standards of the 90% of Americans who do not live in public housing. Large superbiock projects such as West Broadway were designed in a manner utterly at odds with the freely-chosen housing preferences of middle and upper-income Americans. West Broadway's redevelopment is an attempt to approximate-- as closely as possible given the constraints of scale and general disposition of massing-- the form of a middle class development, while providing many of the most desired amenities of life in a single-family house. In unit layout, in building design and in site considerations, the redesign team has attempted to move beyond mass housing towards a process and a vision that seeks to help residents become more assimilated into the mainstream of American domestic life. At the broadest level, the West Broadway renewal is a demonstration of the desirability of returning a large part of the control over the development to the residents. Though it will take a great deal to effect a shift in perspective from control of the residents to control y the residents, the paper explores several important ways that this transfer of power has begun to occur."
Symes, Martin. "From Responsibility to Accountability." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. This paper will consider the implications of the growth of project management as a separate professional skill for the future of the architectural profession in Britain. It will refer to the transformation of the organisation of typical building design and construction projects which has taken place since the late 1960s and speculate on the possibility of further changes in the near future. The ways in which these changes nay have been related to the problems of the British economy, to the criticisms of professionalism and to the reorientation of cultural values experienced during this period will also be considered. The argument of the paper will be that architects were unprepared for rapid changes in the level of demand for building services, that they were insufficiently skilled in the identification of newly emerging user requirements and that they found it hard to cope with a new fluidity in aesthetic expectations. The paper will suggest that in these circumstances a new sub-profession, project management, was first allowed to emerge, then welcomed and then feared. Project managers seem to have appeared to be no more than specialists within the quantity surveying profession, then useful bearers of responsibilities architects were loathe to carry, then competitors for one of the architects' prized professional duties. In periods of economic expansion buildings were created more quickly and with more innovative technology than had ever been known in the past. Criticisms of poor performance were perhaps inevitable. Owners and users, but also designers, were pleased to be offered a chance to pass some of the responsibility for risk-taking to others. In periods of recession, all professions have sought to diversify their skills, in the case of project managers by invading more completely the areas of architectural briefing and of construction site control previously the province of the architect. The design professions have not been able to sustain their view that overall control of a building process should be entrusted to only one profession. Indeed they may have lost the argument that this function of control is a single function which must be followed through into the details of a project if the highest levels of quality are to be maintained. Accountability for quality may have many facets and be achieved by numerous routes. The paper will attempt to chart the steps by which this transformation of attitudes towards the building task has been achieved in Britain in the last twenty years. It will invite discussion on the benefits which may have arisen as well as on the losses which have been incurred.
Bernard, Yvonne. "Futurological Hypotheses Concerning Habitat Use." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. conference:IAPS:12
Pressman, Norman. "Genius Loci and Northern Urban Form: Planning Nordic Satellite Communities." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "The search for a climate-adapted northern urban form, embodying 'genius loci' attributes, is gaining momentum rapidly throughout Canada, Finland, Norway, Sweden and Iceland. Rather than importing classical designs derived from more southerly regions, an attempt can be detected which is generating a genuinely 'northern' built form language and expression. Two case-studies -- Skarpnack (Greater Stockholm region) and Malminkartano (Greater Helsinki region) -- will be analyzed in terms of urban design concepts and theoretical foundations as they relate to climatic determinants and socio-cultural requirements. Both are considered significant large-scale projects incorporating the latest climate-responsive thinking. Design elements seen in these projects can be interpreted as leitmotifs for a humanistic northern urban form. They test innovative ideas and serve as emerging prototypes for northern habitats. These communities combine technological know-how with vernacular tradition fusing the lessons of history with modern construction and design expertise. They mirror progress in design ideology and practice of recent decades which have witnessed colossal intellectual debate and probing criticism of a "winter cities" nature. On the whole, these examples try to respect the exigencies of "harsh" climate and to transform "space" into "place", demonstrating a provocative interplay of "built" and "natural" forces. These case-studies give climate a mediating role in planning and design to a degree which has thus far been neglected where extreme, winter conditions prevail."
Pol, Enric, and Emilia Moreno. "Gentrification and Degradation of a Neighborhood. Social and Environmental Factors." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "The present paper will be centered on the metamorphose of Barcelona down town. We analyse the migratory tendencies of the population from the old neighborhood , from two contradictory forces: the gentrification (Galter and Eacock 1986) and the degradation Several sociophysical circumstances conditioned the progressive deterioration of the port neighbourhood. The prosperous area created by the culture of Rome, founder of the city of Barcelona, become an important pocket of poverty, marginality, insalubrity and ruin, at the same time as a strong social movility of immigrationemigration. The municipal goverment plans to revitalize it and to make it socially and healthy healthful. The factors of gentrification will be analized in relation to the satisfaction with the environmental quality, in the objective factors from that and the intercative factors from an individual. Psychological and sociocultural factors that define a grup of simbolic perceptive and cognitive characteristics are connected with identification and appropriation from a person with his own environment and the attachment with the basic components of action and transformation. That is to say density, proxemics, territoriality and crowding. Also to simbolic, cognitive, affective and interactive factors through which a "space" becomes a "place" (P01 1989). All these factors will be inferred through the integration of a big number of fickles, that we have categorized in three groups: the personal characteristics, the economic solvency and the cultural capacity, and the satisfaction level with neighbourhood. Hereby the factors told in the anterior paragraph are related for knowing and explain wich are the migratory intention of the studied population and which factors have a bigger weight in its decision or wish to stay or emigrate from neighbourhood. The population shows a high resistance to leave its neighbourhood. Sociocultural and economic flickles, the satisfaction with the neighbourhood or the apartments, and personal rules integrate for giving answer to the intention to stay or to change. Finally its shows how the knowledge, the implication, the appropriation of the neighbourhood are the cause and the effect, equally, of the consolidation of the society and the satisfaction with the habjtat, what redounds in the purpose of permanency."
Reid, Grant. "Geometrics and Naturalism as Form Determinants in Landscape Design." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "One of the most challenging steps for the beginning designer is to make the jump from theoretical, or philosophical ideas to specific form or shape. A strong conceptual base is essential whether it is based on the social or cultural content, ecological opportunities, historic precedent, economic constraints or other important indicators. It is the metamorphosis of the abstract ideas into concrete reality which is explored in this paper. As a teacher of the novice designer, the author has found that an initial logical structure to this process helps to build confidence and stimulate further creative thinking. Geometrics and mathematics are explored in a systematic process of overlay and blending with the early loose conceptual organization of space. The highly unified two dimensional forms can be refined through explorations into the third demension. These organizations stem from manipulation of basic shapes such as rectangles, triangles, hexagons and circles manipulated from their pure form or expressed as guide patterns.Nature offers a different kind of inspiration. Imitations and abstractions of nature may be the appropriate form to convey the essential qualities of some design concepts. The inherent line or shape of leaves, ice formations, rivers, rocks, waters edge, etc. undergo a metamorphosis as they are abstracted and then expressed in built materials, such as concrete, brick, plant arrangements, earth forms, pools or fountains. An abundance of loose, random images can be found. Some of the opportunities they reveal for structuring space include the meander, the free eclipse, the loose spiral, the irregular polygon, clustering and fragmentation. These natural indicators and the geometric guide patterns mentioned earlier can on the one hand be used as helpful rules and on the other treated as fallible. Breaking the "rules" is exciting and risky at the same time. A section on anomalous and provocative design discusses the possibilities of acute angle forms, counter forms, deconstruction, eccentric landscapes and urban spaces of distortion and illusion. These ideas will be illustrated by a limited number of slides showing the metamorphoses from natural images to diagrammatic abstractions to built environments. Although the author's emphasis is on smaller landscape spaces (the homescape, the urban plaza, the streetscape, the community park), the techniques and the process of form evolution discussed in the paper may be adapted to other levels of design."
Sixsmith, Judith. "Gerontechnology: Older Drivers Evaluations and Expectations of Road Transport Informatics (Rtis)." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. This paper presents findings from the DRIVAGE project (V1006) conducted within the EC DRIVE programme.
Urbina-Soria, Javier. "Globalscape and Climate Change: a Domain and a Dimension Forgiven in Laps 12." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. The main concern and topic for lAPS 12 is socio-environmental metamorphoses. It has been claimed that the topic may be covered by the treatment of four domains and three dimensions. The domains are builtscape, landscape, ethnoscape and Euroscape. The dimensions are declared as physical, social and cultural.This paper is a proposal of extension of the schema by adding one domain -globaiscape- and one dimension -climate change-, that give the schema a more complete form (metaphorically speaking). This is of course a metaphor itself. The tendencies in builtscape, landscape and ethnoscape, by crossing the physical, social and cultural dimensions, became in a more similar physical features and lifestyles in practically any city -globaiscapeand also produce a global ecological change.Examples of the increasing similarity in builtscape and landscape, as well as their impact in social and cultural dimensions will be shown and discussed.Also, a description of global environmental change will be presented as it has been developed by the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP) and the Social Sciences Council's Standing Committee on the Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change.Related concepts that are proposed as research topics will be emphasized: social dimensions of resource use; perception and assessment of global environmental conditions and change; impacts of local, national and international social, economic, and political structures and institutions; land use; energy production and consumption: industrial growth: environmental security and sustainable development. All these elements, concepts, domains and dimensions will be discussed in relation with lAPS objectives and aims.
Highlands, Delbert. "Going Unnoticed." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "While the instantaneous is paraded and proclaimed, much that goes unnoticed really is shaping our lives. Man acts upon his surroundings in different modes and designing is but one. It is the thoughtful or thoughtless intrusions that loom large at their time and carry their size into the histories with which we continue to delude ourselves. The unassuming acts, the incidental ones and acts forgotten go unnoticed. Aside from making our histories shoddy, overlooking these acts cannot help but weaken our predictive strategies. Water removal from buildings, as well as the transport of it across surfaces, the conditions at boundaries, disposal of waste, linear phenomena and species destruction provide kinds of examples to show that acts in the past have changed our surroundings in significant ways. However, recognition of these and collecting them isn't enough. While improving on the writing of history may be one objective, strengthening our predictive capabilities will make history worthwhile. Strategies such as "design with nature," often overlook or exclude man's noticed or unnoticed effects on his surroundings. Decisions which seemingly are as uncomplicated as the choice of a paint color, for example, may have a more far-reaching impact on "nature." A better strategy for prediction may be possible if a kind of natural history is postulated: one that includes the acts of man on his surroundings and especially the ones that have gone unnoticed. In other fields of study there is some recognition of this. Maybe we can be guided by the insights of others. Lynn Margulis asks questions about evolution that could help us. World views, for instance those of the Navajos or others, as represented by anthropologists could be assessed for their contribution. The work from the field of evolutionary biology should be assisting us and the sobering perspective it provides should be tempering our arrogance. This paper aims at providing a framework for a more authoritative predictive capacity within the practice of design so that designers will not be beguiled by the stories they tell continually themselves."
Yildirim, Sercan, and Nur Gaglar. "Historical Understanding Versus Modern Theories." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "At the beginning of century, in Europe, modernism theories which refused the historical meaning of urbanism and architecture, introduced new definitions of urban form. These new definitions which are accepted as international style, have had a considerable affect in the formation of physical environment, especially in the developing countries. As a developing country in Turkey, modernism theories are accepted as absolutely correct, and all the values except the formalist method which is proposed by modernism, are neglected. This is resulted in imitating the urban structural and architectural forms imposed by modernism and urban and architectural researches are also progressed in the same direction. When the historical set lements in Turkey are examined from the point of view of modernism and attempted to define their urban structure by modern theories it is concluded incorrect or incomplete. Eventually, the necessity of reviewing the historical understanding of urbanism and architecture is realized, and new concepts originating from the history are introduced. Only after then it became possible to determine the urban structure and architecture and point out the relation between the single building and the group of buildings in the historical settlements. This metamorphosed point of view contributed to re-define the urban and architectural concepts such as "locus", "image", "type",and "environment" with an emphasize to the unique, historical facts of the settlements. Based on the previous context, the presentation will be illustrated with a case study carried out in Edirne."
Sixsmith, Andrew, and Judith Sixsmith. "Home - Care: the Impact of Caring for a Dependent Person on the Experience of Home." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. In many developed countries, the care of physically and/or mentally frail old people has traditionally involved the relocation of the individual from the home to a hospital or nursing-home setting. The problems associated with this relocation- social dislocation, stigma, institutionalisation and induced dependency- have been well documented. Recent years, however, have seen a move towards home-based and community-based care gain momentum. Advocates of home-based care have emphasised the benefits of older people remaining at home. The home helps to preserve independence, both instrumentally and symbolically, while the emotional ties between the dweller and the house/neighbourhood may be very strong. Yet the idealised notion of 'home' fails to recognise the very real problems that may occur in home-caring situations. For example, the stress and isolation associated with caring for an elderly person with only limited support from formal services can lead to clinical depression amongst carers. For the dependent old person, being supported by one's family may compromise the subjective feeling of independence and mastery over one's life; many older people do not want to be a 'burden' on their children. The present paper examines the home experience of carers of elderly people who are suffering from dementia. The data is drawn from a study of service provision in the North east of England. A multiple research methodology was utilised, involving group discussions and individual, in-depth interviews with carers, self-completion questionnaires and interviews with service professionals and volunteer workers. A number of issues emerged from the research, including: -the disruption of normal home life can be considerable. For some people home experience is seen in wholly negative terms. -social isolation is a common outcome of personal, social and physical factors -carers and demtnia sufferers can be very suspicious of support workers entering their homes -given the finite time resources of the carer, the home itself can become a burden
Jyung, Hwa An. "Home, Culture and Identity." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. This research presents a cross-cultural analysis of the symbolic use of home environments for the presentation of identity. A primary objective of this study is to examine how people perceive and use their home environments as a way of expressing their identity. A second objective is to explore the cultural variations in the symbolic use of home environments for the presentation of identity. This research combines social interactionism and cultural analysis to provide a theoretical perspective on the question of identity, culture, and the role of home environments in communicating identity. This study presents a cross-cultural analysis of the use of domestic space based on the completion of ethnographic research in four cultural groups. Four neighborhoods in Philadelphia were selected to be representative of a wide range of cultural groups. The initial phase of the study involved observation of home exteriors and informal discussions with residents. Subsequently, a structured questionnaire was used and residents were interviewed about their images, perceptions, and the changes they made in their homes. Finally, the sites were revisited to confirm the results of the study during holiday season. To summarize various ways that people differently experience and use their environment, ten measures were used as follows: Physical Characteristics (Observation) (1) Housing Characteristics (2) Housing Decoration (3) Housing Condition Perceptions of Residents (Questionnaire) (4) Satisfaction (5) Relative Importance of Home Environment (6) Preference: Variety vs. Uniformity (7) Personalization Activity (8) Viewpoints on Social Status Images of Residents (Interview) (9) Images of Home Environment (10) Most Cherished Objects in the Living Room Major conclusions of this research are: 1) home environments are used in self presentational performances and function to symbolize and display the identities. Home environments are chosen, modified, decorated, and maintained to communicate identity; 2) the four groups representing high-income, low-income, the Irish and Italians respond differently in the use of home environment. Different cultural groups differ in perceptions, interpretations, and manipulation of their home environments.
Cranz, Galen. "How the Principles of Sustainable Development Can and Must Shape Our Cities and Parks." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "For the last 150 years modern parks have been used as a compensation for the stress of living in cities. Environments devoted to production can be ugly and polluting, while those devoted to consumption, in contrast, are idealized landscapes like gardens and parks. In the ub park have had ' u dis inct e ressions: the pleasure ground (1850-1900), the fa i ity '1 930-1965), and the open space system (19651 1 in ark thinking introduced a more artistic vision of Up 1 0 r t S ic s efo m park "1 9 _' 930) . the recreation c rep . The er of he op n spa sy te j es ct t) - t c tse t e g e v ew ce s 0 g ect and consonant with that, sculptors and he y he ity i if b in i ed a an art other gallery artists began to do more work in the public realm. Landscape architects, sculptors and architects have formed an uneasy alliance around percent for art allocations in major public buildings. What has been missing but is on the horizon is the integration of ecology with these three other fields. I predict that the fifth model will express principles of sustainable development and mark a fundamental change in the old counterpoint between park and city. Sustainable development means providing for our present needs without imposing costs of the future. This paper describes the preliminary planning process for sustainable urban development of 23 acres of park and 8.3 million square feet of buildings on Manhattan's Upper West Side. The developer (Trump) offered the park to the City in exchange for the right to build at high density, continuing the traditional function of the park as a compensation for living in cities. Instead, as a member of the team assembled to critique the proposal, the author has proposed that the park be used as a partner in sustainable development. Thus, building which has traditionally been anathema to park theorists might be appropriate in a park if it helped the new buildings recycle their solid waste or sewage. This is a report on an in-progress evolution of a new king of cityscape, with parallels and contrasts noted with Parc La Villette in Paris, the canal district of Mexico City, and public art in Barcelona, Spain."
Yerolympos, Alexandra. "Independence and Planning in the Balkans, 1820S to 1920S. Urban Transformations in a Changing National Context." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. During the 19th century, the European provinces of the polyethnic Ottoman Empire were dismantled and a number of new national states were created in the Balkan peninsula: Greece (in the southern provinces) in 1828, Romania, Serbia and Bulgaria between 1829 and 1878, Albania and modern Greece in the 1910s and up to 1922. A moment of calm in the turn of the century was followed by successive wars, such as the two Balkan Wars (1912-1913), the first World War (1914-1918) and the Asia Minor Campaign (1920-1922), leading to frontier changes, extensive damage to existing towns and countryside, and millions of refugees in search of new homes. It is then easy to understand that the establishment of a new network of settlements within national boundaries acquired a distinct importance, and the reconstruction of cities was placed in the heart of modernizing programmes of the states involved. The reasons for this effort were practical and functional, as well as ideological. Not only should the new state motivate production and economic activity, but it should emphasize a national identity by effacing all memories of Ottoman rule, still persistant in urban fabrics (Ottomans occupied the Balkans for four to five centuries). At the same time the Ottoman Empire was driven to modernize and reform its traditional theocratic institutions, following the model of the European states of the time. It has been argued that the exact terms of the 'westernization' processes adopted by different states in the area are not easy to define. In this essay we will carry on further the work that was presented in Richmond, in 1991, and examine the design and legislation used to implement specific planning projects, such as: the planning of new cities in Romania and the 'europe anization' of Serbian cities in the 19th century, the modernization of Ottoman cities during the Tanzimat era, the reconstruction and de-islamization process in Bulgaria after 1880, the creation of new towns and reconstructions after total destruction in Greece in the 19th and early 20th century.
Bastea, EIeni. "Inherited Space I Created Space: Language, Gender, and Architecture." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. There are two kinds of space: I will call them 'female' space and 'male' space. 'Female' space tends to focus on the private, domestic, familiar realm. It is the communal, collaborative, and often modest space that surrounds us but does not demand attention. We have all experienced 'female' space, but it remains trapped in our childhood memories or the domestic coordinates of everyday life. 'Male' space, on the other hand, tends to define the public arena and its institutions of power, as expressed through architecture. The connection between power and building has been brought to the fore by Michel Foucault, who analyzed the unique uses of built space in establishing and maintaining the 'technologies of power.' Identified with the governing individuals and institutions, this, of course, is 'male' space (although he did not call it that) While 'female' space remains trapped in memory, 'male' space resides in the public domain. It is this public domain that we study and analyze most in architecture. It is the design of hierarchy, discipline, and domination that we transmit to our students in architecture schools. Can we go beyond this hierarchical understanding of space? Can we challenge the authority of power? Can we create space where domination does not exist? Our conception of space is conditioned by our upbringing and education. Although men and women are taught to perceive space differently, what is unique about early perception is the complementarity of vision: men and women learn from early on that there is always another side to their vision. According to Ivan Illich, our gendered conception of the world is expressed in vernacular speech, the language we pick up at home. Vernacular speech, however, is lost when we begin formal education, to be replaced by a taught mother tongue. Shifting the focus to architecture, I would argue that architectural education similarly suppresses our gendered visions of space and their dynamic coexistence, replacing them with a taught visual language. In this process, I contend, the conception of 'male' space takes over, replacing both 'male' and 'female' spatial languages. Any semblance of balance and complementarity is lost. Both men and women in architecture schools are taught to use the same spatial language of domination, hierarchy and power. This is a critical loss for everybody. Once the dialogue is suppressed, both men and women are robbed of the other point of view, having lost half of their spatial vocabulary. Although I have used the terms 'male' and 'female' to describe qualities of space, I do not mean to imply that only men create 'male' spaces and only women create 'female' spaces. Especially as architects, we all need to recall and create both private and public spaces. Reclaiming our ability to remember, describe, and define 'female' space will eventually lead us to the creation of space where domination does not exist. Michel Foucault considered space 'fundamental in any form of communal life' but also 'fundamental in any exercise of power.' He focused most of his work on the latter aspect of space. This paper attempts to establish a vocabulary for studying communal space that goes beyond the exercise of power.
Sanoff, Henry. "Integrating Research and Design Participation in Practice: Applying Theory Z." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. This article argues for a new more effective intergation of research, participation, and design practice. In response to the popular startegy of translating research into forms relevant to design professionals, an alternative view is presented that builds on the theories of action research, where diagnosis, planning, and implementation are perceived as linked activities. This view, which will be referred to as Theory Z design, seeks to establish an arena for collaboration between all those who can influence, and who can be effected by design decisions. Theory Z is an assumption about human behavior. In organizational development, this collaborative approach is rooted in trust, intimacy, and consensus. Theory Z emphasizes particpatory management in an wholistic atmosphere, where the culture of an organization is considered. This action approach offers architects concerned with user needs a new set of social science tools. These new tools not only provide architects with a deeper understanding of the human condition, but an opportunity for engaging in an effective dialogue with people who use the environment. This approach is in contrast to the use of more casual methods of inquiry which typically reveal what is already obvious, or traditional social science approaches which tend to generalize people's requirements. There are many benefits accruing from a Theory Z-action approach, for the community, the users, and the architects. Firstly, from the social point of view, integrating research, practice, and participation can result in a greater meeting of social needs, and an increasingly effective utilization of resources at the disposal of a communtiy. Secondly, to the user group, it represents an increased sense of having influenced the design-decision making process, and an increased awareness of the consequences of decisions made. Thirdly, to the architect, it represents more relevant and up-to-date information than was possible before.Case studies are used to illustrate the techniques that are instrumental in characterizing this multistep process.
Ganiatsas, Vassilis. "Interpreting, Evaluating and Intervening for Urban Revewal." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. Every mode of relating new architecture to an existing setting, implies some kind of its interpretation. Consciously or not, i.e. conceptually articulated or architecturally expressed, all interventions to the built environment express some sort of association to its context (soclo-cultural reality and its architectural-urban expression). Even if they dont intend to, all novelties in the environment are necessarily interpreted, in everyday life, as interventions to an existing situation. Interpretation is considered as an inclusive notion referring to all modes of understanding, being inspired from, and evaluating the existing natural and built environment vis a vis an architectural intervention to it ranging from a new coat of paint to a building to the re-structure of an urban sector. Interpretation (understanding, evaluation) has to be admitted as inescapable in our encounter, collectively, with the environment we live in. It is important to examine how different modes of interpretation (visual, descriptive, socio-cultural, architectural...) relate to the reality of the existing setting as an entity. The theoretical part will attempt to clarify: * The notion of interpretation and its modes of relation to time (interpreting as understanding of the current situation, as enhancing the past or envisaging and projecting the future) * Interpretation in relation to common (collective) understanding, different kinds of analyses (historical, morphological, typological...). * The notion of change in the built environment, its perception, its conception and its evaluation within the process of urban development. * Interpretation expressed in built form (by architectural expression). Modes of interpretation, criteria, hierarchy and evaluation. * The notions of reusing, reconverting, upgrading, enchancing, rehabilitating, regenerating and restructuring the built environment.
Condaratos, Savas. "Intervention in a Changing Old Urban Area." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. Mataxourgion is an old quarter of Athens, to the west of and very close to the city's commercial centre. It began developing in the middle of the last century, around a silkmill to which it owes its name, as a residential area housing low and low-medium income families. Its urban fabric consisted of one or two storey houses built on small lots in a simplified neoclassical idiom and following a regular street pattern that was instituted by the first plans for the new capital. By the first decades of our century, Metaxourgion had evolved into a most lively neibourhood, famous for its local folklore. The urban fabric and the social character of the area remained almost unaltered until 1950. During the subsequent decades many of its old houses were replaced by mediumrise apartment buildings, but to a much lesser extent than in other central parts of Athens. That partial and rather sparse renewal altered substantially the traditional fabric, but it proved inadequate to promote the overall image of the area. However, a more fatal alteration resulted from the invasion of land uses incompatible with a residential areas. Indeed, during the last decades the area manufactures, can repair workshops and warehouses have been gathered. Physical deterioration was accompanied the area by social disintegration. Most of the old inhabitants have abandoned the area which is now increasingly attracting poor domestic and foreign immigrants. The Municipality of Athens, in its desire to upgrade the area and to restore its residenttial character, has appointed Environmental Design Company as consultants to analyse the existing situation and to propose relevant interventions. The paper shall focus on the effort made by the consultants to interpret physical, economic and socio-cultural transformations experienced in the area in order to formulate proposals that could be meaningful in the actual context without ignoring valuable assets inherited from the past.
Falchero, S, R Lamb, P. E. Mainardi, and T. Purcell. "Is Our Experience of the World More Complicated than We Think?: the Effects of Metamorphoses on the Experience of Landscape." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992.

The experiment to be reported used matched sets of outdoor scenes from the Padua region of northern Italy and the Sydney region of Australia. Both clear-cut and ambiguous examples of the type of scene represented were selected. The participants in the experiment were drawn from students living in each region. Participants first made an overall preference judgment and a judgment of whether the scene was natural or built without reference to a particular scene type. Following these judgments, participants were supplied with the name of a scene type - for example landscape, woodland, city street - for the clear-cut instances and with the names of a number of possible scene types for ambiguous instances. In the ambiguous cases respondents chose one type and all subsequent judgments were made in relation to the nominated type. Judgments of typicality and familiarity and two focussed preference judgments - degree of preference for each as a place to visit on a holiday and as a place to live and work - were obtained. For each judgment participants were asked to indicate the basis on which they had made the judgment. The experiment was designed to address three broad sets of issues. The first concerns the role of similarities and differences in environmental experience which result from differences between the physical attributes characteristic of different locations. This is in contrast to an often implicit emphasis on soclo-cultural differences as the major determinants of differences in environmental experience. The use of scenes from two different regions with judgments by residents of the two regions for each set of scenes addresses this issue. The second concerns the context within which the judgment is made. Much research in this area obtains judgments of diverse sets of places in terms of the instances as examples of landscapes. This assumes that the landscape represents a environmental type or category that is applicable to a diversity of outdoor scenes. However it is possible that there are a number of different types of outdoor scenes and that participants shift the basis for their judgment to accord with their classification of each instance. This may particularly be the case where a scene contains elements from different scene types; that is where an instance is ambiguous. Participants could also introduce a different type of context in making their judgments. Scenes may not be judged on the basis of their perceptual attributes but in terms of meanings associated with the scene such as the place as setting for particular types of activities. For example a landscape could be judged in terms of the desirability of living in or visiting such a setting. The specification of scene type and different settings for the judgment addresses this set of issues. The third issue relates to the aspect of experience that is assessed in relation to the scenes. Often overall preference or, to a lesser extent, judgments of other types of affective experience are obtained. These are frequently treated as independent aspects of experience with the effects, again often implicitly, also being treated as though the experiences were induced directly by the particular attributes of the instance. With an approach that treats each aspect of experience as independent in these ways, it is difficult to develop models of the processes which generate the different types of experience and particularly how current experience relates to and depends on past similar experiences. The use of measures which are related to representations of past experience, such as judgments of typicality and familiarity, can however be used in conjunction with measures of affective experience to address these questions.

Hany, Ibrahim. "Is Vernacular Architecture the Answer?" In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. One of the problems created by the mass production of prefabricated buildings devoid of both architecture and architectural expression, was the introduction of stereotype buildings and designs, as an example... If the architectural design of a house submits to certain regulations corresponding to specific needs of one community, it does not necessarily have to react and comply with the needs of another. As a consequence of this misunderstanding, the link between the indigenous local cultures, and their expression through the many distinctive lifestyles of that specific community, including architecture, has been lost. This negligence of spirituality and humanity in architecture, is of principal concern. The deprivation of architecture from spirituality and humanity, is the deprivation of architecture from its primary purpose. Architecture must respond to the different requirements and needs, of various and distinct cultures if it is to fulfil its proper function, and as architects describe a satisfying plan or design as a 'working' plan. In architecture ideas have been introduced directed towards finding a solution, for architecture that complies with indigenous needs, and cultural lifestyles. Vernacular architecture is one of them. Many architects from different parts of the world, each working in his or her own native country, contribute differently. By using native traditional designs and construction techniques, a wide variety of different architectural buildings were built in accordance with their local environment, these buildings stand as the outcome of their research and belief. Vernacular architecture as an ideal was faced with overwhelming resistance and opposition from 'modern' architects. The modern architects were benefiting from the stereotype system and mass production, and for them to restyle to another system was difficult, as they became accustomed to the new trend for quick accomplishments and fast profit. The vernacular concept and the architects adopting it, were accused of being romantic dreamers and backward thinkers. This paper aims to pursue the *repercussion of vernacular architectural work, and the impact of architects such as Hassan Fathy and abd al-Wahed al-Wakil on architecture and architects in their native country and abroad. The question posed will be is vernacular architecture the right path to follow and continue ? and if so from were do we continue ? and how can this ideal be implemented and generalised. Data on cultural form, architecture and urban design drawn from 4a study of the traditional architecture expressed in certain residential areas of Egypt and Greece, will be used to illustrate the principle of vernacular architecture, intended to bring peoples values, actions, perceptions, and activities into the appropriate physical form.
Wood, Colin. "Islands in the Streams of Consciousness." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. Landscapes are a combination of their own intrinsic qualities and the human use that reflects the care and attention that society is willing to give them. The willingness stems from the degree of social consciousness towards landscape value and the desire to forgo other possible demands. But even our most pristine areas of the globe are under pressure despite our intention to protect them. Profound changes are affecting the economic and political organization of the world as new trading blocs are formed and political affiliations realign. These changes bring hope as well as uncertainty. Greater awareness is, for example, influencing policies that are emerging to deal with environmental and climatic change. These macro level trends are manifested as continued urbanization, development and regional population increase at the local level; changes which have direct impact on the landscape. This paper examines the problems associated with coping with these trends and changes in island regions within a framework of relations that links landscape ecology and culture. These are areas of special aesthetic and scientific appeal (to name two qualities) where a unique combination of land and sea produces an islandscape. lslandscapes, in different parts of the globe, Greece, the Hebrides, the Caribbean, the Gulf Islands of the Pacific coast are a magnet for artists, poets, travellers and developers, people who are frequently regarded as interlopers. How are these regions seen and evoked and how might this contribute to the conservation of their special visual qualities? This paper reviews the characteristics of the Gulf Island region of the Pacific coast and assesses some of the changes that are having a measurable impact on it. What are the options that are possible for maintaining and perhaps enhancing the landscape? How may the views of the islands' citizens and the weekenders be incorporated into the planning procedures? What objectives and conservation methods are necessary to ensure the aesthetic quality of this islandscape will continue? An attempt to respond to these questions will be made.
Sasaki, Yoh. "Japanese Preference for Urbanscape Design Seen in the Adoption and Transformation of the Western Models." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "We can characterize the culture in an area in direct connection with native conditions such as climate. But in the age of free and rapid cultural exchange, it is also important to identity a culture through the influence of adoption and transformation of non-native cultures. Here, the author has tried to identify Japanese space by investigating the modern history of its urban design which is considered to be a process of constant rebuilding, taking Western cities as models. Japanese native culture had developed sufficiently during several centuries of national isolation to construct pre-modern cities. Main cities called "Jokä-machi", the largest one of which was Edo, the former Tokyo, had an identifiable townscape we can see in the "Meisho-zue", a series of pictures of noted places in cities. After the turning point of the Meiji Restoration (1867), Japan opened to the world and actively imported Western culture and technology to modernize the country. As for urban design, elements such as streets, parks, buildings and planning theories on them were imported from Europe by means of literature, invited professionals and the influence of a few Japanese who inspected or studied in Western countries. These imported design forms served as the model in rebuilding their pre-modern cities. Today, after a century-long effort, Japanese urbanscapes have completely metamorphosed from the pre-modern ones but have not emerged like their Western models. In Tokyo, where the largest energy was devoted, this has happened in spite of two excellent chances to rebuild most of its urban structures after great disasters. The models are realized only as parts scattered in cities and they are transformed to some extent when compared with the originals. This fact tells us something about Japanese preference in urbanscape design.This paper examines firstly the kind of Western urban design forms chosen and interpreted as their model and secondly the way in which the realized examples were transformed and the influence of the matured pre-modern urabanscape design. Vista composition is a noted example. Vista scenes realized in Japan were modified to a more informal taste so that, for example, too foliaged trees along approach street often obstructs the clear view of the focal building. Another example can be found in the design of street crossings. Western style structures often appeared here first but the concept of positive space surrounded by building in a united style was never realized. Striking buildings, symbols of the West or modernity were placed together in locations regarded from the Edo era as nodes in the city. These studies have uncovered some characteristics of Japanese urbanscape design as follows; 1) a preference for undefined and weak connections between elements composing the space rather than for physically defined space in geometrical form. 2) an emphasis on the meaning of elements and episodes related to them rather than on visual form. This tendency allows for the distortion of form and the juxtaposition of different elements. These characteristics are deeply rooted in Japanese traditional urbanscape design and at the same time they can explain well the vital but chaotic situation of today's urbanscape. They are therefore worthy of examination as a key to set a new model for the next century."
Karamanou, Zoi. "La Metamorphose Structurelle Et Spatiale Du Commerce: Du Modele Americain Au Centre Commercial a La Grecque a Travers Ses Mutations Europeennes." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. conference:IAPS:12
Philippos, Oreopoulos. "La Pensee Byzantine Sur L'environnement Bati Et Sa Participation Au Discours Architectural." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. conference:IAPS:12
Anastassiadis, A., P Papadopoulou, P Stathacopoulos, and G. Synefakis. "La Politique Des Centres Commerciaux En Grece." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992.


