Keywords Abstract
Brierley, Edwin. "A Comparison of the Berlage and Van Eesteren Plans for the Extension of Amsterdam." In The Urban Experience - A People-Environment Perspective: Proceedings 13th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Manchester, UK: E&FN Spon, 1994. The various development plans which have been proposed for Amsterdam throughout this century in a way reflect the development in attitudes to notions of urbanity during this century. Berlage's plan for Amsterdam South originally indicated an influence from Camillo Sitte and the final plan of 1915 was based upon geometric rationalism and a formalised conceptual approach. In contrast the work of Van Eesteren, from 1927, which led to the extension plan for Amsterdam of 1935 reflected to an extent indeterminate notions on design.
Ulusoy, Zuhal. "A Methodology for the Study of Urban Rehabilitation." In The Urban Experience - A People-Environment Perspective: Proceedings 13th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Manchester, UK: E&FN Spon, 1994. Rehabilitation activity is one of the most visible forms of neighborhood change, yet the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the physical stock and variations therein are not paid their due attention. Studies of neighborhoods emphasize changes in the demographic and socio-economic aspects of neighborhoods and the activity of the residential property market (DeGiovanni, 1983; Goetze, 1979; Pattison, 1983; Smith, 1979). While one needs to study and interpret secondary data on geographical areas to assess signs of changes in socio-economic composition and property values, renovated buildings are direct indications of investment and change. Here, it is argued that the effects of rehabilitation are not limited to the visible improvement of the physical stock but also extend to increases in the property values, and that property values affect socio-economic composition. Thus, rehabilitation ultimately connects to the types of changes normally emphasized in neighborhood theory.
Cebulla, Andreas. "A Residents' Assessment of Urban Change and the Economics of City Centre Regeneration in Belfast: Lessons for the Urban Periphery." In The Urban Experience - A People-Environment Perspective: Proceedings 13th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Manchester, UK: E&FN Spon, 1994. In the 1970s, the improvement of private and public sector housing was on top of urban planners' policy agenda in Belfast. Ten years later, when the housing renewal strategy was under review, policy makers felt that not only did the strategy need revised (McGivern 1989), but that it was time to consider new initiatives beyond housing. During the '70s, Belfast's city centre had been extensively damaged by a paramilitary bombing campaign directed against commercial property. When, in the early 1980s, the Department of the Environment (NI) responsible for physical planning in Belfast embarked on a policy of city centre regeneration, it was emulating national policies but also responding to calls from the local retailing sector to provide incentives for property investments and to improve the environment of the city centre in order to attract shoppers back into Belfast (Brown (1987)).
Doughty, David, and Wolf Zwirner. "A Spa Culture for the Nineties and Thereafter: Health and Relaxation in an Urban Setting." In The Urban Experience - A People-Environment Perspective: Proceedings 13th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Manchester, UK: E&FN Spon, 1994. "A century ago, the continent of Europe and Britain were filled with Victorian gentlefolk spending their holidays, "taking the waters" at fashionable resorts from Baden Baden and Carlsbad to Liandrindod Wells and Harrogate. Yet, two world wars later, the Spa holiday had all but disappeared in Britain, replaced by the more proletarian "seaside Breaks" at Blackpool, Brighton and Rhyl whilst those still wishing the atmosphere and cure of the old times were forced to travel abroad for their pleasures (Beattie 1992; 240-241). This paper takes a look at the prospects for revival of a Spa culture at the end of the twentieth century, when interests in alternative health treatments are in the ascent and an ever more dangerous gamble with premature aging and skin cancers. In order to show the developments and the future potential for such a growth in the specifically urban Spa, the authors will concentrate on three towns Karlovy Vary, one of the great nineteenth century Spas, in the Czech Republic, Budapest, capital city of Hungary, and Llandrindod Wells, county town of Powys in Wales. Karlovy Vary with its tradition of drinking the waters from its twelve springs and Budapest with its ancient hot baths from the Turkish period have been chosen to demonstrate a still thriving spa culture in central Europe. By contrast, Liandrindod Wells was a spa town in the past, still has its spring water, but stands as a typical example of the decline of the spa culture in the UK."