Amphoux, Pascal. "La Qualite Sonore Des Espaces Publics En Europe: Vers Un Inventaire Europeen." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. conference:IAPS:12
Serra, Geraldo. "Land Use Planning and Housing Typology in Sao Paulo." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "The real city, not the one portrayed in cards and in planning drawings, is the result of public and private built space and of planning regulations. But there are some perverse modes to answer land use regulations and that modes may cover a very significative part of townscape. After the '40s, Brazilian urban society grew more and more concerned with the monsters of "Urban Chaos' and "Rural Exodus'. As a reaction against that menace it developed a set of rules and regulations. It comprehends federal, state and municipal laws and regulations establishing severe limitations on urban territorial borders, urban land development and use. These laws had the effect of urban land price maximization. Indeed, through these rules government can control the supply of urban land but not the demand. At same time and during the last 50 years, migration, and therefore demand for urban space, follows increasing. To explain the maximization of urban land prices authors have used the concept of "speculative retention". However, that could explain the existence of big parcels of land inside the cities and not the scarcity of small lots. The worst effect of that situation is the "clandestine town', formed by shantytowns, slums and invasions. In São Paulo, almost 40% of people inhabits that "clandestine town". But more than 95% of that houses have water supply, 90% have electricity and 19% are linked to the municipal sewage system. Therefore, they look not so clandestine... In terms of housing typology, three general categories can be found: private, public and "clandestine". Private can be apartment buildings, groups of houses in row and "self-help" houses. Public housing is represented by apartment buildings of 4 or 5 stories, isolated houses and groups of houses in row. "Clandestine" houses are represented by shantytown houses and slums. That firs classification can be expanded to consider the several and different technologies and materials used in these types. The relevancy of that research arises from the possibility it opens for a new approach to housing programmes, to legalization and development of existing invasions and to revitalization of slum areas."
Blanc, Bernadette. "Le Processus De Rhabilltation D' Un Ilot Multiethnique a Montreal: Transformation Physique Et Apprentissage Des Acteurs." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. conference:IAPS:12
Remy, Jean. "Le Rural Et L´urbain Entre La Coupure Et L Adifference La Metamorphose Des Relations Villes/campagnes." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. conference:IAPS:12
Uytenhove, Pieter. "Le Vieux - Neuf Comme Metaphore De La Regeneration." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. conference:IAPS:12
Rodolakis, Nicolas. "Les Metamorphoses De L' Espace Urbain El Regional Concernant Le Niveau De L' Evolution Organisationnelle Des Agglomerations." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. conference:IAPS:12
Tchoroleeva, Maria. "Les Metamorphoses Des Significations Des Signes Linguistiques - Des Mots De La Lexique Bulgare Qui Se Trouvent Sous L' Influence Des Changements Dynamiques Sqciaux." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. conference:IAPS:12
Beriatos, Elias. "Les Transformations De L'espace Grec Et Les Perspectives De Son Amenagement Au Cours Des Annees '90." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. conference:IAPS:12
Hallberg, Gunvor. "Life Safety Design of Residential Buildings for the Elderly." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "In 1989 the Swedish Building Code, including the fire safety provisions, was revised. The traditional codes presenting prescriptive standards were replaced by a Planning and Building Act and Regulations for New Construction. In the new code there is an increasing trend towards performance standards, meaning statements about how a building should function with respect to various criteria. The classification of activity in a building determines the designation of the building with respect to what fire regulations are applicable. Concerning residential buildings for aged persons it is a delicate matter to define to which building category they belong, to dwellings or to hospitals. They are regarded as dwellings in the code context, in spite of the fact that the residents' evacuation capability is much poorer than usually in ordinary dwellings. This has been found in a study of a sample of service flats representing a common form of dwellings for elderly people in Sweden.In 1988 the safety problem in facilities for the elderly was introduced in the Swedish Parliament. Consequently the government commisioned the National Board of Housing, Building and Planning to investigate the need for safety measures improving the safety level in those buildings.The Board's proposal, partly based on a research report from the department for Building Function Analysis contents requirement for automatic fire-alarm and compulsory inspection of fire prevention arrangements in dwellings intended especially for the elderly. In group residential housing windows are proposed not be accepted as alternative escape routes, but they will remain that in blocks of service flats. Safety measures aim to fire control by early detection and prevention of fire spreading. They also aim to protect people by safe egress and rescue provisions. The research report "Fire safety planning in care housing" is arranged according to the aim of fire protection measures related to the building process.The safety measures concern buildings where housing is combined with care of various kind. To evaluate their applicability in other types of care housing than blocks of service flats an investigation of the residents' evacuation capability in e.g. group-residential units, old age homes, has just started in Sweden. There is also a development work going on concerning a combination of warning, communication and alarm system intended for care housing. According to the investigation of the evacuation safety in blocks of service flats the possibility of horisontal evacuation is very important since nearly 50 percentage of the residents in that dwelling form can't use the stairs. To design a model of a temporary refuge for evacuation in two stages is a remaining task. The transformation of research results into improvment of the fire safety provisions is urgent. This task will include the compilation of a manual for Life safety design of residential buildings for aged persons."
Kose, Satoshi. "Lifesafety Design of Buildings for the Aged Persons: Recent Developments in Japan." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. Lifesafety design of buildings in Japan has long assumed able-bodied persons as their users. The ratio of aged persons has long stayed around 5% of the population, and necessary measures for the aged were separately considered. The situation is changing as the aged population is rapidly increasing. Japan expects to be one of the most aged countries in the world in 2020 with about a quarter of its population 65 years and over. People with disabilities have also been separately taken care of. For them, the barrier-free design was separately provided, without integration with their families and friends. The move is toward integration, equal opportunity. In public buildings, this is gradually developing along with new construction activities. Accessibility is gaining its ground. But how about egressibility? There were few discussions on this. Major reason was that if one started the discussion, the issue of accessibility was sure to be thrown away as impossible. Even the accessibility standards were thought to be a heavy burden that would hinder economic competence. Seen from the viewpoint of accessibility, for wheel-chair users in particular, the situation is still bad. Few train stations have accessible elevators; one must ask for special arrangements in order to use them. Only newer metro systems are introducing accessible elevators that are usable by everybody; wheel-chair users, pram users, travellers with heavy luggage. It is therefore quite natural that egressibility was rarely discussed. If one has access to a place, the logical outcome is that one should also have the right to egress. It involves the question of available time for egress. One must compete with the quickly worsening situation. How can this be accomplished? In specially designed buildings and facilities for the special population, the level of safety is required by building and fire codes and regulations. In larger buildings, the concept of protected lobby with emergency elevators, or well designed fire compartmentation, can serve the purpose. What can be used for smaller buildings, including dwelling units themselves? The assumed level of safety will be the standard for the provision of measures to secure lifesafety of people with disabilities and the aged persons. A proposed concept for dwellings is simplified sprinkler systems. They will surely respond to the emergency needs in the sense that they will hold back the development of fire as well as notify others (possibly the fire department) to come and extinguish fire. They are at least superior to fire detectors/alarms because simple detection and warning will be of no use for those who have difficulty in moving around.
Raschko, Bettyann. "Lifespan Design of Residential Environments for an Aging Population." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "Universal/Life Span Design is changing the form and function of the builtspace through the application of concepts and theories originating in the socio-psychological, rehabilitation, and gerontological disciplines. This design concept is augmented by several ongoing conditions that exert a strong influence on future housing design: Primarily, demographic changes in world populations, increased awareness of socio-psychological effects of an environment upon the user, and changing world economic conditions. Universal/Life Span Design concepts, as applied to the builtscape, are based on a diversity of human needs and the accommodations necessary to support these needs. It is an approach to design that incorporates products as well as building features and elements which, to the greatest extent possible, can be used by everyone. It includes design features in housing that are supportive, adaptable, accessible to all users, and provides for life safety features. This concept must be incorporated into design solutions to meet the needs of all users throughout their lifespan; including temporary, progressive or permanent disabilities, thereby ensuring that the builtscape is responsive to the user's changing needs. According to Goldsmith, Universal/Life Span Design can be divided into two ideologies: Micro-ideology is directed toward "special provisions" for the elderly and disabled through adaptation of design features for a "specialized group". This approach limits the universality of design because adaptations are considered only in regards to how they affect the disabled, resulting in "specialized design". Macro-ideology addresses the physical rights of access for all people. The challenge of this approach is to enable the public to accept Universal/Life Span Design as normal design benefitting all of society by offering a widespread range of functional use. A macro approach reaches out into the community to provide a life safety environment which promotes good health and has economic, social, and rehabilitative benefits for all users. The environment serves as a medium which might be structured or manipulated in such a way as to improve functioning for all persons. According to Lawton and Simon, the less competent the individual, the greater will be the reliance upon the environment. Interweaving Lawton and Nahemow's concept of "environmental press", we see how the environment shapes the actions of all persons of all ages. However, its influence is most keenly felt by the elderly and others whose competencies are reduced by illness of disability. Each environment exerts upon its occupants specific demands or "press". This environment press must be congruent with the capacities of the individual residing in that space if effective behavior is to occur.The goal of this presentation is to encourage continued interdisciplinary support in order to achieve Universal/Life Span Design."
Hasell, Mary Joyce, and John Scanzoni. "Linking Interior Space with Sociocultural Change." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "This paper is one of a series of publications examining the connections among changes in social and cultural values, individual behavior, and space in residential settings. In the first stage of research, a feminist theoretical perspective and the method of content analysis were joined to analyze house plans determining links between women's changing roles and noticeable changes in house plans. In Stage II, a more general sociological theoretical perspective on gender was combined with the use of threedimensional scale models and an interview schedule to examine more directly the interaction of personal values, behavior and spatial preferences. Because the findings of Stage II provided research hypotheses but failed to fully explain the reciprocal interaction between people and space, the theoretical perspective and method were refined for a more detailed Stage Ill study. Here we joined theoretical perspectives from architecture and environmental social -psychology in addition to research methods for exploring social and spatial issues at the interior level of domestic space. The data for Stage Ill, and for this paper, are based on a sample of 100 couples from building permits for new houses, renovated houses and additions between 1985-1989 in a southeastern Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area of the US. An hour long session was conducted in each couple's home using an interview schedule and six previously constructed 1/12 scale kitchen models, and a self-administered questionnaire. We investigated linkages between interior space and gender by contrasting and comparing women's and men's assessment of kitchen spatial openness. Physical spatial characteristics were quantified using 3D scale models and the interview schedule. Each scale model varied by a measurable degree in terms of the following design characteristics: 1) amount of wall enclosure; 2) size of work triangle (suitable for one person or two persons) ; 3) inclusion of an eating table or counter in the kitchen; and 4) visibility out of the kitchen to the dining and seating areas. All six scale models had the same total square footage. Three kitchens were coded as "single-function" kitchens; three were coded as "multi-function kitchens." Wall enclosure was incrementally changed from closed to open in both single-function and multi-function kitchens. Social variables for both men and women were assessed through a self-administered questionnaire: we compiled social variables for their occupations, number of children at home, gender attitudes (traditional or modern), sharing of both traditionally female and male household tasks, and a psychological self-monitoring scale. The substantive problem addressed in this paper is the spatial, or architectural, conditions explaining why persons choose either mult- or single-function kitchens. The theoretical importance of the problem lies with the cultural meanings attached to these contrasting choices. The theoretical argument in the literature is that persons opting for open and multi-function kitchens tend to favor gender egalitarianism and to behave in a more egalitarian fashion. Conversely, persons choosing closed and single-function kitchens tend to be more gender traditional both in norms and behavior. A prior analysis of our data, using multiple regression, added validity to that theoretical proposition by identifying the social variables accounting for kitchen openness. In this paper, we take our empirical investigations one step further by utilizing discriminate function analysis to classify respondents as preferring multi- or single-function kitchens based on spatial as well as social variables. Preliminary findings suggest that women can be classified correctly 74 per cent of the time in terms of their responses to seven spatial and social variables. Men can be correctly classified 79 per cent of the time in terms of their responses to eleven spatial and social variables. We shall continue our statistical analyses with the aim of refining and elaborating our preliminary findings. The final version of this paper will be based on those refined data. The paper will close by theoretically linking these findings to our past work, and to the general problem of the connections between interior space and the changing sociocultural environment."
Verschaffel, Bart. "Localisms." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "On the necessity of provincialism and the useful fiction of internationalism" refers to the theme of one of the Cahiers that are prepared for the project "Discourse and Literature" of ANTWERPEN 93, the Cultural Capital of Europe 1993. The new communication networks, and the specific modes and images of social interaction which they produce, increasingly seem to cut off the production of culture from the 'roots', i.e. from a concrete historical 'place' or a topos as origin and as condition for meaning. For the field of social interaction shaped by the network principle, the notion of origin is archaic and outdated. One wonders whether the differences and oppositions within which the particularity and social identity of individuals and groups is constituted, are necessarily linked with the notion of 'origin' and 'roots' - and thus with a 'place' or 'topos' and/or history or tradition. Is it feasible to look for new, 'postmodern' modes of cultural intimacy or particularity, different from the regressive ones and the pseudo -folkiorisms that are now used in cultural politics ?"
Twigger, Clare, and David Uzzell. "London Docklands: Psychological Attachment to Place - a Case Study." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "The London Docklands redevelopment is the largest urban regeneration scheme in the world. Beginning in 1981 and transforming a previously run-down area of London, an area of contrasts and conflicts has been created. The research presented here aims at examining some aspects of this new physical, social and psychological environment as a background for exploring the theoretical concept of psychological attachment to place. The redevelopment focussed on in the research is predominantly residential, building on the site of filled-in docks. The area has a history of a close-knit community. The new residences have succeeded in attracting people with a range of incomes and backgrounds, providing an opportunity to examine some questions about attachment to a local area. Attachment is defined as "An attachment bond with any object and thus also with the home may be defined as i) the state of psychological well-being experienced by the subject as a result of mere presence, vicinity, accessibility of the object and conversely ii) the state of distress set up by the absence, remoteness or inaccessibility of the object." Giulani (1991) The attachment experience is comprised of three main elements, self, attachment object and self-object relationships, which lead to a number of differing patterns of attachment. Therefore, it is hypothesised (Gerson et al 1977, Giulani 1991) attachment is a multivariate concept: people can be attached for different reasons, and to certain degrees. Further, it is suggested that different patterns of attachment will be related to a number of demographic variables. Two studies are reported here: 1) A small (n=24) interview study was carried out in early 1991 to investigate these hypotheses. The results, albeit within a small data set, showed that there was a trend which suggested that people were attached in different ways. In addition, it was possible to show that people differed in how far they were attached. 2) These results and results from a pilot questionnaire informed a larger questionnaire study (n=200) which was carried out in late 1991. The questionnaire focusses on the structure and process of attachment to place From the results it was possible to discuss groups of people each with different attachment profiles in the context of demographic variables."
Sakellaridou, Irena. "Looking for Structure in Form: Transformations of a Personal Idiom." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. Moving from a stage of criticism of modernity and the re-discovery of the social aspect to one of an explosion of ideas and possible ways to go, evident via the multiple metamorphoses of architecture as being discussed, designed and/or built, it is ripe time for research to open again the discussion on issues deeply rooted to the nature of architecture such as composition and form, not in order to formulate normative theories, but in order to supply analytical tools and reestablish a framework of understanding. Composition can either be used as a term to denote a process of making or a result. In both cases however a meaning of imposing order is inherent in the word; it brings, that is, into prominence the issue of architectural order. What can be said however about the constitution of the architectural object by formal means?ls it possible to retrieve a description of this form which would at the same time inform about the object's constructibility in formal terms and its possible significance? A top-down approach is suggested which acknowledges the global nature of architectural composition, and attempts to uncover what can be defined as the deep structure of the architectural object. Architectural order is seen as establishing relations which control issues of what, where why and how in the design-to-be. A lot of them become codified through usage, but they can always be foregrounded. What could be described as an aesthetic structure in architecture is analysed as comprising of structured relations and their inter-relations, while the abstract, logical mode of constitution of the compositional structure by them characterises the logic of composition on a deep level. This type of analysis of a series of objects in time makes it possible to uncover issues related to the evolution of a style, or of a personal idiom of an architect. Based on findings of an extensive analysis of both qualitative and quantitative kind on the evolution of the personal idiom of an architect, this paper will attempt to investigate processes of ' metamorphoses' and deep structure transformations, operating within the scope of this personal structured idiom, as the architect moves from the realm of' private' to that of the ' public'.
Edelstein, Michael. "Love Canal as the New Town of the 1990's: Ego - Destruction as Metamorphosis." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "Most formulations of human-environment interactions give only lip service to the fact that unman context is the earth. As a result, architecture, planning and the environmental social sciences frequently envision marshalling the human ability to control nature---the built, natural and cultural environments--- so as to achieve humanistic objectives of a better life for people. But these visions of metamorphosis deny to extent to which modern people have denigrated the environment on a local, regional and global scale. In fact, these formulations may aid and abet this denial of environmental reality. The result is that, rather than facilitating a metamorphosis toward a higher plane of human life that somehow escapes entropy, we are left with a distraction from the abject mess that we have caused. Rather than seeking solutions or alternatives to our destructive way of life, we pretend that a world of economic growth will move us out of the morass through an improved built or landscaped environment. The social reality of the metamorphized environment is one of convoluted expectations of the normal life. Issues of illness rather than health; helplessness, uncertainty and victimization rather than illusions of control; home as a place of insecurity and danger rather than a secure bastion; the environment as malevolent rather than benevolent forces; distrust of society rather than a sense that others are taking care of us. The challenge to the interdisciplinary mix of fields concerned with people and their physical surroundings is to recognize the centrality of dynamics of ecological destruction to our ways of life and perceptions of the world and to formulate a social ecological metamorphosis to counteract what some now call the "end of nature"."
Kubota, Yoichi. "Macroscopic Metamorphoses of Builtscape in Landscape: Transition of Visual Environment in Central Area of Tokyo." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. This paper tries to envisage the process and characteristics of transition in landscape caused by the changes of builtscape in the central area of Tokyo, Chiyoda Ward around the Imperial Palace, which has been a showcase of urban development projects of various kinds in order to initiate the wave of modernizing environment and landscape in Japanese cities. Salient evidences which influenced upon the spatial structure of landscape in this area were identified and chronologized. Will and Place or Value of Landscape Landscape changes along with the transition of society, and its shifts influence the mental value of places in turn. One of the substantial factors behind these changes is urban development projects. Artificial alterations of original topography with hills and rivers, constructions of buildings, roads and bridges, and transformations of landuse are all derived from urban development for the sake of environmental amelioration or economical efficiency. There has been, however, a huge untouchable zone in the midst. It has been regarded as sacred place, or rather void from planing point of view. It caused eccentricity of axial spaces. Characteristic landscapes of vista with explicit axial space, like the streets of Sotosakurada, Kudanzaka and Chiyoda in front of the Tokyo Station, are placed without systematic spatial context around the Imperial Palace. Dispersed open spaces increased anonymous places. Reversal of Dominance in Landscape The distribution of visual landmark was reversed from centripetal structure to centrifugal structure of urban space. In Edo Era, the castle tower, Tenshukaku, was a centripetal focus of this city. After it had been lost, new highrise buildings with western style occupied the position of dominant landmark in centirfugal way. Today, conservativeness about landscape in this area are now resulting in the rapid changes in its surrounding outer areas, which have large impacts on the outlines of landscapes in this area, exerting mental effects of supraliminal to subliminal significance. Place and Conformity or Coherence with Place Basic characteristics of segrigated zones which correspond to the previous landuse allotment in Edo Era are still remaining. For example, Banchou and koujimachi, residential zones for Daimyou and Hatamoto Samurai class, are now expensive residential zones, and Kanda, old highly inhabited zone, is active commercial business zone. This adherence to places sustain the value of places, or in other words, inheritance of identity or zonal traits. The mechanics of builtscape superimposed into landscape are underlayed by politics and economics on places, however, exerting implicit impacts upon human-environmental relations.
Nuttall, Steven, and Marjorie Bulos. "Managing Home Ownership: an Investigation of Household Upkeeping Behaviour and Activities." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. Research into the practice of housing management has primarily focused on the policy implementation and management practices of housing and other professionals, working in public, voluntary and private agencies. A key focus for policy has been the role of repair and maintenance in the processes of urban renewal and stock preservation. Little attention has been paid to the role played by individuals and households in the renewal process although much of the literature acknowledges the importance of occupiers, as recipients of repair and maintenance policies and practices. There has been virtually no ,esearcfl which examines these activities as initiated by householders. In Britain owner occupation is the most numerous tenure category, now standing at 67% of all households in Great Britain.This research focuses on this group examining the owner occupier as 'manager' of his or her dwelling. This paper addresses two key issues. The first is the development of an appropriate conceptual and analytical framework for understanding the occupier as 'housing manager'. This analysis draws on perspectives and ideas about the meaning and use of home, and in particular perceptions of the relationship between a person's identity as a home owner, and the resources, decisions and outcomes of their 'upkeeping activities'. It also uses models which draw on management theories to synthesise and formalise existing diffuse terms and language. Secondly it sets out the findings of an empirical investigation of 83 owner occupiers in South London. A seven fold typology is devised and used to demonstrate that housing management by owner occupiers is characterised by differences which display a systematic relationship between key resourcing and practice variables. From this analysis there arises major criticisms of the assumptions that underpin policies in this area. Specific ways are suggested of developing policies grounded on a realistic understanding of the ways in which owner occupiers behave, and their relationship with key agencies such as building societies, and other financial institutions. Finally it is argued that lessons can be drawn from this work which are generally applicable in other tenures, and hence relevant to broader areas of repair and maintenance policies.
King'oriah, George. "Managing the Land Use Changes Within and Around Nairobi, Kenya." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. This paper reviews the literature associated with urban growth development, and urban management, relating these to the growth of the metropolis of Nairobi. The paper reviews the land use changes that have taken place in the city and its surrounding in the recent past in the light of the reviewed theoretical background; and examines how the civic and central governmental authorities are dealing with these chages for the betterment of the human environment in and around the city. An attempt is made to suggest solutions to problems of land use management that are associated with such rapid urban growth as that of Nairobi.
El-Rafey, Moshira. "Meaning of Housing and Women's Needs in the Middle - East." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the reciprocal link between the environment and the women who make use of it within the context of social changes. The aim is to increase public awareness of modern Egyptian women's experiences and needs in contemporary middle-income housing in order to encourage the reconsideration of spatial arrangement in the house. The central hypothesis of the study is that an inverse relationship exists between women's ideological values and their degree of satisfaction with the house physical environment. Research stages demonstrates the importance of exploring this idea through a human science approach, especially in the first pilot study. The stories of the informants' every-day experience was essential to discover genuine problems. Then the problematic areas were identified and specified through a survey questionnaire and subsequent statistical analysis. Finally, complementing the findings was a wealth of information based on a qualitative ethnographic study. results indicate that there are various solutions to create modern design without sacrifying the great heritage and cultural values of the respondents.
Bending, Stephen. "Media and Medium: the English Garden and the Construction of Historic Landscape." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "How does a landscape become "historic"? How historical are "historic" landscapes? Taking the eighteenth-century English landscape garden as a case study, this paper considers the metamorphosis of landscape into "historic" landscape. It argues that eighteenth-century representations of the landscape garden are important for our understanding of the ways in which surviving landscapes are interpreted and re-used. It the landscape garden remains a medium through which meaning is communicated, it remains also for the twentieth century a medium of another kind, an image of the mid-point between political and cultural extremes. Many of the defences now thrown up against the re-use of landscape gardens (as golf courses, theme parks, hotel grounds &c) depend upon this older construction of the landscape's value, a construction which may no longer be appropriate. The paper considers contemporary magazines and journals, and argues that, in the media, the cultural polemic inherent in the term "historic landscape" is represented as normative: a rhetoric is employed which claims the "historic" as, paradoxically, beyond the need for historical analysis, as something all people of taste should recognise and value without question. Thus, in this paper, "historic" refers to a modern term used to signify cultural value, but also, it is argued, to an eighteenth-century construct which facilitates this usage not least by creating a widely accepted but partisan account of garden history. In the late-twentieth century the eighteenth-century landscape garden continues to be represented as a high-point of English cultural achievement. These gardens, modern writers argue, are not only quintessentially English, but they are a form of perfection, a happy medium betweep extremes; as a consequence, they should not be destroyed or defaced. Such an interpretation of the garden is not new, nor is it free from political and cultural freight: many of the modern arguments used to justify and defend the landscape garden can be found in the polemics of the eighteenth century. The highly partisan writing of garden history in the eighteenth century has now been largely accepted as the objective relating of facts, with the result that the cultural and political values such histories institutionalise are themselves both accepted and repeated. Just as eighteenth-century garden writers attempted to objectify a polemical version of political and cultural history, so modern writersdrawing on those same values-attempt to objectify a version of history which calls itself the "historic". In each case, an appeal is made to history as an objective guarantor of value. This paper addresses the question of why a version of history and of aesthetics constructed in the eighteenth century continues to be politically useful in the twentieth. At issue is the question of who should have control over the meaning of landscape, and of the kinds of arguments which can, or should, be utilised in defence of the landscape garden in the twentieth century."
Fatouros, Dimitris. "Metamorhposes Through Symbioses." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "The obstacles and the obscurities of the theories of architecture undermine the description and the comprehension of architecture. The difficulties to explain the architecture of Greek cultural landscape are one of the cases. For instance, despite the fact that for long periods of time the aegean and specifically the cycladic architecture is the favorite paradigrne for the architects, a substantial part of its understanding is missing. If we accept that syntactic structures represent a crucial chapter of a theory of architecture, some constructive observations may come out. Since there is not one coherent syntactic approach, I' 11 apply my own approach. As I tried elsewhere to argue, we may classify syntactic structures of space and geometry in four categories: Concepts, morphomes, types and stereotypes. These categories organize the situations from the more abstracts to the more concretes. It is obvious that this is a very schematic description and the thresholds between them are not clear. Following this way of thinking the cycladic architecture is expressed by types elaborated through a very long period of time and based on what I call morphomes of space. In many cases strong stereotypes have been established. The closed enclosure -the cell- and the roofless enclosure - the yard.- are put together and tightened within a very dense tissue, which is also based on a few morphomes, such as the narrow passage -the streets- and theoofless enclosure -the square This is of course a simplifying description. The dense tissue is strongly associated with the site as a geometry and as a correspondence and reflection of various "obstacles" -slopy, hard, smooth etc- as well as with the climatic conditions and, of course, the techniques and materials. It is that techniques and materials, generally speaking, through all this period remain almost the same, enhancing the use of this syntactic structure. Prehistoric, archaic, classical and medieval Greek architecture belong in this continuoum. Especially the aegean islands for centuries during the medieval and the early modern period were captured by various conquerors and pirates, who brought their synthesis and techniques. The fact that all of them used, more or less, the same basic morphomes and typologies means that it was a continuous development of variations of the same morphomes and typologies. This long continuous use, the experimentations and differentiations may represent the main reason of the specific character of the cycladic architecture. In this continuous process, the ritual relationship with nature plays a first role. Especially since in Greek culture nature and ritual are interwoven, and nature is not simply a paysage or landscape and ritual is not simply some functions. The symbioses within a way of life of a limited number of syntactic structures, materials, techniques, nature and rituality result not to a simplistic system of repetitions and variations but to complexities, hidden similarities and contradictory spatial events. What will be the evolution of this multidimentional entity under the pressure of the contemporary way of life, the dominance of the homogenised and centralized ways of production and cultural imperatives, imposed by the mass media is an open question. But this is not the case only for the cycladic architecture, it is true for the contemporary architecture as well, as for the contemporary way of life and thought."
Procos, Dimitris. "Metamorphic Community Design: a Passive Solar Paradigm." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "Twenty students in the author's Communlty Design class undertook individual small scale design interventions in the Halifax Downtown that would enhance public amenity through the use of passive solar and daylighting techniques. These interventions, worked out to the detail of the Design Esqu isse, were opportunistic in the sense that they involved metamorphose.,; to settings in the urban fabric that lent themselves to such Interventions and not new built environments expressly designed for solar heat and light. The initial stage was the channeling of Intervention Opportunities Research into five groups of Windows, Atria , Clerestories,, Sunspaces and Trombe Walls Hybrids were discovered, doubts began to appear and the technical primacy of the study was laid to rest. The next stage Involved a three part pedagogical exercise: firstly, technical understanding was brought into the students' work following a design initiative which then called for technical resolution and correction. The small scale of the metamorphoses was the second part of this strategy: students adapted a passive solar or daylighting system or device taken from prototypes discovered in their literature search, to the setting with which they were dealing, without necessarily concerning themselves with its technical completeness. The third aspect of the strategy was the test of "Community": had the metamorphosis - in its entirety, in part, or in appearance - been externalized? was it contributing to the public realm or was it basically a private undertaking even when involving changes to a publicly owned setting?"
Vernex, Jean-Claude. "Metamorphose Du Corps Feminin, Metamorphose Des Lieux De Loisirs: L'invention De La Plage Moderne." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. conference:IAPS:12
Brossard, Sylvie. "Metamorphoses De L' Imitation De L' Occident: a Propos De La Creation D' Un Parc Contemporain Japonais." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. conference:IAPS:12
Amphoux, Pascal. "Metamorphoses Du Monde Sonore: Un Modele Fractal De Representation." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. conference:IAPS:12
Ananiadou-Tzimopoulou, Maria. "Metamorphoses Du Paysage Urbain: Samarkande '91." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. Discussing recent trends in Urban/ Landscape Design, we would like to point out and insist on an approach, sensitive to the site, searching for the spirit of the place and visualizing a cultural urban landscape. We would Ie to argue about creating urban landscapes as works of art, as cultural projects which are, as places of social conviviality and pleasure, adapted to contemporary life contex, seeing them as real urban space meta-morphoses and not interventions on empty, un-historical -ecological -cultural, spaces. Illustrating this consept, we are intending to present from our project for the Samarkand 1991 indemational competition Our Design ideas ( Urban site and open space design M. Tzimopoulou, Buildings design T.Wik) conseming a site of 25,5 hectares in the heart of the historical sity. And the scope-image of our proposal for this - Centre of Samarkand .. Ulugh Beg, Centre.. a multifunctional complex of buildings and open extensively terraced area with impressive location and.. a very important site for the future of the town, as a Cultural Urban Landscape.
Rochaix, Maurice. "Metamorphoses Hospitalieres: Un Vaste Domaine a Decouvrir Et a Mettre En Valeur." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. conference:IAPS:12
Breuer, G, Theo J. M. van der Voordt, and H. Van Hoogdalem. "Metamorphoses in Housing, Nursing and Caring for the Elderly in the Netherlands." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992.

Very soon the age-group of 60 year and older will form one third of the Dutch population. Of this group 7% or 133.000 persons, in majority women of 80 years and older, are housed, cared for and nursed in 1500 Institutions, containing from 90 to 200 'beds'. Together these institutions employ (in full time equivalents) 50.000 workers. The yearly total budget Is dfl. 4.5 billion. Although the Netherlands rank comparatively very high with these figures, showing a well-developed system of health-care and social welfare, feelings of pride are mixed gradually with doubts on the feasibility of this system In the (near) future. Economically it means an ever increasing burden on a decreasing number of younger shoulders. Ideologically seen long standing criticism of Institutional forms of living and care gains new momentum. Government policy Is now directed at bringing down the number of beds in Institutions and stimulating other, looser, combinations of normal housing and care, tailored to the 'real' needs of the individual aged person and provided by ambulant workers (district nurses, volunteer helpers, dinner service etc.) For architects and urban planners the developments bring along a number of new problems: - remodelling the remaining institutions for Intensive care and nursing for a changing population, - (re)design of 'normal' housing adapted to the needs and abilities of old people, - (re)design of neighborhoods and facilities in a way that satisfies the needs of older and/or handicapped people. In this paper the impacts of the new policy on an existing very large Institution (600 'beds') in Amsterdam will be described in terms of the ongoing remodelling process: Post-Occupancy Evaluation, marketing research, development of a new organizational concept, writing the brief and architectural design considerations.

Hentilä, Helka-Liisa. "Metamorphoses in Northern Scandinavia." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. The actual design projects demonstrate different kinds of metamorphoses in Northern Scandinavia. The first project is a vision for the development of a small tons identity. The second project is housing for a subcultural group under ocio-envi ronmental metamorphosis. A development plan for the community of Storuman (southern Lapland, Sweden Presents, developes and refines the values, structures, themes and content that Storuman today possesses. The main emphasis is on small means that are recognizable and possible to implement in stages. I got a third prize in a Norwegian-Finnish-Swedish architectural competition 1991 with this project. More detailed Project is going on at the moment.Keväjarvi Skolt Lapp village in man (northern Lapland, Finland) two hundred inhabitants. They are the fi.rst generation that are no longer nomads. The Keväjrvi villaqe now comprises some sixty dwellings. The new Skolt Lapp farms (25) will be one-family houses. The aim has been to generate examples of planning and rural building in the northern r&sicential areas. Housing solutions take adaptability and flexibility, height differences on the site, severe climate and different living styles into account. This project is based on a entry in an international competition in which I got a first prize 1991.
Harbova, Alexandrova Margarita. "Metamorphoses in Territorial Structuring of the Balkans in the Period I C B.c. - Xix C.a.c." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "In the separate epochs of their historical existence and development the Balkans, being between two significant cultural areals - West Europe and the East, have been formed as an " intermediate zone" in which roads and influences cross and superpose. The architectural ideas, models and composition principles, as well as the territorial-administrative structuring have undergone numerous metamorphoses. The three powerful empires - the Roman, the Byzantine and the Ottoman having subjugated the Balkan peninsula to one political and administrative authority at various historical stages, have imposed their impact on territorial structuring. At the intermediate stages the territory of the peninsula had been divided into smaller states, the boundaries having changed, in the course of which one and the same administrative units have passed from one domain and cultural influence to another.The territorial communities are administrative-economi or religious units consisting of mutually supplementing systems and elements hierarchcally subordinated and related with functional connections and dependencies gravitating to a pronounced composition centre. These communities are economically balanced; guaranteed from military and strategic point of view, open to commercial, spiritual and cultural contacts with a view to meet the requirements of its inhabitants. They are part of a common general state structure and possess a pronounced ability for transformations and selfregulation, which studied historically can determine the trends for their rational development nowadays.Metamorphoses in territorial-administrative structuring have been a function of the political and economic changes in the course of the historical process. The role of continuity i territorial development is as a rule expressed by the conception of town-centres and the structures a gravitating towards them, especially so after the conquering wave of foreign invasion had faded away whin a big portion of the existing territorial communities had been preserved and continues its development. At later stages, however, the new social-political conditions had required territorial restructuring. The study of these processes in historical plan makes it possible to prove the resistant elements and connections, the basic composition framework, uniform for the Balkans as a whole, as well as the pulsating of the territorial communities.The present graphs of the territorial-administrative division in the Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman Empire, as well as in the intermediate historical stages with multi-state government on the peninsula clearly show the trends in the development of the territorial communities. The study is oriented to analysing the formation, development and restructuring of the territorial communities on the peninsula in order to reveal the role of the existing structures from a preceding historical period and their resistance in time under extreme circumstances having imposed deviations from their evolutionary development according to the law of continuity (foreign invasions, joining a new cultural community; sharp economic and political changes). This historical section can be used as a basis for modern interpretation of territorial structures, taking into account the role of continuity as basis of development."
Mega, Voula. "Metamorphoses in the Urban Euroscape Towards a New Historical Life - Cycle?" In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "This paper is mainly concerned with the metamorphoses in the European cities and the initiatives of the European Community institutions, notably the Commission, for policy responses, in the light of the Green Paper on the Urban Environment (27 June 1990) and the following workshops and conferences. It will consider metamorphoses in the Urban Euroscape*, in relation to: - The Global Environment After years of environment degradation in cities (because of urban growth, traffic growth, increased international trade, etc.) important achievements are reported at the European scale witnessing increasing awareness of public bodies and citizens for environmentally friendly cities and the implementation of policies improving the city's metabolism. A better balance between what the city takes in (raw material) and what it takes out (products and waste) is required at the European level, and waste starts being considered as a resource and not as a nuisance. The principle "Polluter pays for Pollution" is being replaced by "Potential Polluter pays for Pollution Prevention".- Social Integration Even in the most wealthy European cities, there are islands of social exclusion, very often coinciding with islands of environmental degradation, delinquency and crime. Both in the older industrialised cities of the North and the newly urbanised centres in the south, there are groups and sectors increasingly marginalised from mainstream society. New policies of European solidarity and partnerships incorporate socio-environmental elements (improved transportation environment, social housing environment, employment related to new environmental activities) to reverse the downward spiral of two speed urban societies and revitalise the built Euroscape. New urban patterns are being conceived for the creation of a more equalitarian city and the long-run propensity for revitalisation in Europe.- Land Use Management There is a European search for the sustainable city of the 21st century. The mix and Integration of urban functions, after decades of rigid zoning seems to be the cornerstone of many future developments and land use management the main instrument to achieve this structural change. Land use, as an investment attracting factor and urban added value generator is closely linked to the emerging identity of the European Cities (each of them unique) and the strategic visions for their future.- Eurocities and Euroregions The point will be made on the new role of cities as nucleous for regions, in a new multiterritorial and pluri-cultural Europe. Cities and regions are the new actors, emerging at the European scene, but, in this scene, the ill-equipped and less-developed areas will have increasing difficulties to meet the challenges and share the benefits of the Single Market.- The Technocity The Eurocities are main producers and consumers of new technologies. Their innovation activities are influenced by many internal and external factors. The knowledge basis of the cities is questioned and there is a renewed debate about the ambiguous role of new technologies, as a one dimensional solution to urban problems."
Lascaris, Nicolas. "Metamorphoses Language / Image. Le Cas Desire De Juillet." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "A man leaves his usual surroundings and settles down In a place he has built himself. Shut in there with his tape-recorder, he follows Désiré de Julilet, the hero of a story he wrote. The by-standing movie-team whitnesses the man's premeditated (or may-be not?) movements and the hearing of Désiré de Julilet. But there is another ghost-camera which watches until the end..."The problem of METAMORPHOSIS OF THE IMAGE, otherwise a basic issue of architecture and urban planning, is approachable by comparative examination between the semiotic analysis and the experimental synthesis of AUD1OVI DUAL LANGUAGE AND COMMUNICATION. With the basical hypothesis that Semiotics object of research is the final aspect of depiction, while the picture's composer's object of research is the process of its production, the film attempts to point out the METAMORPHOSIS of the rules of perceiving and composing depiction that result from these two gnoseoiogical systems. Through the analysis of forms and structures regarding: a. the semiotic approach that connects depiction to the grammar and syntax of language, and b. the picture's composer's knowiegde, which attaches SIGNIFICANCE to the depiction according to the technique of production - elaboration of the final proposition, the function of communication and the form of the composition - film, where semiotics had a decisive Influence on the interpretation and perception of the pictural aspects for the last 20 years, it Is pointed out that the complexity of composition rules reaches a point of indetermination. The film "DESIRE DE JUILLET" examins the relations between the two systems (knowledge signification), as a typological example of research application, the synthesis of which is guided by a "POST-SEMIOTIC" attempt of commenting the semiotic rules. This research aims at a personal articulation of a discourse for the elaboration of depiction, where semiotics are incorporated as a complex instrument for the handling of psychology, perception, Ideology, aesthetics, with the particularities of the process of producing an audiovisual language, delivering the rules of picture's composition from a one-dimentlonai semiotic critical Interpretative influence."
Kivilcim, Keskiner. "Metamorphoses of a Historical Environment in Izmir Through Re - Functioning." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "The human instict towards the "beautiful" and the "valuable', the tendency to respect the experiences and achievements of his predecessors, and the desire to pass on a similar heritage to coming generations is known to everyone. The concept of preservation, therefore is the offspring of this human impulse. Works of architecture are consider to be the most solid, comprehensive and durable of all the values constituting the "cultural heritage". In Turkey, until today, vernacular architectural works have not been on a sufficient level for various economical or psychological reasons such as speculative interests, technological limitations, reaction towards the "old" and allures of the "new", passion for Westernization. Throughout the time, these environments became thoroughly exhausted and uninhabitable, the society liquidated and destroyed its own architecture. Preservation through re-functioning, revitalization is a very recent phenomenon for Turkey. But a recent acceleration has been achieved in the preservation operations by the attainment of a contribution of the historical environment to the economic life of the country or the region while providing permanence and continuity to the cultural, visual and historical values held on individual or environmental scales. A historical environment in zmir (Symrna) is living a metamorphose in this sence. This environment is consisting of vernacular architectural structures constructed during 1840-1910, on artistic achievement of Levantine culture. As early as the 15th. century amelioration of foreign relation and the privileges during the Ottoman Empire extended to foreigners in commercial activities have encouraged the settlement of an European population called levantines, in lzmir, due to the geographical situation of the city. These people have dominated the commercial life in Izmir for almost four hundred years, have naturally affected the city and had in turn became affected by it. The historical environment mentioned above is located on a region which rapidly transforms in a sub-center. The pressure created by shopping, commercial activities and business potentials influenced the citizens to re-use the buildings even if not on a predetermined program. As the result of the restoration operations for purposes of introducing new forms of utilization, the entire outlook of the environment changed, and the streets that were dilapidated only a few back, have presently been transformed into attractive settings, candidates to take the visitors back to the authenticated atmosphere of 19th. century Izmir. In this study the transformation of the historical environment mentioned above has been analyzed and presented."
Bonaiuto, P, A. Giannini, and M Bonaiuto. "Metamorphoses of Building Perception: Experimental Observations." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992.

Over the past four years new research has been conducted on mental schemata mobilized by the common observer when s/he is engaged in visual perception of buildings, and on the surprising metamorphoses that subsequently occur, at the phenomenal level, even to the building representations. This line of research follows the studies presented in Berlin (lAPS 8, P. Bonaiulo, M. Miceu Romano & F. Bonaiuto, 1984) and Delft (lAPS 10, P. Bonaiuto, A.M. Giannini & M. Bonaiuto, 1988). We utilized three different experimental situations: 1. Actual buidings, viewed in situ. 2. Tridimensional models of these or other buildings, proportionally reduced, and tridimensional control objects. 3. Pictorial representations of buildings, and control pictures, with varying degrees of realism. The use of more or less intense contradictions of the expectations related to buildings - i. e. the reference to, and the utilization of, architectural and urban planning anomalies, was confirmed as a fruitful method of investigation. The focal architectural anomalies include well known anomalous buildings such as the Tower of Pisa or other touristically attractive places; and, more in detail: leaning buildings, structures with acute or obtuse corners, buildings with fractured, misaligned, concave or convex facades, distorted rooms, etc. Our general research paradigm allows the comprehension and prediction of the actual metamorphogenetic process of visual images corresponding to these incongruous buidings. The findings suggest that transformations may occur from a very regular or relatively regular image (attenuation of the actual anomaly), to a realistic image (anomalies are exactly appraized) or to a more or less emphasized image ( anomalies are over-stated); and vice versa. The transformations listed above are found as functions of the following independent variables: 1. Development, accuracy and strenght of the general mental schema of building; and, in addition, the properties of several sub-schemata (i. e., specific to public or private building, etc.). 2. Observation conditions: a) Ambiguous, when subjects receive less crucial perceptual informations, thereby enhancing the number of possible perceptual solutions. In these conditions subjects are more likely to attenuate the perception of anomalies, and assimilate the image to the mental schema. b) Intermediate, when subjects receive balanced informations favouring realistic perceptual solutions. C) Unambiguous, when subjects receive many and univocal informations, with an obliged perceptual solution, very different from the expectations. These subjects tend to exaggerate the perception of anomalies; promoting a contrast process between the image and the pie-existing mental schema. 3. Verbal or non verbal messages given to the observer. These are the oral definitions and descriptions accompanying the building presentation. Also changes in physiognomic qualities connected with the manipulation of colour, shape, texture or meaningful details (flowers, etc.), are very effective in producing metamorphoses of the building perceptions. 4. Observer's cognitive style. The way the subject elaborates the incongruous images is linked to personality trait constellations and mantain itself costant when facing different kinds of anomalies. The presentation of a leaning building model and the study of metamorphoses of its perceptual image related to the observation conditions is the main ingredient of a new very quick and promising psycho-diagnostic technique.

Bagina, Helen Yousienva. "Metamorphoses of Canon." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "It's hard to imagine any culture without stable elements. True creation can be revealed only through comparison with the stable, single with the whole, individual with the tribal. In the narrow sense of the word the canon may be interpreted as the definite totality of rules, norms and proportions being set consciousnessly. According to M.M,Bakhtin in the broadest sense of the word the canon is the particular and dynamically developing tendency. As a rule, speaking of the "canon' they mean the narrow sense of the word. At once you can remember the Egyptian canon. The face is profiled, eyes are fronted, shoulders are fronted too, legs are profiled. It's well known from the school years. Any art work made on the base of the canon is like the text which not only initiated people can read but all members of the society without any exception. Any canon element is a sign, combination of elements within the canon have also the sign nature. The culture of a particular epoch is based on the system of canons. The canons are not so many in number, their manifestations in various arts are different as, let's say, the verses by one and the same poet translated into various languages There are two kinds of canons in the architecture: ones having the sources out of professional activity and others are so called withinprofessional canons. The appearance of the within-professional canons can be explained by history development when the architectural activity becomes the profession. It's not our aim to dwell upon the non-professional canons in this paper. It will he mentioned that both non-professional and withinprofessional canons have similar nature and they are based as a rule on the different sign systems. Within-professional systems of rules, norms and proportions are far from being understood by everyone, these systems may be rightly called elite. It's realy so."
Gröning, Gert. "Metamorphoses of Gardens in Comics." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. Gardens and landscapes attract popular and professional interests which are mirrored in respective publications. From a professional perspective popular publications, especially comics, seem somewhat despisable. Comics are distributed world wide and since about six decades 'Mickey Mouse/Donald Duck' hold an outstanding position in the world of comics. Since nearly all aspects of life are touched upon in comics, so are gardens and landscapes. A closer look at the presentation of these topics reveals the highly differentiated occupation of the comic authors and painters with garden and landscape issues. We assume that images of gardens and landscapes as represented in comics shape public images of parks and landscapes to an extent yet unknown. It may be more intensive than what can be expected from publications in professional journals. So, as a first step, it is the goal of the paper to isolate some of the garden and landscape related topics in comics. We will be looking at ideological implications as well as at references to the history, the design, and the use of gardens and landscapes and what this could mean for future developments in landscape architecture.
Poblotzki, Ursula. "Metamorphoses of German Landscape Architects' Image of the Model Users of Parks and Gardens During the 1950S and the 1960S." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "A proverb, allegedly a Chinese one, says: "If you want to be happy all your life, you must become a gardener". Today, this image of the happy "avid gardener" could be defined as someone who has the opportunity to express his or her personality through gardening in his or her garden and who finds a feeling of selffulfilment that way. This definition is also based on the conditions of a Western industrial society. It implies that one should be able to cultivate a garden on a voluntary basis, not in order to make a living for oneself, neither by having to produce fruit and vegetables nor by working in someone else's garden. In those non-egalitarian societies where private ownership of land is a social privilege, the "avid gardener" who has the opportunity to shape part of the landscape according to his or her own intentions, can be called privileged. Ever since landscape architecture was formed as a modern profession in Germany at the beginning of industrialization, this image of the "avid gardener" has been, implicitly and explicitly, part of its professional ideology. Its social and political implications, however, have not been reflected. Landscape architects who use that metaphor,at the same time turn into selfdeclared experts of gardening who define garden culture on their own terms and who attribute the image of the privileged "avid gardener" to fellow human beings of their choice. Deciding about how and to whom that attribute should be given, to a small elite or to the public in general, may be called a question of professional ethics. The image of the "avid gardener" has served in landscape architecture to point out the groups and classes within society who should be the focus of landscape architects' professional work and who at the same time should be given political and social influence on a broader scale. According to different points of view, this image could be very elitist or even racist, or it could be cast in a truly egalitarian and socially progressive mold. This aspect of the professional ideology shall be discussed on the basis of publications by landscape architects in the Federal Republic of Germany during the 1950s and the 1960s. In these first decades after World War II, not only a new democracy had to take shape in that country, people also had to come to terms with the Nazi past. So, even when a broad-minded image of the "avid gardener" should have been a political imperative, there were still-influential voices in landscape architecture which strove to keep the racist image of the "Arian" or the "German" as the only possible "avid gardener" alive. The gradual abandonment of this image and the rise of the notion that everyone should be able to play the role of the "avid gardener" is indicative of a rise of democratic ideals within that profession as well as within society in general towards the end of the 1960s."
Martinidis, Petros. "Metamorphoses of Some Aesthetic Appreciations: High Symbolisms and Low Pleasures, Or Vice Versa?" In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "The aim of this paper is to examine the ways recent architectural and artistic proposals are received by the public, and to turn some vague generalities into valid generalizations. During the postmodernist era most of the renovations in architecture and art consist in playful evocations of past forms mixed up in scholarly arranged works. But the majority of the public to which the cultured fantasies of the artists are adressed are not equally educated individuals, easily understanding the historical quotations, or fed up with modernists frugality. The same way, then, the high morals of an ancient tragedy may degrade for an untutored audience to mere human sympathy, a cultivated reference may be taken as a perfectly unjustified fancy. Nevertheless to treat art in general and architcture in particular as a pleasurable experience rather than as a significant phenomenon is not such a major sin, provided a crucial,, distinction is made between an authentic sensuous or intellectual pleasure and a pretentious predilection for the fashionable. Pleasure, in other words, is not so far away from the so-called "aesthetic emotion which is supposed to be the source and the import of any artistic creation. Often enough then, and under certain cirumstances that have to be defined, the eye of the beholder may provide much more than an appreciative recipient for such or such other work and it may exceed the artists views and programmations, transforming into high intellectual pleasure what in some cases begins as a rather platitudinous symbolism. But then again every occasion of intellectual pleasure is not accompannied by aesthetic emotion. The pleasure felt by, say, the organizing committee of an international congress because the hilarious formulations of the invitation tend to break some academic taboos, has no aesthetic value. The breaking-of a taboo, even of an academic one, does not always offer emotional release. Breaking a vase would do better still."
Liakatas, I, A. Liakata, S Psarra, K Kakoyiannis, and Z. Kotionis. "Metamorphosis - Space and Culture." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992.

"Metamorphosis - space and culture. The issues of physical and cultural change bring into discussion a question which has been fundamental for the Architectural theory during the last three centuries: that of the connection between spatial form and culture. It is by observing changes in space and culture that the effect of the one onto the other is sought, claimed or denied. A historic account of the ideas concerning the relation between space and society is beyond the interests of this report which limits itself in those ideas which conceive physical environment as the product of the society and vice versa (Functionalism or Modernism), or as only representational of social functions, or even autonomous and self-referential (PostModernism). The understanding of the bonds between society and space, life-style and architecture, cannot be based on either one taken separately. Architecture apart from belonging to the visual Arts and representing culture through an econographic system of visual form, forms also a constituent of society through the organization of space and, at the end, constitutes a "metalanguage" embodying as contents formulations of previous contents. The research carried out for the city of Kalamata is presented as an example to illustrate this role of Architecture. The constitutive aspects of space-the spatial and social analysis of the city of Kalamata. The property of Architecture to organise artistic expression is undeniable. However, it is argued that what is interesting is not only the meaning that is represented by the Architectural form but also the meaning of the spatial morphological properties themselves, the underlying spatial patterns which have already embedded social patterns and vice versa. The social relations of differentiation for example can only be preserved of social categories are spatially separated. The urban morphology. In a part of the research which was carried out for the city of Kalamata the global morphological properties of urban space, the properties of individual houses in relation to the urban context as well as in themselves were analysed. The research used also the historical data recognising that a pure morphological analysis could not ever on its own fully explain the properties which were described. Analysis of the urban space identified two distinct patterns of spatial morphology which coexist side by side. The first pattern is defined by a core consisting of long and densely located lines streching out from the North to the South. The second one is defined by a core which consists of lines that are not clustered but equally distributed throughout the area. The phenomenon of the two different typologies of urban layout was explained through historical information which revealed that the Neo Classical plan of the 1905 and the changes which followed attempted to disconnect the area which is characterised by the second pattern form the rest of the city as it is today."

Potter, James. "Metamorphosis and the Elderly: Environmental Support." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. Metamorphosis (meta = post or after and morphi = form): The action or process of changing form, shape or substance; the complete change in the appearance, circumstances, condition, character of a person, of affairs, etc.; the modification of an organ or structure in form or function; or simply radical, striking change. Why is so much attention being focused upon the elderly? One key to this question is the metamorphosis in numbers. There are now more older people than ever before in history. These numbers are greater, not only because of the unprecedented population increase in the past century, but because people are living longer. Thus, the proportion of older people in the population is rising. However, this is not the only reason for the attention. Another reason is the metamorphosis that occurs both within the aging population as well as between elderly individuals and their relationship to the environment that surrounds them. As people reach an advanced age, physical infirmities begin to place limitations on them that had not previously existed, thus requiring greater levels of care and support from the social and physical environment. This paper considers the more extreme end of the aging process - i.e., metamorphosis - by focusing on the intensive end of the care continuum - - in this case a long-term care facility for the elderly. Health, well-being and independence are three essential goals associated with long-term care programs for the elderly. In the vast majority of these programs, the emphasis is upon physical, psychological, or social factors that contribute to these goals. Only infrequently is the role of the built environment considered as a significant element in the individual's life, other than when it seems to hinder such goals. This paper examines the question of whether and how the built environment can be a positive factor in the metamorphosis of aging. The investigation compares the goals of the administrative staff and designer of a facility with the residents' actual responses to a newly finished building. It also compares residents' assessments of how well the newly built facility satisfies their needs as opposed to their assessments of the former building. It considers the steps taken in the preparation and pre-testing of the survey instrument designed for gathering user assessments of the built environment based on the social goals of the administrative staff. It discusses the difficulties of gathering data from an elderly population and how this affects sample size. However, the main thrust of the paper is the results of the pre- and post-move surveys, exploring resident's satisfaction and/or dissatisfaction with the two buildings. Finally, the paper examines the implications the research has for the design of other such facilities, as well as for the execution of future research regarding the built environment's role as a supportive factor in people's metamorphosis into that stage of human development we refer to as elderly.
Imamoglu, Vacit. "Metamorphosis in Forty Years: a Case Study of Kayseri." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "Kayseri, the old Roman Ceaserea, is a central Anatolian town that has lived through Roman, Arabic, Seljukid and ottoman periods. Due to its strategic location and,rich hinterland it had a significant role in Anatolia. After the First World War drastic changes occurred in demographic, social and economic lives of Turkish people. Especially the economic boom of the 1950's gave way to a fast urbanization leading to dramatic changes in urban life-styles and physical environments. Paralleling this, Kayseri Municipality has enacted various master plans in 40 years; each imposing a grid-iron layout upon and around the medieval-type old town, to create a so-called "modern" city at the expense of destroying most of its historical quarters. The paper aims at summarizing some important changes in the demographic and physical form of the city since the Roman times and discussing details of demographic, social, cultural and economic dimensions of a metamorphosis that occurred in the last 40 years in Kayseri."
Küller, Rikard, and Laike Thorbjörn. "Metamorphosis in Traffic Behavior." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. Traffic has become a serious threat to modern society. Excessive traffic causes noise, accidents, and air pollution. Too much traffic in the urban environment will directly affect the amount of time people spend outdoors, as well as their physical activities. Air pollution will also have an adverse effect on the general health of people. In addition, there are well documented adverse effects on buildings, vegetation, and the global climate. Numerous attempts are now made all over the world to come to terms with the traffic in the cities by means of technical or legislative solutions. Traffic restrictions, catalytic exhaust treatment, electric propulsion, and collective vehicles, are being tried out in many of the cities suffering from the excessive traffic syndrome. However, the solutions are not to be found only in the technological and economic realms, but in the attitudes and motivations of millions of everyday car users. What is needed, is a profound change of a psychological kind, a true metamorphosis of the mind. To begin with, we will need an analysis from the environmental psychology point of view of the many factors that may influence, and eventually bring about a change in, people's traffic attitudes. The present study constitutes one such attempt. The idea of the study has been to relate the environmental awareness of car users to their own transportation needs and traffic behavior, in an attempt to understand the motivational patterns underlying their decisions of using or not using the private car. One aim of the study has been to assess what restrictions to their own traffic behavior ordinary people would be willing to accept. One hundred subjects, with varying driving experience, but all holding a driver's license, were presented with forty different kinds of traffic restrictions, and asked to list them in terms of acceptability and encroachment. y means of multivariate analysis, it was possible not only to rank order the various restrictions, but also to recognize the underlying motivations and identify subgroups of people, who expressed dissimilar attitudes. The results from this first part of the study will be presented, and the implications of possible changes for the built environment will be discussed.
Reno, Judith. "Metamorphosis of Cultural Dreams in the Los Angeles Avant - Garde House: Innovation and Consumption in a Capitalistic Economy." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. The Industrial revolution was a technological revolution which established the rights of social, material and intellectual equality. Capitalism, an economic system in which all or most of the means of production and distribution are privately owned and operated for profit, originally under fully competitive conditions, has been generally characterized by a tendency toward concentration of wealth, and, in its later phase, by the growth of great corporations and increased governmental control. In a capitalistic society which generally dismisses the revelatory power of dreams as irrelevant to real life, cultural dreams addressing unfulfilled human rights evolve within the production of its artifacts. Dreams, according to Sigmund Freud, are disguised expressions of unconscious needs which are suppressed by constraints of our society. Some dreams provide simple wish fulfillment or expressions of anxiety. Other dreams, strange and illogical, are revealed in displaced forms or symbols. As manifestations of cultural dreams, the avant-garde house of Los Angeles - like the motion picture, provides models of response to prevailing socio-economic circumstances. The evolving technological innovation and formal expression of the Los Angeles avant-garde house over the past nine decades reflect personal interpretations of those eras by architects who serve as the conscience or poets of their time. Los Angeles architecture can be described as autoecious, meaning living all life Istylisticj cycles on one host - as certain parasites do. Thus metamorphosis of that work, conceived and promoted within the competitiveness and values of a capitalistic economic system, has been and continues to be selectively appropriated by the mass market. The avant-garde house and motion picture of Los Angeles. like publicity, provide illusions of reality unattainable to the masses. They portray an overstated sense of order of an ideal image for life and happiness which is both understandable and remote. Both are powerful forms of mass media propaganda and have sustained a symbiotic relationship throughout this century. (L.A's architecture has been promoted since the turn-of-the century in motion picture, museums, and popular magazines including: The Craftsman, California Arts and Architecture, House and Garden, and more recently in women's fashion magazines such as Vogue.) From1850-1950 the population of Los Angeles grew from 5,000 to over 2,000,000. Linkage of Los Angeles to the intercontinental railroad system in 1876 and 1885, coupled with an active promotion scheme at the beginning of the 20th century, initiated inflated real estate profits for the region. The booming real estate market attracted the migration of numerous young architects to Los Angeles to practice their art. In 1907 the first movie was made in Los Angeles; in 1908 architects Green and Green completed the Gamble House in Pasadena. This paper examines the houses of architects Green and Green, Irving Gill, Frank Lloyd Wright, Rudolph Schindler, Richard Neutra, Charles Moore, Charles and Ray Eames, Frank Gehry, Thom Mayne (of Morphosis), and Craig Hodgetts - as morphogenetic responses to the changing socioeconomic context of Twentieth century Los Angeles and as perpetuators of the general public's perceived needs. The general public, subject to a barrage of myth and publicity, selects style of house from programmed images of fantasies and values which create the illusion of home. Publicity is the life of this culture - in so far as without publicity capitalism could not survive - and at the same time publicity is its dream... It propogates through images that society's belief in itself... It is closely related to certain ideas about freedom... Publicity turns consumption into a substitute for democracy... Publicity helps to mask and compensate for all that is undemocratic within society It proposes to each of us that we transform ourselves, or our lives by buying something more... Ways of Seeing, John Berger
Armstrong, Helen. "Metamorphosis of Cultural Identity: Environmental Heritage Confusions in a Multicultural New World." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. This paper will explore the metamorphosis of cultural values with particular emphasis on environmental heritage. It will explore the change in concepts of environmental heritage from the global environmental concerns of the 1960s which led to the World Heritage Convention to the current concepts of environmental heritage as part of the hyper-reality and spectacle developed for the economics of tourism. It will also investigate the hemimetabolous changes of the notion of heritage from the Old World to one New World - Australia - which is manifest as an unresolved identification with place where the European notions of heritage as antiquity are translated as the ancient Australian landscape and the aboriginal mythology, thus devaluing the perceptions of place evolved since European settlement. This has three effects; firstly the inevitable dissatisfaction with white Australian heritage when only European values of antiquity and excellence are used as measures of worth; secondly, the denial of an aboriginal culture which is contemporary and has its own recent history of 200 years; and thirdly, the lack of recognition of Australia's recent multicultural heritage generated over the last 50 years. These factors reveal cultural discontinuities which can be considered as incomplete metamorphoses and are in strong contrast to the cultural continuity of the Old World. The paper suggests that there is a need to switch from heritage manifest as artefacts and icons to heritage represented as stories, myths and cultural themes. The paper will also address the complexity involved in identifying New World relationships to place within the particular context of the 1980s where the condition of post modernity has resulted in universality intermingling with historicism to produce ephemeral and confusing images of place; a cultural production which further widens the schism between the actual environmental heritage of Australia and the pseudo-environmental heritage which is now evident everywhere. The cultural thematic histories of the Anglo Australians, the multicultural Australians and the Aboriginal Australians will be discussed with particular reference to how these themes are manifest as place. The paper will conclude by arguing for the redefining of environmental heritage so that it becomes part of the total environmental debate - a metamorphosis from antiquity and icons to the aesthetic of cultural meanings in the total environment.
Gaydukova, Nora. "Metamorphosis of Environment: Imagination and Reality." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. Environment is a source of our impressions and a result of our imagination. Metamorphosis of environment reflects not only its alterations, but changing of our being as well. For the good temper a person even not very attractive environment looks comfortable. On bad-tempered person the most perfect environment acts irritatively. Mean while environment provides effect of getting habitual for inhabitants and being approved by them as a result. In the North e.g., in spite of architectural poverty, cold weather, and limited contacts between people there is however basis for adaptation. Some elements carried from native life are enough for such an adaptation we could have in Vorkuta for example the same book-stalls as in S-Petersburg. Imagination helps successfully to avoid unwanted reality. On the other hand real environment provides growth of environmental imagination. It is as certained that intelligence of children who are living in central, with plenty of architecture districts of S-Petersburg, is higher then that of children grown up in dull satellites. We consider of course that social positions of their parents are equal. Environmental culture of S-Petersburg provided metamorphosis in architecture, art and sciences and gave birth to many famous intellectuals. Its influence was strong enough to transform recent migrants into step by step. But for last 20 years takes place process of negative metamorphosis which demonstrates itself through neglected appearance of Nevsky prospect. Decay of environment nowadays is uneveritable because of cramps of politic and economic. Mean while some sings of regeneration are seen. Putting of the monument of Peter I made by the pointer M. Sh. in Pi-Paul at the time as this city has got its original name affirms reality of that process. Illusions and reality as united parts of one whole process are the subject of study.
Tsinikas, Nicolaos. "Metamorphosis of Spaces to Fulfill Acoustic Requirements." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. Acoustic design of spaces for speech or music is needed for new buildings. Architects and acousticians collaborate for a common cause to create an adequate space where sound is of primary importance in the design procedure. In that respect, acoustics is considered to be part of the design process since it creates something from the beginning and it can be considered as positive thinking. On the other hand, changing the utilization of an existing space to a space for speech or music, acoustic design is focusing in reducing or eliminating the acoustic faults rather creating an optimum space. This is a fact that is totally dependant on the shape of the space, it's geometry, it's volume and a number of existing construction solutions which cause difficulties for adaptations of new requirements. The transformation of a space, in order to fulfill acoustic requirements, must follow certain criteria related to the basic acoustic design of rooms. These are: a) statistic acoustics by means of optimum reverberation time, calculation of the surfaces of sound absorptive materials and b) geometric acoustics by means of reflecting surfaces, diffusing elements and absorptive surfaces. The final shape of the room depends on the proportions of the dimensions, the use of the room (speech or music), the volume of the room, the number of the audience and the type of seats. The acoustic qualities that take part in the design are the directivity of human voice, the directivity of musical instruments, the angle of direct sound to the audience, the enforcement of sound through reflecting surfaces, the introduction of diffusing elements near the sound source, the positioning of porous absorptive materials as far as possible from the sound source, the positioning of low frequency resonators near the sound source and the elimination of acoustic faults such as echo, long delayed reflections, flatter echoes, focusing, acoustic shadows e.t.c. This paper shows the stages that a designer follow in order to reach that goal from a simple rectangular space to an appropriate shape for acoustic performance. It will be shown step by step through sketches, in plan and in section, how the final shape is a transformation of a rectangular simple shape. An example of an existing rectangular space with the transformation stages will be also shown without changing the overall shape of the outside shell. The following topics will be discussed: a) sound directivity and optimum shape of plans, elimination of parallel side walls to avoid flatter echoes, b) direct sound angle and optimum shape of sections, c) use of a small part of side walls and a small part of the ceiling as reflecting surfaces, d) elimination of back corners to avoid echoes, e) elimination of near corners to avoid delayed reflections and f) introducing reflectors and diffusers.
Knox, Paul. "Metamorphosis of the Metropolis: the Packaged Builtscapes of Postsuburban America." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. American cities are not what they were a few years ago Preliminary census returns for 1990 show that, for the first time, more than half of America's population lives in metropolitan areas of a million or more people. But the changes experienced by cities go far beyond demographics. Cities look different. They have a decisively different form, structure, and appearance. And, within the framework of newly developed and redeveloped tracts of urban land, beneath the exoskeleton of new architectural styles and redesigned cityscapes, there have emerged some important new cultural, social and political dynamics. Of course, cities are constantly changing and adapting as the restless formation and reformation of the built environment responds to the dynamics of a constantly evolving economy and society. This restlessness has been particularly pronounced, however, since the mid 1970s. Epochal changes in the world economy have brought new needs, opportunities and tensions that have quickly been written into the landscapes of cities. The classic mosaic of city neighborhoods has become blurred as the distinguishing features of class, race and family status have been overscored by lifestyle and cultural preferences. Long-established neighborhoods have either fallen into decay and social disorganization or have been 'reclaimed' by members of the bourgeoning new professional middle classes. Central Business Districts (CBDs) have experienced a selective recentralization of economic activity that has brought a renaissance of urbanity, a rash of speculative building and a sudden move toward conserving selected fragments and re-creating idealized tableaux of past development. Beyond the central city, suburban strips and subdivisions have been displaced as the conventional forms of new development by exurhan corridors, office parks, business campuses, privately-planned residential communities, and outlying commercial centers big enough to be called 'edge cities.' The builtscape of these settings is characterized by packaged landscapes and by landscapes of mixed densities and unexpected juxtapositions of forms and functions. The high tide of the latest real estate and development boom (1984-1989) has left American cities with some remarkable new packages,' not least among which are private, master-planned communities that have appeared around every large metropolitan area, creating a series of artful fragments that seem likely to prefigure the postsuburban form of the fin de millénium metropolis. Unlike their distant antecedents in the Garden City and New Town movements, their provenance is almost entirely from within the private sector, their objectives being concerned less with planning and urban design as solutions to problems of urbanization than as solutions to the problem of securing profitable new niches within the urban development industry. At the same time, they are radically different in scale, layout and composition from the residential subdivisions that have characterized the past 40 years or more of metropolitan decentralization. This paper examines this phenomenon in detail, treating them as the product of the confluence of post-Fordist economics and postmodern cultural sensibilities.
Arribas, Alonso Maria Ines. "Metamorphosis of the Quality of Urban Life: a Process of Synergy. Pericentral Areas of Santiago of Chile." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "The change in the strategies of territorial ocupation of the pericentral Lone of Santiago, where the market is nowadays the main agent of resource allocation, has transformed the preexisting use dynamics and has produced a negative impact on the quality of life of the residential habitat, a reality still not fully understood within our context of local planning. We detect the presence of strong changes that refeict this deterioration: environmental unbalances in the public and private space; excessive proliferation of commercial and services activities to the detriment of others, specially housing; loss of cornplemeritarity in the use of the public space and low degree of integration between the different activities and users; changes of scale in the occupation of the territory of the new uses -excessive size, extension and frequency- produce an inordinate demand to the public space, since it is not adapted to the new conditions of social use; the residential growth of the urban peripl1ey with depopulation of the center of the town results in serious urban dysfunctions at the global city level. I he trar)5+ormation of the habitat quality of life could be interpreted in the same way from the meaning of metamorphosis' visualizing it as a whole, resulting from factors and variables associated to the different urban uses, at conditions of dynamic equilibrium, evolving as a synergic process toward successive degrees o4- a more stable organization. The key hypothesis consists in that the quality of the residential habitat is the outcome of the balance among uses associated to a given site (street, block, sector) in which the different forces interact conferring a new quality to the whole of the public space : higher organization and greater social heterogeneity, functional and physical, which will bear upon a better quality of life of the dweller. To achieve some stability in the major levels of organization and integration, two conditions must be fulfilled: The sufficient separation and identity of the different agents of the process functional, social and physical- and the sufficient connections among them to allow the constant input of "energy = transforming capacity' producing a process of constant adjustment which must reduce the +riction of divergent interests, an indispensable condition to assure the quality of life of the habitat."
Donald, Ian. "Metamorphosis Or Multiple Perspectives in Office Evaluation." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. When people evaluate a building there are an array of purposes and goals which are the criteria for that evaluation. Interestingly, some of the purposes in relation to which people evaluate a place appear to be conflicting. For example, evaluation of an office may be in terms of the extent to which it allows a person to be distinct, cut off, from the rest of the organization or group. On the other hand communication and interaction, the essence of organization, are central to a person's activities in an office. These more positively social purposes are also criteria for assessment. This issue was directly addressed in research to develop a multivariate facet model of workers' office evaluations. Three facets of office evaluation were proposed. The first facet deals with the scale of the environment being evaluated, and includes the elements of office building, office, and work space. A second facet specifies the environmental referent which includes the elements of spatial, service, and socio-spatial aspects of the office. Finally, the third facet specifies the organizational unit which represents the level of the goals people have within an organization in relation to the office environment. It is the third facet that allows the above issues to be addressed, and includes the elements of organizational, group, and individual goals. A forty-one item questionnaire was developed from the facets, and distributed randomly throughout four different office buildings. A total usable sample of 215 participants was achieved. The data were analyzed using the non-metric multidimensional scaling procedure of SSA-1. The analysis procedure provides a spatial representation of the associations between the questionnaire items, and is used to test the validity of the facets and their elements, as well as to reveal the empirical relationships between them. In terms of a model of office evaluation, the results provide general support for each of the facets and their elements. Additionally the results suggest that environmental factors related to cohesion in the organization were central to the evaluations, with communication being peripheral. In relation to the issue of conflicting purposes, one of the central findings of the study is that people hold different perspectives for the evaluation of the office environment. Each perspective relates to a particular set of goals. From organizational psychology it would be predicted that there would be a conflict between individual and organizational perspectives, yet the present study clearly revealed this not to be the case. Within the lAPS 12 context, there remains the intriguing question of whether metamorphosis (a change in form or state that resuts in a different entity to that which began) occurs when making evaluations for different purposes, or whether, rather than change from one being to another, people are simultaneously many things with many perspectives.
Symes, Valerie. "Migration, the Urban Environment and the Success of European Cities." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. There has been a metamorphosis in the powers of attraction of different European cities for migrants within Europe in the past three decades. The reasons for migration of different groups of the population have changed significantly. Economic factors were largely important at the beginning of the period encouraging shifts of workers from poorer southern areas of Europe to the richer industrial cities of the north where the demand for labour could not be met by internal population growth.It was largely the unskilled and underemployed who made up the bulk of these migrants. During the 1970s with the change in economic fortunes of the industrialised northern cities this immigration slowed.Environmental factors started to play a larger part in migration decisions. The largercities of northern Europe with high congestion and pollution costs, ageing city centres and industrial dereliction lost out to medium sized towns with easier access and more pleasant environments. Firms chose these locations for expansion and workers relocated. People, however, were still following jobs. The most recent observation of significance to European cities has been a movement of the most highly skilled technical and professional workers away from large northern European cities to Mediterranean and Alpine cities. These groups of migrants have responded to the perceived advantages of climate, leisure opportunities, reduced pollution and congestion levels and the physical attractiveness of these urban centres. The numbers involved in this type of migration are small but the impact could be large and is likely to grow. For the first time in Europe economic activity is following the migration rather than initiating it. Cities are responding to this movement by vying to attract these particular groups , so vital to the economic future of the city in an age of growing tertiary activity, with shop window techniques. With the advent of the Single European Market at the end of 1992 remaining restrictions on inter-country migration within the European Community will be removed, and a common standard accepted for professional qualifications throughout the area. It is predicted that the search for better living conditions and the fulfillment of life-sylle dreams will result in an increased movement of the well qualified young towards the'high amenity' cities of Europe. This will have a profound effect on both the losers and the gainers,, changing the fortunes of cities, and possibly resulting in a response from cities in their priorities. It may be perceived as better to spend to attract the rich than to increase the welfare of the poor; better to become an attractive advertising image than a real place in which to live and work. There is evidence that this is already happening in some cities.
Hunt, John Dixon. "Modern Representations of Gardens." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. Garden historians inevitably invoke representations of gardens - photographs, paintings, drawings, engravings, plans, design sketches, etc. - for their work; but they rarely ask how the specific form of their evidence shapes it (and therefore their conclusions about it), how the specific garden - either proposed or already established - is mediated metamorphosed, by its presentation. Given the current concern as to whether landscape architecture has adequately responded to the challenge of modernism, to ignore the graphic language of garden (re)presentations and its relationship to actual finished designs is to deny oneself as historian/theoretician a fundamental piece of evidence. Using some earlier twentieth examples of post-impressionist, are nouveau, cubist and constructivist garden designs to illustrate both the thesis and the methodology of this analysis, this contribution will mainly focus upon gardens in the advertising of the last quarter century. A medium where we expect to be manipulated is the ideal testing ground for an enquiry into the ideological assumptions about gardens that are available today to both consumers (gardeners) and their suppliers (whether these are elitist landscape architects or the do-it-yourself prescriptions of commercial garden centres). It will be shown that the range of popular ideas about gardens generaUy is exceptionally limited. In comparison with the literature on gardens available outside these media especially the enquiries by geographers ecologists, even poets - the gardens of advertising, which we may take as representative of a widely held view of them, suggest by the paucity of their ideology one dramatic reason why modernist landscape architecture has failed to grapple with the traditional challenge of gardens to produce a rich and complex environmental arena for living. In contrast to the garden imagery of modern advertising can be opposed the designs of those whose philosophy is precisely to exploit the fullest range of ideas about gardens: where site is metamorphosed into both sight and insight, where genius loci is - as traditionally it always has been - a complex result of the intersection of subject and object. This will be illustrated by the work of two contemporary European designers, Ian Hamilton Finlay and Bernard Lassus.
Cavanagh, Ted. "Molecular Metamorphosis: Changes in Architectural Attitudes Toward Material." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. Crises in the use of materials frustrate architectural convention. Contemporary attitudes to materials have a possible analogy to the introduction of steel and lightweight structural materials into architecture in the nineteenth century. That historical crisis saw a variety of encounters with these new materials ranging from the conservative refusal to assimilate to the progressivist and positivist blind adoption. A similar range of attitudes exist today toward contemporary materials. The contemporary crisis is multifaceted, but one strong contributing factor Is a challenge to conventional attitudes about the integrity of materials. Architects, and therefore their resultant building strategies, retain residual attitudes about the truth of materials, but these are frustrated by the mute mystery of artificial materials. What material is that? Is a 'stone wall' still called stone if the stone is only millimeters thick? Prejudicial attitudes to vinyl siding, especially vinyl siding Imprinted with wood grain (the ultimate dishonesty, pretending to be something your not,) are resoundingly similar to derogatory statements about steel, and Its obvious lack of mass. Mass, after all, was the basis of all true architecture. The integrity and the honesty of materials Is the contemporary equivalent: honesty of materials, after all, is the basis of all true architecture. The human making of our world is currently happening at the molecular scale. Invention of new materials, and the molecular manipulation of traditional materials like wood, frustrate definitions of material based on the human senses. This is happening all ready in many ways: plywood, still, a only mechanical manipulation of wood, does not span linearly like sticks, memory Is a newly significant quality of materials and the historical change from monolithic as a visual term to monolithic as structural term. All indicate of past or current change in the definition of material or material qualities. The recession of mass as the basis of all true architecture demonstrates what Is inevitably about to happen to our currently steadfast attitude about the importance of the integrity of materials. What new attitude will replace it? Is it, in fact, important to have a new attitude? This paper will attempt to argue that these shifts of paradigm are important and inevitable, but, also, that a form of punctuated equilibria is also inevitable. After all, the blessing of living in a troubled time is the potential to contribute to the forming of new attitudes toward architecture. The redefinition of material will be an essential contributor to these new attitudes.
Muntanola, Thornberg Josep. "Morphogenesis and Architecture (Architecture as a Socio - Physical Form)." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. The paper will summarize several years of research on architectural thoeries and practices. The introduction describes three parallel axis of research, a) The psico-genetic analisys of children's conceptions of places to live in, b) The historical and political basis of architecture and C) The critical analyses of architectural theories of modernity in the last century. The common link among these three different axis of research points to the central argument of the present paper: the sociophysical form of the Art to make Architecture in the most genuine aristotelian sense. This hypotesis is supported in the second chapter by study cases of sociophysical transformations in Catalonia in the last ten years. (The study cases will simultaneously conform an exhibit at the Conference in Thessalonika) The third chapter will expand the notion of sociophysical art, or Art to make Architecture, by saying that morphogenetic transformations are the key to understand the sociophysical nature of architecture. These morphogenetic transformations evolve from the antropomorphic architecture by children to our soclomorphic artificial buildings and cities. Finally as an hommage to the greek culture and to the Aristotelian University, the Dialogue is presented as the most sophisticated and human last stage of the morphogenetic analysis of architecture. We just began to understand the richness and the significance of this last stage for human survival.
Tetsuo, Seguchi. "Morphological Changes in Shopping Streets." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. A city is subjected to a certain extent to pressure to change. Shopping street in a city has a tendency to change more easily than other parts of a city such as residential areas. As a matter of fact, many changes in shopping streets are extended from its substance and appearance can be seen. In this paper, morphological changes of shopping streets in Japanese cities are focused as one of the examples of the metamorphosis of the tuiltscape. Morphological changes may occur within a framework of the legal planning system such as the Planning Act and the building regulations. Generally uny buildings in shopping streets in Japan have not been built up to the upper limit of the legal capacity of space based on the floor ratio and the building-to-land ratio requirement. Therefore there are legal possibilities for the change of appearance and form in many shops in shopping streets. The popular scene of the morphological changes under these circumstances is the co-existence of many types of buildings. The height and the volume of buildings are different from each other. The roofs of buildings are also different. For example one is a pitched roof and other is a level roof. Individual interest and preference has a strong influence on these changes. At the declining shopping streets some of the plots become vacant land. so it seems to people that the appearance of shopping street reflects the business condition of each shopping street. It is said that morphological changes of shopping streets is a reversible process. If we take up time of the change process, some differences could be identified in the morphological changes; partial progress, gradual progress and drastic progress. In the first type, partial progress, street lamp poles, sign boards, neon lights and colored pavings may be replaced for improvement of the shopping street. The partial change may occur in the facade of the shops. The front part of the shop is reconstructed and new front acts as a mask. This type of change is partial and less effective. This takes less time for implementation. The second type is a gradual progress. It takes a long time for implementation. The third type is a drastic change. Changing may happen in most of the buildings in the short term. In this case a lot of reconstruction works may be done in accordance with some urban projects such as road widening and the land readjustment schemes. As a result, the appearance of shopping streets change. Sometimes these modifications have some rule on the appearance. Each shop is built according to the rule. I could find some directions in the morphological changes of shopping streets, namely, 1) traditional, 2) modern, 3) post-modern, 4) exotic etc. A case study is used to illustrate the points and direction of the morphological changes in the shopping streets.
Tsoukala, Kyriaki. "Morphoses Verbales, Metamorphoses Spatiales Le Cas De La Representation De L' Espace Urbain Chez L' Enfant." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. conference:IAPS:12
Skouteri-Didaskalou, Eleonora. "Nature and Men: World - Views, Attitudes and Social Practices. the Case of Modern Greek Traditional Culture." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "Adam In Paradise (Paradlsus Terrestris: the realm of Man) "Man takes possession of the world in symbolic images by naming things. For this reason, Adam's first work in Paradise was to give names to animals, plants, and things. Naming a thing gives power over it. In contradistinction, Yahweh's name is unspeakable. For if His name should be uttered, He would be submitted to the will of him who knows it. The sorcerer evokes the demons of hell by calling their names..." (Ludwig von Bertalanffy, The Tree of Knowledge) Nature//Culture (Society) he unknown world of machines. Machines as the outcome of "machinery". The beneign world of Nature against the demonic "nature" of the machines] (I/you versus lilt) Man as a social and nature being Homo Faber [hands, eyes, ears: the "natural" ("biological") perception of the world] Homo (Faber) Sapiens: Homo Sapiens Sapiens [hands, eyes, ears, memory: man as a social-historical being] Human attitudes towards nature in traditional society Everyday world (society and nature) versus sacred or mythological world (Nature vs. Society). The world is either familiar (i.e. touchable, thus open to use, mediated, alienated) or far-away (mythical, thus maniputable through magic or analogical thought: God, demons and religious practices and ritualistic behaviour: the ritual mediation of the opposition: Nature//Culture or Known//unknown or here//out there... Either way, nature (and/or Nature) is inhabited, alienated; with no void at all, no chaos whatsoever: horror vacui is the driving force in traditional society. "When it thunders and lightens it is Prophet Eilah running on his chariot across the sky chasing the Dragon to kill him" (most Greek regions). Natural and social organisation of apace I Natural and social organisation of time: (ecological and structural space, ecological and structural time) The economy is ecological agricultural/pastoral production, trade (by foot or animals/or animaldriven vehicles), manufacture (opera manu: hand-made works) ...Consumption is equally smallscale, man-measured. (Changes related to the measure of production/consumption processes or to the technology used (e.g., raw materials here/elaboration and industrial production of finished products elsewhere) are marked out as peculiar, strange and dangerous or even unconveivable and totally unacceptable.] Men and the realm of nature savage vs. domesticated world (the flexibility of boundaries). Nature domesticated: animal myths and fairy-tales (anthropomorphism, zoomorphism). The domestication of nature: nature as an indispensable part of social relation (e.g., animal name-giving, place name-giving) Oikos (ecology) = nature and society (or, society in nature). The idea of Nature in traditional societies 'iou,_Ego/alterL. Nature is continuously used, and never exhausted. Nature is protected by its very relations with men (e.g. sacred places, sacred periods of time, sacred animals, sacred trees etc). Production and consuption follows the rythms of Nature. "When a tree does not produce fruit, its owner takes an axe and pretends to strike down the tree with it, saying "You either give fruit of I'll cut you". Then someone else, attending the ritual, grasps his hand pretending that he holds the owner of the tree from cutting it, and says: "Let it be! Now it will do as and what you order". This ritual enactment is called "threatening" - (from the island of Skiathos)."
Rachel, Kallus, and Hubert Law-Yone. "Neighbourhood - Metamorphosis of an Idea." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "Metamorphosis, as the sequential evolution of a being from one shape to another, involves continuity and change. Thus it is a conspicuous process whereby change is clearly marked on a time scale. Focusing on these time markers it is possible to describe change and to delineate its nature and tendencies. Along these assumptions the metamorphosis of an idea is being explored and presented as a process of conceptual dynamics. The idea of the neighbourhood, being crucial to the design and planning of the urban environment, appears and reappears in contemporary theories of architecture and planning as a key concept. At first glance, it seems to be coherent and uniformly accepted, since its application in the field is accompanied by very little professional argument. However, investigating this idea as it formulates itself in architecture and planning theory, from the turn of the century to our days, suggests that this idea is far from being clearly defined as a rigid conception, but is rather a flexible notion which varies over time. These conceptual variations, as they evolve and revealed over time, are the subject of this investigation. Assuming that the idea of neighbourhood is not homogeneous but contains a number of subjects, or 'motifs", which reappear in different form and provide content and meaning to the concept, its changing essence is explored according to the specific emphasis these motifs receive. Accordingly, progression from the idea signified by the centrality of one motif to another, traces the idea's transformation over time. Thus, a line of change is sketched by which it is possible to describe the transformations of the idea of neighbourhood. Furthermore a characterization of this change is possible through the classification of different conditional phases in the transformation. Thus, three types of transitions between phases are defined according to mutual relationships between phases: (1) reaction, where emphasis on one motif is formed as a reaction to earlier motif, (2) growth, where emphasis on one motif extends the earlier motif, and (3) co-existence, where emphasis on a motif coexists simultaneously with another motif. This inquiry explores the dynamics of change rather than its causes and reasons. However, by sketching a line of change along the phases of transformation and exploring these phases inter-relations, it is possible to point out to some explanations as they derive from the specific nature of planing practices and from its theoretical inclinations."
Welsh, Richard. "Networks and Local Information Resources for Creating Sustainable Cities." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "This paper argues that local community involvement and networking activity, supported by local environmental resource centres, constitute a key dimension of sustainable environmental change. We will examine networking processes in the context of the European cityscape, the development of local strategies for implementing sustainability and developments in European policy since the publication of the Green Paper on the Urban Environment (11990). Community Involvement and Networking The paper cites examples of networks, their aims, problems and achievements. Examples will be given of local networks (city-based networks), regional networks (provincial or international) and inter-city networks (such as the "Multi-City Action" of the European Healthy City Project). Local development often fails because it does not satisfy local needs or aspirations. Authorities need to support more "bottom up" local initiatives and to learn how to undertake more effective consultation on their local plans and on individual development proposals. Two mechanisms for enabling a process of involvement, consultation and empowerment will be considered: forums (e.g. Environment and Transport Forums); and initiatives in education to promote citizenship and environmental action (e.g. the OECD Environment & Schools Initiatives Project). Local Environmental Resource Centres The concept of "urban local initiative centres" proposed by the Green Paper will be assessed alongside the practical work of 3 pilot urban local initiative centres (in towns in Belgium, France and Holland) and the role of comparable local environmental resource centres such as urban studies centres in the U.K. We will look briefly at centres' priorities and working methods, how they are organised and how accessible they are to different user groups. We will ask how successful they have been in producing sustainable transformations in the local environment. The urban studies centre cited will be the Lewis Cohen Urban Studies Centre at Brighton Polytechnic. Richard Welsh-biographical note and address The author is founding editor of Streetwise, the magazine of urban studies published by the National Association for Urban Studies. He is also co-ordinator of the Sustainable City Forum, a European conference to be held in Brighton in April 1992. Richard Welsh can be contacted at the Lewis Cohen Urban Studies Centre Brighton Polytechnic 68 Grand Parade Brighton BN2 2JY England Tel 0273 673416 Fax 0273 679179"
Walker, Paul. "New Picturesque." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "Recent transformations in culture have been characterized In terms of the emergence of a new sublime, that aesthetic instance identified by Burke and Kant in which the infinite or unrepresentable is intimated. Thus Lyotard writes that the postmodern is that which "puts forward the unpresentable in presentation itself ... in order to impart a stronger sense of the unpresentable." And Jameson writes of a "hysterical sublime' which he finds in the complex internal spaces of the Bonaventure Hotel in Los Angeles and in the mutually reflective prismatic skyscrapers at Bunker Hill in the same city. These instances stand for him for the Incoherence of contemporary culture, the infinite regress of current semiosis. But while traditional aesthetics has described the sublime in terms of Infinitude and fathomless depth, postmodern architecture has been characterized by its critics - Kenneth Frampton for example - as lacking any depth at all. This view is in the ascendency. It disparages postmodern as "mere" scenography. We thus have two architectural postmodernisms Jamesons sublime symptom of the culture of late capitalism and Frampton's scenographic impoverishment of our senses and manipulation of our behaviour. The counter-strategy which has been offered to the former is the map or the path; a resistance to the latter has been identified in the bounded "place-form" or enclave. Another idea from eighteenth century aesthetic theory can mediate between these two postmodernisms. This idea is that of the picturesque. The picturesque identified a taste for roughness over smoothness, rugged outline, irregularity, asymmetry, age and decay - a taste for intricacy and complexity. It found its apotheosis in English landscape gardens such as Stowe, with their circuits (paths), scenes and enclosures, edifying temples, ruins and fragments. Considering the design of these gardens, the picturesque could in a single figure articulate a number of ideas now current In architecture discourse : the spectacle, narrativity, the bounded domain or "place", the monument, even the cinematic. The "naturalism" in Laugier's ideas regarding the urban is also to be borne in mind here. But the interest of the picturesque now is not to be found in its metaphorical reach. Rather it lies firstly in the reminder that as land came to be seen through the frame of a painting so is all our apprehension of the world Informed by our culture; secondly, that this apprehension is always political. The English landscape gardens have frequently been associated with the rise of Whig liberalism (by John Dixon Hunt for instance) but also with the proletarianization of the poor. The parks in which these gardens were laid out were often made possible under enclosure acts dispossessing peasants of the feudal rights, and preparing them for a new role in the nineteenth century as an urban working class. In the colonial experience, too, the picturesque and property were mutually entailed. Immediately after being taken as a British colony, New Zealand was envisaged as a garden, its indigenous population to be dispossessed of land so as to become a new working class. The aesthetic of the picturesque and socio-political metamorphoses associated with industrialism and colonialism are linked, the first not being simply indicative of or sequential to the second, but imbricated in it. What, then, can be said of the contemporary picturesque to be found in the interior of the Bonaventure Hotel as described by Jameson (a nightmare inversion of Frampton's place-form) and also in the landscaped, secured enclave property developments which can be found anywhere, Including New Zealand?"
Laermans, Rudi. "No Way Out? Shopping Centres and Malls as Suburban Cities." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. In collective (un)consciousness, the 'idea of the city' was always intimately linked with representations and experiences of the urban consumptions spaces. Thus the preinodern city was seen primarily as the locus of regular markets and fairs. The modern city obtained a specific identity via the presence of particular commercial buildings, e.g. galleries, arcades, and department stores. In a word, the city centre was mainly considered and experienced as a regional or even a national shopping centre. After World War Two, the shopping centre became a distinct architectural and socio-cultural form which was gradually but steadily disentangled from the city centre. More and more, shopping centres were - and are located at city boundaries, even outside the city. Recent shopping centres (e.g. the MetroCentre in Gateshead, U.K.) o,r malls (e.g. the West Edmonton Mall, U.S.A.) bring this 'displacement' of (commercial) urbanity to its logical conclusion : these huge, autonomous spaces replace 'the idea of the city' altogether. The first part of the paper shall elaborate the just-sketched history of the relationship between urbanity and consumption spaces. In the second part, the principal real and imaginary 'referents' of contemporary shopping centres shall be analyzed. It will be argued that, as metonymical-metaphorical spaces, suburban shopping centres and malls no longer refer to 'the idea of the city' but must be considered as hyperreal combinations of world fairs and amusement parks (such as Disneyland). In the concluding section, malls and shopping centres shall be described as the urban equivalents of 'Suburbia'. They combine the suburban quest for purity (no strangers, no litter, and so on) with the desire to participate in the urban spectacle of visual display and semiotic excess.
Schone, Lon, and Frederick Coeterier. "Non - Agricultural Occupation of the Countryside in the Netherlands: What do Local People Think About It?" In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. In the Netherlands each square meter landscape is made by people. Each region is occupied by people and fitted up for a certain kind of use. The use of the landscape determines its character and its boundaries: visually, a type of landscape ends where a new form of use begins. So, each landscape is seen by people as a functional unit, A SYSTEM, with society as its structuring principle and characterized by a limited number of system variables, or attributes. These attributes were found in a great number of interviews, held with people about their perception and experience of the landscape. They are: 1. The wholeness of the system. In people's perception and evaluation of landscapes this has two aspects: a) the presence of all appropriate elements, i.e. elements that belong to that kind of system, and b) the absence of non-fitting elements. Presence of non-fitting elements is far more disturbing than incompleteness. Several different types of landscape-systems are recognized, such as natural landscapes, polder landscapes, agricultural landscapes (old and modern),'etc. 2. The function the system performs, its use. In people's perception there are different aspects of use, such as kind of use, intensity of use, possibilities for private use. 3. The physical or abiotic component of the system, such as soil properties, water courses and drainage, and surface relief. This attribute determines possibilities for use and accessibility of the landscape. 4. The biotic component; its natural or organic aspect. 5. The spatial organization of the system. This includes the pattern of the elements, distribution of space and matter, vertical differentiation. 6. The development of the system in time, linearly and cyclically. The linear aspect contain the historical character of the landscape and recent changes there-in. Cyclical changes are due to the succession of the seasons. Both aspects have a strong use-aspect and contain more than purely visual characteristics. (The old names of the months indicated the most pronounced activities in each month). 7. The way the system is managed, especially the maintenance aspect, or up-keep, but also regulations and provisions for use. 8. Phenomenal aspects such as colors, light and shadow, sounds and smells, tactile qualities, etc. This are principally perceptual qualities of landscapes, but for a large part they also determine the appreciation of a landscape. For instance, the term 'fit' in 'non-fitting element' not only has a cognitive connotation, but also a normative one. 16 These system attributes are not simple, independent features of a landscape, but complex and overlapping fields of meaningWholeness and use are the two most important attributes. The order of importance of the other attributes, depends on the kind of landscape and the goals of the perceiver. Not all the other attributes need to be present in each landscape. In an urban environment the physical attribute does not play a role in people's perception.
RAPOPORT, Amos. "On Ethnoscape and Realted Concepts." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. conference:IAPS:12
Tümer, Gürhan. "On Metamorphosis." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. In this paper three dimensions of the problematic of metamorphosis are to be discussed.
Rivlin, Leanne. "On Place Identity and Change." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. The conference theme of socio-environmental metamorphoses applied to various scales of settings offers an opportunity to reflect on the basis of environmental concerns, the sources of people's deep feelings for various places. The analysis of identity formation provides a basic developmental process for understanding place meanings, a way of clarifying how places participate in the creation of a sense of self and long-term implications of this process. The concepts of spatial identity (Fried) and place identity (Proshansky) clarify the ways settings contribute to the identities of people. This is a process that begins at birth and continues throughojt the life cycle. Personal relationships and socialization experiences provide more than human impacts. The contexts of the experiences offer another dimension of connection and in the process the places influence the formation of an individual's identity. Place identity and place attachment lead to the strong connections people develop to places, either places in which they live or those carrying symbolic and emotional power in their lives. Work on environmental biographies has identified the powerful affect associated with places and their endurance over the life cycle. These analyses also help to clarify many of the changes in the map of the world today, changes emanating from identities based on language, ethnic affiliations, cultural values, local customs and political and economic realities. Questions are raised about the long-term impacts of local identities and the difficulties of identifying with the world as a whole. The environmental interdependence of the world mandates another form of identification through a socio-environmental metamorphosis which will be essential to the well-being of people and the planet in the years ahead.
Fried, Marc. "On Place Transformations: Historical, Lifespan, Contextual." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. The realization that places have important meanings for people, particularly for poor people, has surfaced since at least the mid- 19th century. Such commitments to communities account for apparently irrational behaviors: returning to bombed-out areas of previous residence, or clinging to land or homes that are hopelessly inadequate.By contrast, people do emigrate and, despite initial intentions, they rarely return. And, for all the affiliations with past places, attractive features in new residential areas often compensate for the earlier sense of destitution and deprivation. These reveal unresolved dilemmas in the meaning of place commitments. In an early paper on the bonding between people and places, the concept of spatial identity (Fried, 1963) was used to portray the importance of the place itself in explaining the commitment (working-class) people had to their homes. Usually derived from prior ethnosocial investments, the place served as a singular symbol of belonging. A modest number of people who had been forcibly displaced were profoundly distressed; for them, such person-place affiliations were wholly irreplaceable. But for most, unhappy though many people were, the prior commitment and the subsequent experience were less intense. Moreover, it was the fundamental importance of the neighborhood community as s sociophysical entity, rather than the house of home itself which formed the core of spatial identity. Subsequently, this concept was reformulated in functional terms as place identity (Proshansky, 1978). However, the basis for such identity requires considerations of: (a) sociohistorical transformations that encourage or discourage local identifications; (b) diversities of place identity linked to gender, social position, resources, social roles, or lifespan changes; and (C) the effect of the human landscape as context. Further understanding of such identity is provided by recent studies of more generalized place ideology (Hummon, 1990) and of commitments encapsulated in the idea of settlement identity (Feldman, 1990): distinctive preferences for a type of settlement - city, suburb, town, rural/mountain - rather than specific, concrete places. It is an orientation derived from familiarity and functional appropriateness. One might hypothesize, however, that it represents an emergent phenomenon unique in modern, urban, industrial societies. An analysis of sub-groups, by class, by ethnicity, by life cycle stage by gender, and by environmental context may well demonstrate considerable variation in the generality of place commitments and in the depth of community investment. Much evidence suggests these increased complexities and diversities. This paper addresses these issues on theoretical grounds, on an extensive literature, and analysis of several data that clarify transformations in the meaning of place across time and context.
Unlu, Alper. "Origins of Anatolian Sofa Houses." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "Sofa houses are the earliest and remarkable type of houses in domestic architecture of Anatolia. They also present a unique combination of physical and sociocultural features of past civilizations. Despite variations in sofa houses based on climatic, topographical considerations, and local building materials, the evolution process and differences between urban and pre-urban models emerge a typological analysis comprising outer, inner and central sofa types.Outer and inner sofa types present striking resemblance to houses in north Mesopotamia so called "tarma", "riwaq" or "gallery" types. However, the evolution process of each type indicates remarkable differences in urban models.Outer sofa type is primarily considered as an example of the earliest stage of the evolution process, and it also had been the most common type spreaded in Anatolia. Retrospective analysis of this type emphasizes perpetual similarities between Hittite "hilani houses" and early Byzantine "hail" houses in north Syria, and Ottoman "outer sofa" houses. In the chronological perspective, inner sofa houses represent a transition stage situated between pre-urban or urban, and organic or symmetrical example of sofa houses.Other analogical correlations influencing the identity of sofa houses are the tent form of nomadic Turks so called Turkic "yurt" and traditional Horasan house. Theoretically internal arrangement of identical Turkish room might be derived from the meaning and use of Turkic yurt. On the other hand, central sofa houses reflect a specific identity in urban areas which is probably considered as a new version of typical layout of Horasan houses.Generally, sofa houses show a different trend at the evolution basis compare to north and central Mesopotamian houses. The difference between types is not only addressed to the specific characteristics of the house, but also the settlement pattern.This historical research is intended to explore characteristics and the evolution process of the concept of sofa based on examples in past civilizations. Main objectives may be considered to understand original cues about the evolution process, and to articulate specific characteristics or retrospective meanings of the concept of sofa by the enlightenment of cross-cultural comparisons."
Austin, M, and J. Daish. "Other Houses." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. OTHER HOUSES Over the last few years we have been conducting design projects looking at New Zealand alternatives to the house. This paper reports on what turned out to be a typological study articulating the significations and characteristics of the house. THE HUT The primitive hut appears throughout history and in all cultures. It has been proposed that it represents a return to origins, a longing for an uncontaminated paradise. Huts existed in indigenous New Zealand and in contemporary times remain part of the wilderness landscape. THE COTTAGE The cottage is a small house in the country. Modest in plan and form, the cottage is implicated in issues surrounding the picturesque with the garden mediating its relation with the landscape. In New Zealand, the first dwelling introduced by the European colonists during the nineteenth century was a cottage made of timber approximating the vernacular dwelling of the 'home' country. THE VILLA The villa is a large country house. Located in contrast to the city, its plan and garden establish a formal relation to the landscape. New Zealand has a suburban timber version developed at the end of the nineteenth century. It is characterised by axial planning and a hierarchal organisation from street front to rear. THE BUNGALOW The bungalow is a little country house It has been identified as an international cultural phenomenon deeply implicated in colonial issues. New Zealand has a version of the bungalow that originated in America in the first part of this century. Termed a Californian bungalow it signified the informal and progressive. It was built in the rapidly expanding suburbs and has associations with the escape from work and the domestic as consumable. THE BACH The bach is a local version of the holiday house. The name derives from bachelor and denotes an escape from women and the domestic. The bach relates directly to nature which ideally remains untouched. It is characterised by what it lacks such as 'proper' cooking, eating and washing facilities. Free from the restraint of the proper it is the site for architectural innovation. CONCLUSION This sequence of types turns out to be a critical study of house forms and also a history of houses in New Zealand. These alternative houses are characterised by the desire for renewal and return to origins yet demonstrate the tendency to revert to the very houses that they are an attempt to escape from. As New Zealand Is other to the world so houses in New Zealand are other to proper houses. This paper will be illustrated with examples and student work.
Bernardi, Jose. "Outskirts and Labyrinths in Jorge Luis Borges' Work." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "Going beyond the reductive centrism of modernist though had enable to open the discourse of architecture to other disciplines of cultural production. The literary work of Jorge Luis Borges, principally its use of successive waves of attention to "particular" and universal" aspects, can help to explore the issue of metamorphosis in the city. After Michael Foucault used in the introduction of his The Order of Things, Borges' shattering classification of animals, this "obscure Argentine, who had writing laconic stories", reached international recognition. Indeed many literary critics - M. Calinescu and E. Said, among others - had stressed Borges' importance in shaping a new sensibility. This paper will present the outskirts and the labyrinth as the two essential architectural elements in Borges writing, both bound together as a mode of representation of an "angular and splintered" truth. First, Borges' amazement and wonder of places. His long rambles on Buenos Aires - his beloved city - had lead him to deity, by "hope or memory", particular that become, "little by little, holy". Fleeting, transitional memories and hopes shaped his encounter with the outskirts. However, Borges reduced all these transitional feeling into minimal, basic components - a crumblingpath, a miraculous wall, a tree giving shade, ample terraces, joyous plazas, geometrical streets. Second, the eternal, the apparent immutable labyrinth. Here, Borges explained the labyrinth as an universe, the labyrinth is an architectural work, plotted by man, and "destined to be deciphered by man". The deliberate order and "quiet atmosphere of ordered things", contains its own architectural code. But here Borges, with pervasive uncertainty, introduces personal sensation, reflection and dreams, as well as unique analogies. Even in its universality, "it is doubtful that the labyrinth has an unique meaning." Both, the labyrinth and the outskirts, leads Borges to revise what it is meant by reality and to explore other possibilities."
Pol, Enric(et al.). "Patterns and Environmental Orientations for the Design of Youth Custody Centers." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. Quality in an environmental project is not so much concerned with the physical features of an environment (who has their own importance) as with the balance between the needs to be satisfied by a space, place or building, and how it is to be done, taking in account not just the functional but also the symbolic aspects, which play an important role in all institutions, but especially in those concerned with the reform, reeducation and rehabilitation of young offenders. To this end, it is necessary to know the concret pedagogic projects or, at least, the legal procedures pertaining of each State or Autonomous Community with competence on it. Moreover, the special character of these problems make it necessary to know the social, environmental and cultural background and context of intentedprocedures, so as to allow a general framework to be applied to specific situations. This is why we have studied working Centers and we have paid special attention to the experience of these institutions, from both architectural and programatic points of view, and through the assessment of all these factors by managers, instructors and pupils. The result of this analysis and the study of specialized literature is the work we expose, which give patterns and orientations for the design of youth custody centers, from a synthesis of architectural, environmental, social, jurisprudential and psychological aspects.
Papanek, Fedor. "Perception of Personal Housing Situations in Times of Great Expectations." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "This paper presents main results and conclusions of an empirical survey of housing based on residents' responses. The survey was conducted in November 1991 In all regions of Slovakia, the sample contains 2000 Interviews. The scope of the analyzed issues covers four topics, these being: - personal satisfaction with housing - housing and work - housing career and individual strategies - market behaviour The findings are discussed with regard to the current stage of development of the national housing policy reform. It is stressed that despite the fact that 2 years have elapsed since the "Velvet Revolution" in Czechoslovakia, the changes which have occurred in the housing market are but minor. Nevertheless, broad public discussions in the mass media about the direction of our future housing policy, and resulting public expectations (not always substantiated), seem to bring about significant changes in users' perceptions, attitudes, plans and behaviour. Special consideration is paid to specific contexts of the housing, namely to spatial, physical and social variables, and their impact on users' housing satisfaction. Preliminary results of data analysis hint that all three facets of housing satisfaction (- satisfaction with the dwelling, with the physical surroundings and social environment) are well correlated, yet have also their own specific causes and effects. Some hypotheses and observations arising from the data are discussed. The final part of the contribution deals with implications of the analysis for the national and local development of housing policies in Slovakia. Thoughts on the next stages of inquiry and new theoretical approaches are discussed."
Aragones, Juan lgnacio, and José-Antonio Corraliza. "Perception of Territory and Social Identity." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "The aim of this research is to analyze to what extent the regional space in which inhabitants live and/or belong plays an important role in social identity traits. Considering social identity as a result of the intergroup differentiation process, it gives rise to two basic mechanisms: social categorisation and social comparison. Both mechanisms are tested in this research: 1) when seeking to ascertain which are the dimensions that permit to define the inhabitants of a territory as members belonging to it and 2) when establishing the territorial limits where the exogroup appears; respectively. A sample of 979 young residents in the province of Madrid filled in a questionnaire about social identity and regional awareness. The importance of concepts such as "to be born" versus "to live" and "city" versus "province" were analyzed as basic dimensions on the definition of "madrileflo" (from Madrid) concept. Several statistical analyses about the identification with neighbouring regions were also carried out. Findings of several statistical analyses highlighted "to live" and "province" as key concepts in the definition of "madrileflo", reinforcing, therefore, the self identity. On the other hand, the importance of physical space in the establishment of identity traits with neighbouring regions was also highlighted when the limits between them were only of a political character."
Gabidulina, Svetlana Ernstovna. "Perception of the Environment." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "One of the most important problems of urbanization is a human existence in a modem big city. It Si necessary to take into account a feedback from people, their opinion, their spirits, their perception. The program, research, methods and results of a research project studying connections between individual features of personality and town perception are presented in this paper. There were developed two groups of tests. The first group consisted of tests dealing with perception and estimation of loci. Among them there were special Semantic Differential Technique and Color Test. The other group concerned with the study of individual features such as extraversion-introversion, cognitive complexity and so on. Seven various group participated in this study (artists, architects, young polititions, ecologists, moscovites, non-moscovites, adolescents). They were asked to estimate loci of Moscow with these tests. Among loci there were streets, squares, boulevards, by streets. The most wellknown were Kremlin and Arbat. Then factor and cluster analyses were used to analyze the data. In addition special mathematical procedure was obtained. The results supported the conclusion that individual features of personality influenced to town perception and estimation. The main results were the following: 1. The dimensions of visual perception (factors of semantic space) were: Aesthetic estimation, History, Stress, Comfort, Simpleness. 2. The results showed that we had to use not only verbal but also unverbal tests because they addressed to unconscious structures of human mind. 3. The hypothesis about connections between individual features and town perception is confirmed by the results. The structure of image and emotional attitude depend on professional, age and individual features. There were obtained differences between experts (architects) who had more complicated structure of semantic space (four factors) and non-experts who had three factors. 4. The results showed that individuals with "high" and "low" levels of cognitive complexity in situations of increasing of environmental stress payed no attention to aesthetical aspects. Comfort and calmness were more important for them. Individuals with "middle cognitive complexity had optimum indices."
Bonnes, M, M Bonaiuto, and A. P. Ercolani. "Physical and Social Factors in Crowding Perception: a Contextual Approach." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992.