Dickens, Peter. "Alienation, Emancipation and the Environment." In The Urban Experience - A People-Environment Perspective: Proceedings 13th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Manchester, UK: E&FN Spon, 1994. This paper presents a general theory of people-environment relations in modern society. The first part argues that the natural and social environment is integral to peoples' well-being. And yet, due mainly to the way in which production-processes are organised in capitalist society, people remain alienated from their environment and from one another. The second part suggests that people increasingly rely on signs and symbols of the environment. These provide people with packaged and partial understandings of their environment. And in the end these only further contribute to the process of alienation. The final section offers some preliminary ideas as to strategies which might start overcoming peoples' estranged relations with their social and physical surroundings.
Lieberg, Mats. "Appropriating the City: Teenagers' Use of Public Space." In The Urban Experience - A People-Environment Perspective: Proceedings 13th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Manchester, UK: E&FN Spon, 1994. A lot of studies discuss the consequences of suburban living on small children but little has been written about the effects of this particular physical environment on teenagers. This study seeks to determine how teenagers, 13-17 years old, use public spaces in their residential areas and their city, to create purpose and context in their existences. During a three-year period, different groups of friends from a suburb of Lund, Sweden were studied both in their housing area and in the downtown area'. The various places used by these young people are described and characterized. The purpose of the study was to investigate how teenagers relate to the built environment in relation to 1) their real use of different places and environments in public areas, and 2) the symbolic significance this use has for the youths. The reason the study was limited to teenagers is because this period is an important transition in the lives of young people, who are now leaving the parental home and entering the public environment. The following issues are taken up: - Where in the public environment do the young people congregate? What is characteristic for just these places? How do these places relate to their area and to the city as a whole? - What kind of activities and actions do the teenagers engage in in these places? Why do they seek out these places? Does their use of these places differ from that of adults and other groups? - What idea do youths have of their city, their immediate surroundings and their residential area? - In what way do the young people use the physical environment for their development? What symbolic significance do public places and spaces have for different teenagers?
Van Andel, Joost. "Behavior Mapping and Urban Design: Graphic Versus Non - Graphic Information About Environment - Behavior Relations." In The Urban Experience - A People-Environment Perspective: Proceedings 13th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Manchester, UK: E&FN Spon, 1994. "Communication is a key issue in the collaboration of designers and social science researchers. Several differences between designers and researchers in method and approach of problems seem to account for communication problems between the two groups. Researchers and designers seem to differ on: point of view (behavior vs. environments); method (analytical vs. synthetical); presentation (words vs. images); pattern of values (theoretical vs. ideological) and role conception (advisor vs. integrator) (van Andel, 1988). In their review of the transfer of (technical) information to designers and architects Lera, Cooper, and Powell (1984) mention the need for well-structured, relevant, and well-presented information. But they doubt if the presentation and organization of the information are the essential elements of successful information transfer. "They may be essential but they are not sufficient. It is necessary to stress that decisions are rather complex, emotionally demanding human processes, not just individualized intellectual analyses" (op. cit., p. 119). Newland, Powell, and Creed (1987) focus on the effect of learning styles, perception, and cultural biases on information transfer. These factors cause individual differences in the communication with architectural designers. "
Gabidulina, Svetlana E.. "Children Make Assessments of the Urban Environment." In The Urban Experience - A People-Environment Perspective: Proceedings 13th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Manchester, UK: E&FN Spon, 1994. The urban environment is characterised by modern houses, low traffic flow and good landscaping We have proposed that child development is affected by some parameters of the urban environment. These parameters were obtained using Semantic Differential Technique by for example, R. Kuller et al., (1972). They are as follows: pleasantness, complexity, unity, enclosedness, potency, social status, affection, originality. Similar results were also obtained for the Russian population by S. Gabidulina (1989), who used a modified Semantic Differential Technique.