"The aim of the paper is to propose a "contextual" approach (Altman, Rogoff, 1987; Stokols, 1987) to the study of crowding, taking into consideration the socio-physical unity of the "place" (Russel, Ward, 1982; Stokols, Shumaker, 1981; Canter, 1983; Holahan, 1985; Altman, 1986) where crowding occurs. The study presented here is part of U.N.E.S.C.O.-M.A.B. Project n. 11. It is focussed on a specific urban place (the neighborhood), inside a large metropolitan area. Its aim is to investigate the relationship between negative evaluation of social density (crowding) and inhabitants' residential satisfaction. The perception of crowding within the neighborhood expressed by the inhabitants has been studied in order to establish: (a) the salience of this perception within the more general problem of residential satisfaction and the way in which this evaluation of crowding tends to be linked to the other kinds of evaluation of the same residential environment; (b) the relationship between the perception of crowding and the physical and social characteristics of residential experience of the inhabitants: the physical features are defined in spatial terms (with reference to the location of residence within the neighborhood) as well as in temporal terms (with reference to the length of residence and the time spent daily in the neighborhood); the social characteristics are defined in terms of several socio-cultural features of the inhabitants (i.e. gender, age, socio-economic level). The study was carried out in a neighborhood ("quartiere') in north-west Rome. During a first exploratory stage we interviewed 30 inhabitants: in a second stage we administered a structured questionnaire to 461 inhabitants of different age, gender, socio-cultural level, location and lenght of residence in the neighbourhood. The results point to the strong saliency of the crowding evaluation within: (i) the overall residential satisfaction and (ii) the inhabitant's concern with the spatio-social "openness-closedness" (Altman, Gauvain, 1981) of the neighborhood environment. Some peculiar results have been found in regard to the relationship between (i) the spatio-physical features of the residential environment, (ii) the sociodemographic characteristics of the inhabitants and (iii) the satisfaction about the spatio-social opennessclosedness and the social density (crowding) of the neighborhood. The findings are discussed, pointing out the interest in a contextual approach to crowding."

Ajibola, Kolawole. "Physical Facilities and Ethnomedical Development in Developing Countries: a Case Study of Ile - Ife, Nigeria." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. The advent of modem medicine and its high profile, supported by sophisticated facilities for its services by governments and other organisations created a situation whereby the sociocultural and economic developments of communities in developing countries lag behind their health service development. In recent times, the worldwide economic recession has led to the reduction of foreign assistance to the health sector. As a result, most governments in developing countries find it difficult to maintain and sustain the inadequate existing health facilities. This development has led people to seek health care within an alternate system. In southern Nigeria for example, the social attitude towards alternative medicine (traditional and spiritual) is changing with a higher number of people using this system of health care. The institutions sometimes becomes a dumping ground for people suffering from ternimal diseases resulting from either unsuccessful treatments in government hospitals or patients inability to pay bills in hospitals. Various other studies have shown that these services are becoming more acceptable in developing countries. Using Ile-Ife as a case study, this paper assesses the physical facilities used by the informal health sector in coping with the socio-cultural and economic changes with a view to evolving strategies and appropriate physical facilities which will be in line with the needs and aspirations of people in developing countries. This study concludes that with proper planning, the co-existence of formal and informal health services can be achieved. The spatial needs and size of facilities for both services at local level are similar. With the exploitation of the local building materials every community can provide appropriate physical facilities needed for their health services. Thus providing the opportunity for the health and economic system to develop simultaneously.
Altman, Irwin. "Place Attachment and Interpersonal Relationships." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "This paper raises the possibility that the term place attachment" may be a misnomer; the proper conceptualization may be: "people/place attachment'. That is, many forms of place attachment involve a simultaneous and inseparable confluence of affective bonding of people with other people, as well as with places. That is, feelings and meanings about other people and places are often completely intertwined. Furthermore, people/place attachments have temporal qualities that amplify their meaning, for example, they may occur in linear (past-present-future) and/or in cyclical or recurring time frames, thereby yielding qualities of stability and change to people/place attachments. Thus people/place attachments involve a transactional unity of people, places and temporal qualities, with affective linkages of people and places being the underlying "glue" of the unity. I will illustrate the inseparability of people/place/temporal aspects of attachment by drawing on my current research on contemporary Mormon polygamous families in Utah, USA. Our findings highlight how environmental settings of homes play a salient (and often volatile) role in the viability of the relationships of the husband and each of his wives, and in the relationships between wives in a plural family. The establishment and control of homes by wives, their struggles to achieve close and unique relationships with their husband through the vehicle of homes, differential attachments and orientations by husbands and wives to homes, shifting configurations of people/place attachments through the life course of a plural family, and marital viability as related to people/place attachment, make salient the idea of attachment as involving a transactional unity of people, place and time. The idea of people/place attachments also bears on individual and interpersonal viability as well being, and raises questions about the utility and meaning of a single term, i.e., "place attachment", to signify such a multifaceted idea. Is it useful to apply a single concept to such a rich variety of phenomena? What are the varieties of people/place/temporal attachments? What single or multiple purposes do people/place attachments serve for people? What human consequences are there for achieving or failing to achieve different types of people/place attachments?"
Saccopoulos, Christos. "Plato to Plywood to Planning Furniture: an Alliterative Metamorphosis." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "Considerations of ecology, economy, and aesthetics enter into an approach to furniture design that has been inspired by Plato's dialogue Meno In the Meno Plato addresses the question "what is virtue?" A secondary theme in the dialogue is the nature of learning. The position that Socrates takes is that all knowledge resides within each person (a concept with striking parallels to Jung's "collective unconscious") and that the role of the teacher is to "guide" the pupil in discovering4hat which is already within the self. To demonstrate the point, Socrates, through appropriate questioning, causes an illiterate slave to prove a geometrical theorem: that the square whose area is double the area of a given square has a side whose length is equal to the diagonal of the initial square. The diagram of a square rotated within a square that appears in the Meno has served the author of this abstract as inspiration and as a point of departure for several furniture designs which employ plywood as the main material. The guiding design principle in these designs is that a plywood sheet of standard dimensions (4 ft. x 8 ft.) is used up in its entirety, with no material left over. A secondary design objective is that parts comprising each furniture article be assemblable into the finished object, by the person purchasing the object, through the use of ready-to-assemble hardware. The author/designer/craftsman has designed and constructed several furniture systems on the basis of the two design guidelines described above. These systems include "Meno," "Meno 2000," "Palindrome," "Trivium," "Quadrivium," and "Eratosthenes", which result in a variety of chairs, tables, and shelving units. Minor objects include a bracket for suspending plants, a valet and a pedestal. In aesthetic terms, the metamorphosis of plywood ifito furniture, represents the transcendence of an object which is whole, two-dimensional, and abstract in shape, into objects of a higher order, which are three-dimensional, functional, and exhibit complex visual ordering systems. These ordering systems are manifest in components that relate to one another through shape relationships (positive/negative, concave/convex) inherent in the design process. The approach is synergistic: there is nothing in the geometry of the plywood sheet to predict the complex, often curvelinear components comprising each furniture article; each object is a whole greater than the sum of its comprising parts. In terms of economy, this design approach wastes none of the originating material. In addition, the "ready-to-assemble" approach reduces the volume to be shipped by up to 90%, with corresponding savings in transportation. The ecological issue Is directly related to economy. The forest is not depleted of material which is wasted. There are no wasted by-products, impregnated with potentially hazardous glues, to be disposed of. The transportation savings represent reduced fuel consumption. The paper will be illustrated with slides of constructed prototypes, models, and drawings."
JOINER, DUNCAN. "Political Metamorphosis: Environmental Crisis?" In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. Revolutionary political, social and economic changes in New Zealand during the last seven years have impacted upon policy-making for management and development of the Country's physical resources. In particular, transfer of public works activities to the private enterprise during this metamorphosis, is directly affecting standards for design and management of the built environment. The lessons from this New Zealand experience sound warnings to European and Scandinavian nations, Canada, and Australia, which have also embarked upon a devolution of public works activities to private enterprise. In April 1988 the New Zealand Ministry of Works and Development was abolished by Act of Parliament. This was one of several government departments to be abolished since the Government began its programme of social and economic re-structuring in 1984. The idea was to simultaneously reduce government spending, increase accountability, and stimulate commercial activity in servicing, design and consulting business. Few participants and observers would dispute that a metamorphosis of this kind was justifiable, necessary, and long over-due. But the new expansion of experience which is expected to result from involvement of private enterprise in what were formerly affairs of government must be weighed against the absence of co-ordinated non-commercial information for decision-making. What is now missing, is an organisation with abilities to initiate concepts, projects, and standards for the public good through central government political processes. There are no longer co-ordinated building research activities and data bases. Government ministers are no longer guided about policies for building standards and environmental development. We rely on their imaginations and their diligence in seeking advice from professionals. Those who advise them, most certainly do so for commercial or political gain. Our experience with the abolition of the Ministry of Works and Development, and with establishment of a commercial architecture and engineering consulting practice in its place, provides a case study of the effects of this metamorphosis on such diverse issues as safety standards in buildings and environmental resource management. The case study also shows that by reinstating public power through open consultation and debate, professionals in practice and research can ensure that the New Zealand metamorphosis does not indeed become an environmental crisis.
Gaudin, Jean Pierre. "Politique De La Memoire Et Projets Sur La Ville Dans La Premiere Moitie Du Xx Siecle." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. conference:IAPS:12
Preiser, Wolfgang. "Post - Occupancy Evaluation Project, Interfacing Tools and Decision Support Systems for Computer Aided Design and Facilities Management." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. The process of obtaining feedback on the performance of a facility in order to improve the design of similar facilities in future is called Post-Occupancy Evaluation (POE). It can also be used to assist in solving problems in existing facilities. The POE database project at the University of Cincinnati involves the development of a knowledge-base system that can be used by designers and planners to accomplish better designs by learning from part experiences as well as from comprehensive design information made available during the design process. The first stage of the project is devoted specifically to upcoming research laboratory type building projects at the University. Facilities evaluations which include various aspects of building performance criteria and surveys conducted among the users of these facilities are to be compiled into a knowledge-base that would be used by the POE database system in assisting designers. The development of an expert system to interface the knowledge-base with CAD design and facilities managements databases is underway. Since the project has invoked interest from various groups in the University, including the University Hospital, that use CAD/database systems for facilities design and managements, effort has been taken to keep the POE system architecture open so that other groups can attach CAD/database modules to the POE system. This has led to efforts in developing University wilde standards on graphics, database and networking formats, espacially oriented to facilities related environments, through the formation of the Facilities lntergration Group, Several CAD/database/facilities management software systems have been evaluated and software demonstrations held for some of them. It is hoped that once the process of interfacing standards development is accomplished, many groups may directly or indirectly use the POE system for (or as part of) their facilities management and design work, thus allowing for the evolution of an intergrated Facilities Program at the University. The second stage of the project is the implementation of the POE system in the intergrated Facilities Program. It is hoped that the underlying CAD and database of the POE system would be the key components of the integrated Facilities Program and interfacing modules may have to be developed to facilitate the interfacing of other systems with the POE system as well as the integrated Facilities Program system. It is envisioned that the POE system along with the integrated Facilities Program would eventually be the primary component in the overall facilites planning, design and maintenance process at the University. The development and update of the knowledgebases and expert system components would involve systematic processes including selflearning capabilities of the system. The arena of the knowledge-bases would include various usage levels, thus allowing for wider use of the system in the overall facilities related areas. The cost benefits of POEs and their applications in facilities programming and design are lucrative considering the time and efforts put in by organizations in facilities realted functions. Facilities programs are very comprehensive in the health care industry and rank first among all expenses in hospitals. A structured facilities program could not only help in the operation of institutions, but also in their long term planning by stressing the proper aspects in facilities requirements and hence better projections of growth/restructuring and hence successful budgets and project proposals both internally as well as externally, such as, to state goverments. This is valuable for organizations, especially in the health care industry, and more so in those hospitals which are affiliated with Universities, where the goal of the hospitals also need to reflect the overall goals of the Universities which are oftem state funded and community based.
Courville, Cindy. "Poulantzasian Critique of the Postmodern State." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "Twentieth century political theorists have focused on defining the relationship between state and power. But in the last decade, we have witnessed the political, demographic, cultural and environmental metamorphoses of the state. Today the changing world order is characterized by diversity, charismatic politics, and cultural fragmentation. The "postmodern state' emerges as a result of a morphogenetic process of technological transformation, deindustrialization, computerization of society, and decentralization of authority. According to Nicos Poulantzas, the state is a representative model of the relations between power and knowledge. A totality of economic, political and ideological struggles in society determines the relations of power within the state. Changes in the state occur as a result of the struggles of social class. In his analysis of the state Poulantzas focuses on three major issues: (1) the institutional materiality of the state; (2) the state as the condensation of a relationship of forces; and (3) the state and the economy. To critique the postmodern state in terms of Poulantzas' premise the following questions will be addressed: How is the relationship between state and power transformed or reformed by the socioenvironmental metamorphosis of postmodernism? In the case of the "postmodern state', is the radical restructuring of the state apparatus enough for the totality of power relations to be reformed or transformed? What kind of state emerges from the socio-environmental metamorphosis of postmodernism?"
Crunelle, Marc. "Pour Un Regroupement Des Connaissances Dispersees Traitant De L' Interaction Homme - Milieu Construit." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. conference:IAPS:12
Tsaraf-Netanyahu, Irit, and Iris Aravot. "Present Intervention and Historical Cores." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "The paper's main objective is to focus on the urban articulation between old and new urban tissues as part of a research on the regeneration of urban historic cores. The increased awareness of the importance of historic quarters which in most cases lie in the very heart of our cities, along with their present decline, bring into the focus of discussion issues concerning regeneration of such quarters as well as control and manipulation of change. The urban metamorphosis of the city's core, the "Collage of Time" to use a Kevin Lynch terminology, has been a prolonged process which manifests dialogues of adjacent zones, frequently carrying varied and different meanings as well as different physical forms and structures. This change as an evolutionary, accumulative, organic and slow with minor steps process in the past, is replaced nowadays by massive development, brutal in a way, or by its anti-thesis: sterile, hesitant act of preservation. The paper aims to zoom on significant components in that urban metamorphosis, mainly the ones which define the articulation and connection between historic and new parts of the city: confrontation of old and new urban tissues occurring at the "edges". The paper presents basic differentiations towards a typology of the "old new" articulation as defined through a study of theoretical approaches along with case studies review. Since typology deals with types, continuity, change and compliance, it assists both (1) the understanding of metamorphosis process of urban types in historic cities cores and (2) future decision making and design. Besides the formal typology, the paper also strongly emphasizes metamorphosis factors and effects: cultural and social changes, the perception capacity of the inhabitants, overall changes in the area and their relationships with the city, etc. Main issue discussed is the balance between future, present and past."
Robinson, J, J Klensin, and J. Bermudez. "Probing Terminology for Cultural Categories: Institution and Home." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992.

"The terms institution and home were hypothesized to represent oppositional polarities in evaluating housing based on a preliminary study of 10 residential settings 4 of which housed developmentally disabled adults. The hypothesis seemed to be substantiated by initial analysis of data from an investigation of 29 examples of housing from a Midwestern United States city (housing bere broadly defined, representing a range from hospital to single family residence). However analysis of aditional data which compares the perceptions of the settings to architectural variables reveals that although home is a powerful and unifying cultural category, the concept institution, while operating in contradistinction to home, is not as powerful and is much broader perceptually and in terms of its physical definition. The findings of a semantic differential study findings tend to support the existence of an hypothesized continuum of housing from institutional to homelike. However, the results of a free sort study show that while the most consistently used building type category, the single family house was frequently called "home," a variety of names was given to institutional buildings and the term "institution" was only applied twice as a building type category. The free sort data also indicate that that particular building types and room types are basic categories (see Rosch et al 1976), whereas building, room, and the paired concepts institutition and home function as superordinate place categories. Finally, in terms of the architectural form, cluster analysis of physical items in a checklist measure of living rooms for the 29 settings reveals a pattern of strong linkage between single family dwellings, successively less strong links between other forms of housing like apartments, and very weak links among the settings perceived as most institutional (e.g. hospitals and dormitories). These findings suggest that institution and home are valid differentiating categories, superordinate to building type but that they are not polar opposites. The power of the term home as a central category seems be due to the consonance between its action as a superordinate qualitative category and its identifiable form as a single basic physical category. Institution, on the other hand, seems to function as a conceptual category, standing for places that contrast to home, but its meaning is more diffuse since physically it takes many different physical forms, and therefore does not have a clearly identifiable parallel icon to represent it. This work represents the metamorphosis of understanding that takes place when a basic assumption is challenged in a variety of ways. The first, most obvious interpretations become transformed as more subtle aspects of meaning and interpretation are revealed."

Angelidis, Minas. "Proces De Marginalisation El Strategie De Reintegration Dans Le Tissu Urbain. Le Cas Du Quartier Des Refugies De Nikea." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. conference:IAPS:12
Pellizzoni, Luigi. "Progress and Preservation: on The. Metamorphosis in Today's Conceptions of the Relations Between Society and Environment." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. In our times there has been a radical change in the relations between society and environment. In the past, social systems answered to environmental conditionings adjusting themselves to them, getting the necessary for their survival from sources that, compared with the size of the needs, appeared inexhaustibles, and trying to control the often disastrous consequencies of natural agents. Today the relation of force between nature and society appears reversed: society, thanks to science and technology, has subdued nature. We have passed from adjustment to dominance, an often distructive dominance accompanied by the increasing scarcity of available resources compared with the needs. The success of ecology as a science, the diffusion of ecological themes at political and widespread culture level, the rising of ecological movements are therefore explained by the technological and industrial growth and by the definition of new needs in advanced societies: needs that are largely linked to the quality of the environment. The general attention to the environmental problems, certainly due to a number of political, economic, ethical, social factors, can be seen, as a whole, as a corrective reaction of complex societies to a growth that seems to overstep the bounds of compatibility with nature. Rather than to dominate a potent and hostile nature, it seems now necessary to protect if, to preserve a friendly, fragile. ecological system. But this change in the attitudes towards the environment hides the twofold soul of contemporary society, doubtful about choosing progress or preservation. In fact, the declared purpose of our society is still the progress, the improvement of the general welfare, both because people ask it and because our economic system cannot survive without an ever-growing level of production and consumption; but in the meantime the request for preservation has become widespread in politics, planning and people's feelings preservation of natural and built environment, of place and people's cultural identity. Many examples show that the dialectic between progress and preservation is the leading problem of our years at the level both of national and world politics and of individual behaviours arid choices. A government should try to increase people's welfare, preserving in the meantime the quality of the environment. Developed countries should try to improve the conditions of life in the third and fourth world, but saving their own privileges. As individuals, we are aware of the pollution caused by electric power plants but we feel we really need, for instance, a personal computer for our work instead of an old typewriter. The historic centres of our towns are overcrowded, but we want them untouched. And so on. The paper examines the metamorphosis in the current views of the relations between society and environment focusing on: a) the ecological thought; b) the selection of relevant environmental risks coming from human activities; C) the debate about the limits of growth. Two are the main orientations facing each other: the one aimed at favouring the characteristics and exigencies of physical environment, the other those of society. The former, which apparently breaks with the anthropocentric tradition of western culture, really takes up and revises very old themes; the other, which presents a clear continuity with that tradition, offers however some original hints. Till now, nobody has found how to conciliate progress and preservation, which represents the main task for politicians, scientists and common people. Probably we have to redefine the two concepts: what kind of progress and what kind of preservation we are referring to? And is it possible to get progress through preservation, or preservation through progress?
Akin, Ömer(et al.). "Project Management and Its Impact on Quality of Service." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "Previously, management in architecture has been seen as an instance of management in other fields and disciplines. As evidence is gathered in architectural case studies and comparisons of data between architecture and other areas, a considerably more heterogeneous picture seems to be emerging. Depending on the specific circumstances of each practice, job (building type, client) or economic context, management practices seem to differ considerably. This study deals with the description of specific management strategies employed in the context of the goals that govern a given firm's notion of "service quality." Surveys of practices in two different countries and nine medium to large architectural offices were conducted. Subsequently, detailed studies of specific projects were done, based on reconstructions of the design delivery process, developed from in depth interviews and a complete set of project documents including meeting notes, official and unofficial correspondence, and technical documentation. The data was organized at three levels: professional, firm and project. A method of analysis was developed based on information processing theory. This method proved to be successful in showing the relationship between structural aspects of office organization and the functions required in completing each project sub-task. In addition to these methodological issues, the findings indicate a general sensitivity of management practices to the definition of service quality in the firm as well as the individuals in each project team. Specific models of management. such as the rnigraion model, are shown to agree with specific structural and functional circumstances within each level of data. Some of the findings also shed light on the role of CAD in quality management."
Spiridonidis, Constantin. "Projet Et Metamorphoses Socio - Environnnementales." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. conference:IAPS:12
Armyanova, Army. "Psychological Aspects of Shorthandwriting Process." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. The purpose of the paper proposed is to reveal some psychological features of the shorthandwriting process, its complexity, intensity and specificity. It is well known that main task of the shorthandwriter is to transform speech into written text. This transformation should be made in a highly limited time, simultaniously performing some other activities. The complexity of the process depends on many factors: necessity of detailed knowledge of the shorthand system and standard language: building up stable skills and habits of writing; speed of writing; external conditions' influence etc. The process of decoding is not less important depending on the quality of writing but also having its specific characteristics. Furthermore decoded text has to be as close as possible to the thought of the speaker and it must be worded under the requirements of the Standard language. The shorthandwriting and decoding processes are a typical example for metamorphosis at a language level when we pass from one sign system to another. Of great significance in this bilateral process are the psychological characteristics of the writing person: the type of his/tier nerve system, temperament, degree of the automation of habits, training of the memory, steadiness of attention etc. to which a place will also be given in this paper.
Drucker, Susan, and Gary Gumpert. "Public Space and Media: the Metamorphosis of Greek Social Life from Greece to New York." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. This presentation is based upon comparative research of communication patterns in public spaces of Greek communities in the United States and Greece. The study was predicated upon the contrast of two cultures: one in which public space continues to serve central social functions and the other (U. S.) in which public space is less important, perhaps even dc-emphasized. The research sought to answer some of the following queries: 1) What are the differences in the use and availablity of public space in Greece and the United States? 2) Does media technology alter the quality and quantity of public space, both in Greece and the U.S.? 3) Will the acceleration of media technology in Greece and the U.S. alter the need for, and demands placed upon, public space? Project Description Four hundred interviews were conducted in the United States and Greece from November 1990 to August 1991. In the United States, first generation Greek immigrants residing in Astoria, New York served as the sample population for the study. In Greece, individuals from Athens, Skiathos and Leros were interviewed in order to determine how and where individuals engage in social interaction. The survey was administered based on a probability sample design. A Public Space Profile was compiled and included a survey of all public sites available for social relationships. It included: plazas, parks, cafes, pubs, promenades, streets, kafeneon those sites which facilitate social interaction. The Public Space Profile was documented by the principal investigators who utilized a methodology of participant-observation. The Media Profile (the communication analysis) entailed a comprehensive survey of the media available and used in a definable community. The Media Profile recorded use and availability of mass media: books, newspapers and magazines, radio and television, videotape, videocassette, video disc, audio tapes, records, local film house; and micro media: letter writing, telephone, facsimile, hotlines, and computers. One of the major cultural variables that changes as a result of immigration is the alteration in the social setting which surrounds each person. Results of the study will provide guidance for revision of public policy, urban planning and design to meet the changing needs of new constituents using public spaces.
Gumpert, Gary. "Public Space and Private World: a Photographic Essay." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "In the research of "Public Space and Media: The Metamorphosis of Greek Social Life From Greece to New York", photographs became an important research tool. In the compilation and creation of a Public Space Profile and a Media Profile a series of comparative photographs emerge which chronicle the relationship of the social and public environment of Greeks in Greece and Greeks in Astoria, New York."
Loukaitou-Sidens, Anastasia, and Banerjee Tribit. "Public Uses of Corporate Plazas: a Critical Analysis." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. The urban form and character of the American city has changed dramatically during the last few decades. The urban renewal schemes initiated in the 1960's fueled by public and private capital, have left significant Imprints, especially in downtown commercial districts. Whole city blocks once occupied by a multitude of different shops and small buildings, gave way to corporate megastructures, high-rises and urban malls. Diverse and animated street life was replaced by inwardly oriented buildings with blanc facades and segregated land uses. It has been argued that the memorable decline of the life and variety of downtown streets has paralleled the rise of corporatist economy of the city, the shift from mostly small to mostly big businesses in the contemporary American capitalist economy after the second World War. The corporatizatlon of the city meant also an unprecedented privatization of Its public environments. In the 1970's and 1980's urban plazas built by private capital in downtown areas became the modern American version of public space. Arcades, colonnades, piazzas, gaiierias, atria, loggias--familiar forms of another century and another continent, were reinvented as part of the urban designers' repertoire for rebuilding downtown. But most often than not these spaces--parts of private commercial developments--are designed and operated to be subservient to corporate goals and objectives and to serve as devices for the enhancement of corpoPate image. Our study examines and evaluates the function, Imagery, and urban visibility of eight downtown public spaces built by private capital in two Californian cities, Los Angeles and San Francisco. In the last decades both cities have quite enthusiastically pursued the private supply of public open spaces In their downtown areas using a range of different policies. Through a series of postoccupancy evaluations our study assesses the function, uses, accessibility, and performance of a characteristic sample of downtown public spaces and Investigates their role and contribution to the quality of public environment. A number of different methods and a variety of sources of evidence have been utilized as part of our case study approach. Interviews with the key actors (developers, architects, city planners) and examination of archival materials and development agreement documents highlight details of the design and development process. User surveys reveal the users' perception, feelings, and level of satisfaction regarding the spaces. Finally, structured observations at specific time intervals on weekdays and weekends help us draw the socio-physical profile of the spaces under study. Based on our case study findings our work discusses the effects of contemporary practices of urban design on the urban form and life of the two cities and critically evaluates their relevance and appropriateness for the downtown residents and users.
MARTINOU, Sophia. "Punctuations - a Slide Show." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "Visual presentation of certain punctuation orders; mainly those organizing Space and Time through intentional Movement n Ritual-Dance-theatre. The sequences of still images-running in turn of overlapping one another-are articulated upon brief staged events (introducing thus the notion of minimal performance) and outstress the points of section between accidental-ordinary activities and gestures and performative ones. Points of section between different rythms of punctuation, that is points of transformation, providing (consciously or not) fields for spatial Imaginaires" including those of built architecture. The staging of these minimal performances makes use of scenical objects crested for the purpose, such as masks, disguises, ephemeral constructions, objects diagrams e.t.c. The projection of images will be accompanied by brief texts and references along with recorded sound. Length of projection: approx. 18 mm. Equipment: slide projector, synchronized tape recorder."
Irena, Sakellaridou, and Morpho Papanikolaou. "Real Bridges - Conceptual Bridges the Urban Park as an Element of Centrality. (Proposal Submitted to the Europan 2 Ideas European Competition on Housing and Urban Renewal)." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "Scope of the project: This intervention in a derelict area at Menemeni Thessaloniki, was aiming at bringing together recreational, sport, educational and cultural facilities with housing, in order to integrate two areas segregated by the train, while at the same time facilitating the creation of a new centre for the neighbourhood in a process of Iongterm urban intervention and regeneration. Dealing with local problem solving this proposal attempted also to create a "gates for the city of Thessaloniki. Instead of a static zoning division of areas and functions, it was aiming at fusion and multifunctiona/ity through the notion of an urban park which would present public space as a basis for the proposed network of central facilities whichat the same time infiltrate and structure this urban park. Instead that is of functional fragmentation, the project was aiming at the dynamic co-existence of the different functions which constitute the diverse and multifunctional character of the urban tissue. Three distict systems of organisation and reference of the urban space: I) the different facilities themselves, (housing, recreanional, tertiary activities, etc.), all these that is which compose the urban functional "picture", ii) the recognition of the urban tissue, (axes, perspectives, linearity, front, street and square, building, grid, centre and periphery, etc), elements which constitute the spatial and syntactic aspect of the urban tissue, and iii) a level of reference to the human action in the city, (people moving and static, the reading of the urban landscape, landmarks, etc.), are superimposed and composed in order to constitute the urban park in functional, spatial and morphological terms. Thus, the central concept of the proposal is structured around a dialogue between a notion of movement, (train, passage, street), and a static notion, (recreational facilities, park, boundary, square), a dialogue which determines the choice of geometry, of urban elements and forms. The project is presented in three panels measuring 60x84 cm."
Purcell, Allan Terence, and Catherine Purcell. "Recall Memory for Detached Houses: Effects on Experience of Metamorphoses Resulting from the Architectural Design Process." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. In the context of the built environment, transformations in built form and content and in function and aesthetics can be seen as the result of architectural designers' responses to their perception of changes in societal values and institutions. This raises the question of how the general public understand and respond to the buildings that are produced and become a part of the environment of everyday experience. This paper is concerned with this question in the context of a particular building type - the single detached house - where architectural designers have produced innovative designs in response to what are perceived changes in life styles, perceptions of the environment and new technologies. Our approach is to contrast aspects of experience which result from exposure to architect designed houses with the same experiences of everyday and traditional house forms. In choosing what aspects of experience to study we have been guided by a model of how past experience is represented in mental models or knowledge structures and the role these play in ongoing experience of particular examples of environmental types. Existing cognitive representations of frequently experienced environments result from ongoing, long term exposure to and interaction with these environments. This type of extensive, repeated experience results in a non-conscious form of learning (Lewicki, Hill and Bizot, 1988) which leads to a representation of the regularities in the environment. In the context of interest in this paper, there are regularities in the particular sets of physical attributes and relationships between attributes which have typical ranges of values associated with them which are characteristic of houses. Our knowledge structures mirror these typical ranges of values for the physical attributes and relationships (for a more complete discussion of knowledge structures in general see Mandler, 1984 or, in the context of the built environment, Purcell, 1986). This knowledge about the world is however relatively abstract or generic as it represents the typical regularities present in the world. Ongoing experience, formed by the interaction between the characteristics of a particular example and generic knowledge creates a second type of mental representation. This consists of a representation of the differences between the characteristics of the instance and the existing generic knowledge (Purcell, 1992). This difference creates the relative uniqueness of the experience associated with a particular instance. Further it provides a mechanism for the more or less accurate recognition and recall of previous encounters with particular examples and the types of experience associated with those encounters - an aspect of experience which forms one major focus of this paper. An innovative or new example of a type, such as an architect designed house will be experienced on the basis of what attributes, relationships and ranges of values are present in the example and how they relate to existing generic and specific cognitive representations. To the extent that the new house represents a metamorphosis, that is an example of a house that is different to existing generic knowledge, it will be experienced as atypical and unfamiliar even though it will be recognised as an example of the type. These differences between an example and existing knowledge however also form the basis for other types of experience which can be regarded as accompanying the experience of familiarity and typicality. Discrepancy or difference to existing cognitive representations establishes the conditions for affective experience (see Gayer and Mandler. 1987, Purcell.
Juillet, Edwina, and Jake Pauls. "Recent Social and Technical Developments Influencing the Life Safety of People with Disabilities: the North American Scene." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "Working with the conference theme "Metamorphosis" .... if we could peer back to the beginning of this century... looking at the public scene, at mainstream America ...our public accommodations, the spaces and edifices, what would we see? My contention is that we would see ablebodied people bustling about their daily activities of life. And, then projecting into the year 2000... the result of the Metamorphosis of the American public scene, that scene of the ablebodied has radically changed to one where there is in evidence many persons with disabilities ...myriad categories and varying degrees of disabilities. Another, vast difference we see is the number and the appearance of elderly persons. This paper deals with the history of our national concern for the life safety of people with disabilities. It includes a discussion of the current legislation addressing accessibility for persons with disabilities and the subsequent fire and life safety activities of the building code regulatory community. It reveals viewpoints of persons with disabilities as to their advocacy focus on accessibility as opposed to taking a stand on the issues of their safety in buildings and public places. The review of the current technology in building safety will include the discussion of building egress systems with the focus on the use of elevators for escape for persons with mobility impairments. As of this writing, the final guidelines were issued, July 26, 1991, for the enactment and enforcement of the Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA), the governmental entities are the Department of Justice and The Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (ATBCB). The building code community, as represented by the Board for the Coordination of the Model Codes (BCMC), is conducting the public hearing, October 16, 1991, to address the recent legislative developments."
Fahriye, S, H Macan, T Barman, K Onaran, and G. Sargin. "Regional Design for Sustainable Development: a Proposal for Discovering and Maintaining Authenticity in the Face of Economic Change." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992.

This paper discusses the necessity of preserving the authenticity of existing environments, i.e., maintaining the attractiveness of a region or community by protecting and enhancing the authenticity of its character, while seeking to develop sutainable tourism. Regional/community character is defined as the perceived image of a place due to the cultural and natural attributes experienced in everyday activities. Authenticity evolves as a result of the continuous interaction of a stable population with its environment. In this context, protection and enhancement refer to an appropriate adaptation to changing conditions which can only occur at the local level by the actions of people who have intimate knowledge of local conditions and natural change processes. Neither the frozen stage-set of the historical/environmental preservationists nor the tourism environments developed and run by non-locals/outsiders succeed in protecting and enhancing authenticity. Typically the denigration of local competencies to externally imposed menial service activities results in an inability to sustain tourism attractiveness. In this paper an approach is presented for introducing tourism into the traditional sustenance activities of a population to the degree that the main tourism resource and commodity- i.e., the authenticity of regional/community character- can be protected and enhanced by local residents. Strategies are aimed at mobilizing the cumulative know-how and the initiative of locals and experts to ensure cultural continuity, regional and community character, and ecological stability. The application of this approach that is described in this paper involves the Kickapoo River Valley, a region that is defined by the floodplain of a tributary to the Mississippi River, and includes farming communities in the valley and on the highlands. Historically, the region has been plagued by severe floods and is one of the poorest economic areas in the state due to marginal land resources and poor accessibility; however the region also offers a spectacular landscape which reflects an economy based on family farming and small woodlot operations by a diversity of ethnic groups including Norwegian, Yankee, Kickapoogean' and Amish.. In this case the objective is to improve the quality of life in the Valley while sustaining the resourcebase and the visual/cultural character. The regional landscape character is defined in terms of cultural zones, ecosystems, and settlement hirarchy. Village and community character are identified by developin,,g a typology of villages and farmsteads. Using the quality of life criteria and the existing resources and opportunities, five potential scenarios are developed corresponding to a tourism-open space network, industrial promotion, retirement/tourism/real estate development, an integrated agriculture/tourism/cottage industry development, or a sustainable agriculture/organic farming initiative.The final proposal is based on the evaluation and an integration of these scenarios culminating in a recommendation to establish four mutually supportive productiorLfdistribut! on/service systems consisting of fantasy crafts, tourism infrastructure and services, family farming and woodlot operations. Fantasy crafts involve an integrated system for the design training, home-manufacturing, quality control and distribution of toy-like artifacts made from wood products that represent the folklore of the major ethnic groups in the region. Folklore fantasy is also proposed as a premise for creating unique scenery and for staging fantasy-events throughout the region using hologramtechnology. The tourism infrastructure will consist of an elevated rail and a path system paralleling the rustic roads that can be used for biking, hiking, cross-country skiing and horseback riding. The recommended services consist of lodging, food and shopping in the existing communities and those that include fantasy events. The continuation of small family farms will thus be ensured by supplementing the income of residents via crafting toys and artifacts as well as bed-and-breakfast services. The lumber, sawmill and woodworking industries are also sustained by the newly created demand for forest products that are supported by management practices based on forest regeneration. Thus, the proposed plan aims at tourism and economic development while maintaining and preserving the lifestyle responsible for the idyllic, farming landscape.