Lamb, R., A. Purcell, E. Peron, and S. Faichero. "Cognitive Categorisation and Preference for Places." In The Urban Experience - A People-Environment Perspective: Proceedings 13th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Manchester, UK: E&FN Spon, 1994. "The research to be reported represents a first step in investigating the types of cognitive categorisations people use when experiencing landscapes, or more generally outdoor scenes, and whether or not the categorisation chosen is a predictor of preference. This is a significant question because, in much previous environmental perception research, the notion of "landscape" has been treated as though it was a single, coherent category. However, there is evidence that "landscape" treated in this way does not give a good account of the experience of the range of scenes often included in this type of research. Rather, it may be that landscape can be thought of as an articulated category including different kinds of cognitively definable places, and, most often, as a series of mixtures of these (Ward and Russell, 1981; Herzog, 1984, 1987; Purcell and Lamb, 1984; Falchero, Mainardi Peron, Lamb and Purcell, 1992). The questions this possibility raises concern the types of categories that can form the basis for the experience of an outdoor scene or landscape and whether or not categorising the same scene in different ways produces changes in other types of experience such as preference."
Busteed, Mervyn, and Rob Hodgson. "Coping with Urbanisation: the Irish in Early Manchester." In The Urban Experience - A People-Environment Perspective: Proceedings 13th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Manchester, UK: E&FN Spon, 1994. Adjustment to urbanisation can be a painful process for migrant groups from a rural background, and the coping strategies they adopt are a crucial area of scholarly investigation into past societies as well as an important aspect of contemporary political, social and economic life. The sizeable Irish populations that were found in most of Britain's towns and cities by the middle decades of the nineteenth century provide some particularly vivid case material (Collins, 1993; Davis, 1992). The considerable Irish presence in nineteenth century Manchester is of special interest, not least because of the many native and foreign visitors who in the 1830s and 1840s came to this, the first, great industrial city, and carried away adverse stereotypical images of the Irish that were to travel the world. It is possible, however, to give a more balanced and sympathetic view of the urban experience of Irish people. Using a wide range of contemporary sources, it will be shown how the Irish confronted and attempted to cope with an alien and hostile environment.
Evans, G W., S. J. Lepore, and Alex Shroeder. "Crowding and Spatial Syntax." In The Urban Experience - A People-Environment Perspective: Proceedings 13th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Manchester, UK: E&FN Spon, 1994. This article examines the potential utility of space syntax theory (Hillier & Hanson, 1984; Zimring & Gross, 1991; Peponis, Zimring & Choi, 1990) to study the relations among residential crowding, design elements, and human well being. Dormitory rooms with greater sunlight are perceived as less crowded than same-sized rooms with less natural light (Schiffenbauer, Brown, Perry, Shulack & Zanzola (1977). Baum and Davis (1980) modified a long-corridor dormitory to create a smaller subunit of rooms. This change significantly reduced perceived crowding. Self-reports of excessive, unwanted social interaction dropped; more pro-social behaviors were observed; and laboratory experiments outside of the dorm indicated more social engagement and less withdrawal.
Hubbard, Philip J.. "Diverging Evaluations of the Built Environment: Planners Versus the Public." In The Urban Experience - A People-Environment Perspective: Proceedings 13th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Manchester, UK: E&FN Spon, 1994. Over the last thirty years there have been a plethora of studies within environment-behaviour research which have examined the interpretation and assessment of natural and built landscapes, with environmental aesthetics now recognised as a self-contained field in its own right. Initial research in this field was heavily influenced by the traditions of experimental and perceptual psychology, with attempts to translate the findings of laboratory- based research to environmental settings. However, it has been increasingly recognised that such studies of austere object perception decontextualise the functioning of individuals from their social and cultural milieu, and therefore provide only a partial explanation of human interaction with the environment (Uzzell, 1989). Indeed, such research largely ignores the variations amongst people, arguing that cognitive processes are common to all individuals as they possess similar nervous systems and perceptual apparatus. In marked contrast to this approach is the idea that environmental assessment is dependent on the meanings ascribed to the environment by virtue of individual histories and experience. As each individual potentially attributes a unique meaning to their environment, it could be considered that scientific investigation of this phenomena is impossible. On the contrary, it has been suggested that environmental meanings are constructed through established codes which are socially transmitted and thus based on learning and culture (Pennartz, 1989). It can be argued that these codes are not individual properties, and that there exist structures of perception, cognition and action common to all members of a group. This can be compared with the concept of habitus developed by Bourdieu (1977) which describes the 'sociallyconstituted system of cognitive and motivational structures' which influence people's world-view.