Yan, Chung-Hsien. "Reinterpreting of a Temple Piazza: an Iconographical Transformation." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. FORMING AS TRANSFORMATION Physical forms can exist only if they cm be properly formed by meais of other existed ferns. Rooms defined by walls; walls male out of the blocks; blocks composed by even smaller pieces. Spatial forms con exist only by the constructions of physical forms. But the blocks cm male columns aid many other configurations as well, which can define spaces of different forms with different characters. What a form can do will not be predetermined by itself from within, but by the limits of those who use it from without. The form is male for certain use, however it cannot preclude, nor cat it purposefully include, all of its possible uses at the tine of its malcing. We have experienced, but much less noticed, many reuses of materials aid reuses of spaces m our daily life environments. The simple lesson about the nature of form, and likewise the nature of design as making forms, is that form is male to be transformed. A Five form is Verisformthle, it becomes adeal object otherwise. A TEMPLE PIAZZA AS A LIVE FORM The design is set out to elaborate the notion of transformation by malcing a live form. The cese under study is the old temple of ft-Fu-Chien-Sui, the deity worshiped by most Chinese fishermen. The temple was originally built in the late 18th century in An-Ping, the oldest what in Taiwan which is still functioning now. Over centuries, the place has witnessed conuisive poetical shifts and disquieting socto-economical changes as well as its own vicissitude. When the Deutch left, Taiwan has been heavily colonized by Chinese since late Ming dynasty of 1601 century. Japanese took over the Wend from Chin dynasty in 1895, and returned after World Wa Tw to the ROC government. Recently the temple and its piazza have been lacerated due to carelessly planed through traffic. This flagrant distortion evoked the call for new design to coalesce the cleavage. The task is challenging not only that the design has to expurgate the mistekes, but also to device the resolution which cat reflect its rich yet contradicting legacy, and by that meats to present the ingenuous nature of We environment. THE STRATEGY: AN ICONOGRAPHICAL SCENARIO Legend has it. The deity reached the what by a small wooden boat which was also d•ifled in the temple with the deity. The holy boat will perform its legendary voyage in the annual ritual held in the piazza that extends from the temple to the waterfront. The design restores th. original relations between the boat, the temple, the piazza, and the waterfront to insure this ceremony can be properly conducted. To reshape the place, there is at iconographical scenato in play. First, along building in boat-shape is introduced to fence the edge of the piazza from the disturbing roan with one end pointing to the sea, and the other to the temple. The building accomodates activities of community gathering to enhaise the social relationship. Second, aserles of steel-fratned facates depicting different house twos of the four periods of local history a. erected to define die opposite edge of the piazza This screen stands as a'hlstory wall' whIch can be prolonged from both ends to accept the new images of the coming time. The last, the piazza is mosalced in a series of geographic patterns portraying the vicissitude of the what aid its village. To incanate the genius loci of the site, we use only two volumes: the temple, the boat building; and two plates: the facade wall, the paved ground. None of these forms are new inventions. The capacities of form lies in the hands of those who know the at of lratsformation. Form axtuires meanings in time, and by transforming, time flows in space in which life experiences its own course. (End)
Tentokali, Vana, and Kyriaki Tsoukala. "Repatriates and Public Space." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "Since 1985, Greeks from the northern region of the Black Sea (the former Soviet Union), called Pontiol by mainland Greeks, have been settled in the biggest Macedonian city, Thessaloniki. Pontici speak a dialect including ancient Ionian Greek elements. As newcomers, Pontioi "bring their own gifts and anticipation" (to copy our friends 0. Gumrert and. S. Drucer, but probably face many of the typical problems of immigrants if not all of r:hem) in adaptation, despite their Greek ortgn and language. Anticipation, however, as the human capacitT Icr coning with milieu in order to establish protocols of both freedom and con.:traints, is the basis of adaptation (S. W, Bennett) Our studr is focuses on the effects of the oubli: urban scace of Thessaloniki, on the sociocultural 'behavior durIng leicure time or Pontioi and also on the e:Tfects of the above behavior on thu organization of this space. The purpose is double: firstly, to lind out those of the tyrological. morphological and utruotural characteristics of the public urban cace which would. favour the process of adaptation of ontioi through their leisure ti= act:vt1es: secondly, to figure out the gender iit:erencea, if they exist, in this process. All the spatial characteristics will be explored ';hrouh the subjective definitions of the concerts of public and Private ODSOC by their users, men and women. Our oontent:on 1:5 that these subjective definitions are intrinsically interrelated with the social and. cultural background of these people and also with their gender. The research is carried. out through the discursive representations of a small sample of population (case analysis). The analysis of the representations allows us to read. and. interpret the place attachment, an indispensable condition for the adaptation to the new place. The discourse of the sample of population is articulated into hree basic axes: the descriptive, the comparative and that which refers to the ideal (expected) model of space: 1. Public space in the "old" and the "new" culture. 2. Comparisons between them: similarities, differences, conflicts, contradictions. 3. Expectations concerned with the organization of the public space of Thessaloniki to attain adaptation. Through these three kinds of discourse, socio.-cultural structural characteristics of the space will emerge for the non-conflicting adaptation of Pontioi to the new place."
Hough, Michael. "Restoring an Urban River, Toronto, Kanada." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. Among the most pressing and significant challenges for the environmental movement today is the notion of metamorphosis - the rebirth and making whole the degraded and forgotten places of our cities. Such is the story of the Don River in Toronto, a once beautiful and ecologically productive river valley that over a hundred years or more has been degraded and largely destroyed by industrial development and the encroachments of an expanding city. The process or urban growth ignored its natural heritage in many ways. Its once productive estuary marshes and waters that teemed with life were replaced by an industrial port; its natural meanders and floodplains were straightened to accommodate shipping access upstream; the valley was denuded of vegetation and transformed into an expressway transportation route; the neighbourhoods that surround it turned their backs on a natural setting that has become a gap between places, not a place in itself; and the valley bottom became a convenient dumping ground for hydro towers, transformer stations, pipelines and the detritus of the city. Yet the citizens of Toronto, led by a group naming themselves the Task Force to Bring Back the Don have initiated an ecological and political process of restoration and renewal, that over time will bring back life and health to the river. It is an act of faith and an inherent recognition of the right or urban people to a healthy and sustainable environment. This paper explores the fundamentals of this story: its connections with future communities planned on its lower reaches (the subject of our second paper); the common problems of repairing past industrial devastation; the political partnerships required to implement the plan; and the principles on which the vision has been based and which link our two studies - the nature of renewal.
Korosec-Serfaty, Perla, and GILLES BARBEY. "Returning to Places: Initial Values and their Metamorphosis." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "This contribution addresses the metamorphosis of places according to the succession of their sequential use, their non-use and their rehabilitation. In this respect, the presentation will examine the origins of place as well as the origins of their initial use. Given that these origins must withstand historical events, this study considers personal and collective memories of places. We intend to show that even if human memory is grounded in the "objective" reality of spaces it transforms and surpasses that reality. These processes are a kind of transcendence of the shared, trivial reality of places. Consequently, they are one indicator of the adequation between the reality of a place, and both the individual and shared sensitivity they evoke. When one returns to already known, historical places which have had their material characteristics profoundly altered, yet to which personal memories remain unchanged, there is a return inwards to the self, especially the subjective adequation between existant spaces and the intimate, inner self. Although the observation by an individual (or the sensitivity of a group) may rediscover the initial reality of a locality, the metamorphosis of that locality is not accomplished, and the original values attributed to it remain active and evolve over time. Nevertheless, it is rare to rediscover this adequation in the actual sequences of the rehabilitation of places. On the contrary, rather than adopting methodological principles that overcome haphazard consequences, it has been common practice in architectural and urban renewal projects to adopt a simple coupling of available assets and needs. In essence, the renovation and reuse of places is often considered solely in terms of short-term economic and functional criteria: It is considered reasonable to plan for new functions and new use values at the same time, whereas the history of human values attributed to places, as well as the prospects for changing values in the future are overlooked. Some examples of diverse rehabilitation projects of urban places have been chosen in order to make an indepth study of the distinction between transformation and metamorphosis. Places that are being altered by metamorphosis always raise questions about their symbolic value, in particular their moral appropriation which overrides their legal ownership. It is therefore important to secure the permanent life of buildings by adapting their interior to needs and requirements of the residents, and it is equally important to provide adequate conditions for the reappropriation of space, in reference to the memory of the initial use of the place. A basic task in the rehabilitation of existing buildings consists in devoting a careful attention to the survey or diagnosis of the place. If this survey is achieved successfully, it will outline the complexity of factors involved, that may influence the course of rehabilitation and prevent it from becoming purely technically oriented and totally unrelated to social concerns. It is currently accepted that the diagnosis helps outlining the future condition of the building. Only then does the programming of the rehabilitation follows, as a prerequisite for the actual design task.The design task or conception of the rehabilitation should not lead to a compromise, but must be considered as a kind of challenge to favour the collective appropriation of the place. Such a task is both multidisciplinary and cross-cultural in scope, since there is no universal truth deprived of local contingencies.We consider the ultimate issue to be the meaning of place and the corresponding related values which belong, both to the past and present."
Kaplan, Michael. "Revisiting Fascism: Degenerate Art and the New Corporate Style." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. " "If only our totally superficial culture of today, which loves rapid change, could visualize the future by turning to look more closely at the past! This rage for innovation that collapses foundations, this foolish negligence of the deep spiritual content in life and art, this modern concept of life as a rapid sequence of instant pleasures .... so many signs of decadence, a sad denial of health and of the transcendent character of life" Martin Heidggger The relation of philosophical trends in the theoretical and practical architectural agenda to the conservative political climate of the last two decades has become a subject of speculation and debate. Bruno Zevi, advocate of modernism, argues that certain formal aspects of historicism interface with ideological intents of fascism. Leon Krier, while acknowledging the appropriation of the classical style by totalitarian forces, believes the convergence incidental and not an indictment of the style. David Harvey frames the debate in terms of "a search for an appropriate myth" - in effect, a metamorphosis of style - where modernist art served a capitalist version of the Enlightment, and classicism a reaction to the universalist implications of technology.The paragraph from Heidegger's Abraham a Sancta Clara, written in 1910 and excerpted by Farias in Heidegger and Nazism, reveals a virulent anti-modernist stance that later became the ideological substrate of Nazi cultural revisionism. Appropriated by Hitler in his writings on the degeneracy of modern art, this position formed the basis for the attack on progressive German culture leading to a ban on art criticism in 1936 and the slanderous Enfarfete Kunst (Degenerate Art) exhibit of Germany's great modern artists mounted in Munich in 1937. The reconstruction of Degenerate Art in Los Angeles and Chicago comes at a time when modernism is subject to renewed assaults by politicians and designers alike. In suggesting Seaside, Florida as the New American Suburb, architect Andres Duany claims German town planning during the Third Reich as one of his sources of inspiration. Seaside, with its authoritarian building code and derivative style, is, in the end, a scheme for the affluent by an enterprising private developer, hardly a paradigm for socially responsive urban development. Another of Duany's patrons, HRH The Prince of Wales, chooses to ignore social issues by considering contemporary design predominantly in 'archaicist' terms, favoring historicism (style) over history (process). This reductionism suggests that an alliance of patron/mentors, their chosen developers and architects and the establishment media can conspire to set the standards for architectural critique, effectively isolating and neutralizing those who might provide an alternative view.In the context of the current debate, this paper examines the New Corporate Style as exemplified by the recently completed corporate headquarters of Whittle Communications in Knoxville, Tennessee. While this company, partially owned by Time Inc., promotes itself as being on the cutting edge of educational reform, its celebration of pastiche reveals an alarming conservatism, indeed, revisionism in its agenda. When agents of political and economic authority (such as Whittle) become arbiters of taste, they have the power not only to censor, but actually shape the environment in the image 01 its patrons. A submissive cadre of artists and intellectuals serves to legitimize such power. The reconstruction of Degenerate Art serves as both a warning to artists who attempt to challenge the hegemony of power entities, and a warning to society of the intents of those entities."
Faure, A, and F. Verluise. "Risques Urbains: Groupement International D' Interet Scientifique." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. conference:IAPS:12
Sinha, Amita, and Cranz Galen. "Rituals of Public Life." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. Public life is not limited to the civic square and the urban plaza in contemporary North America. It is constitited by the manifold settings of everyday life--shopping malls, beaches, rivewalks, farmers'markets, cafes etc. From a typology of public spaces that serve varying recreational needs of different social groups, the paper will illustrate the use of ethnogrpahy and participant observation in selected case studies. Different types of places are associated with distinct subcultures, representing a transformation of public life in terms of segementation and fragmentation of settings which earlier were an unified whole. Each subculture is distinguished by its own rituals constituted by the interweaving of space and activities. Thus patterns of behavior in time and space that throw light on the nature and quality of the places will be discussed. is has many implications for design interventions in the public realm.
Awotona, Adenrele. "Rural Habitats in Nigeria: a Survey of Mallam Kawo's Compound in Beromland." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "In traditional Nigerian rural settlements, homelessness is non-existent. The land tenurial system ensures that members of the community have access to land with a security of tenure. The adoption of simple construction techniques based on locally available building materials and skills also make certain that each household has access to a dwelling unit built at a cost it can afford. In 1986-1987, I conducted an extensive field study in Makera, a Berom rural habitat in the Plateau State of Nigeria. The central objective of the study was to investigate how the predominantly low-income people whose per capita income is less than US$ 100 have been able to house themselves successfully through community efforts and with minimum resources. Amongst the areas examined were: building design and spatial organisation; the building construction processes; housing finance mechanisms; available skills, resources and village-level technical assistance needs to support their own initiatives; and, how the local builders have been able to create traditional dwellings which are in harmony with their physical and cultural world. Makera village came into being in a piecemeal and gradual manner. This was because housing is perceived as a personal everyday enterprise and a continuing process rather than a final product. This means that the buildings and dwelling environments have developed over time thereby making them economic and responsive to the expanding and shifting needs of the community. Mutual aid for house-building comes from within the builder's own patrilineally extended family which continues to be a strong social and economic unit. This paper documents and analyses how one family, that of Mallam Kawo, lives and builds its compound on a self-help "do-it-yourself" basis thereby asserting its rights to control the whole building process, to locally available resources and its freedom to put them in requisition in its own habitual methods. It also describes, with the aid of drawings from the site, how the family uses the process of time in the formation of its compound - that is, how the compound grows with the family with units being added, as sons marry, until the whole compound is formed."
Dascolia, Maria. "Safety in Mind: Conceptualizations of the Safety Context." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. To understand the way in which people act in environments which are inherently potentially dangerous it is necessary to understand how they conceptualize the organization-environment context in which they carry out their activities. It is only by revealing and gaining insight into the cognitive landscape of safety that an understanding of safety behaviour can be achieved. A study of conceptualizations of safety activities at an industrial plant in South Wales, UK was carried out as part of a larger project into safety attitudes and attitude metamorphoses. The participants in the study were drawn from one of three groups; Managers, Supervisors, and Workers. Data were collected using the Multiple Sorting Task procedure. The multiple sorting task allows the ways in which people think about their context - social, physical and organizational - to emerge with the minimum of constraint. The use of the analysis technique of MSA then allows structure to be placed on the people's conceptualizations and so allows them to be compared. A list of safety activities to be sorted by the participants was generated from pilot work and literature reviews. The participants were asked to sort the activities according to each of three constructs provided by the authors, and in relation to a fourth of their own generation; a free sort. The categories used by the participants were generated by themselves. The provided sort criteria were; i) Importance of each activity for safety, ii) the degree of emphasis given to the activity by the management, and Hi) the people who are responsible for each activity. The data were analyzed using the multidimensional scaling (MDS) method of Multidimensional Scalogram Analysis (MSA). The results of the analysis reveal differences in conceptualizations for each of the three groups. Further, they show workers' conceptualizations of safety to be closer to those of the management than are the supervisors. Beyond the basic differences which relate to organizational and environmental roles, there is an underlying structure of safety conceptualizations which is common to all three groups and visible in each of the four sorts. These results show that an overall framework is available for structuring safety conceptualizations, as well as pointing to the need to pay particular attention to supervisors conceptualizations if metamorphosis is to reflect a synthesis.
Estevéz, Jorge Vergara. "Santiago of Chile: Urban Metamorphosis and Redemocratization." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. The theories, 2)-planatory models and conceptual systems of Latin American social Science are facing a serious crisis. It might appear that the main reason for this crisis is that the Area is undergoing various and new processes of change which may not be understood in the light of the old theories. then need to PLaborate new theories and explore the use of new concepts. The term Metamorphosis' might become a part of the regular language used by the social science. It might b used to identify a no mi: processes, which are relatively reversible, of social or urban change, of change of shape and/or function, generally due to an exogenous action, involving loss of balance, internal feed-back and, partially, of identity. The changes occurred in Santiago during the authoritarian Period (1973-1989) may constitute an evident example of this kind of metamorphosis. A democratic city, with acceptable satandardc, of life, was changed into a hostile city, with a high social segregation of its space and a deterioration of the standards of life, in particular of the majority, which was achieved through an authoritarian rearrangement of the space and private appropriation of the public space. The new democratic transition government has begun to apply some policies to reduce the urban deterioration. However, these problems are of such magnutude that they might not be solved without the effective, institucionalized participation of the citizens. Only through a democratic, non-burocratic planning, it would be possible to direct the use and growth of th city.
Wood, Peter, and Yasunaga Sachiko. "Satisfaction with the Characteristics of Office Environments Compared Across Two Cultures." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "Apart from bed, "the office" is a place where many working people spend the majority of their time. Offices of course vary widely in their nature, setting, type of work which is conducted, physical characteristics and other ways. It is not helpful here to enter into debate as to "what is," and "what is not" an office. For operational purposes, we have adopted Sundstrom's (1987) definition as .... "a setting where the primary activities comprise the handling of information and the making of plans and decisions." Office buildings appeared in the mid 1800s in Europe, and although changes occurred in response to advances in technology, such as telephones, typewriters and mechanical calculators, their essential form remained much the same for some 100 years. Some 40 years ago saw the advent of fundamental changes in office design, with the advent of the so-called "open plan" (Burolandshaft) office. The admirable intention was to design offices on the basis of efficient work-flow and convenient communication, however the concept has as much to do with new methods of civil engineering construction, as with efforts to improve efficiency. Variations on the open-plan theme, with partitions, open and private areas and combinations of open and closed offices have subsequently been tried. More recently, the rapid introduction of new technology .... PCs, VDUs, printers, photocopiers etc. has changed the nature of office work for many and highlighted problems relating to the physical environment of office."
Chalk, Judith, and David Uzzell. "Second Homes in France: a Psychological Perspective." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. Against the background of the Channel Tunnel, and the opening of trading barriers in 1992, there are an increasing number of anecdotal accounts of Britons acquiring second homes in France. However, there is relatively little current psychological research into this phenomenon; the existing literature on second homes largely draws upon contributions from geographical and sociological perspectives. This paper provides of a study carried out to develop an understanding of the meaning which second homes have for their owners, and to explore the ways in which this meaning is translated into action. The implications of second home ownership are considered forthe owners themselves, members of the host community, and the community of origin. The second home owner is considered in terms of the combined roles of home owner and holidaymaker. Attitudes towards second home ownership are evaluated by integrating two formerly separate strands of the psychological literature: the meaning of home, and the social psychology of tourism. Background data were collected in order to attempt a formal quantification of second home acquisition, and also to develop a descriptive profile of second home owners. A series of in-depth interviews was carried out with Britons who owned second homes in France. Thematic content analysis of these was used to develop a questionnaire to elicit background information and scaled attitudinal responses. This was administered to a further sample of respondents. Both samples were restricted in number, so results can only be considered tentative. Univariate and multivariate analysis was carried out on the questionnaire data, and attitudinal responses were compared against a number of background factors including linguistic competence and length of ownership. Analysis of the interview and questionnaire data supports the view that the meaning of home is a useful perspective for investigating second home ownership. Owners appear to construe their second homes primarily in terms of affective and social needs, and in terms of their perceived role as tourists/non-tourists. In general, owners express a desire for commitment to the location of their second homes, which they see as providing an opportunity for affiliation to family, English friends, French friends, the local community, and to Europe. However, there appears to be a reluctance to make a long-term commitment, in terms of permanent residence in France. It is suggested that the French second home is seen as complementary to lifestyle in England, rather than as a substitute to, or alternative for it.
Lindberg-Berreth, Darla. "Serving Our Needs to Serving Our Fancy: the Metamorphosis of Craft in Architectural Drawing." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "The primary purpose of drawing/imaging in architecture has been to facilitate the mental experience of a three-dimensional world. Working with the long-held assumption that an idea preceeded its representation, consumers of design services are reliant upon the ability of designers to represent their ideas in order to responsibly contribute to design decisions. The implicit contract of this service dictates that the reading of those drawings/images be within the bounds of what is familiar and accessible. The presentation of designs to clients has evolved from hand-made drawing to the technology available in computer graphics and video. At its best, this evolution represents hand-drawing as an effective way of exploring design ideas. At its worst, it has led to a quasi-art form, encouraged by paper architecture shows, sales, and promotional renderings The concern expressed here is over the metamorphosis of architectural drawing from a tool which embraces the designer in the process of knowing to an art historian's art form encumbered with the problems of a finished product. In any craft-related endeavor there is the notion that art and service answer to completely different agendas. Peter Dormer in his essay The Ideal World of Vermeer's Little Lacemaker explains the difference this way: "The official contemporary crafts world of museums, galleries and magazines is not concerned with sheet metal workers or artisans in concrete, since they represent 'trade'. Their exclusion is understandable given that the interests of the museum/gallery world are aesthetic and, moreover, concerned not with teams of people who work and make together but with individuals who either set the design and prescribe its manfacture or design and make the product entirely by themselves." Historically, craft involved the making of things for use and service. The success of the potter, the weaver and the lacemaker was measured and valued in how well customers were satisfied with the quality of the product. The hand-crafted working drawing, likewise, not only informed us of the normative standard of construction but also gave us some insight as to the nature and character of the architecture. Sheet content, composition, and lettering style were judged as critical factors when a contractor bidding the work looked for completeness or complexity of the project. In other words, a crafted set of drawings, or a well-rendered and communicated building, represented a well-thought out design. Technology, however, has imposed a shift. The service aspects of architecture (getting the work built) can be met very nicely with the economy and efficiency of the computer. The craft in drawing by hand can "move over" to the utility of technology. The metamorphosis can be seen in this anology: like the notion that crafts no longer serve a strictly utilitarian function in modern life and work, but still appeal to our fancy (by giving us touchstones to the past, or an appreciation of a time when humanity was more self-reliant), the hand-made drawing has become a tool that caters not to our need to build the work, but rather appeals to our fancy that work is essentially of and about the human being. Just as post-war craft aesthetics encouraged a hand-made lumpiness which set it apart from the machine, there seems a need for drawings that allow the viewer to share in the evolution of the process undertaken by the designer. Initial "idea" or material studies give the hand-made drawing a new and genuine craft. It is an act of service. That is, they can return the hand-made drawing from the superfluous to the necessary. Drawing is that creative insight into the bridge between knowing and doing.This essay and slide presentation considers three aspects of the metamorphosis of the craft phenomenon in drawing and rendering: the failure of the art-service concept; the mystique of being able to render well; and the new craft-service role of architectural drawings as a measure of aesthetic thought in our society."
Sivri, Hikmet, and Ilkim Kaya. "Sex Roles in the Use of Public Spaces by the Adolescents with Respect to Differentiation of Urban Structure in Izmir." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. The metamorphoses of urban structure is caused by the interaction between physical and social changes. This phenomenon has been appeared as a dominant characteristic in the metropolitan areas in Turkey, especially in the last fourty years. Contemporarily, tzmir rapidly is living this metamorphoses. The teenagers and the children are the ones which are mostly affected by the changes occurred due to the urbanization process. The gathering spaces of these groups are rapidly diministing in number and quality in urbanized areas. In our big cities the organized open spaces are serving to a very small proportion of the population. Insufficiency in the open spaces affect the social and cultural public relations negatively. In this study, the sample group has been constituted by the adolescents between the ages 12-14. The reasons behind the selection of the said group can be summarized as following: The education system in our country is the first reason. If we examine the system of education in Turkey, the following sub-groups can be categorized a) 5-7 agespreschool education b) 7-11 ages -primary school education c) 12-14 ages - secondary school education d) 15-17 agesLycee education. And the adolescents between the ages 1214 are educated together seperately from the other teenagers. The second reason is that the said group is the one which intensively uses the playgrounds. In this group growing sex roles reflect the utilization of the openspaces, this phenomenon is the third reason of the selection of the said group. In this study, the sex roles in the use of public spaces by the habitants of the different residential areas are examined.
Abdel-Hadi, Aleya. "Shehab Street / Cairo - an Evaluation of Physical Transformation and the Actors Involved." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "The site exists by action, and action is change of the site" (Habraken, 1981). This paper discusses the physical transformation that occured periodically, thus changing the structure, hence the function of a street in a modern suburb - El Mohandesseen -, in Cairo. The objectives of this study were to highlight man-environment mutual influence in a particular context, and, to prove that community participation in design-decisions for planning and architectural legislation is a vital requirement to ensure legislation-enforcement. The research methodology is a comparative evaluation of the physical changes that occurred every decade since the birth of the street until today. Discussions and references are made to the then contemporary Influencing variables (population growth and movement in Cairo in the second part of the twentieth century, exceptional laws Inhibiting the then present legislations on buildings, and residents resulting interaction that had direct impact on the street transformation. Information is gathered from different sources: - the local municipal registers, about the history of the area, the street and the buildings bordering It. - the context, a complete documentation and spatial analysis of the actual state of the street (plans, elevations, sections, photographs). - the people (residents, shop owners...), to investigate the reasons of their environmental behaviour. Research results communicated in visual forms, indicate the possibility for local housing authority to harness and channel local skills and resources into a more efficient process of change, so that the quality of the resultand street environment could be Improved."
Scuri, Piera. "Skyscrapers Images: the Apparent Metamorphosis." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. A comparison of the skyscrapers built in large American cities in the first years of the twentieth century versus those built in the 1930's, the 1960's, and the 1980's, amply demonstrates the skyscrapers capacity to change its face in a short span of time. Flanking the Art Deco forms of skyscrapers dating from the 1930s, we find International Style or Modern forms created in the decade 1950-1960. as well as Post Modern ones from 1980s. It we go further back in time, yet another contrast may be added to this set of images: the image of the skyscrapers built in 18801690. There is a reason for this continual mutation of the skyscrapers form, one that is quite Independent of considerations of structure and function (which have both remained fundamentally the same) and that can be understood only it we consider the economic system to which the skyscraper belongs. From 1976 onward, the skyscraper has assumed a new Image, this time baptized with the term Post-Modern.This flamboyant image has developed in reaction to the austere, essential image of the modern skyscrapers of the 1950s and 1960s. An analysis of this recent transformation may help us understand some aspects of the business world and American corporations, a world of which the skyscraper is both product and home. This study attempts to stitch back together the skyscrapers image and its content. In our society. the world of images (and therefore of imagination, but also of illusions) has acquired an excessive and worrisome Importance. It Is as If a mass exodus from content - and therefore from reality - were underway. Images no longer seem to have any reIerens. but rather to have become ends in themselves, Yet it oniy seems this way: actualy, images result from a precise set of motives that witi appear to be quite obvious if we lake the time to look at them The PostModern Style may already have reached the end of the road (to everyone's relief), but also the underlying motives and causes that produced it remain, it follows that the motives will simply and predictably find other ways of manifesting themselves. Our aim in this study has been to take the most recent of the skyscrapers images (concentrating on the years between the mid-1970s and the mid-1980s), hold them still for a moment, and scrape away the surface in order to discover what it is that these images do not reveal and often hide.
Chokor, Boyowa Anthony. "Socio - Behavioural Aspects of Urban Transformation in Africa." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. Africa today has about the highest urbanization rate and in the last three decades has witnessed transformations in the economic, political and social spheres. Both urbanization and modernizing influences have altered traditional housing forms, neighbourhood social values and behaviour, as well as the physical layout, functioning and aesthetic appearance of cities. In several cities there are crisis of development and change, and argument is raging on what could be done to attain greater harmony between people and their physical surrounding. The management problem is most evident in the apparent conflict between forces of modernization and change and those of more resilient traditional nature. Further, the social, psychological and cultural contexts of changing forms need to be examined to proffer more concepts of urban planning and redevelopment into the next century. Using the Nigerian experience, this paper examines the content and context of the physical environmental changes in urban areas as well as the factors of change and the implications for people of diverse social backgrounds. The research addresses in particular, the relationship between people and built form within the context of everyday life and explores the sources of constraints facing contemporary urban management institutions and informal organizations in dealing with the emergent crisis. METHODOLOGY: In order to explore the nature of relationship between emerging urban forms and social life, the range of features and attributes related to the three major dimensions of urban change in Nigeria - the physical, social and cultural - were identified in context of both traditional forms and their modern substitutes or replacements. This step relied heavily on oral reports, personal observations, historical documents and other published materials. The factors of change were analyzed and an interpretative/diagnostic framework was used to appraise both the impact and implications of the changes on the life of people. FINDINGS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS: The study demonstrates that, overall, the changes taking place in Nigerian cities have largely been effected by socio-economic forces of modernization as well as design trends that are beyond the control of local people and communities. These have created some gulf between people and places, especially in terms of social alienation, breakdown of traditional /communal ideals, social attachments and the quality of life experienced in surrounding environments. CONCLUSION: In a futuristic context, the paper concludes that some of the issues and difficulties involved in current transformations could be resolved by adopting an urban profile approach to management. This implies the need to plan and design in a multi-faceted way for different categories of urbanites based on their social experiences and expectations, in order to enhance and preserve their identity, while profiling changes and their ramifications continually to anticipate future policy directions. Ways in which this may be achieveo in the African context are suggested and socio-cultural-based environmental agenda of research put forward.
Kordas, Ilia. "Socio - Economic and Landscape Metamorphosis, Due to Large Scale Power Plant Projects in Greece." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "The purpose of this paper is to identify the role that large scale power plant projects, play in the metamorphosing socio-economy and landscape in Greece. A. THE GREEK REGIONS WITH LARGE SCALE POWER PLANTS 1. The "Kozani - Ptolemais - Florina" region (2.800 Km2) at Makedonia - Northern Greece, where the main lignite mine in Greece is. 12 lignite fired units with a total capacity of 3040 MW are established there. 2. The "Megalopolis" region (1000 km2) at Peloponese - Southern Greece, where the second most important lignite mine in Greece 4 lignite fired units, with a total capacity of 880 MW, are established there. 3. The "Lower Acheloos River" region (2500 km2) at Central Greece. In this region 4 dams have been constructed with a total capacity of 923 MW. 4. The "Upper Acheloos River" region (3500 km2) at Central Greece. There, is a project to divert Acheloos River from this region towards the plain in Thessaly; for this purpose, 4 dams are under construction, with a total capacity of 750 MW. B. SOCIO-ECONOMIC METAMORPHOSIS DUE TO THE ABOVE LARGE SCALE POWER PLANT PROJECTS 1. Analysis of the socio-economic status of the region before and after the construction of each project. 2. Identification of the zone of socio-economic consequences surrounding each project. 3. Identification and classification of economical demographical, social and land - use metamorphosis in the zone. 4. Evaluation of the socio-economic consequences. C. LANDSCAPE METAMORPHOSIS DUE TO THE ABOVE LARGE SCALE POWER PLANT PROJECTS 1. Analysis of the visual elements of the landscape of each job site, before the construction of the project. 2. Visual identification of the construction elements and of the landscape changing characteristics of each project. 3. Evaluation of the landscape malformations. 4.a. Technics to reclamate the landscape in the surface mined lands. b. Technics to integrate dams and artificial lakes in the landscape. D. CONCLUSIONS"
Haviland, David. "Some Shifts in Design Practices and their Implications for the Institutions of Design Management." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. Inevitably changes in building procurement (what is built, who is involved,the values and approaches these stakeholders bring to projects, and the mechanisms used to finance and regulate the process) produce shifts in design practice (who designs, where design occurs, the values and approaches of those who are designing, and the rules which govern the process). At this juncture, American building is changing in dramatic ways. While there is much emphasis on the nation's current economic recession and its effects, the recession both exemplifies and masks some underlying structural changes in the ways in which building projects are conceived, justified, designed and delivered. This paper reviews five current shifts in American building and assesses their impacts on some of our most clearly understood and widely cherished notions of architectural practice and design management. The shifts described are these: construction is more frequently reconstruction; design is communally negotiated by many powerful stakeholders; design and construction proceed as parallel enterprises; substantial design responsibility is shifting to vendors; and design is becoming disintegrated even as it becomes more pervasive. These long-held notions are now being challenged: design as something done principally by profession-based designers; the architecture or engineering firm as the principal venue for design; the project as the principal building block of design practice; design as contractually regulated by profession-based standard forms of contract; and design judged by a professional standard of reasonable care.
Sauer, Louis. "Sources of Inspiration and the Dycamics of Design the New Town of Bois - Franc in Quebec, Canada." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "This paper analyzes the process of designing for a private client a new town for 25 000 people adjacent to and north-west of Montreal, from begining ideas to the principles and pragmatics that guide its final plan. It outlines the stages of design, from the designer's aspiration to provide a plan and physical context sustaining public and community life to the actual design of a city structured by various kinds of open space networks. The client's intention to have a unique "signature" town in the Québec context lead the designer to opt for the use of water as a major theme to capture the imagination and to enhance the contrast in a nordic climate between summer and winter city and social landscapes. His vision stemmed from the desire to design an urban plan, rather than the conventional suburban plans that are offered around large cities. Such a plan was to provide at once a strong singular image as well as to allow the integration through time of various economic groups, building types as well as architectural styles. The urban approach implies that the streets and squares are the social spaces of each neighborhood as well as of the entire town. The notion of "rooms within rooms, within rooms" guided the determination of the scale of neighborhood units, the localisation of squares, as well as the main "central" community park and water features. While never seen as models, the urban precedents used to focus the first stages of design for the hierarchy of streets, squares, parks, lakes and canals were Savannah, Georgia, Amsterdam and more specific places in Canda, Europe and the United States. The achievement of this design is a high percentage of private land within a very strong open space structure, with clear, imageable primary circulation, and a hierarchy of large and small scaled places. Such an organization of open spaces is generally supported by public rather than private clients. The designer however was able to show his private client that a variety of well structured systems of open spaces enhances the market value of the land."
Teklenburg, J, Harry J. P. Timmermans, and A. Van Waenberg. "Space Syntax Demystified." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. * Space Syntax is a technique that can be used for morphological analysis of buildings, architectural plans, urban areas and urban plans. The aim of the technique is to describe different aspects of the relationships between the morphological structure of man-made environments and social structures/events. * Space Syntax can be used as a designer-tool: it creates the possibility to evaluate and improve the social quality of architectural and urban plans. * Space Syntax is related to and based on a theory called The Social Logic of Space'. It is often mistaken for the theory itself. This, and the seemingly mathematical complexity of the technique, makes Space Syntax difficult to use in the eyes of many researchers and designers. * Space Syntax should be demystified. It should be explained that its basic ideas are simple, that its mathematics are easy to understand. Space Syntax is not an obscure meta-theory about the relationships between the structure of the built environment and the social structure of society. Instead it is a method that tries to relate some forms of human behaviour with morphological features and analysis. * In order to demystify Space Syntax we want to discuss the following questions: - the basic concept of Space Syntax is integration. It is possible to think in different levels of integration in order to unify the different measures used in Space Syntax. Does this way of thinking make these measures easier to understand, does it tell us something about the social inferences we can make based on these measures; - integration can be expressed mathematically. Thinking in different levels of integration is made easier by looking at integration as a topological concept. Does topology make Space Syntax mathematics, formulae and terminology easier to understand; - Space Syntax is supposed to relate morphological features with the distribution of use of public space, with the quality of environmental cognition, with personal crime, with the inhabitant-visitor interface. Are these inferences valid. Are new and maybe more sophisticated inferences possible. What would be the nature of these new inferences; * The discussion should be interesting to researchers as well as designers wether or not they are acquainted with Space Syntax. It is of special interest to those who never really understood this method or where afraid to use it because of its seemingly obscurantism.
Kunio, Funahashi. "Spatial Change and Effects on Wayfinding in an Urban Redevelopment Area." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "To clarify an aspect of behavioral effects derived from a metamorphosis of urban space through an urban redevelopment, experiments on wayfinding behaviour have been executed on two occasions, before the redevelopment project at "Umeda"(1974) and after it(1985), the largest terminal area in Osaka. In 1974 four freshmen who came to Osaka for the first time were individually involved in the wayfinding task in which they were asked to reach a given destination with only the name supplied. 27 routes, pairs of origin and destination as in Fig. la, were tested one by one. In 1985, 63 routes by eight freshmen were executed under the same method as in 1974. The most prominent feature of wayfinding behaviour throughout both experiments is that subjects tend to head for a spacious and/or visible direction under any situation, e.g., keeping along a wide street, not entering to a branch road, alley, or underground passage. Table 1 shows the decrease of the excessive walking ratio in 1985. The average interval of overt information exploration is 359m in 1974 and 591m in 1985 respectively, It indicates that the demand for information decreases in 1985 compared to 1974. These results mean that the spatial change brought by the redevelopment has made wayfinding behaviour easier. After the completion as in Fig. Ib, the station zones as the most potential entrance/ exit of this terminal area, and the adjacent project sites which has been completely renovated to a few high rise buildings with wide streets and open spaces have become a functional unit which implies the virtual enlargement of "station district" conceptually. And then, these new high-rise buildings located at the edge of the site could work as visual landmarks symbolizing the "station dist r ict" and orienting people from quite a distance.Patterns and reasons of interesting behavioral changes in two points of time are described and discussed with regard to the spatial metamorphosis by the redevelopment of the area."
Wegen, Herman. "Spatial Impact of Large - Scale Urban Renewal." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. In almost every major city of the world there is a new emphasis on large scale urban redevelopment. Urban renewal, revitalization are the key concepts in the process of re-use and rehabilitation of rundown areas of the city, which have often lost their original economic functions. Dutch examples of such projects have been developed e.g. in Rotterdam (Kop van Zuid) The Hague (Spuikwartier) and Amsterdam (Y-oevers). These large-scale urban projects provoke both positive and negative feelings by the people, particularly with respect to the perceptual qualities of the plans. But also from an objective point of view spatial interventions bring along with it positive and negative effects. A large-scale traffic break not only causes a rapid transit of the traffic or a better accessibility of particular districts, but also leads to a continuous impairment of our environment. In order to attain a careful weighing of the different demands it Is important to develop a set of criteria, by which urban plans can be judged on their functional and perceptual qualities. The present study is focussed on the possible effects of urban developments on a large scale. The scope of this research project lies on the assessment of the different aspects, some of which are elaborated in criteria. Along this way it is possible to develop different levels of abstraction. Some of the distinctive criteria are already operational, some of them are merely descriptive and still need further elaboration. On the basis of this tentative study recommendations are formulated for further research.
Gospodini, Aspa. "Spatial Metamorphoses of the Urban Grid: Griddy Towns and their Squares in Classical Antiquity." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "Planning a city with a street pattern that is based on a system of vertical co-ordinations has been common practice accross centuries and cultures in urban history. Being a persistent phenomenon, the urban grid has often attracted the attention of scholars; its origin and its various "metamorphoses" (formal variety) adopted by different culturies and societies are issues raised in common by a number of studies. "Griddy" cities are usually discussed in detail from the point of view of form; overall shape, subdivision in blocks, axial and symbolic properties of the street pattern, e.t.c. Their public open space is usually analysed by means of geometry, often compared to public open space in cities without grid. Geometrical regularity is somehow juxtaposed to geometrical irregularity. There seems to be a trend in litterature to either classify together all "griddy" urban settlements because of the existence of the grid itself and as opposed to settlements with deformed street pattern or, distinguish purely formal types among them. In Classical Antiquity for instance, the Greek "poleis" with grid-patterned street system are considered one type of urban space as opposed to the type of the "old" Greek cities with irregular street system. The grid of the Roman "civitas" of the Imperial Age is seen as a distinct metamorphoses of the Hippodamian grid of the Greek poleis - a metamorhoses which involves only formal differences dictated by reasons of different culture, architectural style and tradition. Such formal classifications of the urban grid imply the belief that urban grid has no other structure appart from its formal structure; it does not exhibit spatial order and hierarchy, as opposed to urban settlements with "deformed" street patterns that generate deep structure of space. This paper develops the argument that the urban grid is not deprived of internal spatial structure. For this purpose, a number of "griddy" cities of Classical Antiquity, both Greek and Roman, are studied from the point of view of space. Two main questions are raised: Do formal differences between the Greek and the Roman urban grid imply distinct internal structure in terms of space? What are the spatial types of square (Agora and Forum) generated by these two urban grids? The analysis uses the theory and the methodology of Space Syntax as developed by Prof. Bill Hillier, University College London."
Mattsson, Gunnar. "Spatial Relations in a Cultural Environment." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. Architecture as the art of creating rythmical relations between spaces. The spatial connections to the context is of great importance, most important the relations to the spatial richness of nature. This attitude to architecture will be illustrated showing, on slides, design projects related to their spatial context; Projects through the design process. Publications on some of the projects are included, with an English summary on it's critics. This lecture is estimated to last for about one hour and needs one or two slide projectors.
Bates, Jonathan. "Spirit of Place: Constructing a Grounded Theory for Research." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "Spirit of Place ("Genius Loci") is a phrase generally used to encompass the whole range of psychological and spiritual effects landscapes and places have upon humans. Much scholarly research exists, but until now has been piecemeal in scope, focused on specific places or catagories. Nor has there been a critical examination of the epistimological or methodological bases of these studies. The author sees a need for a general theory with a clear, thought out philosophical orientation, based on existing material, to guide further research and to insure that the results can be used for design guidelines by practicing landscape architects and land use planners. Presented here is an initial framework for investigating Spirit of Place in a systematic manner. The framework is planned to rest upon a comprehensive survey of the existing literature, including anthropolgic data on mythic representations , as well as developmental psychology findings. The data from these "study populations" (ethnic groups, children, etc.) is proposed to be analysed using both psychological and structural methods, in order to develop criteria for a Spirit of Place checklist of values. These in turn will be tested on "test populations" of modern-day users of open space, parks, housing schemes,mixed use planned developments and the like,and from this a solid body of hard data on the psychological and mythic meanings of place for present-day populations will emerge, so that subsequent design guidelines will have an uncontestable legitimacy. Because this is the first framework to be built on a clear phoenomeno]ogical and structural base, and is global in scope, the author presents his work in initial format only, and expects to receive extensive input from lAPS 12 attendees, to insure its universality."
Senda, Mitsuru, and Nakayama Yutaka. "Study on Architectural and Display Planning at Science Museums Use of Science Museums and Satisfaction of Visitors." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "This study was aimed at obtaining specific data for architectural and display planning for science museums, through fact-finding surveys on the characteristics of thee use of science museums and evaluation of the satisfaction of visitors.A series of surveys were conducted on 12 relatively advanced, science museums of varying sizes in Japan and three world-famous science museums in Europe:RESULTS (1) Factors in the Size Factor category, in particular concerning "satisfaction, along with those In the Display Factor category, are important in satisfying visitors to science museums,(2) To prevent a feeling of "congestion', the smallest exhibit space should be 2.8m2/person. The appropriate density should be about 10m2/person to give 80% or more of the visitors a feeling of spaciousness and hence a high satisfaction level. (3) Display units at science museums were classified, and the evaluation index and the level of use of classified display units were considered. As a result, evaluation Indices and the level of use of the participation (hands-on) type display units turned out to be 12.5 times and 1.35 times as higher than those for the (non-touch) type display units. There was some correlations between the ratio of participation (hands-on) type exhibits and the level of satisfaction of visitors. (4) Relationships between the distance from the entrance and the level of use with respect to the above-mentioned participation type exhibits and display type exhibits were analyzed. The analysis revealed a tendency for the level of use of display type exhibits, to fail as the distance from the entrance increased. (5) A model plan for the composition and arrangement of exhibits, as shown in Fig. I based on the characteristics of the use of exhibits described in hems (3) and (4) above was drawn. (6) Comparison of facts about science museums in Europe and Japan revealed considerable differences in the male-female ratio, age groups and motivations of visitors. With respect to age groups, however, a tendency similar to one in Europe was also observed in Japan. This tendency needs to be taken into account in future planning."
Mikellides, Byron. "Synchronic and Diachronic Chromatic Metamorphoses." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. In line with the spirit of the theme of the Conference the psycho-physiological effects of colour in terms of its three dimensions - Hue, Chromatic Strength and Lightness - will be discused by considering how the created metamorphoses affect our organism. It is well known how colour in the form of light and paint transforms a space. This occurring space metamorphosis can be conceptualized at a single moment in time - the synchronic level (syn = at the same, chronos = time) when comparing the same environment in different colours, but also at the diachronic level (dia = across, chronos = time) comparing our reactions, both affective and physiological, over a period of time whether minutes, hours or months. Studies carried out at Oxford over a period of ten years will be presented in which full scale spaces were evaluated by means of cognitive measures using Richard Kuller's theoretical framework. The results of two recent experiments carried out at the Environmental Psychology Unit of the Lund Institute of Technology, Sweden, will also be discussed by reference to both synchronic and diachronic levels of conceptualization. The results of these experiments are based not only on the subjective measures used so far but also on physiological measures such as EEG (alpha, beta, delta and theta) activity at the cortical level and EKG and arrythmia at the autonomic nervous systems. The first area of experimental interest is whether long wave length colours are more alerting and activating than short wave length colours. Is there a difference in our responses between colour light and colour pigment? Secondly, are there any differences regarding the Hue-Heat hypothesis by using subjective measures of perceptual heat estimation compared to behavioral measures over a period of time? Thirdly, how far does colour affect our subjective estimation of time? Do certain colours accelerate the subjective passage of time compared to the chronological experience?
Vakalo, Emmanuel-George. "Teaching Architectural Design: Some Thoughts." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "The proposed paper addresses the teaching of architectural form-making. Instruction in this area is viewed as central in the "morphosis" ( pqoxnç) of an architect or, perhaps more appropriately, in the "metamorphosis" (.tetajxdp4watc) of young women and men into architects. The paper consists of two parts. The first describes and discusses a view of the current state of form-making education. The second part addresses some of the themes which, in this authors opinion, should underlie and inform the body of knowledge and skills which is needed to guide form-making education. Part I Form-making is defined as a problem-solving activity and is considered to be an act of communication. It is suggested that, unfortunately, there is substantial reluctance to put forth rules, principles, and methods in the teaching of form-making. The complexity of the activity is considered by many to constitute an obstacle to the employment of rationality even though its use does not automatically exclude experience and intuition. Although intelligence is not a rare commodity in the area of architectural form-making, a cursory review of the literature devoted to theorizing about it reveals a tendency to obscure rather than to clarify or explicate. The "master-apprentice" model governs the teaching of form-making. To a large extend this model is encountered throughout education. In form-making education however, the relation between apprentice and master is arguably perverted. This is because there is no commonly acceptable body of knowledge and skills which can be imparted explicitly to a student. It is proposed that many view form-making primarily as creation, and, lamentably, creation is usually and erroneously associated with "freedom" from constraints, principles, and rules. Further, it is asserted that the emphasis placed on "self-expression" leads to a contradiction between cultivating a student's creative freedom and teaching this same student in the instructors formmaking value system.It is concluded that a coherent body of knowledge and skills is pivotal to the teaching of architectural formmaking. This body should consist of, among other things, explicit rules, principles, and methods. To develop it, a reasonably stable environment and institutional mechanisms are needed.Part Il The preoccupation with form-making as a form of [self-] expression brings the designer's values to the foreground. Before the Industrial Revolution form-making was undertaken in a relatively homogeneous value environment. It is argued that this is no longer true. The differentiation between the value systems of architects and clients and the emergence of users as a group which is distinct from clients are among the causes of the current heterogeneous value environment. Active exploration of various value systems and admission of the fact that a designer should be able to work within various value systems are unfortunately inconsistent with the cult of self-expression.Buildings consist of a number of systems, each of which is independently deployed in space but which, together with other systems make a whole. The knowledge and skills needed to coordinate their design and spatial deployment represent a powerful tool for dealing with the complexity of architectural form-making problems. Yet, it is argued, this knowledge and these skills have not been incorporated in the teaching of form-making thereby depriving designers of unique pedagogical opportunities.The birth of modern architecture brought functionalism to the tore. Arguably however, form relates only partially to function. Indeed, since form is of central concern in design, intimate knowledge of it and skills in making it constitute the foundation of a designer's expertise. It is suggested that separating form from function will allow designers to explore and understand the relations between them, to gain deeper insight into architectural form, and to counteract the tendency to discuss architectural form using terms charged with functional connotations."
Wineman, Jean. "Teamspace: Designing for Communication." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "Today's business climate is becoming increasingly competitive, particularly with the development of the European Community and the opening of market opportunities in Eastern Europe. Given this increasing competition and the instability of the marketplace, successful organizations are those that have the ability to rapidly respond to changing conditions and new opportunities. These demands for rapid response to complex problems, as well as other characteristics of today's workplace, have led many organizations to develop a more flexible project team organization as opposed to a hierarchical organizational structure. In any office setting, the effectiveness of the project team is dependent upon interaction/information exchange. Although office automation has been heralded as the solution to diminishing productivity gains, a major portion of office tasks continue to demand face-to-face communication. In fact, the development of ideas that create the impetus for innovation often occurs through informal exchange. Although there has been considerable attention paid to the design of the workstation and workstation components to meet the needs of specific work tasks, less attention has been paid to the ways in which the demands of work tasks extend beyond the workstation boundaries and are affected by the design of the organizational fabric: the organization and layout of workspaces and the spaces that form connecting links among them. It is these aspects of organizational space that prepare the context for what Peters and Waterman (1982), in their best selling book In Search of Excellence so aptly call "serendipitous encounters.TM Wilson (1985) in "Premises of Excellence: How successful companies manage their offices" interprets Peters and Waterman's suggestion as follows: "The main challenge is to provide offices which allow concentrated, conceptual work and the high degree of face to face interaction so stressed by books on business excellence" (p. 5). This paper discusses the influence of workspace design and spatial layout on communication patterns within the context of job and organizational characteristics. The focus is on project teams involved in idea generation/problem-solving tasks. Research results are reported on the "fit" between these idea generation/problem-solving tasks, communication patterns, and the design and layout of workspace. Issues discussed include the influence of workplace design/layout on: amount and types of communication; the spatialization of communication (where types of communications occur); communication-based relationships with other project teams/management/support services; the influence of organizational context, structure, rules, and culture; and the effects of change."
Komninos, Nikos. "Technopoles and Science Parks in Europe: Reshaping the Geography of Development." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "During the last decade we have witnessed radical changes in the geography of development in Europe: One the one hand severe crisis characterises the old center of mass production systems. The cities of Cambridge, Milton Keynes, Crawley and Bracknell, for example are singles out as model-cities of a new new "flexible" capitalism in England. "
Decker, Roy, and David Lewis. "The (Id)Entity of Ocean Springs, Mississippi and Seaside, Florida." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. Seaside, Florida, the popular and critically acclaimed community, presents emblematic and romantic attributes from several European and American planning models. The town of Seaside is laid out on a grid pattern that turns on itself to face the ocean, juxtaposed with quaint homes and pedestrian scale squares, and overlaid with authoritarian avenues and public structures. House types and architectural vocabulary are prescriptively derived from historically based American homes, such as the bungaJ'w, the Charleston house, and the plantation home. Its presence derives from simulations of these models; it is therefore obscene. Seaside lacks the embodied depth of a functioning community. Ocean Springs, Mississippi, a small, gridded, gulf-coast town, exhibits the embodied depth of a functioning community. The town contains a cohesive character defined by hybrid buildings cloaked under live oak trees. Ocean Springs seduces the inhabitant through phenomenal details, draws the inhabitant inward, and constructs a meaningful dialogue. This embodied depth results from traditional mechanisms of metamorphosis. The metamorphosis ensues from a natural process of individual criticisms and adjustments over time. This paper will illustrate the crisis of contemporary small town planning in America. It will specifically address the inherent problems of imposing willful geometric organizations and applying indiscriminate building and planning typologies. Both approaches deny intrinsic qualities requisite in functioning town plans and building forms. We propose a reversal of the contemporary process of design and planning. The proposed process involves detailed, individual design investigations that require the architect to critically evaluate the ideals of community and to responsively observe the intrinsic qualities of individual place. This process insures a incorporation of the embodied meaning is a functioning community.
Procos, Dimitris. "The Apparatus of Renewable Energy: Its Impact on Built and Land Form." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "The apparatus with which Renewable Energy is captured, extracted, or modulated impacts on the appearance of buildings and landscapes alike. The effect on landscape has been particularly pronounced with aeolian and photovoltaic installations, but has involved active and passive solar devices as well. This annotated visual essay traces the resulting metamorphosis of Built Form and Landscape. The approach involved contrasting a lush and a stark setting. The former is in Germany and Austria and draws on the "Biotecture" tradition in those countries. The latter is in the Aegean Islands of Greece, where a number and variety of Renewable Energy installations have taken place. The Northern European setting has seen the incorporation of a number of passive solar collector and shading devices into the building form in a manner that exploits their inherently detached appearance to general design advantage. In some cases, this has resulted in a marriage between deconstructivism and passive solar design and in many cases in an exploded builtscape, especially in contrast to the compactness of early passive solar examples. The Aegean setting has seen a similar transformation of the landscape - even if not as thoroughly incorporated as in the Northern Builtscape examples. Nevertheless, a tradition of strongly articulated sunshading and building siting generally supports the contrasting forms of solar collectors and arrays and aeolian installations."