Brown, Frank E.. "Environmental Education and Urban Theory / Introduction." In The Urban Experience - A People-Environment Perspective: Proceedings 13th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Manchester, UK: E&FN Spon, 1994. "The third part of the conference encompasses a range of papers which, if not always explicitly "theoretical" or "educational" in their content, nevertheless help, in their different ways, to highlight these important issues. Questions of theory and methodology have to be central to any enquiry into the urban experience. Just how do we go about investigating and interpreting human responses to the city? What are the critical forces that shape our consciousness and hence our perception of the built environment? If we are to take "experience" as our starting point, the basic formulation "people-environment relations" has to be seen in itself as inherently problematic."
Lena, Lopez, Maria Montero, and Alejandro Muniz Campos. "Environmental Psychology in the Psyclit Database (1987 - 1992)." In The Urban Experience - A People-Environment Perspective: Proceedings 13th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Manchester, UK: E&FN Spon, 1994. Analyzing information produced within the field of Environmental Psychology may prove a difficult task, especially if the rapid development characterizing the field is taken into consideration. The 1991 reprinting of The Handbook of Environmental Psychology just four years after the first edition, can be seen as the most recent evidence of the current impact of this type of information. Dr. Stokols's 1978 review of Environmental Psychology stands out among several attempts to provide an overview of the proliferation of literature in this field. Dr. Stokols's reported that more than thirty monographs, ten textbooks and two series on the interaction of human behavior with the socio-physical context had been published within a five-year period. In fact, it is in Dr. Stokols's review that the greatest number of references to Environmental Psychology, (497) can be found.
Wolschke-Bulmahn, Joachim, and Gert Groening. "From Rationalism to Romanticism in Landscape Architecture: a German Phenomenon?" In The Urban Experience - A People-Environment Perspective: Proceedings 13th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Manchester, UK: E&FN Spon, 1994. The paper is based on the hypothesis that changing modes of garden design do not occur incidentally and do not only reflect individual tastes of designers but are due to changing political, economic, and social conditions. If there are highly political and ideological motives behind seemingly apolitical garden design, then early 20th century Germany should provide excellent case studies.
S. Symes, Martin. "Introduction." In The Urban Experience - A People-Environment Perspective: Proceedings 13th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Manchester, UK: E&FN Spon, 1994. Cities such as Manchester and Athens represented types of civilisation which have now disappeared. A new one is emerging. Sociologists have valued cities for the anonymity they provided but they have also been seen as arenas for conflict. They are now seen as being constructed by myths and histories, social systems and individual perceptions. Twelve chapters in this part of the book consider how the public participates in these processes. They report on research from all continents, covering the urbanisation and modernisation of developing countries as well as the interactions between bureaucratic and market forces in the developed world. Contributions are made to the scientific literature using both positivist and phenomenological paradigms. The final chapter of this part of the book reports on a bibliometric review which suggests how the literature of this sub-discipline may develop.
Coeterier, J. F.. "Liveliness in Town Centres." In The Urban Experience - A People-Environment Perspective: Proceedings 13th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Manchester, UK: E&FN Spon, 1994. Environmental psychology studies the relationship between man and his environment. This relationship has three aspects: causes, effects, and conditions. Causes and effects are internal or personal (= man), conditions are external (=environment).