Mangana, Vassiliki. "The Appearance and Development of Modern Capitalism in Thessaloniki: the Architectural Representations of Economic Power in Liberty Square and Its Environs." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "The implementation of the new plan of Thessaloniki (1921) has been considered as the process by which the essentially medieval city was transformed into a modern metropolis. Induced by the political conditions in the area, but triggered by the great fire of 1917, which left a major part of the historical center in ruins this undertaking constituted an important development in the history of urbanism not only of Greece, but also the entire area of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Balkans. This paper, however, focuses on a specific aspect of this undertaking, namely the impact of the establishment of modern capitalism on the area surrounding Venizelos Street and Liberty Square. Drawing on the significations of particular architectural trends that had begun appearing in this area before the execution of the new plan and comparing them to subsequent developments, the first part of this paper attempts to establish that the interventions of 1921, rather than constituting a break with this places architectural tradition, represent the consolidation of a pre-existing order. The second part of this study, on the other hand, focuses on the meaning that this area acquired through everyday interactions and cultural practices. This part starts from the premise that literary texts and urban forms which were produced within the same cultural context, form a generalized structure that we could call the urban discourse. Thus, the narrative "Liberty Square" by N. G. Pentzikes, providing a complimentary insight into the signification that this area acquired through the consolidation of modern capitalism, is employed as a primary source and in juxtaposition to the aforementioned analysis of architectural forms."
Moore, Kathryn. "The Art of Design in Landscape Architecture." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. This paper considers the aspirations and possible future role of landscape architecture as an art form. It raises questions about the design process within the profession, in particular several cognitive factors which may inhibit a creative approach. The author describes elements which have been introduced into the new undergraduate degree programme in landscape architecture at Birmingham Polytechnic to help understand the impact of these factors and, if possible to lessen their significance. The paper is based on the initial stages of a research project currently being undertaken at Birmingham Polytechnic by the author.
Corraliza, José-Antonio, and Maria-Angeles Gilmartin. "The Assessment of Natural Landscapes: a Multidimensional Analysis of Visual Preferences." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "The study of environmental preferences is a main topic of current research in environmental psychology. Furthermore, the understanding of this basic process is an important issue for the management of visual resources, and the preservation of natural environments. The environmental preference process is related to three kinds of variables: Informational variables (as mystery, coherence, legibility, and complexity), spatial configuration variables (as spaciousness, openness, etc.), and historical & cultural factors (for example traditional landmarks, country settings, human influence on the landscape etc.). This study aims at defining the importance and predictive power of these three clusters of variables in subjects' judgments of preference. Eleven judges considered a large sample of natural landscapes according to two criteria: openness vs. closeness and humanized vs. no humanized. Sixteen slides were selected (4 open & humanized landscapes; 4 open & no humanized landscapes; 4 closed & humanized landscapes; 4 closed & no humanized landscapes). A questionnaire which included 16 evaluative items was prepared. Sentences involved judgments about the importance of informational, spatial and historical or cultural variables, as well as a question about general preference and another about general satisfaction. Subjects' task consisted of watching every slide and judging each one by filling out the questionnaire. Means of subjects' ratings of every slide were compared by a statistical test. Multiple regression analysis was performed in order to determine the predictive power of the variables over the judgments of general preference and general satisfaction. Finally a multidimensional scaling defined categories of landscapes according to subjects' judgments. Results confirm the predictive power of the variable "mystery" in the preference judgments about natural landscapes. In a less degree, other variables also showed an influence over subjects' judgments. The variable "human influence" seems also to be relevant for the preference and satisfaction judgments. On the other hand, multidimensional scaling shows the importance of previous categorization in subjects' answers."
Sukhwani, Savita, and Juan Ignaclo Aragones. "The Attribution of Identity Dimensions on the Home." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. The present research studies in which degree the dwelling and decoration work as a language capable of being understood by subjects of the same culture. The basis of the study is that the homeowner's identity may be inferred by strangers that see different rooms of their house. The subjects were 203 students were distributed in four groups. Each group saw 12 slides of four different rooms: - living room, bathroom, kitchen and bedroom- of each home, randomly ordered. These rooms were chosen because they are the most common rooms in Spanish homes. This means that each group saw three different houses. The total number of houses were four and each home was seen by three groups. The questionnaire used to assess Identity consisted of 24 personality traits listed in 7-point bipolar scale format in which they tried to define the personality of the dweller of the home. The same questionnaire was performed by the owners of the four houses studied. The socioeconomic level was controlled in the way that the subjects and the dwellers were on the same level. The results point to a certain agreement between the observers and the dwellers about the homeowner's identity so that the different rooms facilitate the equal attribution of certain dimensions of identity between the observers and the owners.
Burgel, Guy. "The Big City / La Grande Ville: L´audace Et La Necessite." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. conference:IAPS:12
Dovey, Kim. "The Bond and Bondage of Place Attachment." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. The primary argument of this paper is that 'place attachment' must be studied both as an emotional 'bond' between people and setting, and as a form of 'bondage'. About the former we know a good deal, about the latter, much less. I use 'bondage' in this context to mean both a limitation on one's vision through being enmeshed in a place and in the sense that place attachment has a role in the establishment and maintenance of power relations and social oppression. Consider the following examples: • The ideology of the detached suburban house is a primary case of place attachment - the love of ownership and the expression of personal power and autonomy in space. Yet this very place attachment has become the single largest impediment to the design of a livable and sustainable city. It leaves us in bondage to banks and cars, and often isolated from jobs, amenities and friends. • The centres of our cities are deluged with corporate towers that sprout wherever permitted, growing taller and spreading weed-like across the landscape. These towers are often oppressive of our cities and of life within them. But they are not created out of rational necessity, nor from the ignorance of designers or developers. These buildings are loved by a corporate culture with a strong symbolic attachment to the dominating landmark, the corner office and the feeling of power engendered by the grand view. • Nazi ideology and propaganda had a strong focus on issues of place attachment. German folk architecture, springing 'naturally' from the soil, was promoted as the representation of the 'blood and soil' ideology of the Aryan race. And the gigantic neo-classical forms of 'community architecture' were designed to bring the German community together physically and spiritually under Nazism. Place attachment carries no immunity to tyranny. These forms of place attachment are quite real, and to the individual or group concerned, quite valuable. But to describe these experiences is surely not enough. This is not to deny the importance of place attachment, it is on the contrary to promote an understanding of that importance without promoting place attachment as some simple good to be produced and reproduced wherever possible. Research on place attachment demands an understanding of its social construction and a questioning of whose interests are served and whose are denied by dominant modes of place attachment. Place attachment may spring from archetypal form, from participatory process and from the authentic cwpression of identity. But each of these may be a two-sided coin - the power of archetypal forms (supposing such power to exist) may be appropriated for the legitimation of political power; participation out of love for and in the defence of an unjustly privileged place is a common form of participatory design; and one person's authentic expression of status and identity can well be another's oppression. The task is to unpack the phenomenon of place experience to reveals its role within a larger whole - place as both bond and as bondage.
Amole, Bayo. "The Boys Quarters: an Enduring Colonial Legacy in Nigeria." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "There are many features of the Nigerian society today that may be described as legacies of the British colonial history. One of the most notable perhaps because of its visibility are some physical features of those cities which were administrative centers under the colonial rule and have remained in that capacity in one form or the other after independence. These cities have in turn become models for other cities particularly in the south-western Yoruba area of Nigeria. Perhaps the most widespread of these features of the colonial city is the concept of residential segregation within the city. The concept of the colonial "Government Residential Area" is aparently the model for planning the modem residential estates in several other cities. This concept involves the creation of large plots with a single family detaches house as the main building and a smaller detached bungalow behind it as the servants quarters in what has been described as the "colonial bungalow-compound-complex. The focus of this paper is the servants quarters popularly called the boys quarters, in the context of one of the modem residential estates, the Obafemi Awolowo University campus residential estate in lie-Ife Nigeria. The study compares the estate with the colonial government residential estate and examines the uses and attitudes of residents towards the boys quarters. The aim is to examine ways in which the same spatial-physical organization has been appropriated in different socio-cultural contexts and to discuss the process through which a new role and meaning have been assigned to the boys quarters. The results may reinforce the idea that changes in any part of the home territory can only be understood in the context of the total dwelling experience and throughout the entire territory. It is hoped that the understanding gained from this study may inform future policies towards the boys quarters as a sub-territory, in the dwelling, especially in government subsidized housing estates such as the one under study."
King'oriah, George. "The Built Environment of Kenyan Schools." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. This is an examination of the environmental conditions experienced by the very young children in Kenyans rural primary schools during their tender learning years. Recently Kenyan have been very busy building Secondary schools and Universities. A lot of attention has been paid to the architecture, the environment and the standard of finish of these institutions. However, the Kenyan Primary school environment and standards of building finishes have received very little attentions; although a significant amount of building activity is going on to supply primary school space countrywide. This paper explores the status quo of the built environment and suggests ways of improving the school space for our children.
Nicolai, Joop. "The Changing Functions of the Zuyder Zee Project." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "The Zuyder Zee project has been in progress in the Netherlands since 1918, and involves the damming and partial reclamation of what used to be the Zuyder Zee. The aim is to improve the water management situation and reclaim land for agricultural purposes. Forest, nature areas and towns will be added later. So far four polders have been reclaimed and largely developed. The fifth polder has still to be reclaimed. If reclaimed land is to be used for residential purposes, towns and villages are required, where residents can find churches, schools, and medical and other facilities. In the first polder, which covers 21,000 hectares and was reclaimed in 1930, the aim was that groups of at least several dozen dwellings should be situated within walking distance of each other (3 to 5 km). The plan for that polder therefore provided for 5 villages and 8 hamlets. Four villages were eventually built. The plan for the second polder, which covers 48,000 hectares and was reclaimed in 1942, provides for a main village of 10,000 inhabitants situated in the middle of the polder, surrounded by 5 villages, each with 4,000 inhabitants. This choice was based on a consideration of the cycling distance between farm and village and the number of inhabitants in the area served by a village and the number of people who needed to use facilities to ensure that they could operate satisfactorily. These "five" villages eventually became ten; a shorter cycling distance was deemed desirable for social reasons. The third polder, which covers 54,000 hectares and which was reclaimed in 1957, contains 3 villages and one town. The fourth polder, which covers 43,000 hectares and which was reclaimed in 1968, has one village and one town. This is because the rural area is to accommodate fewer people, facilities require a greater number of users, and cars make it possible to travel longer distances. The two towns in the third and fourth polders were founded mainly to contribute to the urbanisation of the Netherlands. This paper is intended to show that the polders created by the Zuyder Zee Project can make an extra contribution to urbanisation. The Netherlands is facing a population distribution problem: in the west of the country several million people live and work in a relatively small area, cities are often congested and there are too many tailbacks on the motorways. If housing, jobs and facilities are distributed over a wider area, these problems can be reduced or possibly even solved. At any rate, the polders created by the Zuyder Zee Project offer enough room in principle to extend existing towns and villages further, or to add a number of new ones. Should the Netherlands require even more space, polder 5 will offer further scope."
Hancock, John. "The Cincinnati - Milos Studio: Towards an Architecture of Greekness." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "During the summer of 1991, sixteen architectural students from the University of Cincinnati made a study tour in Greece concluding after five weeks of travelling to architectural sites throughout the country, with a four week studio project on the island of Milos. The main theme of the summer program had to do with "Greekness", ( What makes Greek architecture, or landscape, or culture, or food or literature or people, e.t.c., Greek, despite their geographical or chronological diversity ), and with "Tourism" ( How does a visitor engage with -or not- all of these things in a foreign land on more than a superficial level ). The studio focused on the design of a tourist facility, the intent being to investigate ways in which architectural design could promote and intensify a tourists experience and engagement with the historical, spatial, and cultural meaning of a place. Selected projects from the studio will be presented and explained in relation to the students experience of Greek life, their interpretation of the ancient, medieval, vernacular and modern Greek architectural precedents, and particularly in relation to the following principles or characteristics of an architecture of Greekness which our experiences and discussions seemed to reveal: "The Thick and the Thin". Greek architecture is made of the extremes of thick and thin, and the poetics of this contrast have deep and meaningfull connection to the place. The stone, concrete, and stucco walls, with their great thermal mass, are expressive of the solidity of the earth, and of the intimacy and refreshing coolness, the deep sacredness of enclosure. Set in contrast to these are the thin frames of wood and steel, with canvas, bamboos or sailcloth awnings floating in the airyness of the sky, controlling of the sun and the wind, minimal shelters of the thriving and continuous outdoors public life.Objects and Enclosurenes". The Greek builtscape is composed of figural volumes, figural enclosures and figural paths, which interact in a subtly balanced yet ambigous dance with each other: Temple, Temenos and Propylon; or, church, courtyard, gate; or, house, yard, street. Collision of these elements, all seeking their form and position, are resolved in compromises and distortions, gaps are the occasions for spatial and ornamental flourishes. The central object and the bounded space portray the sacred and the profane, while the layers of enclosure and resolution, and the paths and open spaces which participate in them, are the primary sources of Greek architectures spatial character."The Truth". The most significant Greek architecture from all periods seems to reach, with remarkable confidence for a level of truth which attains a mystical idealism. Though easy to locate in the Parthenon or in the Byzantine dome, what is srtiking is the degree to which this confidence in "the thruth" is still felt in greek art, architecture and literatureeven today- when the rest of the world has embraced pluralism and relativism. There seems to be a deeply felt and shared idea of what is right, good, worthy, fitting, lifeenhancing- something profound, simple, durable, proven by time, and perhaps by the selfevident authenticity of the landscape and the way of life. For Americans studying architecture in Greece, the remarkable aspect of this is how deeply felt, how natural, how automatic is the sensation of this authenticity and how irrelevant and even ridicolous become the superficial grasping after stylish imageries which drives so much architectural creativity elsewhere.Just as the studio invited a group of "tourists" to critique the superficiality of "tourism" through architectural means, so the experiential reality of Greece challenged the superficiality of style-conocious, formalistic architecture, through the deeply rooted duration of its landscape, climate, way-of-life, and architecture."
Sandrisser, Barbara. "The Commonplace, Or Koinos Topos, in Japan." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. Japan's common places seem to reinforce both the notion of the commonplace and, paradoxicaly perhaps, the notion of cultivated sophistication. indeed, the concept ot TuturaL sophistcaton is an ironic contradction, if we examine the etymology of the word culture. Assuming that the idea of Civilization or civilizing force is the intellectual development of the human species limits our our evaluation of human achievement to that which can be scientifically measured or philosophically categorized.
Papadimitriou, Zissis. "The Conservative Dimension of Postmodernism." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "The debate on "postmodernism" has started in the mid 70's and is directly related with the crisis of the post-war model of economic development and accumulation of capital (fordism). A common feature of the different approaches on postmodemism, is the reserve against the Enlightment project. To the extent that postmodernism states, through its critique on modernism, arguments about the future of humanity, it is transformed from an aesthetic movement to a "moral theory of postmodemism". with serious socio-political and ideological impacts. Aesthetising its relationship with the "external world" (the reality), postmodernism perceives the reality in a fragmented way, individualize the experience of the subject and undermines the possibility of the development of "collective consciousness", which would effectively question the totalitarian character of the modem consumption society. The postmodern doctrine, since it focuses an existing problem, could serve as a denchmark for the investigation of social, political and cultural conditions of late capitalism. However, trapped in the neoconservative context, postmodernism "ends up -finally- in an a priori disapprouvement of every critical theory of the art and behind this, of the society" (Olivier Revault d' Aflones). The aversion of postmodernists to every political discurs and the quest for answers and solutions to the problem of economic, social. cultural and moral crisis in the context of discussion about aesthetics (the well-known "priority of the aesthetic novelty" of Lyotard), loads to a-political subjects and functions as a substitute of the declining of social and political identity of the postfordist individual. With the sence, postmodernism, even when it claims that it aims to the critique of the totalitarian ideology (Derrida, Lyotard etc.) entagles to the logic of the logitimation of the system of social allienation, and so it transforms to an instrument of social and political conservatism."
Drost, Uwe. "The De - Composition of the City." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "Given the simple exercise of several inherently just rights of man, the freedom to decentralize, to redistribute and to correlate the properties of the life of man on earth to his birthright - the ground itself - and Broadacre City becomes reality. Frank Lloyd WrightWith the emerging end of the twentieth century our society faces on the one hand the struggle and the demolition of political and social systems and on the other hand the uncontrolled growth of the world population and of any metropolitan areas.Such obvious conflicts are asking for substantial changes and re-evaluation of existing and abandoned planning strategies. Most of the utopian plans which were concerned with new cities in a new society have usually been illustrated out of their context and meaning. This frequent misinterpretation which neglected their socioeconomic meaning as well as their architectural meaning did not understand that without conflicts there could be no progress.The following paper is directed towards the re-investigation of some of these abandoned strategies. Frank Lloyd Wright's Broadacre City and its relationship with other ideal plans of growth and society will be in the center of this re-evaluation. The plan for Broadacre City can be seen in line with other important plans of ideal cities of our century, like Gamier's "Cite Ouvrière", Le Corbusier's "Plan vosisin", Miiijutins "Sotsgorod" or Scharoun's "Kollektivplan" for Berlin. Like these plans, Broadacre sees itself confronted with a secular process of the elimination of the city. It tries to organize this process, and tries to give space and form to its existing internal contradictions. This process of elimination obviously seems to be withdrawn from the intervention of any organized planning. This phenomenon can be recognized in most of the industrialized societies, but more surprising also in the societies with socialist governments. The planner/architect can only react, at best organize, speed up or slow down this process and can try to reduce the actual consequences. This process can be done more or less successfully, but is not the cause for this process, it rather has to be understood as the result of the same changes in society."
Hodde, Rainier. "The Design Confronted with the Use: Metamorphosis at Work in Both Rehabilitation Projects." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. To recall the metamorphosis of the space built, as we are invited by the 12th meeting of lAPS, means an infinity of objects, from the visible metamorphosis of the space built to the transformations of the design process. Our contribution take place in the quest of the design process1. It wishes to deepen of a theory of architectural practice by getting in touch with these queries and a professional experience. This experience brings transformations of desing process into play, beyond the transformations of the space built taking into account the user. In front of the infinity of the possibilities of metamorphosis, we will focus on the transformations brought when it is decided to open the project to the users, referring to two uspecimen of projects of rehabilitation. The first one (the rehabilitation of social housing in the suburbs of Marseille, le Petit Séminaire) has been awarded by the PAN (New Architectural Programme, in charge of the Ministery of Housing2)in 1977; the second (the prgrammation of the restructuration of an old age housing in the aerea of Paris) is part of 25 experimental projects started in 1980 on such housing3. Among the multiplicity of points of view to explore this opening of the project to the users, we focus on two questions: - what makes the project itself visibly different when it opens to the logic of the users? That comes down to explore the way in wich some uses are taken into account (but also some symbolic dimensions), usefully evacueted from the project; - what makes the design process itself to be submitted to radical transformations : they bring the designer to explore some news competences (his starting point of view changes, he takes a new listening and a new looking, he opens to the negociation, he accepts that his project would be evaluated during the process, etc.)? We will put these experiences in the context of the starting context, and we will show how the opening to the project to the users is a break of the traditional paradigm of the design process, in the visible results and in the modifications of the inside of design process. We will show first the similarity of these two architectural experiences. Secondly, we will explore in details how the care of the users has changed for ten years between these two experiences. First unformal, tinkered, spontaneous, expensive in time, it will be then more structured, more efficient. The participation of the users4 ends, the
Laike, Thorbjörn. "The Development of an Instrument to Measure Children's Wellbeing in Different Environments." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "During the last two decades, a growing number of children have encountered changed living conditions. No longer is the home the only place to be reared in. Instead, a public social life begins when the child, one or two years old, enters a day-care center. The aim of the present project is to investigate how these changing circumstances will affect the emotional development of children. One hundered children placed at ten different day-care centers are included in the study. The theoretical framework is the environmental psychology model developed by Kaller (1991). Looking at the question of how children respond to the multitude of their environments, Kaller has presented an environmental model for stress and coping. The interaction with the environment proceeds in four steps, activation, orientation, evaluation and control. The model shows how the child is activated by the physical and social environment. In what ways, and to what extent, will depend on the child's resources, constitution, strategies, and early experiences. This interaction will be mirrored in the child's emotions. The paper will present the development of an instrument measuring the emotional state of children in different environments, by means of behavioral observation. The instrument is intended for children between four and seven years of age, and applicable in two different situations, free play, and having a meal. Each variable is connected to one of the earlier mentioned steps in the basic emotional process. The aim of the instrument is to assess the emotional changes that take place in the "micro-metamorphosis" that occurs every day when the child changes from home to day care environment. The influence of this "micro-metamorphosis" will be related to the "macro-metamorphosis" that has taken place in child care practices during the last decades."
Moran, Rosalyn. "The Electronic Home - Households and Design." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. The introduction of advanced technology into the home has the potential to change qualitative and quantitative aspects of relationships between household members as well as the role and function of the home and its relationship to the macro environment. This paper will explore the likely impact of home technologies on social relationships within the household. Likely effects on patterns of social interaction and environmental behaviour within the wider community, will also be investigated. The implications of findings for the planning, design and adaptation of housing and for environmental planning more generally, will be considered.
Davidovici-Marton, Ronit, and Arza Churchman. "The Environmental Advantage Model - Interaction Between Physical and Social Elements of the Environment." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. We all live in a physical and social environment, and try to cope with it according to our personal characteristics, and personal - social-cultural goals. The environment advantage is a new model which expresses the relative level of coping with environmental constraints, as a result of interactions between social and physical aspects of our activity patterns. The environmental advantage is based on the individual's accessibility to physical and social resources, which are reflected in his/her activities. The paper will present the conclusions of a study which examined the theoretical model empirically, by 400 interviews with men and women from different social groups, and in different environments. The hypotheses of the study are: * The broarder the variety and range of an individual's activity patternstructure - the higher the environmental advantage level. * There is a mutual dependence between the social and the physical aspects of the activity pattern and it influences the environmental advantage level. * Environmental advantage increases up to a certain level, beyond which a change takes place in one of two directions: either reinforcement and consolidation of the environmental advantage existing level or a change in the either structure
Corraliza, José-Antonio. "The Environmental Meaning of Urban Scenes: a Proposal for an Affective Map of the City." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "Since 20 years ago, research in environmental psychology has showed the theoretical and applied relevance of studies on environmental meaning. In contrast to other interesting perspectives (such as studies on urban semiotics, syntax of urban spaces etc.), psychologists approach environmental meaning as the attribution of affective qualities to settings. This study analyses the semantic representation of the affective qualities attributed to urban scenes. Nine representative slides of a mean-size Spanish town (Gijón) were selected. The chosen scenes combined different functional spaces (streets, squares, parks) whose were located in different areas of the urban network (centre vs. periphery). Subjects were 272 high school students (16-20 years old) who were living in Gijon. Subjects' task consisted of judging each slide on 16 pairs of opposite adjectives. Adjectives were previously selected according to their weights in four factors: pleasantness, arousal, impact, and control. ibjects were also requested to imagine 'the most pleasant place" and to evaluate this ideal space b' the 16 pairs of adjectives. Factors of affective meaning (pleasantness, arousal, impact, and control) were partially verified by a factor analysis. Furthermore, subjects' ratings on factors of affective meaning clearly discriminated spaces according to their functional value and allocation in the urban network, and compared the affective profile with the ideal place profile. An affective map of the city was designed by using the affective profile of the evaluated places."
Bambury, Jill. "The History of Change and the Change in History as an Architectural Dilemma." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "History begins when men begin to think of the passage of time in terms not of natural process - the cycle of the season, the human life - span - but of a series of specific events in which men are consciously involved and which they can consciously influence. E.H. Carr This definition, published in 1961 by an eminent historian, (ironically a 'specialist' in the history of Soviet Russia) reveals a problematic in our current understanding of history, for the notion that 'conscious influence' can be exerted on the world through our efforts may be true, but the effects of such exertion are dubious. As we approach the next millennium, it seems fairly clear that teleological project of modernism which began with the Enlightenment based upon the idea that 'man' could change this world for the better through exercising power over nature has resulted in questionable outcomes which range from the socially and physically problematic metropolis to the reality of nuclear warfare in its physical manifestations. The quest for knowledge itself has resulted in a splintered understanding of the world (one first recognized by critics of the Industrial Revolution) where extreme specialization has resulted in the implementation of 'change', the effects of which cannot be predicted, given the clouding of the 'overall picture'. This phenomenon has been further extended by philosophers and scientists alike to manifest itself in a fervent interest in the 'limits' rather than in the subject itself. The grave problem with which we are faced is that 'the overall picture' history itself, "the narrative devoted to the exposition of the natural unfolding and interdependence of the events treated" (Webster's Third New International Dictionary 1976). This definition of history, deriving from the Greek historia seems to be precariously balanced in a state of change .... or possibly nearing its end. This paper proposes to consider change in our conception of history as it has recently affected architectural production; specifically examining recent changes in architectural production which seem to deny the existence of history making formally manifest the reality of its crisis."
Cernescu, Traila. "The Housing Market, Housing Aspirations and Housing Needs in a Period of Changes in Romania." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "After the events of December '89 the structure of the housing market changed a lot in Romania and different latent social problems began to appear. The past regime had expressly enacted laws which created increasing restrictions on private control In land transactions and the housing sector. As a result, in the last twenty years the housing market in the urban areas had the following features: dwellings built by the state, a large amount of typified buildings, collective dwellings,, the development of a broad state rental sector. In the rural area a lot of restrictions were imposed on those who intended to build a house or even to reconstruct or repair it. The main reason for all these measures was the intention to "systematize" the rural communities. In rural area housing, private dwellings were to be replaced by collective dwellings. Something new has happened in the housing market: the occupants of the apartments built by the state can now buy them, using family savings and credit allocations from the state. This paper presents several statistical data related to the current housing market in Romania, and goes on to make a few observations concerning possible needs in the area of the housing market. A recent public opinion survey provides insights into the structure of public satisfaction and aspirations with regard to housing. The Romanian housing market can be seen as being influenced by four factors: a) material factors (infrastructure); b) socio-demographic factors (family); c) legal factors (dwelling legislation); d) psycho-cultural factors (aspirations); The structure of the housing aspirations, is also influenced by the level or satisfaction with present dwellings. This dimension has been measured by different indicators of the housing comfort: size of the house, out-buildings, thermic protection, house compartments, building material, neighbourhood-environment. The results obtained on the basis of a public opinion survey, showed that approx. 20 percent of the sample population (owners or tenants) are dissatisfied with their dwellings (the urban inhabitants are, on a percentage basis, even more unsatisfied than the rural ones). The housing aspirations have been studied taking into account the options people have made for: number of the rooms, ownership, type of the building, location of the dwelling, etc. The housing market in Romania is deeply influenced by infrastructure and superstructure in transition. Forthcoming legislation concerning the property of the land and dwellings and the financial sources will influence in future the new housing construction market."
Valera, Sergi, and Enric Pol. "The Image of the Districts of Barcelona Iii. a Theoretical Approach." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. This work is the third part a bigger one started by us under the same title presented in lAPS 10 and lAPS 11 Conferences. In the first two parts we analysed the data concerning to a number of urbanistic interventions carryed out in some districts of Barcelona. All these interventions had the purpose of revitalising areas wich had become despersonalized and environmentally degraded, because of a disproportionated, especulative, urbanistic boom. Many of this districts grew around old towns wich sorrounded the originary, walled city of Barcelona before 1897. The demographic growth and the inmigration waves led to the loss of their simbolic elements and their urban identity and they got included in the urbanistic metropolitan caos. Some years ago the people in charge of the urbanistic policy in Barcelona started carrying out interventions in the city, mainly in these districts, with two purposes: the first one trying to consolidate elements so that they could be integrated in the cognitive and simbolic schemes of the people living in these districts; the second one was trying to recover in an aesthetic and simbolic level all this areas and, by doing this, create a new, different, modern image of Barcelona.In this paper the data refering to the most important interventions collected in our previous works will be analysed. We'll consider these interventions as symbolic places and we'll see its influence both on the districts where they are placed and on its residents.In order to get a theorical approach to these data we will use a model based on the theorical pluralism (Munné, 1986), according to which we'll rise diferent perspectives:- formal-estructural: by analising the integrated elements in the urban estructure. - semiotic: by analising the city as a system of landmarks, signs and symbols, that's to say, analising the urban semantic range. - ideological-cultural: by analising the influence of power networks and its reflection on the city. - psycological-social: by analising the influence of the urban phenomenon on the psychological proceses by means of the Self theories applied to spaces (Proshansky, 1983, Hunter, 1987, Lalli, 1988), based on the Symbolic Interactionism perspective.
Krause, Linda. "The Image of the House of the Images." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. The history of architecture offers useful lessons in the transformative power of typologies. An especially striking instance of this power occurred in 1864 when a young American architect, Peter Bonnet Wight, presented his design for a new school of fine arts at Yale University. Wight's scheme was revolutionary: an art school more residence than museum repository; a house of art rather than a temple of art. In a single gesture, Wight deinstitutionalized the art school, transforming it not through mere stylistic means but through a shift in architectural typology. Historically, the Yale School of Fine Arts building has been discussed simply in stylistic terms. The building's medievalizing style is attributed to Wight's fascination with the philosophy of John Ruskin and the esthetics of the Gothic Revival. Though useful, this assessment is too limiting. It is not Wight's choice of style but that of building type which is signicant. By basing his design on residential paradigms, Wight's building accommodates diverse functions and interpretations. It capably houses both an art school and a gallery: it welcomes both traditional and non-traditional students; it is both public and private. Most important, it transforms and encompasses the 19th century idea of home as the locus of contemplation, insight, and creativity During the 19th century buildings became increasingly specialized according to function. These function-driven prescriptive building types developed from and gave rise to particular social values and psychological associations. Typically, by assigning particular social values and psychological associations to building types architects merely perpetuated an unexamined (and often specious) relationship. Wight's art school is more adventurous: it acknowledges yet transcends prescriptive typologies. By crossing typologic boundaries Wight not only opens the building to new interpretations but enables us to rethink the interrelation of built form and expressive content. This paper uses Wight's School of Fine Arts to examine the generative and transformational aspects of architectural typologies. But it is also a point of departure for investigating the rewards and limitations of typological analysis.
Koizumi, Takashi, and Nobuhiro Suzuki. "The Images of the Spaces Enclosed by the Light and their Physical Elements." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "(1) We named a space which has visible natural light as its primary clement "the light space". Such natural light determines images of the space. (2) There are spaces enclosed by the light through large translucent materials such as Wien Post Office Saving Bank, The Notre-Dame du Raincy. (3) These images of these spaces will vary according to the location of the light, and light quality. (4) Therefore we aimed to obtain images of the various spaces enclosed by the light and their physical elements. We want to use this results for designing the light spaces. 1. The Light Spaces and the Questionnaire We collected many light spaces from wellknown ancient and present architectures. Then we chose 40 representative light spaces, screening by the type of the enclosure, the shape of light and the light quality. We showed 40 slide pictures of these light spaces to 26 students majoring in architecture. We asked the subjects to evaluate the strength degree of 1) the sense of being enclosed, covered, surrounded, supported, 2) the 19 pairs of spatial images such as opened, unified, filled with light. 3) the 17 pairs of substantial images such as warm, light, lustrous, shiny for each picture. We asked the subjects to mark the area of the shown illustration of the space which appeared as the light. 2. Results (1) The Substantial Images of the Light and their Physical Elements We obtained strength degree of the 17 pairs of substantial images of the light in each of the 40 light spaces, and classified these images into 5 kinds by means of the factor loadings gained by an analysis of variance. The 5 axes images were, softness axis I , static axis II , cloudiness axis Ill, shininess axis IV, and warmness axis V. We also found these images' relation with 1) the light quality, 2)materials, and 3) the shape of the light - For example, the warmness was derived from the highly scattered light through low light-transmitting materials such as bamboo screen and from the yellowish color of the materials such as the colored glasses. (2) The Types of the Enclosure and Their Unique Substantial Images of the Light We obtained the 8 types of enclosures by means of the location of the enclosing light such as the type of Covered, Surrounded, and Supplementary Supported, the type of Covered and Supplementary Supported. We also obtained 5 unique substantial images of the light related to each enclosure type. For example, Nagasaki House and Notre- Dame du Raincy were representatives of the type of surrounded. They both had transmitted light. Nagasaki House's shoji, sliding doors of rice paper, gave a sense of static, cloudy, and dull light. Whereas Notre-Dame do Rainey' s colored glasses gave a sense of hard, dynamic, and shiny light. (3) The Spatial Images Coexisting with the Sense of Enclosure by the Light As theresult ofthesubjects evaluation, we found 11 light spaces which were evaluated as being highly enclosed by the light and their relation with the spatial images. We also found the correlation scores of the 19 spatial images with the sense of enclosure by the light. We would lay stress on the following spatial images which coexisted with the sense of enclosure by the light judging from these relational score and theft uniqueness in architectural images. They are 1) a sense of being filled with the light, 2) a sense of being unified, and 3) a sense of one's floating in the space."
Ken-ichi, Echigojima. "The Influence of European International Style on Japanese Houses." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "In Japan about 60 years ago, there was a style of residental architecture, such as the early works by Le Corbusier. Most architectural histrjans in Japan, did not estimate the real value of these houses,and there have been no detailed research conducted on this group of houses. Unfortunately most of them are now destroyed. In this study, 172 examples were colected from about 1000 architectural magzines,from 1924 to 1942. The conclusions from this investigation are the following. DSort fashon of archtectural design. -The high period of International Syle houses in Japan, was from 1933 to 1937. Of the 172 examples, found in the 19 years period, from 1924 to 1942, 117 examples were from above 5 years. Before 1924,and after 1942, there are no examples. I:3Superficial chractaristics of house desin. • Plan types can be found in table I The number of examples exhibiting living room type are few in number. • There are many examples of the central corridor type, which was the most popular type in Japanese houses of that period. In general, the plan of these houses are not as influenced by the European International Syle, as they are in the desgin of exterior. E 4 phases and Japanese influenced stylization. -The desgin of Japanese International Syle houses changed in 4 phases. In tableil,the pre stage includes works which are partial copies, and a mixture of traditional Japanese desgin. This new type exhits no clear overall character of either European Internatio-nal Syle or traditional Japanese desgin. • The First stage includes many examples exhiting expression of "volume", the most important dist inctive feature of the European new syle. In the Second stage, the design of layered surfaces in the south elevation appears. In the Third stage, the sandwitch type appears. This type is the synthesis of the Japanese style with the European new syle. This is called Japanese influenced stylization. table II shows the process of stylization. The sandwitch type of archtecture can still be found after World Waril, this form of styliza-tion can be seen as very important."
Korpela, Kalevi. "The Issues of Transformations and Stability in Place - Identity." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. This paper maintains that while Proshansky et al. (1983; 1987) emphasize growth and change in self- and place-identity, they are referring to the equilibrium or stabilizing tendency of self in their discussion of the functions of place-identity, i.e., the need for integration, consistency, anxiety reduction and self-esteem maintenance. It is argued - following Buss (1991)- that organizing principles (psychological mechanisms) should be included in explanations of behaviour. However, the nature and number of these principles are the topic of ongoing debate. Nevertheless, if self is considered hierarchical, the dilemma of stability and change in place-identity can be resolved. Thus, a concept like self-esteem maintenance refers to a superordinate and stable organizing principle within this system, while the lower-order components of the system, e.g., place-identity cognitions, may change. This conforms with Epstein's (1985, 1991) cognitive experiential self-theory and with Carver and Scheier 's (1988) information processing concept of self-regulation.The findings of Lavin et at. (1984) and Korpela (1989; 1991) are the point of reference for a discussion of how places are used to maintain self-identity and foster transformations of self. For instance, Korpela (1989) found mechanisms (humanization, naming, control, fixing memory signs and personalization) ensuring that physical environment contributes to the maintenance of self-esteem and a coherent sense of self whenever it is entered. Interestingly, places may help in the transformations of identity as well (Lavin et al. ,1984). Because the outcome of the yearned-for transformation may be only dimly intuited, a person may search for places that promise to capture and crystallize the emergent identity.When trying to infer organizing principles (or preconscious beliefs) from behaviour, one is to obtain adequate samples of relevant behaviour directly or through questionnaires (Epstein, 1985). Another approach might be to develop written tests or simulated situations, to which subjects can respond by noting their most likely behavioral and emotional reaction in each situation on the basis of how they have reacted to similar situations in the past. In addition, indirect techniques, such as the use of content analysis of word samples when an individual is asked to talk about specific topics, can be used (Epstein,1985). A study is outlined for determining the degree to which each of the basic principles of self is associated with different kinds of places, and the degree to which these principles are involved in the decision to seek out certain places.
Achari, John. "The Katikati Experience: Transcultural Metamorphosis Through Urban Design." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "In this paper I report on how public consultation was used to reconcile views of different cultural groups to arrive at an urban design development plan. In Katikati we found that while there was harmony within cultural groups, it was less evident between the cultural groups. Social relationships between the various population groups was weaker and in some instances had broken-off (between groups of Maori and European) partly as a result of new network of relationships with urban life - adapting to a new way of living - having to sometimes move from the cosy country-style living to the more urban life-style or moving from the village to town. People were strangers to the environment they live in. There was a conspicuous lack of an integrated urban identity. The public consultation process was implemented not only in preparation of an urban design scheme, but assisted in forging cross cultural relationships. Katikati is a town of approximately 4,500 people in the heart of kiwifruit farming country in the northern part of New Zealand. Maoris settled there using its abundant fertile land. British colonial settlement began in the mid 1800's with the arrival of Irish farmers. The town then comprised of a pub, trading store, boatshed and a few domestic buildings in good proximity to the stream. This essentially set the foundation for present-day Katikati. The development of Katikati first as a Maori village to its inception as a young colonial town and its subsequent transformation as a modern, fairly typical sub-rural New Zealand town is a typical case of urbanization many towns in New Zealand and for that matter in the South Pacific have undergone. This process of urbanization involves spatial environmental, social and cultural metamorphoses. Successful environmental metamorphosis is essentially a social and cultural phenomenon. Unless there is some continuity of social and cultural values amongst the inhabitant groups environmental metamorphosis is hard to achieve. Indeed the physical layout of the settlement is an indication of whether or not this harmony and interaction among these basic dimensions is present. In my experience as an urban designer in Germany and in New Zealand I have found a prevalence of formalistic thinking in urban design. The focus has largely been on appearances rather than on social and cultural content. In the Katikati project the approach taken was to focus on social and cultural issues in preparing a development plan for the town. Public consultations were held to involve cultural groups in the design process. During the initial public consultation phase issues of identity and image for the town were raised. It emerged though that not only identity and image of the physical environment was an issue but clarity in socio-cultural identity and direction was also a concern. The work therefore was not a straight-forward urban renewal project, but emerged as a study on social behaviour and addressed political issues of social harmony and inequality as well as promoting education - translation of needs, aspirations and expectations into ideas for environmental metamorphosis. The Katikati experience strengthened our belief that to be "urbanized" is a certain style of living and a certain way of thinking. Without a change in value judgements, behaviour and potential societal roles, as inherent in social and cultural metamorphoses, the integration is only counterfeit. Social content must be an important consideration in arriving at physical form."
Coeterier, Frederick. "The Landscape Seen as a System." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. In the Netherlands each square meter landscape is made by people. Each region is occupied by people and fitted up for a certain kind of use. The use of the landscape determines its character and its boundaries: visually, a type of landscape ends where a new form of use begins. So, each landscape is seen by people as a functional unit, A SYSTEM, with society as its structuring principle and characterized by a limited number of system variables, or attributes. These attributes were found in a great number of interviews, held with people about their perception and experience of the landscape. They are: 1. The wholeness of the system. In people's perception and evaluation of landscapes this has two aspects: a) the presence of all appropriate elements, i.e. elements that belong to that kind of system, and b) the absence of non-fitting elements. Presence of non-fitting elements is far more disturbing than incompleteness. Several different types of landscape-systems are recognized, such as natural landscapes, polder landscapes, agricultural landscapes (old and modern), etc. 2. The function the system performs, its use. In people's perception there are different aspects of use, such as kind of use, intensity of use, possibilities for private use. 3. The physical or abiotic component of the system, suchas soil properties, water courses and drainage, and surface relief. This attribute determines possibilities for use and accessibility of the landscape. 4. The biotic component; its natural or organic aspect. 5. The spatial organization of the system. This includes the pattern of the elements, distribution of space and matter, vertical differentiation. 6. The development of the system in time, linearly and cyclically. The linear aspect contain the historical character of the landscape and recent changes there-in. Cyclical changes are due to the succession of the seasons. Both aspects have a strong use-aspect and contain more than purely visual characteristics. (The old names of the months indicated the most pronounced activities in each month). 7. The way the system is managed, especially the maintenance aspect, or up-keep, but also regulations and provisions for use. 8. Phenomenal aspects such as colors, light and shadow, sounds and smells, tactile qualities, etc. This are principally perceptual qualities of landscapes, but for a large part they also determine the appreciation of a landscape. For instance, the term 'fit' in 'non-fitting element' not only has a cognitive connotation, but also a normative one. These system attributes are not simple, independent features of a landscape, but complex and overlapping fields of meaning. Wholeness and use are the two most important attributes. The order of importance of the other attributes depends on the kind of landscape and the goals of the perceiver. Not all the other attributes need to be present in each landscape. In an urban environment the physical attribute does-not play a role in people's perception.
Zheleva-Martins, D, M Yordanova, and Y. Farkov. "The Line - Architectural Metamorphoses." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "The line is a geometrical concept which has various image-bearing notions: the line is a sum of points (objects), forming a row, string, file; the line as a road, as an actuating line, a line of motion of an object; the line as a connection between two points; the line as a margin between two surfaces and the line as a connection between two surfaces. Logically, the architectural presentation and interpretation of these image-bearing incarnations of the fine, their semantic saturation in the course of the history of architecture and the isolating of certain symbols and archetypes on this bases, can be assumed. It is clear that an enormous quantity of linear architectural objects can be deduced. However the object of analysis are only the line that have been turned into architectural symbols, into archetypes. Therefore, a selection among the large number of linear architectural objects of the image-bearing-gathering, archetype symbols is required. One of the most widely spread architectural symbols of material incarnation of the line is the ROUTE. From genetic point of view, the route is possibly the most archaic symbol, as far as the spatial world conception of human beings is concerned. The world is conceived, experienced and comprehended as a route. Linear compositions in ancient mythologies, in painting, reliefs, architectural complexes are interpretations of the linear pattern of the world. Because of the inlaid inner meaning of a mediator, the route has been idolized since the remote past. Sacred are also all the objects which constitute it , designate, materialize its final states 'beginning" and "end", its inner-inherent characteristics such as space or time articulation, continuitydiscontinuity, state of possibility, constancy or change of direction. As the routes are related to a certain concrete ç which is actualized - rituals, processions, journeys, marches, migrations they are studded with signs, symbolizing events taken place while moving on them. Objects actualizing the vertical route, related to solar-chthonic cults and religions, deserve special attention. The sacred mountain, the world tree, the world axis are ideologems of the vertical route. Herefrom comes the idolization of the high mountains, rocks, trees and their correspondent architectural incarnations in temples, zig-kurates, pillars, stairs, columns, obelisks, etc. The idea of the route reveals a specific semantic stratum related to such basic elements in architecture as the column, the stairs, the bridge, the arc, as well as to the details, the decorative processing, etc., etc. All attributes and means, realizing, cooperating or participating in the motion on the route find also their metaphoric interpretation in architecture. The idea of the route also lies in the root basis of a number of architectural terms in the different languages. And the route is only one of the architectural metamorphoses of the line. Note: The paper offers a possibility to present a study undertaken in ITHTPA at the BAS entitled "Dictionary of architectural symbols"."
Korosec-Serfaty, Perla. "The Meaning of the Present and the Visibility of the Past. an Essay on the Transformations of the Meaning of the Preservation of Architectural Heritage." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "This essay offers some thoughts on the recent changes that have affected the meaning of the concept of preservation of the built heritage. It stresses that preservation represents one particular aspect of the relationship between a given society and its past, and that it has been, since its origins until the last few decades, oriented by the members of the cultivated elite whose primary preoccupation was to protect the "outstanding remains" of the past. The aim of the didactic aspect of such an orientation is to provide a group with a unified and somewhat "official" image of a common and glorious past. "Monuments", were protected, i.e. outstanding objects, with unique qualities conveying clear messages. Policies of preservation for architectural heritage have evolved under the pressure of new local claims for power as well as under the influence of research In the social sciences, which have contributed to make local cultures better understood. In particular, socio-history gives new value to the many place-specific, regional and local histories and therefore to the varied objects that are connected to them. This widening of the field covered by the concept and sentiment of heritage and the more tolerant attitude it promotes spreads at a time when the meanings of many monuments are interpreted in Individual ways, allowing a kind of personal use of such monuments as triggers for private emotions. Such a transformation in the meaning of architectural heritage leads to the image of a "golden age", a common and vernacular past that is devoid of all traces of past conflicts. What are the consequences of such changes, for example when a place whose history belongs to a given group is assigned a new symbolic role? Is it possible to expect agreement on the social uses of the past? The answer to these questions lays in the values that are at stake in each transformation of place, and depends on the amount of emotion involved in each case. As a consequence, the disappearance, or replacement, that is to say the definitive metamorphosis of the meaning of a historic place, becomes an ethical issue. The complexity of the latter is in direct relation to the role a given historic place plays in the collective memory. The more it is tragic, sacred and connected to the identity of a given group people, the more it is difficult to solve. This latter notion of identity is at the heart of the problem of the misuse of the concept of historic preservation. Many historic preservation ideologies eventually drift toward nationalistic and often racist positions because they are based on the idea that the built heritage is a "treasure" and therefore a particular kind of collective belonging that should be protected from any foreign intrusion. This simplistic interpretation of the meaning of heritage should not be overlooked, for it has served many times as a justification for many tragic events."
Armyanov, Georgi. "The Metamorphoses of the Greek Words into Bulgarian Slang." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. The history of Bulgarian slang is quite different in comparison with slangs in most of the European countries. It has originated by the end of XIX century and received different foreignlanguage influences. At the beginning a strong mark on its lexical system put Turkish and Gypsy languages, whereas today the basic influences comes from English, French and Russian. An original and important place in this process of borrowing words takes Greek. Because of strong economic, political and cultural relationships between our two peoples, as well as similar historical destiny many words from Greek have been passed into Bulgarian slang. Their way is non-equal - some have come in Slang through the territorial dialects, other have entered through the Standard Bulgarian or any foreign language, third have been borrowed directly from Greek. Regardless of their way of borrowing, the changes in words' external view or in their semantic structure are obligatory. In many cases the metamorphoses which these words have gone through are very complicated and, finally, make the new slang words difficult to understand. Furthermore, it becomes very uncertain to disclose their right etymological origin. The proposed paper will discuss just the ways via which Greek words come into Bulgarian slang, the changes which could be find out in their meanings, phonetic and morphological aspect - generally, the metamorphoses in their new life. Probably the studies in this field will enrich the picture of contemporary Bulgarian-Greek cultural contacts.
Hsia, Chu-Joe. "The Metamorphosis of Leisure in Taiwan: Leisure Space and Leisure Practice in the Case of the Ktv." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "This essay tries to provide a political economic analysis of the "KTV" -- an emerging specific leisure space in Taiwan where is a combination of Taiwanese "MTV" (specific places where have facilities and small rooms for seeing movie vedio) and Kala OK (specific places where have imported facilities from Japan for singing). Firstly, the study starts from a general description of the situation and process of the emergence of the KTV in Taiwan. Secondly, I will show the leisure relation of KTV. Then, the author tries to deal with how the KTV as a leisure space has been shaped. Finally, bringing the KTV, the state and the leisure practice together, this paper will consider KTV as a case of heterotopia and a dominant urban symbolic which represents the coincience of "the informal cities" (the urban function and the urban form of the cities are strongly shaped by the informal economy) and "the world cities" (the leading cities in the emerging international network of production and exchange as John Friedmann mentioned). Therefore, KTV, as an emerging new urban leisure space in "the speculators city" such as Taipei of the NICs, actually is a dynamic socio-spatial constitution of a broader social historical transformation in the glogal economic restructuring."
Bentley, Ian, and Christina Dorees. "The Metamorphosis of Mixed - Use Areas: from Experiental Variety to Visual Complexity." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "This paper explores the conference theme of "how urban places are produced and transformed under the historical conditions of modernism and post-modernism". We see the forms both of modernism and of postmodernism as strongly linked with - though not directly determined by - the development of capitalism, which has proceeded with different nuances in different nation-states. To explore these links, we compare the transformations of mixed-use areas since the second world war, and the implications of these transformations for modernist and post-modernist design vocabularies and ideologies, as between Greece and Great Britain. Both Greece and Britain are capitalist in their overall economic organisation. Unsurprisingly, the value of "personal choice" - functional for the development of capitalism because of its support for various aspects of commodity consumption - is deeply embedded in the cultures of both countries. In environmental terms, personal choice is exercised through the choice of environmental experiences. There is a particularly great potential for experiential choice in mixed-use urban areas: variety of land-uses usually implies a variety of visual forms, sounds and smells; with a variety of people across class, race and gender, involved in production, consumption and exchange. One aspect of capitalist land economics is the long-term transformation of mixed-use areas into zones of single use; following market demand along lines which enable landowners to realise maximised exchange-values. In practice, the rate at which this happens is strongly affected by how and why land is owned and traded. When levels of capital availability and the organisation of the land market allow land to be assembled into large areas of single ownership, primarily for investment purposes (as is often the case in Britain) the process develops faster than it does when a multiplicity of small sites continue to be held for direct use by different owners, as is still common in Greece. Many more mixed-use areas, therefore, remain in Greece than in Britain. The loss of mixed-use areas reduces the choice of environmental experiences available. Where the loss is considerable, as in Britain, it is likely to be regarded negatively by a wide range of people, including many designers. Where the loss is minimal, as in Greece, it is likely to go relatively unremarked. A comparative review of architectural and urban design literature from the two countries confirms this difference. Powerless to resist the economic forces removing mixed-use areas, British architecture draws on post-modem themes in an attempt to simulate the lost experiential variety through greater visual complexity. In Greece, where far greater experiential variety remains, the visual simplicity of modernism is still a powerful design theme. To summarise, our paper shows how a given aspect of capitalist development pressure, interacting with the different inherited characteristics of different nation-states, can encourage the development of radically different form-vocabularies and canons of good design. Physical form and design ideologies are strongly tied to economic forces, but intervening factors ensure that the one is never a mere reflection of the other."
Speller, Gerda. "The Metamorphosis of Place and the Loss of Shared Memories." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. Shared, collective or social memory are all terms used to describe memory that goes beyond the individual level. Research to date suggests that shared memory is a cultural and social construction, created through contest to fit present day needs. Re-examining data from a previous study (Speller, 1988), this paper looks at memory in a real life setting and explores the concept of shared memories as a development of historical, cultural and social circumstances. An attempt is made to show that previously unconscious activities of caring for and using the environment are developed into a community ideology. This supports the concept that memory is collectively determined and essentially a joint reconstruction of the past, adapting the image of ancient facts to the beliefs and spiritual needs of the present.As modern technology facilitates increased speed and scale of change of the traditional landscape, the importance of the past in providing a sense of identity, stability and continuity is felt more deeply. Thus, the above study documents the sadness and anxiety felt by a community at the loss of their place' and, therefore, their shared values, images and memories.It is suggested that two issues have been neglected in past research. The first is the collective grief at the loss of built and natural symbols, which were an integral part of and central to the conduct of the daily life of the community. The second is the dependence of memory on familiar surroundings. Where the contours of the land are changed residents can no longer identify the location of their previous home. The inability to locate a place which has been home up to the immediate past appears to impact self esteem and self identity and gives rise to feelings of anxiety and bewilderment.It is argued that memories are the link between the past, the present and the future and that they need to be recalled and celebrated to be kept alive. Landmarks including old hedges and trees, the hilly contours of the land, buildings, footpaths and fields normally remain stable in relation to each other, although they may be subject to seasonal change. They provide a medium of communication through commonly understood symbols and shared memories and thus a link with the past as well as facilitating projections into the future. They are seen as an essential component in the development of identity and integrity of the individual and the community.
Blauw, Wim. "The Metamorphosis of Public Life and Public Places." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "Public space does not have a function any more. It has become a dangerous, corrupt space without economical value. "There is no reason to speak about public space and public spirit any more. That is the last thing to do. We have to allow that tele-communication takes over physical movement" Martin Pawley Referring the above statements this paper discusses the characteristics and the actual functions of public places in relation to the changes with regard to public life. Accessability for social groups with various life styles, as can be derived from the definitions of the adjective 'public', can considered as a primary and necessary condition for public places. However, full accessability is rare. Besides physical limitations the accessability is in practice restricted to certain social categories. This could be explained by the process of cultural differentiation: the development of distinctive life styles of groups with different backgrounds like life cycle state, social and cultural class, nationality and ethnicity. Social safety, indeed, is becoming an even more important condition for public places. Several potential functions of public places are inventarized and categorized: the economic function, the communication function, and the symbolic function. It is supposed that multi-functionaly of public places contributes to their attractiveness. However, public places are specializing and becoming less multi-functional. For example, exclusively designed for leisure and pleasure or for representation. The functions of public places might be taken over by other phenomena (like tele-communication). However, for people there still remains a need of contacting at close distance. Positive developments, which might contribute to the use of public places in city centers, are political (Eastern Europe) and demographical changes (the settlement of young and/or well-to households in city-centers or nearby). It is supposed that, although the public and private domain of life can still be distinguished, they spatially are becoming more and more interwoven: at one hand family and neighbour relations are becoming less intimate and at the other hand relatively intimate behaviour is not fully excluded. This requires of the social actors to distinguish when and how to behave more intimate or more business-like."
Gür, S, K Oztekin, A. Asasoglu, N Kuloglu, I Ozdemir, and S. Ural. "The Metamorphosis of the Eastern Black Sea Region." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992.

"This study critically analyzes the transformations of the Eastern Black-Sea Region which once had strong characteristic features, into a no-man's land. It traces back the Medieval Christian influences; It evaluates the impact of "the grand design traditions" of the West; elaborates on the Greek, Ottoman and the vernacular house patterns. The research pinpoints the "modern architectural principles" adhered to during the rapid urbanization period which started around 1950s in Turkey. Finally, in the study investigated are the state imposed marriage of the East and Turkey. Thus, the collage of the most recent neo-vernaculariSm, "arabesk" and the so-called post-modern into the existing poor texture are illustrated. The socio-economic and political forces underlying these changes are clarified. Difficulties involved in the making of a better environment in Turkey are brought up. Ways of dealing with these chaotic changes are posed to be argued for future planning strategies."

Aközer, Emel. "The Metamorphosis of the Euroscape as the Unfolding of the Project to Achieve Dominion Over Nature." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. Karl Popper in On the Sources of Knowledge and Ignorance (1960), reminds that epistemological questions are not practically irrelevant as Hunie suggested. Following Kant, he attributes significant consequences to epistemological positions, and draws attention to the role played, for instance, by the Baconian ideas in the history of philosophy, science, politics and the visual arts. Epistemological positions are consequential because they are inspired by interests and dreams, and are propounded by those who share them. It was Francis Bacon's ,multifarious will to power, and the utopian dream of the New Atlantis (1624), that inspired his epistemological stance and the project which has been carried out by the Baconians. The aim of this project, of The Great Iristauration, is to redeem the state of man fallen from the heavens and to re-establish the lost paradi se, the Garden, on the erth. It teaches how to disclose the secrets of the goddess Natura and to achieve dominion over it, and to enlarge the bonds of the 'Human Empire'. Relying on magical traditions more than the tradition of the classical sciences, Bacon argues that we can commandnature only by obeying her. This is why Baconians have had an ambivalent attitude towards nature: it has been the object of domination and surrender, exploitation, and deification. In fact, as Horkheimer and Adorno reminded in the Dialectic of Enlightenment (1944), 'men have always had to choose between their subjection to nature or the subjection of the nature to the Self', and the Baconians have strived for both. In this study some striking parallels between the seventeeth century background of the Baconian program and the so-called postmodern condition is emphasized, and it is argued that, while postempiricist positions tend to hold responsible the iconoclastic modernity of Bacon, and of the Enlightenment, for the present environmental crisis, in fact, they share the Baconian aspiration to restitute the lost unity between man and nature, and the c,magical or tribal or organic society. This same aspiration fulfilled in the New Atlantis, seems to characterize a multitude of political, scientific, artistic, and architectural endeavors in Europe to instaure human dominion over nature. Understanding Bacon's conception of nature may explain why the postmodern misology, which is seemingly a response to the irremediable environmental and cultural transformations stimulated by the relentless pursuit of knowledge as power, may only lead to misantrophy and further exploitation of the earth.
Aravot, Iris, and Rachel Kallus. "The Metamorphosis of Urban Structure - a Comparative Study." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "A process involving continuity and change, metamorphosis is the sequential unfolding of an entity existence. Newness and enduring of components as well as rhythm and intensity of change may vary along the metamorphosis chain. Thus, not unlike Wittgenstein's concept of "family resemblance', traces of early phases may disappear in advanced ones. However, any two subsequent stages always consist of both continuous and new components. Furthermore, due to internal relationships all components, undergo modifications conditioned by their mutual sensitivity. Relating these suppositions to a specific object, in our case a city, we are faced with the following issues: a. Metamorphosis Stage Identification Like frozen frames that maintain a film narrative, what are the frames which delineate urban dynamics over time? Sequential intervals between frames must insure differences, but at the same time no in-between distinguished frames shouldbe identifiable. Particularizations are derived directly from the inquiry variables, specified by aims and tools. Thus, any metamorphosis stage identification offers one interpretation of inter-perspective alternatives. b. Metamorphosis Components Ranging from basically unchanged, through variously altered to entirely new, what are the components that form subsequent stages of urban transformation? Components definition and scale complexity depend, as in the above discussion, on inquiry variables. c. Metamorphosis Factors What are the reasons and causes for urban metamorphosis? Further differentiation include (1) persisting long term factors as against random atomistic ones, and(2) aggregative, spontaneous "internal' forces as against "external" forceful intervention. In an intricate dynamic and enduring assemblage like a city correlations rather than causal explanations are more likely to approach interperspective approval. This however does not exclude an inquiry of causes and reasons. Haifa and Tel-Aviv as Examples of Urban Metamorphosis Townscape development in two cities in Israel, Haifa and Tel-Aviv, from the turn of the century to our time, is used to investigate urban metamorphosis comparatively. Thus the nature of urban components; locations, functions and relationships in the overall urban assemblage is focused upon,in respect to geogrphic, topographic, historic political and other evidential information. The investigation finds the metamorphosis of Haifa linear in contrast to more circular metamorphosis found in Tel-Aviv. This appears in abrupt advancement between metamorphosis stages in Haifa, effecting traces of early phases to fade in later ones, as against more reliance, either planned or spontaneous, on existing urban substance in Tel-Aviv. The reference of these phenomena to unique local explored since similar forces, working at comparable period of time in both cities, caused contrasted long term urban tendencies."
Stoner, Jill Lahn. "The Metamorphosis of Walls." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "The history of walls is the history of separations-- prison walls, ghetto walls, castle walls, walls to keep in, walls to keep out, walls of retreat, walls of exclusion, walls of isolation. The structural transformations of modernism, replacing solid masonry with a steel or concrete frame, did change the physical nature of the wall, but not its function. If anything, the contemporary office building in the United States and the Stalinist housing block in Eastern Europe are even more separated from their surroundings and from other buildings than their predecessors. Yet today while the image of separation remains, the function of separation has been for the most part replaced by more ephemeral forms of control-the electronic surveillance system and the sensitized identity card. Even the Berlin Wall was really no more than a symbol (the real control was through underground mines, guard towers, the engineered no-man's-land), and it is significant that one member of West Germany's mission in East Berlin said only months before the wall came down: "It sometimes seems to me that the Wall is the only thing that still connects the two Germanys." The paper explores the wall's nature as a connector, with an emphasis on the transformation of existing walls within the contemporary metropolis. I begin with images from the literature of solitary confinement, where the wall, that instrument of separation, was exploited by the prisoners to communicate across both time and space. Apertures allowed for touching and whispered conversations (there is a story like this in Ovid's Metamorphosis) the materiality of the wall was used to telegraph messages, and the wall as a surface for writing carried the narrative of each prisoner forward to the next. These microcosms of the wall's metamorphosis become the template for interventions in the contemporary landscape. Examples include Marshall Berman's proposal for a mural on the freeway embankment that runs through the Bronx in New York, the writer William Gass's discussion of the city as "a wall for words", and my own proposals for transformations of the party wall in urban housing and the wall as the dissolution of the strict line between the public and the private realm in the design of public buildings. I suggest that walls in the contemporary metropolis become spatial. Literally and figuaratively, to appropriate the wall is to reaffirm the connective fabric of urban life. The paper concludes, as it began, with the Berlin Wall. I present my own documentation of the Wall during the process of its deconstruction, suggesting that at a certain moment the wall became sentient, and the connection between the two Berlins reached a climax. It is this ability of the wall to produce that simultaneous experience of "the two" and "the one" that is its most singular potential."
Kassabov, Ivan. "The Mirror Principle and Metamorphoses in the Semantic of the Word - Sign." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. It is well known, there are two basic positions, from which we can analyze word's semantic: 1) a microsemantic one and 2) a macrosemantic one. Lexicographical theory and practice showed that any word's semantic description only from microsemantic or only from macrosemantic point of view were incomplete and unsatisfactory. As well as it is unsatisfactory the description of language's lexico-semantic system only by means of traditional uni-lingual or only by means of dictionaries of lexicosemantic fields. Contemporary investigations of this area show there are common semantic units for both of microsemantic and macrosemantic. Thanks of these units is possible to describe whole language's lexico-semantic system on the basis of united criteria.
Claus, Lisbeth. "The Needs of One - Person Houshold." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. We live in a society where urbanisation, centralisation and the building constructions have broken the old forms of social intercourse without making it possible for something new. More than 50 percent of the households in the large cities in Sweden consists of one single adult person and we continue building houses as if the family was the only existing way of living. The people living alone makes a very vulnerable group, with more risk for poor health, more suicide and more use of tranquillizers than the average population. During my 17 years as a psychotherapist I have realised that one of the basic human need is that of attachment, to be seen and heard by some significant persons and to have a continues contact with other people. This basic need is poorly fulfilled for people living alone. My suggestion to a solution is to build on every house gable 4 separate flats, with one common livingroom in between. Every flat has its' own entrance and is just an ordinary flat with kitchen, bathroom and living-room. The difference is that there is a door in each flat leading to the common room, this door can be looked when leaving the flat. Four people or families, together agree on renting a flat each with one shared living-room. They rent the whole package and if one of them wants to move out the rest decide who is going to move in. It they can not find anyone, they have to look the door to one flat and the landlord will rent it out as a separate flat. This then leaves three flats with one common room. One pays the rent for one's own flat and the rent for the common room is shared. In this way people can live independent and still have nearness to other people. The benefits with this solution are many, for example: * It becomes natural to meet, people do not have to go somewhere. * The size of the group. There is a certain number of people in a group that makes the members significant to each other, and the upper limit is between six and ten. * The independency, one does not have to share every habit and bad habits with each other. * When there are small children in the families, the common room can be used as a day nursery. The nursery staff can come home to the children. The parents do not have to rush away with children every morning and they do not have to be home from work because a sick child. * In 260,000 of the 3.8 million Swedish households there lives a lonely little old lady, age over 74. She needs company, stimulation and help, and she might be too tired to go out and get it. It is important for her to have her own things around her and she does not like to change. The 4 flat living, with a common room, would be perfect for her. It is necessary to have the social aspect in mind when planning houses, and not only the technical standard and good parking places. Especially now when more than 50 percent of the households consists of people living alone with their special needs.
Riley, Robert. "The New Yorker Covers the Landscape." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "Some landscapes transcend utilitarian and even esthetic niches, metamorphosing into important cultural symbols. The landscape of the tropical Pacific, for example, held the European imagination for over two centuries. The internal and international landscape image of England, one of the worlds most urbanized nations, continues to be a country lane amidst cottage gardens, just as that of Australia, in similar circumstances, remains the outback. The metamorphosis of landscape into symbol becomes more important and more complex in a global, media-dominated culture, as landscapes and images interact in such a way as to make the distinction between 'real" and symbolic less clear. What is this process, and who shapes it? Who uses it, and for what purposes? Two of the most important such landscapes in the USA (beyond the three identified by Meinig as New England village, Main Street, and suburbia) might be called Wild West and Magic Manhattan. This presentation is a visual introduction to two facets of the US landscape image industry involving those two landscapes. First, the landscape of the American West as a symbol in art, media, and particularly advertising is discussed as an iconic landscape quickly established and then maintained with little change over a century, while the "real" western landscape evolved rapidly. The second focuses on changing interpretations of a landscape, examining how the cover images of the New Yorker magazine, a major taste maker for an influential part of US culture, have changed over the last six decades. The presentation discusses aspects of these two examples that might illuminate more general issues about the creation and manipulation of symbolic landscapes."
Aravot, Iris. "The Planned and the Actual: Israeli New Town Centres Metamorphoses." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. The article examines conceptions and modifications of Israeli New Towns centres from the perspective of spacial organization and structuring. The research investigates modes and extents to which centres in the prersent are outcomes of original planning and design, or, in terms of the conference: the metamorphoses undergone by New towns centres townscapes. The research subject has been chosen due to (1) the singularity of New Town centres as urban components, (2) the opportunity to compare contemporaneous phenomena of similar historical and ideological context, and (3) the relevance to practical decision making in the near future. Most of Israel New towns (34 out of 45) were founded during the first decade of independence (19481957) as part of population dispersal policy. New emigrants of varying socio-cultural background were then settled into similar urban frameworks, formed mainly according to ClAM planning and design principles. Today, with the recent emigration waves from Russia, most of the New towns are to double in size, and thousands of new appartments are already under construction. Under these circumstances, town centres cannot remain unaffected. Presupposing that any planning aims at regulations or urban flux by means of spatially determined patterns, a basic contradition is yielded between the continual, endlessly complex and unpredicatable life flow and the generalizing and restricted acts of planning, which are always based on insufficient informaiton and ideological preferences. Acknowledging this contradiction, metanorphoses may either (1) be met by options for reinterpretation, or (2) rejected by mechanisms of stabilization and control. Though hardly final, the research shows three major types of New towns Centres in what regards conceptions and modifications: 1. Centres under control. Characterized by close correspondence between original conception and actual realization, they are associated with successful New Towns, planned relatively late. Absence of centres modifications may be explained by design quality and by general control on the towns development. (e.g. Arad, Carmiel). 2. Organic centres. With original minimum planning, these centres evolved as urban agglomerations of built and outdoor spaces, often with little mutual contribution among components. They characterize first wave towns, some of which have faced long term social and economic problems (e.g. Upper Nazareth, Belt Shean). 3. Divergent centres. These town centres developed very differently from first conceptions, despite official clinging to original plans. In Ashdod, for example, this initiated a profound metamorphosis in town orientation and functioning of residential surroundings. The article is based on my work with a group of students in 1991.
Lee, Terence. "The Psychological Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident for the Local Population." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. The extraordinary technological capacity for humans to produce positive change in the physical and social environment is unfortunately mirrored by their ability to engineer negative metaniorphosLr - manmade disasters such as Chernobyl. The death toll from such events remains relatively small compared to that from flood, famine and earthquake - but they bring incalculable disruption to people's lives and, in this case, the total loss of huge territory, a sizable town and innumerable small communites. They are perceived as much worse than natural disasters, probably because they signify a breakdown in human control of the environment.Such negative metamorphoses make the whole civilised world rethink its mode of adaptation to the environment. The Chernobyl Project was set up in 1990 by the United Nations (International Atomic Energy Agency) to study the lives and environment of the approximately 200,000 people still living outside the 30 Km exclusion zone, but in areas thought to be contaminated by radioactivity. The author was the only psychologist member of the small Scientific Advisory Committee that planned and supervised the research project. Over 200 international scientists were recruited as volunteers to collect the empirical data in the USSR. About two-thirds of these were physicists etc who measured every aspect of environmental contamination (including food, water supply and crops) and the accumulated body burden of radioactivity in the population. The remaining third were medical scientists who carried out clinical examination of a sample of 1,650 people at critical ages in the 'contaminated' compared with 'clean' areas. The aim was to target the health effects outlined by Soviet scientists and the public, together with radiation symptoms identified in previous epedemiological studies. They include cytogenetics; haematology (anaemia, lead poisoning, immune function); thyroid; cataracts; cancer (leukaemia, thyroid and other); cardiovascular; foetal and genetic aberration; general diseases; nutritional and psychological disorder.In none of these health areas except the last were there any significant differences between 'contaminated' and 'clean' areas at the present time and this accorded with the findings of the radiation physicists that contamination has diminished to levels within the normal range. However, an extrapolation from estimated past doses predicts a minor future excess of cancers, too small to be identified in an epedimiological study and possibly counterbalanced by improved medical services.These clinical data that included possible stress symptoms were supplemented by questionnaire data on the psychological effects of the disaster (N = 500). These indicate widespread perceived disorders and deep disaffection, out of all proportion to the lack of current physical health effects from radiation. For example, 45% of those in 'contaminated' areas and 30% outside these areas think they have an illness due to radiation. Significant differences in perceived illness were found for fatigue, loss of appetite, chest pains, thyroid/goiter and anaemia. Few people are convinced that the level of radiation is going down or that the problems for them will be solved in the next ten years. In the contaminated areas, 83% believe that the Government should relocate the entire community.
Andreadaki-Chronaki, Eleni. "The Relation of the Bioclimatic Concept to the Vernacular Architecture the Experience of Cyclades' Settlements." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "The regional architecture of settlements in the insular complex of Cyclades constitutes a fascinating challenge for study and research. 'The masterly, correct and magnificent play of masses brought together in light" was Le Corbusiers comment. On the other hand, the uneasy quest for developing and promoting of forms of regional architecture, coexisting in harmony with the environment and the climate, forms a chief point in matters of bioclimatic design. The pretext for this presentation was a research carried out on the Cyclades called "Energy Planning on a Regional Level: The Use of Passive Cooling Systems in Cyclades' Hotels". Subject of the presentation is the search for and the marking out of the organizing principles of traditional settlements in Cyclades under the viewpoint of bioclimatic approach. Namely the types, the forms of buildings their interrelations, the methods and materials of construction, the conditions of thermal comfort indoors and the adaption to the ground relief are being analyzed. The aim, of course, is not the establishing of a climatic determinism, without taking into notice the cultural factors, which determined, to a major degree, the options of the local dwellers. On the contrary, the purpose of this approach is to help the problematic of bioclimatic design to free itself from climatic parameters as the only ones determining the design, in order to save energy. The attempt here is to enrich the bioclimatic approach with principles of organizing space on a local scale, aided with forms and architectural elements, aiming to the development of a local architecture. The question consequently is the marking out of local special characteristics and principles of organizing space through a process of transformation and metamorphosis, in order to achieve their adaption to today's requirements of bioclimatic design."
Andreadou, Tatiana. "The Relation of the Durable Aspects of Greek Culture to the Greek Landscape." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "Western culture of 20th century, is driven towards pluralism and relativism. Ideas and theories replace each other in very short periods of time. What is up to date today, will most probably be out of fashion tomorrow, ideological movements change in the rythms of fashions, art and architecture produced by many architects does the same too. In Greece though, ( and this may be true for some other parts of the world too but it is for Greece that I am going to talk about ), it seems that in many intellectuals and artists, in literature as well as in architecture, from Elytis to Aris Konstantiriidis, there is a search for some kind of absolute truth, for the true essence of things, that the poet as well as the artist, wants to find out and to grasp.There is something which seems to be the authentic, the true, the right to do. And is seems that this true, right to do, is the "little" which contains a lot. "Something simple, but full of wisdom that stands on the 'ypaithro' (outdoors), the same way that the olive tree stands" (Elytis, Open Book) . We think that this "right to do" in the greek landscape, is the durable part of the greek cultural landscape, up to now at least. It also seems that this "true essence of things", even if not shared at the discourse level by everybody and especially under an urban setting, is deeply felt by everybody especially when people are away from their urban setting. As the Nobel prize winning poet Odysseus Elytis states again, "Seing the mountains shaped this way or that way may have an effect on the human spirit, must have its analogy". He also states that while for the english or french there is no need to search for their englishness or their frenchness while searching for their own identity, this is not the case for the greeks. For the greeks, the search of their personal identity has to go through the search of what it means to be greek. And he wonders: "Why do greek poets regardless of which generation they belong to, always deal with their place?" We think that this which is "true", "profound"," right to do", and durable through the centuries in Greece, is related to the greek landscape, and this is what this paper is going to deal with. Of course this is a huge theme, and there have been tones of writings about that. Though, since the authors earlier work is dealing with that theme too, we claim and aspire to add something new to the discourse. The landscape with which the paper is going to deal with, is -that which is close to the sea, since the sea is close almost everywhere in Greece. There is no place in Greece that is more than 90 miles away from the sea-, and the sea (which is the Mediterranean and more specifically the Aegean) is for the greeks a very familiar and friendly natural element eversince antiquity, something as familiar and friendly as the sun. It is the sea and the sun that have been Greece's main resources ever since antiquity, and they are so, even today. The qualities of architecture that the paper is going to try to relate to the landscape, are besides abstraction , simplicity of forms, and economy in the synthesis about which a lot has been written, the trust and feeling of security that vernacular architecture posseses and provides, the certainty in decoration, the confidence of the hand of the anonymous artist, whose movement is as natural and certain as a gesture of his hands when he speaks, and reveals, a trust in life which engages the material world as well as the divine."
Psarra, Sophia. "The Relationship Between the Inside and the Outside Space - a Common Theme for Ten European Teams in the Context of Europan 2 Competition." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. Introduction. Europan is a federation of architectural competitions which aims at furthering Architectural Creation in Europe. From our experience, as winners of Europan 1, we understood that although Europan subscribes to an interchange of approaches, it makes this possible only after the competition is completed. Further, this interchange is mediated by a series of presentations and publications organised in way that the actual interaction amongst the winners is minimised. The need for a close interaction amongst European architects inspired the meeting of ten architectural teams. These were coming from different European countries and most of them were winners of Europani. The teams used the competition Europan 2 as a platform to realise a dynamic exchange of ideas. The intention was to define a common theme in parallel to the questions of Europan 2 which were about 'living in the city', and the 'consideration of design solutions which adapt better to modern urban situations'. The aim was neither to arrive at a convergence of approaches nor to achieve a solution for a particular problem. On the contrary the aim was to exchange ideas on a common theme which would be set for ten teams participating in ten different sites of those proposed by the Committees of Europan 2. The common theme was: the relationship between the Inside and the outside space.This attempt which was experimental and spontaneous in character was being organised during the process and according to the problems that the teams were encountering in their common work. The ideas which were being exchanged were included by the participants in their proposals*. Objectlves.This paper presents the collaboration amongst ten European teams and its final products. A first reading shows a variety of architectural directions which reflects differences in the education, imagination and idiom of the architects. A second look shows the existence of particular characteristics for each country : the interest for technology and climate for Austria, the dialectic relationship between Architecture and landscape for Italy, the geometrical regularities for Greece, the typology of the traditional transition spaces for Spain, the identity of a solution with reference to the Modern Movement and especially Le Corbusier for France. More particularly this paper examines whether this common attempt: 1). shows that apart from the national and regional differences there are some other convergencies or divergencies in our points of view regarding space in Europe. 2). contributed to some benefit when seen as mere process. 3). contributed to a better understanding of the the inside-outside relationship and of the role it plays in the architectural composition. Conclusions. Looking at the projects we could distinguish between syntactic codes, (the building itself with its combinatorial rules), and content codes, (the activities and the ways these are understood within a culture), which both contribute to meaning investment regarding the inside-outside theme. Some projects put the emphasis mainly on the syntactic codes. Some others emphasise also the use of elements like gates, colonnades, covered public passages, which carry the meaning of the inside-outside as this is established through a system of cultural conventions. Another tendency incorporates an initial intention in the architectural rules. The architects decide that the inside-outside signifies the relationship between city and nature or between the private and the public domain. Most of the projects emphasise a multiple investment of meanings in the relationship between the inside and the outside. Some stress the importance of ambiguity on what is inside and what is outside or the importance of a dynamic transformation of signification depending on cultural parameters. Some are employing a constant nesting of meanings based on a dialogue between contrasting entities like: open-closed, centre-periphery, natural-artificial. Regardless of individual differences the common attempt offers a series of approaches which converge on the idea that the boundary between the inside and the outside is a form of simultaneous separation and integration between two different situations. Thus, multiple signification results from an attempt to signify both meanings, separation and integration. Ambiguity seems also to be a consequent of the contrasting nature of these concepts. Richness of signification can also show the idea that the Architectural object cannot sustain a single direction of meaning, or a single idea and subordinate or ignore complementary ones. It also shows that there is no static way of defining what is inside and what is outside. What is interesting is not the clarification of these concepts but the investigation of the complex relationships among different and contradicting elements. This attempt expanded our knowledge on the common theme. It also helped us to watchourselves and the others as persons with their own interests and idioms and to see the role these play in our work. Finally, It showed that it is possible to investigate how we can work together as members of cultures which are facing the possibility of future commitments to common work.
Shehayeb, Dina. "The Resilience of Historic Built Environments." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "Precedent urban design and architecture of cities are heavily drawn upon in mainstream urban design theory and principles. Theoreticians have presented elements of the past as exemplars of what constitutes "good" urban design without explaining why, for example, "enclosure" "continuity" or "definition of scale" are desirable qualities. On the other hand in the Environment Behavior field, "good" urban design is that which responds to people's needs and values as well as the economic, social, and technological circumstances around them have changed so many times since these built environments were conceived. One hypothesis than can explain this apparent inconsistency is that historic built environments have the ability to assume a variety of functions and a variety of meanings without major disruption to the principles of their structure. This quality, which I refer to as "resilience", allowed these built environments, to outlive their original cultural context and successfully accommodate changing uses, behaviors, economic circumstances and technological advances. The very survival of these built forms today without, in many cases, a conscious effort to preserve them, is substantial proof of their resilience.The city of Cairo, Egypt, with its multicultural heritage, is a perfect case study to test this hypothesis by analyzing the historical evolution to identify which parts of the built environment have changed, which parts have not, and why. The results will be discussed in the light of discerning the qualities shared by these environments that seem to increase their potential to accommodate change, that is promote resilience."
Suzuki, Nobuhiro, and Nagamine Hiroshi. "The Riverscape of the Sumida - Gawa Drawn in Ukiyo - E Pictures Seen from the Viewing Spots and the Viewed Elements." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "(1) The Suntida-Gawa River has been the spiritual axis of the downtown Tokyo since the Edo period. (2) Today, it appears ugly with steep concrete tide walls. (3) However, we can see the beautiful and live Sunida-Gawa in pictures drawn during the Edo and Meiji periods. (4) We observed 229 wellknown pictures of the Sumida-Gawa. We expected to extract visual elements of the Suniida-Gawa and their relations attendant to beauty, vividness, and intimacy. 1 Pictures We used 24 books for the pictures of the Sumida-Gawa, such as Ilokusai's Sumida-Gawa RyoganZue, Hiroshige's Edo Pleisho Hyakkei, and Kiyochika's Tokyo Meisho Zu, which were printed in 19th century. These pictures represent the riverscape before the concrete tide walls were completed in 1975. 2 The viewing spots and the elements (1) We confirmed the names of the elements of each pictures either by the title or the book's author's explanation. (2) We also confirmed then on naps made in the Edo or Meiji period. (3) We plotted the viewing spots and the elements on a contemporary map. 3 Results (1) Viewing Spots There were 4 types of vieing spots for the pictures of the Sumida-Gawa in the Edo and the Meiji periods. (i Riverside walks close to the water. Wooden Bridges in shapes of gentle archs with underneath space for sail boats. 3 Numerous boats: a taxi boat, a house boat, a commuting boat. Restaurants and tea houses with a good view of the River. (2) 6 zones: We called a line connecting a viewing spot and a viewed object "a view line ", and obtained 6 zones on the Suniida-Gawa which had a high density of the view lines. Each zone had clear landmarks and interesting activities. These elements gave the zone special identity. (3) Elements: The viewed objects or the elements of a scene varied in 4 categories. 1) Close fixed elements such as Asakusa Temple Pagoda at zone II, Shubi-no Matsu pine tree at zone ifi, or Ryogoku Bridge at zone IV. ) Close changing elements such as a commuting boat at zone I, fresh snow at zone II, fishing girls on a hired boat at zonell, fireworks or people at a river side stall at zone IV, or fishing people at zone IV. Distant fixed elements such as Mt. Fuji from zone V through Takahashi bridge, or Mt.Tsukuba from zone I . Distant changing elements such as the noon from a hill top restaurant at zone V or at zone II, or an evening glow seen from zone I (4) Spatial Characters We obtained spatial characters of the elements in the Sunida-Gawa riverscape in terms of the distance and viewed angle. 233 (5) Application: We propositioned over application of these results as design guidelines of today's Sumida-Gawa."
Vestbro, Dick Urban. "The Role of Housing and Urban Design for National Consciousness in Ex - Colonial Cities." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "The paper discusses the heritage of colonial urban planning and housing practices still existing in former colonies. Before proper town planning and housing institutions were established, it was the responsibility of the colonial army to work out city plans and housing schemes with the object to increase control and submission of the colonized inhabitants. Their building culture was often systematically suppressed. Examples are given from cities such as New Delhi, Bombay and Khartoum, which all played an important role in the British empire. As colonization brought modern techniques and construction materials to the colonies an irreversible process of modernization was started. State controlled, Western-inspired so called low-cost housing schemes were introduced for a small layer of inhabitants, often with key posts in the colonial system. At the same time unauthorized, "spontaneous" urban settlements grew rapidly. In the low-cost housing areas health standards improved, while sanitary services were, and are still, lacking in the unauthorized settlements. Foreign concepts of house form and townscape were introduced generally, but to a lesser extent in the unauthorized settlements. The end of colonialism did not disrupt this process, it is argued. Although the need for an indigenous national building culture ought to have presented itself as a question of priority on the eve of independence, conventional pro-Western concepts have been dominating housing and urban design in most post-colonial countries. In the paper it is maintained that one reason for this is the lack of debate and research on the role of architecture and town planning for the formation of national identity. The case of Khartoum is used to compare the traditional "unplanned" urban structure of Omdurman to the colonially planned grid-iron structure of Khartoum south of the Blue and White Niles, and to the organic, incremental unauthorized settlements of this rapidly growing city where Arab, African and Western ideals meet in what seems 19 be insoluble contradictions. With reference to literature on the development of nationalism in Sudan, to Christian Norberg-Schulz' analysis of the "genius loci" of Khartoum, to studies of unauthorized, popular settlements in Sudan, and to recent research on Western influence on Islamic and other traditional urban city forms, a discussion is conducted about the possibility to combine the best aspects of the three urban structures with traditional elements from tribal Sudan into a new urban form compatible with climatic conditions, ecological considerations and modernizing life styles of today and the future."
Potamianos, lakovos. "The Role of Light in the Expressive Symbolism of Louis Kahn's First Unitarian Church." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. This paper is a study of the emotional and intellectual impact a building interior may have on its inhabitants, and indeed contribute to a transformation of human feelings, by the employment of purely perceptual means. It focuses on the presentation and analysis of a work of architecture seeking to capture the manner in which expressive symbolism may be employed in order to best serve and psychologically boost the building's intended tunction.The selected building is the First Unitarian Church designed by the architect Louis I. Kahn in Rochester, New York. In particular, the goal of this paper is to determine the degree to which natural light has played a role in enhancing the expressive symbolism of the church interior. The analysis commences with an interpretation of the subtle feelings and nuances imparted to the viewer by the space and forms and the meanings communicated by the building, combined with an analysis of the methods used to achieve these effects, the fundamental notions and concepts on which they may have been based, and the perceptual clues exploited for their implementation. In conclusion, these observations are briefly discussed in respect to the degree they corroborate or contrast the intentions of the patrons, that is, of the main principles that characterize and circumscribe the Unitarian Universalist religion. Finally an assessment of the design's success is attempted in functioning as a vehicle conducive to the intended feelings and meanings in conjunction with the architect's working method. It is important to note again that this analysis places particular emphasis on the function of light in the atmospheric effect of the sanctuary and it aims at providing useful insight on how building materials and forms function psychologically, under natural light, according to known and observable perceptual laws in communicating subtle meanings and in seeking to achieve an emotional-intellectual transformation of its users.The approach of the problem in question is based on observations and analyses taken from the Gestalt and Ecological perceptual theories as well as on concepts developed by known phenomenologists.
Boudiaf, Bouzid. "The Root of the Problem." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "The conflict between the traditional and the modern has existed throughout most parts of the world since early history. -However recently, this conflict has occupied "une place de choix" in the architectural debate. The aim of my contribution will be to provide an explanation about the relationship between "RAPID" social change and "SUDDEN" change in the physical environment, following the huge transformation which have occured in different fields. The outcome of these changes have given rise to a sense of dis-continuity and alienation throughout large sections of the users and affected their behaviour. -A particular effort will be made to identify: * The role that designer play in situations such as social revolution, migration, transition and reconstruction after disaster. -The second section of the paper discusses this conflict (tradition/modernity) from the educational point of view through: * A) - A preliminary analysis of a questionnaire dealing with the students attitudes to some notions such as: technologie, history, ideology. * B) - A comparative study of different schools of architecture from their structuration and their programme."
Ohkura, Naoko, and Nobuhiro Suzuki. "The Sense of Spatial Unity and Open - Closedness of the Cashing Hall of the Post Office Savings Bank in Wien, Due to the Light and Objects in the Model Study." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. (1) Architectural spaces with natural light, have created important spatial images and feelings. (2) Among these, there is one type of space which has much visible light in it. The CASHING HALL OF THE POST OFFICE SAVING BANKS IN WIEN by Otto Wagner is a representative of this type. It was built in 1912 as an annex in the court yard. It is a wellknown historical landmark. (3) It has a roof of two layers constructed of white semi-transparent glass. The lower glass ceiling, in shape of a saddle, is hung from the upper roof's steel beams. When the straight sunlight passes through the semi-tranparent glasses, it is changed to a diffused light and fills the space. The walls are finished with white plaster and white polished marble. The floor is made of glass blocks. There is also some equipment made of aluminum, such as light fixtures and airconditioners in the hall. (4) We expected that the certain relationship between natural light and the objects of the space caused this characteristic atmospher and important spatial images in the atmospher were ())sense of spatial unity (2)open -closedness: one of the interesting characteristies of the hail is a great sense of openness, while at. the same time, it gives a closed feeling. (5) Experiment. We tested our hypothesis employing models and subjects. We made a basic model of the hail and several comparative models which contained different key elements. We took slides of the models and made various montage slides combining different key element, and asked 20 architectual studets to evaluate them. (6) Result. A) For the sense of spatial unity, following three factors were important. a) presence of diffused light b) color unity of the walls and the ceiling c) material unity And we expected that a) was the most important to this space. B) For the sense of open-closedness, the semi-transparent glass was important. When people in the hall saw the ceiling as a light surface, as if seeing a fluorescent lamp, they were enveloped in the sense of openness. On the other hand, when people saw it simply as substance of glass, they had a closed sense.
Hoogdalem, Herbert, and Pyter Brandsma. "The Sick Building Syndrome in the Netherlands." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. Public concern about possible ill-effects of buildings and their air-conditioning systems on the health and productivity of office workers has stimulated a number of case-studies and large scale epidemiological research projects, involving about 100 buildings and 10.000 workers. A number of risk factors have been identified. Both building-characteristics, e.g. type of climatization-installation as well as social-organizational characteristics: sex, age, type of work etc. influence the amount of stress experienced. Several models and theories trying to explain these data are discussed. Recommendations for further research and implications for the metamorphosis of officeworkspace are given in the concluding section of this paper.
Dovey, Kim. "The Spatial Production of Power Relations: Symbolism I Segregation I - Surveillance / Distortion / Disorientation." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. There is currently a keen interest in the role of the built environment in the production, reproduction and legitimation of power relations. This paper is a preliminary attempt at a model for understanding the various dimensions within which power is argued to operate through built form. The work of Giddens, Foucault and Habermas is interpreted in relation to built form. Power is defined as a relationship and a form of practice, rather than a form of oppression. Yet since the built environment structures human consciousness and behaviour, it structures power relations in a manner that enables certain interests and constrains others. Five dimensions are outlined through which power relations are embedded in built form, dimensions through which the environment becomes a medium for inequity and oppression: • Symbolism - The form of the designed environment acts as a semiotic or symbolic cue to the.structure of power. This operates through human consciousness but it may or may not be consciously perceived. Its dominant mode is the social construction of myth - a power relation is evoked as it is naturalized. Its social construction is erased as it is steeped in timelessness, permanence and stability. Some important themes here include: the symbolic evocation of a stable or powerful past; the production of stigma, status and symbolic capital; and the use of monumental scale. • Segregation - The designed environment consists of places (time/space nodes, rooms, buildings, cities) to which, and from which, access is restricted (by rules, boundaries, distance, ignorance). • Surveillance - Spatial form is designed to ensure social order through surveillance of behaviour. This occurs through modern forms of panopticism the disciplinary technology of the factory, school, hospital, shopping centre and housing. • Disorientation - Power over orientation in the built environment is power over the context of everyday life. The commercial environments exhibit an intent to disorient the subject from a public context and substitute a highly manipulative private re-orientation. • Distorted Communication - The design process involves the imagination and negotiation of a proposed future environment. Power over this process involves the power to distort the perceived image of the design in favour of some interests and against others.
Carta, Giuseppe. "The Stylobate of Parthenon: a Metamorphosis of Meanings." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. During the Persian Wars, a Tholos usually was built in the site of battles. In Salamina it did not happen. According to my thesis, an existing structure - the stylobate of the Parthenon acquires a different meaning: for metamorphosis it was (simbolically) dedicated to the dead of the decisive naval battle as Tholos. The transfer of the omphalos, that is the civil worlds barycentre, from Delos to Delphy and then to Athens, gave to the city not only richness but also political power. Athens became the centre of a territory extending from Jonia as far as Sicily. Therefore, the city needed new structure and new symbols. I believe that the stylobate of the Parthenon is the tholos of Salaminas dead: a sublime metamorphosis taking place through the passage from Callicrates Parthenon to Ictinos. Furthermore, I think that Parthenon's upper surface was secretly dedicated to Poseidon. If it is true, the Parthenon is an anadyomene temple. Here are the indications supporting my thesis: 1) in the area widespreang from Agorà to the Acropolis there are the tombs of all the Atheniens dead in battles, except Marathon and Salamina. 2) According with some verses of Edipo to Colono of Sofocles, the name given to the Parthenon: Hekatompedon or Grat Temple, may be it is a secret dedication. 3) The optical correction of Parthenon's stylobate: it is curved in both directions. 4) In the ancient iconography the overturn ship is the tomb of the heroes, like the tholos. 5) The mysterous procession of the arreforoie from the Erechteion to the Parthenon. 6) The moving of a votive ship from Agorà to the Acropolis in the Panathenaic procession. In conclusion, I point out the correlation between ships and temples, ships and the Acropolis' holiness, between places and names of Salamina and names of Acropolis.
Gür, Sengül, and Ali Asasoglu. "The Symbolic Meaning of the Third Eclectic Period of Architecture in Turkey." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "Advocates of Post-Modern Architecture claim that it communicates desired meanings to the public. They discuss the pluralistic values that the architect must satisfy. For those with an interest in architecture that communicates desirable meanings to the public, empirical study of the meaning inferred from styles can be helpful. This research examined the connotative meanings laypersons infer from various apartment styles and whether or not architects share public meanings. A hypothetical façade was drawn in eight different stylistic variations and these representations were used as test tools. These variations were: 1. "modern" (international style), 2. "late modern", 3. "populist" and 4. "post-modern" with a) metaphysical, b) vernacular, c) Classical-Ottoman, d) Western Neo-Classical, and e) Late-Ottoman (First National Period). In sum, this research considered the following questions with regard to symbolic meanings of styles in apartment houses: 1. Do architect academicians, practicing architects and laypersons share common meanings in relation to apartment styles? 2. Do architects see different meanings from the public? Differences in meaning emerged between architects, academicians and the public. Architect and academicians agreed upon the most disliked styles which in this case were: 1. the neo-classical of Western origin, 2) the populist with no precision, 3) the Late-Ottoman with strong centralist connotations. However they differed in their rankings of the liked. Where the academicians favored the post-modern styles with 1) metaphysical, 2) Classical-Ottoman emphases, the practicing architects preferred the post-modern with vernacular emphasis and the modern style (international style). Laypersons on the other hand showed definite preference for modern style and rejected totally the post-modern with metaphysical emphasis. That architects differ from the public in what they prefer in architecture is once more confirmed."
Tiernan, Carole. "The Texture of Reality." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "What is meant by "reality"? It would seem to be something very erratic, very undependable-now to be found in a dusty road, now in a scrap of newspaper in the street, now in a daffodil in the sun... It overwhelms one walking home beneath the stars and makes the silent world more real than the world of speech. Sometimes, too, it seems to swell in shapes too far away for us to discern what their nature is. But whatever it touches, it fixes and makes permanent. That is what remains over when the skin of the day has been cast into the hedge; that is what is left of past time and of our loves and hates. (Virginia Woolf) Perspectives are images of reality and not truths in themselves. Since the activities of design are inextricably linked to human experience, any perspective concerned with our perceptions of reality are not so much concerned with truth or meaning as they are concerned with the sheer experience of being alive. To be alive suggests that new histories are being written in the frontier of change.Yet, when we speak of the frontiers of change, we are not just referring to insitutional structure nor are we speaking of revolutionary changes in the narrow political sense. What we are speaking about is a radical shift in the way we see and conceptualize our world--a shift which implies a kind of comprehensive restructuring. And while we can not specify what it will be, we are beginning to see outlines of its emergent form.This paper will examine the changing role of knowledge and its relationship to power. It will discuss ways in which accessibility to information is coming to empower individual and collective participation in the built landscape, and it will speculate on the implications such shifts in power and knowledge might have on the kind of information perceived essential to architectural education and practice.An underlying premise is that gaining insight into the dynamic reciprocal relationship between power and knowledge is critical to understanding the socio-environmental metamorphoses taking place in contemporary world culture and in the space of our everyday experiences. Yet who controls the information, how it is used, and to what end remain a question. We live in an information-based cultural environment. Our technologies are providing instruments for reorganizing and discovering new channels of expression. Knowledge, or information, once monopolized by specialist, managers, and professionals is becoming accessible to the masses. "Knowledge is power." And as knowledge is becoming redistributed, so is the power base it rests upon. In some ways, knowledge is rapidly becoming our most democratic source of power. Yet, knowledge and communication are not power neutral. What distinguishes knowledge from other sources of power is, for example, that wealth is finite. Knowledge, for all practical purposes, has the capacity to be infinite. Its unique quality: availablity. Power is unstable, and by definition, is only a means... a process of dynamic interaction. To have power really means to have entree or access to a network of relationships in which one can influence, persuade, threaten or cajole others. A distinction is made between power-to and power-over, between the will-to power and beyond power. Each of these distinctions begins to delineate a texture of the mutli-faceted nature of reality--where, in a Platonic sense, reality is one. Interpretations of reality are many."
Sebba, Rachel. "The Three Faces of Cultural Change." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. Culture, according to A.N. Whitehead, cannot stay in its place; -it either moves forward or backward. The progress of culture is dependent on forseeing the future, which results in innovations, and in the recognition of the past, into which these innovations are to be anchored. The process of assimilating new technologies, customs and ideas into the existing fabric of life and values, is characterised by an arythimic pace. The pace of social change is different from one period to another, from society to society and from one behavioural pattern to another. From the differences in the pace of internalising change into various behavioural patterns one can learn about the differences in the measure of inertia in each of these patterns. These can be uncoverd through observing the process of change a specific society is undergoing during a specific period of time. A study of this nature was made in relation to the environmental behaviour of a rural Bedouin society who underwent a process of gradual change from a nomadic lifestyle to permanent settlement. The research investigated those expressions of change connected to the physical environment, its organisation and use. An analysis of the housing pattern, the plans of the dwellings, the arrangement of activities within the home, the attitude to the physical variables and to dwelling functions, showed that there are differences in the readiness of a society to internalise changes in its various modes of living. In this regard, it is possible to differentiate between three main planes which are characterised by different amounts and types of inertia: 1. The funcional plane - which relates to activities intended to fulfill the daily needs. 2. The plane of habits - which relates to subconscious behaviour and includes environmental habits and motor-sensory reactions to physical stimuli. 3. The plane of norms and values - which relates to the rules controlling social behaviour Under conditions of internally generated and gradual change (as was the case in the research shown) it was found that at the functional plane - the society and the individuals within, react rapidly to changing circumstances and needs, and use efficiently available resources and technology. The plane of habits is characterised by inertia whose nature and measure are connected to the prior experiences of individuals, their age and charactere.. The plane of norms and values represents the tension between a society's past - on which its identity is dependent, Sand between its future - on which its continuity is conditioned. At the values plane new technologies and patterns are not absorbed as at the functional plane, and are not repulsed either as at the the plane of habits - rather, at this plane, a profound and prolonged process of testing and shaping patterns of change, in a manner which will enable them to be woven into the specific fabric of the changing culture, takes place.
Dandolova, lskra. "The Transformation of Housing in Bulgaria Today - the Emergence of 10 Phenomena." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. The transformation of housing policy In Bulgaria today is due to the general period of socialeconomic transition. This short description of the chosen 10 phenomena aims at providing some understanding between European countries after the time of isolation and it seeks to provide Insights which can be of value to possible comparative studies. 1. Free housing market: Introduced by a decision of Parliament since l' april 1990. It gives full freedom for every Bulgarian citizen to sell and buy real estate without restrictions as to the type and the number of the dwellings. Before that date this was not possible. 2. Housing mobility: There was no housing mobility in the last few years because of the lack of a free housing market (strong control by the state), lack of motivation to move caused by job mobility (no choice of job and houses) and due to the high percentage (about 90) of private property and owner-occupation in housing. The majority of the efforts of the population concerned the house - the house being the object of investment of time, money and labour - with a correspondingly high value being placed on one's own property. 3. Homelesness: In the last decades - an unknown phenomena. At present homelesness has two forms - those who have no homes and those who have to share housing under hard conditions. Both forms appear to be on the increase. 4. Work at home: The practice of working in the house is a phenomenon which began in the 1970's and it is related to the disappearance of small and middle sized business premises. Now, there is a higher instance of work at home. Privatisation in the economy is affecting the use of housing space. 5. Hard currency renting: A new phenomena related to the devaluation of the national currency and its non-convertability. New companies with mixed capital are paying high local rates In hard currency, pushing out the local people and causing disequilibrium in the market. 6. Self-sufficiency in housing: Self sufficiency in housing is a tradition in Bulgaria for the majority of the population, whose economic status does not permit them to pay to for the construction of a home, or to rent one. The self-help housing is on the increase very much now, and will no doubt do so tomorrow. 7. Housing restitution: In 1991, after 40-50 years, the Bulgarian Parliament made the decision to re-instate those who had been forced to give up nationalized property. It is very difficult to carry out this decision. People are experiencing many dramatic problems. There are no precedents for this In history. 8. Privatisation in construction: Today there is practically no housing construction industry. This is due to the disappearance of the large, state owned, industrialized enterprizes. Some small construction companies are emerging. 9. Ideals In housing and space: The values of people concerning housing are changing. A great deal of the existing housing stock is now considered as being of very poor quality. 10. Grass root movements in housing: When the transitional period started, grass root movements against the living conditions In some regions were emerging. These movements are increasing on the basis of local dissatisfaction with housing policy and housing management.
Demiri, Konstantina. "The Transformation of the Existing: a Theme in the (Greek) National Architectural Competitions." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "Working with old buildings constitutes a major theme of today's architectural theory, debate and practice. During the last decades there has been a growing interest towards the transformation of the existing urban and architectural issues rather than the foundation of the new. The key problem for the architects is building between what already exists and within a given cultural, social and physical context. There can be no single methodology and approach to re-using and converting existing buildings. As Richard Rogers pointed out intervention in pre-existing environment can only be approached "case by case" as a specific answer to specific problems. The F erplexing nature of the existing in terms of its physical, functional, stylistic, contextual, o1pographical, typological and symbolic characteristics leads design decisions and solutions. Furthemore, the way architects interpret the existing "environment" and the values they attribute to its meaning constitute fundamental parameters in their intervention and colour their design intentions and manipulations. As lgnasi de Sola Morales argues The design of a new work of architecture not only comes physically close to the existing one, entering into visual and spatial rapport with it, but it also produces a genuine interpretation of the historical material with which it has to contend, so that this material is the object of a true interpretation which explicitly or implicitly accompanies the new intervention in its overall significance'. This paper seeks to explore the strategies of "working with old buildings" followed by Greek architects in National Architectural Competitions. The paper goes beyond restoration procedures and focuses mainly on procedures of modifications of old buildings in cases where the design of a new building in relation to the old is required. Furthermore, the emphasis of the paper will not be on the economical and technical aspects of the. re-use but on the conceptual and design aspects of conversion projects. The material of the paper will be based on an analysis of the "Technical reports" which accompany the projects, explain the design solutions and reveal the designers' intentions. Obviously, the projects themselves constitute fundamental material of the analysis. An a posteriori criticism of the architects of their intentions and their manifestations is regarded very important. Thus, interviews will be conducted to explore, in addition, changes in their philosophy and their approach. Finally, a comparison will be attempted with similar interventions in other countries. Some of the issues which will be examined are their view on the complementarity of the old with the new, on the exact and iconic imitation versus metaphoric and syntactic imitation, on contextual and/or conceptual intervention, on dialectical contradiction and also on innovation versus pastiche."
Sime, Jonathan. "The Tree on the Path from the Wood to the Graveyard." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. The tree on the path from the wood to the graveyard is the journey each person metaphorically travels from birth to death. The greatest metamorphosis is birth (into the world) and death (the end of a person's biography and being-in-the-world). Each unfolding life is finite and temporary. What lasts is the infinitely larger realm of a world shared with people in the past and future as each generation inherits and in turn passes on their world to others. This paper is concerned with the sacred enduring symbolism of landscapes. At a time of increasing concern about environmental protection, there is a need to preserve landscapes with paths and trees for these serve as a powerful symbolic link between inner and outer nature and between past, present and future lifeworlds of individuals and communities. The symbolic meaning of the natural physical world is articulated in the realm of literature, rather than in conventional environment and behaviour research. The paper draws on English poetry and prose to illustrate the symbolic significance of the path as a metaphor for life, a search for the soul in the landscape and an act of pilgrimage, eg Chaucer's Canterbury Tales (c 1387) and Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress (1687). The paper focuses on literature of the 19th and early 20th century as a rich source of insight into the symbolic significance of paths and trees in the English landscape (eg Thomas Hardy, Richard Jeff ries, Matthew Arnold). The paper also includes quotes from Rilke and Heidegger's essay 'The Pathway'. In this respect the geography of a landscape, with a tree on a path as a focal point, acts as a symbol of inner bearings which has captured the imagination of painters, poets and writers of the 19th and 20th century. Increasingly, the poetry and prose of this period have expressed a tension between inner and outer nature. This suggests the need for an environmental ethic to guide preservation of 'the tree' and 'the path'.The landscape of 'the tree on the path from the wood to the graveyard' figures prominently in literature as archetypal symbols of life and time. Quotations from literature are used as an introduction to the landscape and place experience which is a focus of the paper. In the landscape described, the path begins at a gate on the edge of a wood. Halfway along the path is the tree with another gate and a fence dividing two fields. At the end of the path is the graveyard with a church just beyond. The tree represents the cosmic centre of the world and a point which lies halfway through a person's life. Looking back along the path from the tree towards the wood represents the past. Looking forward along the path to the graveyard is the future. The tree marks the present. The walk along the path represents the circular and linear passage of time from dawn to dusk, spring to winter, birth to death. The vista, from the gate out of the wood down the path, past the tree towards the graveyard, is the distance of a lifetime.
Imamoglu, Olcay. "The Turkish Family in Transition." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. Since the establishment of trio Turicish Republic, the Turkish society has been underjoing rapid social and economic chanyes that have repercussions on almost every aspect of life. Within this background chanjes in the gender roles within the Turkish family dill ne described based on the results of an extensive study on 456 Turkisn couples. The implications of type of marriage, women's employment and. S E S for marital roles and narmony will be described.
Churchman, Arza. "The Ultra - Orthodox Jewish Community in Israel: a Community Fighting Change." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. The ultra-orthodox Jewish community is a community that consciously and vigorously negates change in all aspcts of life. It is a fundamentalist, religious group that refuses to allow any change in religious beliefs and practices. However, since these practices affect virtually all aspects of daily life, the resistance to change must be rigorously enforced. Their position is that any change, in even a seemingly trivial detail such as the kind of hat a man wears, can serve as the break in the dike that releases an unstoppable flood. Nevertheless they live within the State of Israel, which is undergoing the same kinds of changes occurring all over the world today. One topic addressed in the paper, therefore, looks at the envirOnmental mechanisms used by the ultra-orthodox community in Israel in order to insulate themselves from the changing and secular world around them. In addition, based upon a number of research projects relating to their particular housing needs, the paper examines how they cope with a housing environment not always suited to their special needs. Contrary to the oft-held assumption that privacy is a modem concept, it is for this community a central issue, although its definition and its mechanisms are both similar to and different from the general Israeli culture. Because of their economic circumstances and their very large families, many of the ultra-orthodox live in conditions that are considered crowded in Israel and yet they do not evaluate them negatively. Living in close proximity to other families with the same values and way of life is much more important then the quality of their housing. On the other hand, the phenomenon of children's outdoor play is an example of their adaptation to different environmental circumstances. There are no differences in the location and nature of play of these and secular children in similar new neighborhoods. Apparently this is an aspect that is not seen as an essential feature of their religious way of life, and so if does not have to remain the same. It would appear, then, that even a community that actively resists change cannot avoid it altogether.
Rae, Ruth. "The Urge to Own: an Exploration of Home Ownership in America." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. This paper explores the desire for home ownership in America. It is often assumed that given the choice, most people would prefer to own their home. Yet the preference for home ownership is influenced by cultural, financial and psychological factors. A pro-ownership sentiment is deeply embedded in American culture. Home ownership is believed to be the superior form of tenure which provides societal benefits. Yet some suggest that the American 'dream' of home ownership may not be universal, but a product of political ideology. Additionally, since tenure and housing type are related (usually houses are owned and apartments rented) a preference for ownership may be connected to the type of housing. The assumed preference for home ownership may actually be the desire to live in a detached house or the neighborhood in which it is found. Home ownership is also related to socio-economic status for traditionally the rich own and the poor rent. Income can influence both the ability to achieve home ownership and its financial benefits. Motivations to own can embrace different attitudes or goals, and may differ by socio-economic class. Research on low-income ownership has found that control and security have been important motivating factors. Although home ownership is customarily seen as a wise economic investment, emotional factors also play a role in the urge to own a home.
Nenci, A.M., G. Testa, and P. Silvestro. "The Workplace as an Environment for Living." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992.