Bonnes, M, A Aiello, and R. G. Ardone. "Meanings and Attitudes Towards Urban Green: an Approach to Urban Ecology." In The Urban Experience - A People-Environment Perspective: Proceedings 13th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Manchester, UK: E&FN Spon, 1994. Within an ecological approach to the urban environment (Giacomini, 1981; Di Castri, Baker, Hadley, 1984; Bonnes, 1987, 1991), one of the most relevant topics is the relationship people have with the natural features of the urban environment and, in particular, with its green aspect (Altman, Wohlwill, 1983; Knopf, 1987; Burgen, Harrison, Limb, 1988; Bruce, Hull, Harvey, 1989; Ardone, Bonnes, 1991). Some studies have pointed out the clear preference people have for urban settings, including natural features and, in particular, greenery; on the other hand, many studies have shown how the presence of green features in the urban environment affects inhabitants' residential satisfaction (Fried, 1982; Bonnes, De Rosa, Ardone, Bagnasco, 1990; Ardone, Bonnes, 1991). Taking into account the social psychological perspective (Canter, Correia Jesuino, Soczka, Stephenson, 1988; Bonnes, Secchiaroli, 1991) of the people-urban environment relationship and, in particular, the theory of social representations (Moscovici, 1976; Breakwell, Canter, 1993), it seems important to study people's attitudes towards urban green, giving particular attention to both the more and the less shared meanings attributed to these environmental features in order to understand the process of forming and changing these environmental representations. The aim of the present study is to investigate the meaning people attach to green features of the urban environment in order to discover i) the more and the less shared features of these environmental representations, and ii) to point out how these different meanings attributed to the urban green may be affected by the socio-demographic and socio-cultural characteristics of the people involved.
Ohno, Ryuzo, and Miki Kondo. "Measurement of the Multi - Sensory Information for Describing Sequential Experience in the Environment: an Application to the Japanese Circuit - Style Garden." In The Urban Experience - A People-Environment Perspective: Proceedings 13th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Manchester, UK: E&FN Spon, 1994. Urban landscapes in Japanese modern cities are notable for their poor visual scenes: they are often chaotic and sometimes too monotonous where people suffer sensory overload and sensory deprivation (Rapoport, 1980). On the other hand the Japanese circuit-style gardens have long been appreciated for their sequential scenes of beautiful landscapes. If we can learn from the spatial arrangements of the garden, our urban spaces could be designed to provide pedestrians with richer experiences and optimal levels of information. The aesthetic experience in the garden, however, has rarely been analyzed based on physical or objective data because it is difficult to explain by the characteristics of particular elements. In the present study, the aesthetic experience is postulated to depend on the multi-sensory information from the environment, and a method for measuring the relevant variables was developed. By applying the method to circuit style Japanese gardens, the aesthetic value of which has traditionally been recognized, the changes of the physically measurable sensory variables as people moved through the path were objectively described. The changing profile was analyzed to reveal the hidden order or rhythm of the sequential experience.
Lawrence, Roderick, and Claude Raffestin. "Mythical and Ritual Constituents of the City." In The Urban Experience - A People-Environment Perspective: Proceedings 13th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Manchester, UK: E&FN Spon, 1994. The city is a human construct par excellence. It is founded by sedentary people who choose to cultivate a particular portion of the landscape. The location of a site for the construction of a city is meant to respond to sets of criteria which a town planner, a surveyor or a geographer would usually classify in terms of its accessibility, climate, available resources, geological conditions and perhaps other rational parameters. Nonetheless, there is abundant evidence today that the siting and the layout of a city are also considered in terms of cosmological beliefs and ideals. These beliefs and ideals have been communicated throughout history, either by written prescriptions, or orally by myths. These myths deal simultaneously with a local environment (e.g. the city) and the universe (e.g. the cosmos). In principle the former is meant to reflect the latter, and explicit relationships are identified between humanity, other forms of life and the cosmos.