"Everyday space, and within it the workplace, ends up losing its purely physical aspect with the passing of time and becomes the place of our imaginary constructions and our interpretation. The valuation of our relationship with the workplace does not, therefore, have to be limited to the analysis of means of psrception but has tohave a global character which takes into consideration the needs of belonging to a social group and of our research into personal identity. The aim of this research is to study the workplace considering the integration of the psycho-spatial aspect, functional activity and dynamic of interpersonal relatioship. A particular workplace has been researched, located within a public health and social security structure in Rome, where the characteristics of the space and type of work are unique in the city. 74 subjects were presented with a questionnaire with the aim of researching the following areas: 1) personal data: place held at work, mobility and socialisation, mobility from the home to work; 2) satisfaction with occupation, description of workplace, preferred ways of and places in which socialise, possible changes to be wrought upon the work structure; 3) drawing of the workplace. The results demonstrate a tendency to satisfy the need to belong to a group as well as a similar tendency to feel part of the physical structure. The latter, predominantly described in basic drawings with characteristics such as "safe" and "welcoming", even if "modest" and "boring", seems to represent a protective space in which to socialise."

Fatouros, Dimitris. "Theory on the Distorting Mirror." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. conference:IAPS:12
Saglamer, Gulsun. "Three Houses of Three Successive Generations." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "Generations have been experiencing different types of changes throughout history. This is a non-stop process which transform societies from one form to another in time and space. Not only human beings experience this process but their environment as well. In this paper "metamorphosis" has been discussed in different dimensions. First of all the meaning of the word "metamorphosis" is analysed with respect to conference theme and then the different aspects of it have been outlined in terms of built and social environments. These aspects can be summarized as follows: o Social environment ; user differenciation, user characteristics, users' cultural transformations, size of user groups. o Built environment ; type of metamorphosis process such as "top down" or "buttom up", type of components being affected by the process such as "constructive elements", "spaces", "space organizations", scale of the process such as "space" "building", "neigbourhood", "town", etc. Since social, political, economical and technological developments have impacts on social and built environment , different aspects of metamorphosis have been exemplified in a broder context in this paper. A case study which demonstrates the relationships between built and social environment has been investigated. In this study three houses which have been used by the successive generations of the same family have been analysed. These houses are in the village of "Torul/ Gümüshane" in the Blacksea region of Turkey. The characteristics of successive generations have been defined according to the above mentioned factors and the impacts of these factors have been analysed in terms of metamorphosis."
Martin, Marijke. "Three Screenplays for the Organization of Peripheral Areas." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "In her last official planni:ng-document (Nota voor Ruimtelijke Orde 1989) the responsible Dutch politicians seem to introduce an adapted vocabulary to cover actual spatial processes which depass the traditional notion of urban growth. Is there a reason ? In Holland as elsewhere the gradually flowing together of city and countryside gets a problematic aspect in the experience of the peripherical condition. Originally eccentric situated sites like nineteenth century industrial emplacements are nowadays slowly starving or - on the contrary - becoming interesting objects of urban investment and speculation, whereas the intermediate zones between towns have to deal with a hardly controllable process of almost spontaneous urbanisation. The traditional image of a well defined, historically grown and morphologically structured urban place - the locus - is more and more losing its credibility when faced to the experience of actual urban conditions - a collection of fragmentated structures, difficult to describe and finally coming together in the postmodern urban experience of passing by and momentaneousness. This changing urbanity, going apair and even caused by large infrastructural and communicational developments, affects the classical identity of the town. The official planning-document uses terms like geographic situation, accessibility, connection on (tele) communication-systems, centrality and mobility when talking about cities; qualities on which they should base their (new) identity. The political translation of this linguistic exercise was found in a well-prepared selection of 9 so-called 'urban connections' (stedelijke knooppunten), where the potential presence of such qualities should be reinforced, centralised and internationalised. Large public subventions permit the realisation of relevant urban projects in the citycores (the Amsterdam waterfront/IJ-banks, the Rotterdam Northern-eiland project (Kop van Zuid), the Maastricht Céramique-site and Maasbanks etc.) as well as in the cityborder- or peripherical zones (urbanisation of large open spaces around the central cities for administrative, medical of university centers, infrastructural ensembles, large excentral situated new housing-zones etc.). In taking this initiative the problematic ensemble of periphery(s) and city(s) - each with their own specific conditions, but at the same time representing the two complementary poles of urbanity - is proposed as the one and same object of reflexion and intervention, waiting for an adequate and specific terminology and showing being dependant on a creative planning-approach. During the last years some politically independent institutions have favoured such reflexion in the planning-field, trying to transfer the actual problem of changing urbanity to the concrete level of planning proposal. The reflexion concerning the Dutch "'Randstad'-region is significant, •but also other regions seem to interest further investigation. For example, the l990-Prix the Rome-concours for urban planning concentrated on the largely suburbanised region between Antwerp and Rotterdam, whereas two years earlier proposals were collected for the 'Euregion' situated between Maas and Rhine rivers and in-between the cities of Hasselt, Luik (Belgium), Maastricht (Holland) and Aken (Germany). Finally we can conclude that cities like Amsterdam, Rotterdam or even Maastricht are confronted with the same problem. Large investments are needed not only to bring them on the wanted international level of accommodation and communication facilities, but also to prevent them from a slowly-starving-process. In this lecture Maastricht shall be taken as an example of large urban planning projects; meant to become an international and congresscenter, situated as the frontiers of the Benelux-countries, Maastricht is favoured by the projection of new university, medical and congresscenters, a new museum, new infrastructural measures, the building of a new housing- and administrative zone on the historical Cérarriique-site and last but not least the general 'face-lift' of the characteristic Maasbanks."
Hunziker, Marcel. "Tourism - Induced Landscape Changes as Assessed by Tourists." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "As a consequence of the European integration competition among resort places will increase. For destinations in high-cost-of-living countries like Switzerland it will be difficult to attract tourists with the price argument. Therefore qualitative aspects of the touristic supply of resort places in the Swiss Alps gain more importance. It is undisputed, that one of the most decisive supply factors of tourism is the visual landscape, thus it should be preserved. However, the simultaneous increase of other supply factors, such as housing or transportation, induces drastic landscape changes, which in turn might diminish the landscape-aesthetical value of resort places. For that reason relevant questions for the future planning of resort places are: - How do tourists aesthetically assess tourism-induced landscape changes? - Is the choice of the destination influenced by these changes? or: Is there a risk of a decreased touristic demand due to tourism-induced landscape changes? The developed theory, which is based on preliminary surveys and literature studies, allowed the following hypothesis: Tourists prefer traditional sceneries to landscapes with tourism-induced changes. The hypothesis was checked by photo-experiments (q-sort technique) with about 200 visitors of Grindelwald (Swiss Alps). They were asked to assess series of photographs, which represented typical increasing deviations from the traditional landscape. As a main result of the study, the hypothesis has not to be rejected: Tourists are significantly sensitive to tourism-induced landscape changes. The majority of persons involved in the experiments did not like deviations from the traditional state of the landscape caused by developments of modern settlements (except the structural compression of dispers villages), touristic transport installations and roads. The group-specific investigations showed a general indifference among social groups with regard to the sensitivity to tourism-induced landscape changes: All groups estimated traditional sceneries as more beautiful than changed landscapes. However, some groups are significantly more sensitive to deviations from the traditional state than others, e.g. young visitors more than older ones. Thus one might speculate, that the sensitivity of tourists to tourism-induced landscape changes will increase in the future. Further analysis of the survey data indicated a slight correlation between the tourists' choice of destination and the existence of tourism-induced landscape changes: It was shown that very sensitive tourists tend to choose an accomodation in an area (inside the resort place) with traditional surroundings, whereas less sensitive individuals were rather unresponsive to completely modified surroundings. Recognizing that the visual landscape gets more important as a "future supply factor, one might interprete this result as an early warning for more serious reactions of tourists to negative impacts on traditional landscapes. In spite of the uncertainty of the predicted touristic demand, appropriate planning measures should be taken in order to avoid undesirable tourist reactions to landscape changes. The results of this study - the improvement of knowledge about the aesthetical valuation of tourism-induced landscape changes - might facilitate the choice of such measures."
Lawrence, Denise. "Tourism and the Metamorphosis of Meaning in Southern Portuguese Homes." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "Although the built environment and its meaning are constantly changing, the introduction of touristic enterprises into relatively stable, so-called "traditional" communities significantly influences values given to the material environment and local identities. This paper examines the metamorphosis in the concept of self and community identity expressed by residents in home design and renovations in a rapidly changing rural southern Portuguese agrotown. It argues that meaning attributed to the physical character of built forms shifts under tourism through the commoditization of material culture to an increasingly invented representation of an hypothesized scenario of people and events. In staging authenticity and marketing its consumption to a broader "community" (Hobsbawm and Ranger; MacCannell), touristic enterprises introduce into local communities "design self-consciousness,' which produces a sense of anonymity in idealized social relations along with increased legibility in the built environment. The physical environment thus becomes a major vehicle for communicating meaning independent of actual persons or events. The setting for the study is a small agricultural town in southern Portugal which boasts a 12th century castle and fine medieval buildings and old homes clustered around a defensible hilltop. Although the town had been a center of governmental and cultural activity until the turn of the last century, at the end of the second world war the economic and demographic character of the town began to change dramatically. As agricultural production declined, migration of workers to larger cities around Lisbon depleted the local population leaving behind many elderly and retired folks. Recently,. increasing employment opportunities and the construction of new housing near the town center has drawn the remaining younger population away from the oldest part of the community, leaving behind the elderly and an active group of outsiders interested in touristic development. A kind of conversion of the local residents by the outsiders has begun to take place. The focus of the conversion centers on arguments between outsiders and elderly residents to preserve or enhance the 'traditional character' of the old town through specific renovations. A case concerning the replacement of front doors is examined in some detail to reveal the variety of choices available to residents, each with its contrasting set of defining attributes and rational for adoption. While the strategy most consistent with traditional design decisions results in doors of aluminum, a material inconsistent with the older style of building construction, a design decision expressing the outsiders' new emphasis on the intrinsic value of the built environment results in an invented "tradition" of doors of wood, a material compatible with old house forms but a rationale which strains previous identities. The shifting meanings and relative value placed on the built environment is linked to a transformation in the concept of the self expressed in the home, an increasing sense of anonymity complemented by an invented sense of community."
PELED, ARIE. "Towards a Post - Patriarchal Architecture." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "We witness today, in various societies, a major metamorphosis which, for lack of a better definition can be described as the emergence of a post-patriarchal way of relating to the world. The traditional patriarchal patterns were characterized by: 1) An imbalance between the modes of Being and Doing, an overemphasis on the latter and derogatorily defining the first as "passive" and "female". 2) An imbalance between the analytic, visual, detached mode and the holistic, emphatic, textural one, overemphasizing the detached mode which was then invested with the respectability of "scientific" and "rational". 3) The construing of phenomena as systems in which a central principle or power coordinates a hierarchy of parts. The new emerging patterns, evident in such a variety of phenomena as the theory of Chaos and the various Feminist movements, form part of a process which may eventually redress the imbalances as well as bring about a new way of construing phenomena: as composite sets in which the whole is being generated by autonomous parts which complement and enrich one another. It is the position of the author, that at this stage in the emergence of the new patterns, the spatial conditions of places should share the new structure. The paper will elaborate on this issue and put forward several possible characteristics of the places to be created for post-patriarchal societies: 1) A redefinition of the house - the main spatial configuration and symbol of patriarchal society, as a place that modulates exposure to the natural environment, rather than provides shelter, and that consists of a confederation of places, rather than an entity out of which individual places are carved. 2) A redirection of architectural imagination from object : house, column, etc to ambience light, atmosphere, the elaboration of surfaces. 3) a reorganization of the architectural act by which places come into being, by creating composite sets of places, designed by teams in which each designer keeps his or her autonomy and individuality for communities that participate in the design and building of their places."
Akpinar, Aysen. "Towards Quality Appraisal for Design: a Pioneering Study of Modern Saudi Housing." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. Due to the rapid increase in oil production, and the dramatic rise in oil revenues, particularly after 1973, Saudi Arabia experienced great pressure to modernize its society within a short time span. Basic infrastructure and the built environment were the first sectors which benefitted from mammothiy increased investment. The term, 'construction boom' was never more appropriately used than in Saudi Arabia during the '70's and '80's. The boom has now slowed to a manageable level; the entire face of the country has changed, with modern cities--on the western model--covering the site of former traditional Arab towns. But the tremendous impact of such rapid development on the built environment and on local culture, and even the very basic question of how culturally relevant, or appropriate, much of the recently built housing is, is only now being analyzed. Saudi Arabian society is intensely private, and few studies on housing design quality appraisal have been planned or implemented. A pioneering exception was the study tool developed and executed by the Dpartment of Interior Architecture for Women at Icing Faisal University in the summer of 1989. The study was requested by HE. Prince Turk! bin Nasser al Saud, the Commander of King Abdul Aziz Al rbase. The residents of on-base family housing--Saudi military and civilian staff and their families--had complained in general terms about the suitability of their housing, and had requested alterations of various characters and extent. The type of housing included in the study was composed of detached villas and low-rise apartment buildings the design of which was based strictly on Western precepts, in size, layout, and exterior-interior relationship. The study was designed to illicit information on all the above precepts, specifically taking into account the socio-cultural background of the respondents, and precise reasons for satisfaction or dissatisfaction. The objective of the study was to formulate performance criteria that would guide the design of future housing. The study results indicated housing preferences and aspirations which had clearly evolved some way from the traditional Saudi type. They had not, however, followed a path leading to the western model, but had rather evolved, under conflicting influences, to a metamorphosis of both. This paper intends to discuss the metamorphosis of Saudi housing aspirations, including their traditional and contemporary components, and how they translate to design criteria.
Aksoy, Erdem. "Trabzon in Metamorphosis." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. Trabzon is a town with several cultural metamorphosis. The earliest culture in this region was living under miles ian colonial order with Hippodamus grid road system. The harbortown Trabzon was administrated by governes living in Sinop. The actual Piazza of the municipality was an agora at thatstadium. After the division of the Roman Empire into two parts Trabzon and the eastern Black Sea region belonged Rome. Trabzon was converted to a free city and began to develop considerably. During Vespasianus, roads connecting Eastern-Anatolia gave Trabzon new commercial improvement. A new harbor, a hippodrome and a theater gave to Trabzon a brilliant cultural impact. A second metamorphosis was under way. The Mithras tempel at Boztepe was expressing the new cult of the town. With the begining of the christian era the orthodox cultural metamorphosis gave to Trabzon its orthodox christian priorities. The HagiaSophia is a superior example of Architecture in this area. During the reign of Pontus Kingdom Venetians and espacially Genoese republic won the right to use the most spectacular part of the city, namely the Leontocastro district for their shipyard and cultural activities. This was a Latin-Catholic city similar to Galata district of Istanbul. After the conversion of the city to a part of the Ottoman Empire the symbols of Islamic culture gave a new metamorphosis to Trabzon The religious schools called madrasas were established in many parts of the town together with Dervish-lodges. Evliya çelebi wrote: The wise people and poets came together in these ornamented schools in order to become sufi-mevlevi dervishes. This was the sufi-islamic metamorphosis of the town. In Trabzon during the ottoman Empire the mos lam and chiristian communities were living in a symbiosis. After the World War-I Trabzon was invaded by Russions in 1916 but taken back to Turkish republic in 1918. After the metamorphosis to a secular state, Trabzon is Looking now for new symbols.
Deshmukh, Ravindra. "Transformation in Architectural Education: an Indian Experience." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. The world has shown a remarkable change in the last few decades. Architectural education, too, is no exception to it. New inventions have changed the course of history, so also of style and structure of the architectural education programme. The very purpose of starting architectural education in India and the purpose as it is viewed today, offer a totally diversified view. The programme, over the years, has become more matured and comprehensive, but it could not keep pace with the fast growth in the professional practice. The gap, today, between education and profession is awesome. Many schools of architecture have sprung up in the recent times and a shortage of able reachers is being experienced. Due to a general notion that minimal funds are required to run an architecture department, students are deprived of many facilities for their all-round development. The cumulative effect of all these is fast leading to falling standards and architectural firm being more cautious and choosy in checking the credentials of the imcumbent fresh architectural hands. The paper sketches out the history of architectural education in India, takes an overview of the present situation and concludes with some suggestions which would possibly lessen the downsslide of architectural education and consequently of the profession.
Korca, Perver, and Handan Turkoglu. "Transformation of the Use of Commercial Streets in City Centers." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. Commercial activities have been the most significant part of the city center throughout the history. The spatial structure of the city center which has been mainly determined by commercial activities, has been modified in time. After the second world war, investments were attracted to suburbs and peripheral areas of the cities due to easy access, availability of cheap and vacant land and advancements in communication technology. Rapid suburban expansion, that was primarily encouraged by the invention of the automobile, led to creation of new commercial centers, which compete with the old city. Constant degradation of built environment and the shift of economic wealth towards to suburbs along with traffic congestion and environmental pollution in the city centers resulted in an economic social and physical decline of old city. This trend has led to doubts about the future of the city centers. Due to aforementioned trends and potential problems related to the decline of traditional city center, local governments and city planners have developed new strategies. Creation of car-free commercial streets is one of the widely accepted solutions for the revitalization of the city centers. In essence, the goal of revitalization of the commercial streets in the city center is to provide shoppers with a comfortable environment to which they will want to return. In the past the process of street revitalization have focused on strengthening the commercial base of the city center and improving transportation facilities. Lately the idea that healthy economy is closely linked to the quality of social lifes in the streets has gained wide acceptance. Therefore social activities must be taking into account along with the structural improvements in the revitalization process of the commercial streets. Many of the European and North American cities have successfully achieved the goal of revitalization of their city centers through pedestrianization and transformation of the use of the commercial streets. In the last decade few example of the pedestrianization of the commercial streets have been seen in Turkey too. This paper will focus on the issue of revitalization of the city center. In this context, pedestrianization and transformation of the use of the commercial streets will be introduced as a mean for revitalization of the city center. Finally, the experience of the transformation of Istikial Street into a pedestrian mall will be presented.
Moore, Gary. "Transformations in the Environments of Child Care." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. The unprecedented demand for child care throughout the world, coupled with increased funding for child care services and facilities in northern Europe and North America, presents a major challenge for theoreticians, researchers, and designers of children's environments. No comprehensive source of up-to-date information exists on the design of child care centers. The Children's Environments Research Group in New York City, USA, and its journal, Children's Environments Quarterly, do an admirable job of trying to make information available. The Center for Architecture and Urban Planning Research receives numerous requests from designers around the USA and overseas. The importance of the designed environment in child care is slowly being recognized. Research now indicates, for instance, that aggressive and destructive behavior increases and social interaction decreases when children are restricted to too little space (about 2 m2 per child). Elizabeth Prescott at Pacific Oaks College in Pasadena, California, USA, found that center size was one of the most reliable predictors of program quality -- very large centers rarely offer children the same range of experiences found in smaller and medium sized centers (45 to 75 children). And the US National Day Care Study of 1979 determined that the size of the group in which the child spends the most time makes a great difference in influencing quality child care. The design disciplines in North America and Europe have responded by creating developmentally appropriate child care centers. There are several exemplary facilities around the US, including the Harold E. Jones Child Care Center in Berkeley designed by Joseph Esherick & Associates and the, United Community Day Care Center in Brooklyn designed by Robert Mangurian/Works East. In Europe a number of innovative centers exist, and have been well published in the European architectural press, including buildings by leading architects like Herman Hertzberger in the Netherlands, Ralph Erskine in Sweden, Reirna Pietela in Finland, and a range of younger designers in France, Germany, and Italy. In 1978 my colleagues and I were asked to develop a set of national guidelines for the design of child care centers. As part of this multi-year, multi-disciplinary project, we evaluated 52 centers and playgrounds around the USA, interviewed experts in design and developmental psychology, and critically reviewed all research evidence and design publications (over 2,000 articles and books). The result was the creation of 115 design patterns for child care centers and another 75 for associated play yards. The work was disseminated in the late 1970s and 1980s in a seven-volume series of reports. Two reports - Case Studies and Recommendations for Child Care Centers -- received recognition for design research in the annual Progressive Architecture awards program. Since that time, we have visited and evaluated another 84 innovative child care facilities throughout Europe, looking especially at those which have been premiated in the European architectural press in order to evaluate the current relevance of those patters, to revise many in the light of current thinking in different European countries, and to create new patterns that fit specific sociocultural contexts. This paper will be based on work conducted over the past two years in Europe and the US. The focus of the paper will be on the mutual relations between child /environment theory (Piagetian based interactional-constructivist theory), empirical research and post-occupancy evaluation, and research-based design applications. The theme will be how the form of the architecture of child care has been transformed under the socio-historical contexts of different European countries. Examples will be drawn primarily from Europe. Illustrations will include sketches,and design solutions by architects from Europe and North America, supplemented by case study material from my current design consulting work, e.g., a 2050 m2 child care center with Schroeder Piwoni Architects for Northern Michigan University and an 1800 m2 center with Shaughnessy Fickel and Scott Architects for the Saint Joseph Health Center in Kansas City.
Symes, Martin, and Bridget Franklin. "Transformations in the Perceptions of Urban Renewal." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. Cities are constantly developing and changing; their populations rise and fall, their built forms decay and are rebuilt. Our perceptions of the ensuing metamorphoses vary according to the times in which we live. At some times urban renewal is conceived of as a physical process, at others as primarily concerned with human dynamics. At some times we see the local expressions of change and consider them paramount, at others we seek out global causes. At some times we look mainly to the actions of individual agents to explain the forces of change, at others we perceive structural forces which determine the direction of development. There is thus a metamorphosis in the way we think and write about urban development which parallels, but does not necessarily mirror, the physical and social processes which occur.This paper will concern itself with the changing emphasis in the literature on urban renewal over the last thirty years, the time span of a single generation. Five phases can be identified. The first concerns itself almost entirely with physical reconstruction, and its beneficial aspects. In Western Europe and North America economic expansion, rising public expenditure and increasing standards of living are linked with large-scale, rationalised projects in housing, institutional and commercial construction. This period is characterised by a belief in the power of physical engineering to build a new society, suitable for the post-war era. A second phase in the literature indicates a reaction to this trend, and identifies a growing concern that physical renewal has unintended social and economic consequences. During this period urban studies emerged as a separate discipline within the social sciences, whilst critics of urban policy pointed to the limitations of physical reconstruction programmes, and stressed the failure to address real human needs. The third phase can be seen as a reaction to the second, in which these urban studies themselves are criticised and reevaluated. Empirical work based on positivist paradigms is rejected in favour of the application of more comprehensive political and spatial theories. Broad problems within the social and economic system are seen to he at the root of urban malaise, and only by finding solutions to these will anything other than superfical reconstruction be possible. The fourth phase in thinking about urban renewal may be understood either as a deepening of this analysis, or as a reaction against it. Attention has turned to the actions of specific agencies or groups of individuals and to case studies of particular situations or projects. The arguments focus on the need to recreate our world, inequitable though it may be, in incremental ways, as well as through less frequent, but more dramatic gestures. Interpretations Which see the actions of each individual as contributing to a whole, albeit insecure, allow the pattern of that whole, its ecology, to t?e studied too. This is where we understand the fifth and most contemporary version of the literature on urban renWal to be leading us.The key question, clearly raised by this presentation, will be whether there is a systematic relationshiop between developments in the literature on urban renewal and in the urban processes themselves. To what extent is the ideology that drives the metamorphosis rooted in the circumstances of its time? What is its autonomy? What is its function?
Karaletsou, Kleopatra, and Rena Papageorgiou. "Transformations of the City Core: New Meanings of Centrality and Its Spatialisation. Case Study: the City Core of Thessaloniki and Its Transformations since 1960." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. This study of the social, cultural and spatial transformations that took place in the last three decades in the centre of Thessaloniki, aims to examine the modes of spatialisation of the social life and the symbolic meaning of the new places which have been created.The city core has changed both perceptually and structurally. Although it has always been characterised by its mufti- functionality, (housing, commerce, entertainment, offices, administration, etc) the intensity of these functions varied thoughout these years and new types of social life have emerged. Three phases of this process can be distinguished:a) The decade of the '60's was characterised by a diffusion of social life and operational functions. There was a predominance of housing, followed by commerce, offices and recreation places (cinemas, coffee shops, patisseries, restaurants, etc.) Everything and everyone was to be found in the centre: shopping, walking, going to the movies, meeting friends in a coffee shop, or patisserie, watching people go by, visiting friends who lived in the centre, or visiting offices and other services. All these activities which were diffused in the centre gave it its unique character of dense social life during day and night.b) The decade of the '70's is characterised by a tendency for decentralisation. The predominance of commerce and offices, instead of housing, led to a mono-dimentional use of space and the degradation of social life. Cinemas, places of late night or day contacts and their special clientele disappeared. This transformation limited the social life during day and night, in favour of the operational functions of the centreC) The third phase (1980-90) is characterised by a tendency to upgrade and revitalise the city core. There is a dispersion of new nuclei (places of gathering) which begin to appear in a variety of selected places. As the main streets are overloaded with traffic and commerce, secondary roads, pedestrian streets and squares become new poles of attraction. Old buildings are restored and given a different use. Depending on their position, they either turn into shops, or recreation places. Also, areas near the centre, le the harbour and wholesales docks, where less public social life took place (prostitution, notorious bars, hotels etc) have received new uses in parallel with the old and have become popular poles of attraction. The same can be mentioned about places further away from the centre in the industrial area, or elsewhere, where old factories have been restored and transformed into recreational and cultural centres. Each of these transformations has a strong symbolic character which will be discussed. Most of them reveal a nostalgia for rhe past, for the old forgotten places and buildings. It should be mentioned that throughout these years vast reconstruction replaced old buildings, doubled the density of the centre and transformed the cityscape. The few old buildings that remained are the only reminders of the past. We may assume that this nostalgia is related to a search for identity On the other hand all these transformations reveal a search for a vital urban characteristic which has tended to disappear: The search for urban sociability.
Constantin, Terzides, and Emmanuel-George Vakalo. "Transformations of the Role of Computers in Architectural Design." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. This paper sets out to identify the role of computers in the architectural design process from a historical perspective. In the last thirty years, computer systems have changed almost entirely the process of design. Computer-Aided Design (CAD) systems have been introduced which vary from simple graphic tools for exploring alternative formal solutions to sophisticated automated programs which can substitute many design activities. In this paper CAD systems have been grouped into three major categories: automated, augmented and formalistic. Automated systems will be discussed first. In automated systems, the design process consists of an initial state which is the input data, a series of rules which transform data and a definition of desired or allowed output states. Each rule has attached to it a number of logical preconditions which test the current state of the data to see if the rule can be applied. The works of Alexander, Newell, and Simon will be briefly presented. A particular emphasis will be placed on the contribution of expert systems and artificial intelligence. Augmented systems will be discussed next. In augmented systems, the machine is introduced as a computer-aided instructional system, as a mediator for the goals and desires of the architects. Together with the advantage of being an information processing mechanism, the computer can communicate with architects by accepting information, manipulating it and providing output helpful to them. The works of Eastman, Kalay and Negroponte will be briefly presented. The inherent difficulties of these systems will be pointed out in order to identify the reasons for their marginal contribution in the architectural design process. Thirdly, a new category, that of formalistic systems will be presented. In these systems, design is viewed as a formalistic activity, as an invention and exploration of new forms and relationships between forms. The formalistic approach to computer-aided architectural design has been only recently considered as an interesting direction and therefore research work is quite limited. Three approaches in this direction will be discussed: shape grammars, generative systems and transformations. The works of Stiny, Mitchell, Yessios and Eisenmann will be briefly presented. Finally, some speculations on the future of computer-aided architectural design will be discussed.
Moore, Jeanne, and David Canter. "Typology of Hotels for Homeless People: a Psychological Approach." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. There has been considerable public debate about what sorts of facilities will help homeless people find their way back into traditional forms of lifestyle. Previous work (Canter et al 1989) has indicated that there are about 75,000 visibly homeless people in London on the street, in hostels and hotels and in squats. There is a wide range of provision in existence for some of this population, some of which aims to provide more than just shelter. There has been little attempt to classify these facilities in any systematic way. As part of a two and a half year study for the Salvation Army, 28 facilities were explored using questionnaires and interviews with 600 staff and residents. The questionnaire included a set of items which asked residents to evaluate the hostel in terms of how home-like it was, using Sixsmith's categorisation of home into social, physical and personal aspects (Sixsmith 1986). Facilities were differentiated according to the views and evaluations of the residents. A Partial Order Scalogram Analysis is presented which demonstrates how the 28 facilities were scored by residents. From this analysis three successful types of facility emerged. Each of these types was positively evaluated on different aspects, which, combined with additional organisational information, provides a typology of hostels in London. This typology suggests that large well-supervised facilities can be as successful as small community-style facilities and that both are needed to cater for the heterogeneous homeless population. This has implications for both the design of new facilities and for the development of common strategies to cope with this growing problem.
Nomikos, Michael. "Typomorphological Transformations in the Macedonian Architecture. the Case Study of Eleftheroupolis." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "The evolution of the housing typology in the Macedonian area followed an interesting procedure during the last three centuries. Small settlements and towns have been created or transformed which even in our days, after the flattening assimilation of forms, we can find certain syntactic orders in space formulation which present unerased traces of this metamorphosis procedure of the types and their relation to the urban fabric. The urban tissue of these settlements characterized "chaotic and formless" by some researchers, "without rules" by others, disposes in fact many characteristics which contribute to a structure.These elements, characterize the articulation of the setlements, the separation of their functions, the internal articulation of the building types, rather than the definition and form of the public space which encloses them. The main factors contributing to this structure are -The articulation of the housing groups forming distinguishable units called "mahalas" -The particular form of the street-pattern deriving mainly from the cadastre plan and the land distribution. -The size of the plots which are constituted almost always by a garden where the house is adapted according to precise typological rules. -The prevalence of certain urban settings as the stepped arrangement following the ground's relief offering panoramic views and solar orientation and those which are deriving from the need of privacy protection. In this paper our intention is neither to present the contradictional but interesting theories for the creation and the transformation of this model and its historical background, nor a detailed analysis of the social and economic conditions which occured to these transformations. Our aim is to examine which elements present a durability and which change in the transformation procedure of this model. We will try in other words to see through a syntactic analysis of these transformations of building types and their relation to the urban tissue, how succesive, apparently secondary changes, contribute to radical changes of the original system. As the field of our observations we will use a relatively small Macedonian town, Eleftheroupolis, known also as Pravi, which still preserves a large part of its historical core. Besides the examination of the example a parallel comparative presentation of similar "phenomena" appeared in other settlements and towns, will be undertaken."
Roberta, Feldman, and Martin Jaffe. "U.s. Peripheral Development: the Persistence of the Suburban Ideal." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "In the 1960's, a Presidential Task Force on Urban Problems was convened to address the pressures of explosive U.S. suburban growth and development. Four scenarios for the future were postulated: "(1) The suburban ideal... may be perpetuated in fresh new suburbs built farther and farther from city centers, while the older suburbs become entirely integrated into the social life (even if not the political boundaries) of the central city. (2) The suburban ideal may perish as the urban population doubles during the coming thirty years and present suburbanites are overrun by threefold and even fourfold population increases, so that the average suburb becomes just as overcrowded, crime-ridden, polluted, and unpalatable as the central cities are now, and their life indistinguishable from that of the overcrowded centers. (3) The suburbs may stabilize, or even empty out, as central cities are renovated and redeveloped and become more attractive to families who work in the city and would prefer to live there if the quality of life were tolerable. (4) The present suburbs may stabilize as the result of a growth of new towns, autonomous small cities that are neither metropolitan centers or suburbs, a growth speedy enough to absorb all the increase in urban population." (Haar, The End of Innocence (1968:4) With the benefit of hindsight, we will evaluate which of the above alternatives best characterizes the present state of U.S. suburbs. We will show that despite the optimism expressed by researchers and commentators alike, alternatives to post-World War II growth and development patterns -- the back to the city and new town movements have not proved lasting. Furthermore, the American suburban ideal -a private family life and selective public life sited in cultivated benign nature -- has not perished. Rather, the ideal continues to guide suburban growth and development. The majority of the U.S. public sustains preferences for living in peripheral communities; and today, more Americans live and work in suburbs than in central cities. Existing suburban communities have not become indistinguishable from the central city. Although they continue to "urbanize," they still bear characteristics that support the suburban ideal. Specifically, when contrasted with central cities, suburban communities display greater political independence; more marked racial and economic segregation; more rigid functional zoning; lower densities; a higher percent of single family home ownership; and more natural landscape elements. And new peripheral growth in exurbia continues similar patterns guided by similar Ideals. To conclude, we will examine the newest settlement prototype proposed to stem the pressures of suburban growth -- the neotraditional village. We will argue that it is not only unlikely to live up to its promises, but it is a model masked in the guise of urbanity while inherently supporting central values of the suburban ideal."
Moore, Gary. "Universcape: Extraterrestrial Habitation." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. conference:IAPS:12
Bizios, Georgia. "Urban Design Guidelines for Small Towns Usa." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. The development and use of Urban Design Guidelines is a concept and approach to urban design which in recent years has gained acceptance among design professionals, developers and elected officials in the United States. Urban Design Guidelines appear to be a versatile and promising process, a viable alternative to traditional urban design methods and strategies. This paper presents examples of Urban Design Guidelines developed for existing and new towns in the United States and outlines desirable characteristics and possible formats of design guidelines and design guidelines' documents. The paper also analyzes and evaluates the relationship of design guidelines to urban codes, zoning, performance zoning, comprehensive plans, and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of using design guidelines as a process for urban planning and design, and of using this process for controlling development m towns which are experiencing rapid growth.
Mazis, Aristides(et al.). "Urban Metamorphoses Triggered by Festivals and Celebrations: the Thessaloniki 1991 Mediterranean Crossroads Case Study." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "Mediterranean crossroads is a biennial summer music and fashion festival, featuring young performers from the mediterranean countries. As its settings 10 unused, underused or misused urban open spaces have been chosen to be redesigned through architectural competitions. The places are scattered throughout the city, widely varying in size, form, use and amenities. Two are 17 -centuries- old archeological sites, encompassing the remains of the palace complex and the forum, only marginally used for cultural events: one is part of the acropolis fortress; another -once the propylon of a byzantine monastery- is formed by its church, the ancient city wall and apartment buildings; a fifth place is a square in the defamed, adjoining the harbour, district -a derelict, red-lights area nowadays undergoing gentrification through piecemeal face lifts: the rest are a popular pedestrian street; the banks of a stream traversing the city; an enlisted derelict mansion and its gardens; the abandoned old vegetable market complex; and a little yachting club harbour on the seaside promenade. Welcoming the competitions as a challenge to study socioenvironmental metamorphoses -the timely theme of the LAPS 12 conference, hosted by our school- we prepared schemes for all 10 places, managed to submit proposals for 6 and enentually we were awarded the prizes for 4. Our conceptual departure is the conviction that local authorities -notoriously poor organizersfail to plan city renewal interventions in a scale big enough, coordinated enough and farsighted enough to offer something more than shortlived, pompous face lifts scattered among the urban chaos. Operating within time and budgetary constraints, enforced by the political circumstances, they act in bursts, trying to ignite the public imagination and gain voters' approval by anchoring their plans to more of less frivolous anniversaries, festivities or campaigns. This is an imperative the disigner should face directly and turn to his advantage. Festivals, celebrations (such as the city's 23 centuries anniversary 8 years ago), fairs and expositions, international undertakings (such as the "Mediterranean Biennale" 4 years ago, from nowonwards the "Mediterranean Crossroads" festival and the bid for being nominated the cultural capital of Europe in 1997) are -whether we like it or not- the real boosters of urban development. Indeed, urban renewal is a metamorphosis rather than an equally paced gradual change, a quantic phenomenon happening in descrete stages, alternating periods when the collective creativity amasses force and climaxes to spring-like bursts, with periods of relaxation and retrospection. Cities hosting world class events, such as Olympics and Expos, are examples in hand, though not necessarily the more interesting ones for understanding urban dyhamics. In our own case the rationale generating our schemes and the insights gained are being explained through slides and exhibits. The schemes, though serving the immediate needs of the festival, are being conceived as triggers for longterm broadscope socioenvironmental metamorphoses in their own right. The intricate interactions among the various actors (city officials, administrators, archeologists, performers, journalists, neighbours, sponsors. . .) are explained within the framework of an "environmental disputes" theory."
Wardt, Jan, and Thomas(et al.) Duin. "Urban Renewal and Inter - Ethnic Relations: a Dutch Case Study." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "During the last two decades inner city neighbourhoods in the Netherlands - mostly urban renewal areas - were confronted with rapid changes in both the social and the physical environment. The population became far more heterogeneous and mobile. Large numbers of people moved in and out. These former working-class districts became zones-in-transition. Poverty and unemployment are concentrated within the larger cities and especially within the urban renewal areas. The Dutch housing policy plays an important role in the metamorphosis of the old parts of the major Dutch cities. The effects of the urban renewal programs has been that social heterogeneity and concentration of ethnicity and poverty remained, but that the mobility of the population slowed down. In our paper we describe in what way urban renewal policy tries to cope with the problems of concentration of poverty and social segregation and isolation of these residents. In our casestudy the local government of Rotterdam is creating a completely new neighbourhood which has better conditions for social participation. This is done by the reconstruction of the physical structure (buildings and urban structure). Results of research on the living conditions and the social climate before renewal are given with special attention to the position of Turkish and Moroccan immigrants. The role the results played in the reconstruction of this neighbourhood is discussed. As a consequence of upgrading the neighbourhood it will not be possible for all the former residents to return to the new situation: some will have to move to a surrounding neighbourhood. This process leads to inter-ethnic tensions in a nearby neighbourhood because immigrants come to this white working-class district. In the last part of our paper we present the first results of a research project on inter-ethnicrelations in the latter, rapidly changing, neighbourhood. Special attention is given to the effect of urban renewal on these relations and the results are confronted with theoretical concepts on: "ingroup-favourism" and 'out-group-dislike", conflicting life-styles and status anxiety. It is hypothesized that a negative effect of renewal will be that groups who are well established in the neighbourhood will try to use their power to influence the outcome of the renewal process in a direction unfavourable to the mediterranean immigrants. At the same time others will find ways to leave the neighbourhood (which they have been contemplating for some time) thereby accelerating a process of social disintegration. At the positive side most residents can improve their living conditions and it is expected that urban renewal presents possibilities for better race relations to the extent that it results in a situation of mutual dependence of population groups."
Jorgensen, Gertrud. "Urban Uses and Identity of Place." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "Many environmental studies cover the theme Identity of Place. Most of these studies are strictly concerned with the form of the builtscape, while the role of urban uses - or functions has been somewhat neglected. "In the good old days" mix of uses was the common /1/form of the builtscape//. An important reason for the making of modern town planning was the wish to be able to control - and separate - urban functions, especially dwellings from workplaces. 50 years of separating functions have almost altered our cities beyond recognition. Though separation has advantages, it also has drawbacks, leaving us with monotonous "localities" rather than places with a rich identity. In these years, however, the trend is turning over, and new avantgarde projects (though still only few) are based on the idea of mixing dwellings and workplaces, both industrial and offices. In this light the slide show will present some thougths about how urban uses contribute to the creation of "a sense of place". It will cover themes as - The concept of place - perception and knowledge as parts of identity - variety - genuineness - why placeless places arise all the time, though we all dread them, and - at last it will show a few examples of new mixed-use projects The presentation will take about 30 - 40 minutes."
Macan, Hanque. "Urbanizing the Suburban Neighborhood: Spatial Implications of Social - Habitat Transformation in Single - Family Residential Housing." In Socio-environmental Metamorphoses: Proceedings 12th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Halkidiki, Greece: Aristotle University Press, 1992. "This paper elaborates upon the morphological requisites for creating neighborhood social solidarity within planned single-family residential developments. Discussion focuses on the relevant spatial conditions for promoting and sustaining meaningful contact between the occupants of contiguous and differentiated territorial domains, e.g., identifying the spatial attributes that increase social interaction at the interface between private residential frontyards and public street right-of-way zones. As a growing dissatisfaction with current housing options becomes more prevalent, these conditions assume significance when viewed as a possible means for advancing the image transformation from one of social detachment to that of community involvement.A relatively recent development trend utilized in the planning and design of new residential communities in the United States is based on an adaptation of so-called traditional urban neighborhood spatial characteristics. The appearance and organization of these new developments emulate those of early twentieth century small town vicinages that presumably encouraged richer social conditions, more favorable growth management options and greater pedestrian benefits than those realized from today's conventional suburban arrangements. The approach, commonly referred to as a "traditional neighborhood development" or TND model, proposes spatial attributes dealing with street use, configuration, size and hierarchy; pedestrian integration, movement and scale; mixed land-use access and proximity; perceptual clarity of urban form; community identity through civic symbols; highly integrated open space networks; and, private residential "facades" forming visually disciplined streetscapes. In theory, these attributes promise to reinforce behavior associated with community satisfaction, cohesiveness and social responsibility. However in practice, the revisited habitat form requires a conceptual adaptation, by its residents, with regard to territorial prerogatives they normally associate with the private and public spatial realms. The image of "good" form in conventional single-family housing is symbolically marked by many factors, including "privacy", "detachment", the two-car garage and stature of the front and backyards. While there is a growing desire on the part of homeowners to appreciate a greater sense of neighborhood and community, there is a countermanding desire to retain the images of "good" form they are familiar with. Alternative single-family housing form resulting from the application of the TND model has merely stripped away the symbolic artifacts that people currently associate with "good" form, e.g., alternative housing typically provides smaller lot sizes and front building setbacks, and has not provided a convincing substitute for appreciating "goodness."As part of the discussion, the application of spatial attributes of "good" form are demonstrated for a 428acre mixed-use TND planning project proposed for Madison, Wisconsin, a medium size city in midwestern United States. The project, referred to as the Junction Neighborhood Development Plan, is a product of the City of Madison's Department of Planning and Development and part of a larger peripheral development strategy for improving public transit efficiency, social-economic integration, growth management and reduced automobile dependency. While most of the plan's recommendations can be realized through existing implementation tools, such as zoning, subdivision regulations and official mapping, deficiencies in the plan's ability to realize several underlying principles of the TND concept are critiqued in the discussion. In addition, recommendations for dealing with the satisfact