Chattopadhay, Swati. "Nineteenth - Century British Attitudes Toward Calcutta and Bombay." In The Urban Experience - A People-Environment Perspective: Proceedings 13th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Manchester, UK: E&FN Spon, 1994. In the nineteenth century the native Bengalis of Calcutta had a profound influence on how the city came to be represented. British attitudes towards the Bengalis permeated ways in which the city was experienced and imagined by its British rulers and thus framed the discussions and representations of the city itself. These British impressions of nineteenth century Calcutta are particularly important because they became evidence' in the writing of the history of Calcutta and the Raj. The image-making assumes significance because this trend of portraying Calcutta continues to present times, and has deeply influenced the way insiders (Calcuttans) and outsiders (Indians as well as foreigners) see the city and its problems and prospects. To understand Calcutta, one must include that which is seen and unseen, that which is both permanent and passing. In examining the historical evidence of Calcutta much has been neglected, thus generating a static historical account, leaving too many questions unanswered.
Zacharias, John. "Pedestrian Behaviour and the Parisian Passage." In The Urban Experience - A People-Environment Perspective: Proceedings 13th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Manchester, UK: E&FN Spon, 1994. The theoretical interest of studying the Parisian passage revolves around the arrangement of pedestrian networks. Can a pedestrian network be augmented by inserting additional links of equivalent length? Can the observed use of these particular spaces be explained by a graph-theoretic interpretation of the urban pedestrian network or is there more to pedestrian behaviour? In this respect, the literature on the Parisian passage returns insistently to the themes of place: the social life and customs, the shop-owners, artisans, residents and habitués, the architectural frame and the goods on offer [Lemoine, 1989]. The on-going restoration of the passages is inspired by this rich social and literary history and guided by the imperative to preserve the architecture, but has so far failed to reproduce a brief but glorious hey-day (Figure 33.1). Is the passage primarily an urban room, a public space for exchange, commerce and social life, or does its use depend mostly on the movement of people from one street to another, incidentally passing through the short-cut provided? It has been claimed that it was usually a failure to provide a natural channel for existing movement patterns in the city and specifically to shorten one's trip from place to place that led to the failure of many of them [Geist, 1962].
BARBEY, GILLES. "Personal Urban Experience: a Relevant Approach for Urban Design and Renewal." In The Urban Experience - A People-Environment Perspective: Proceedings 13th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Manchester, UK: E&FN Spon, 1994. The present study attempts to relate the personal and sensitive experience of the urban milieu to its objective and scientific study, in order to identify relevant criteria for the conservation of existing buildings and the renewal of urban neighbourhoods. An autobiographical and phenomenological survey of various memories of foreign and familiar cities provides a combination of the respective urban visions. Urban experience, which is closely related to place identity, can be seen as the integration of holistic and fragmentary urban images. Their balanced exploration identifies values that will influence the conscience of a specific urban field as well as the choice of the adequate type of urban rehabilitation. The main goal of this research is to indicate a process whereby the fruit of urban experience can become instrumental when applied to various tasks in urban redevelopment.
Bonaiuto, M, M Bonnes, and A. R. Mazzotta. "Pragmatics of Urban Places According to the Size of the City." In The Urban Experience - A People-Environment Perspective: Proceedings 13th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Manchester, UK: E&FN Spon, 1994. "During the last fifteen years the concept of "place" has taken on an increasingly central role in the works of several social and environmental psychologists like Canter (1977, 1988), Stokols (1981), Russel and Ward (1982), Proshansky, Fabian and Kaminoff (1983), Holahan (1985), Altman (1986), and others. Particularly, many authors have attempted to identify this construct and to acknowledge the place-specific nature of all human behaviour. Generally speaking "place" may be defined as an "experience unity" or psychological unity referring to specific physical settings (Canter, 1986; Russell & Ward, 1982). It has three main components: physical properties, evaluative conceptualization, and activities carried out in it. Thus, place theory considers actions, carried on by people in relation to a specific setting, to be one of the main components of the psychology of place and of person/environment relationship. Looking for a more complete place theory, some authors recently stressed the importance to consider a perspective defined as "place system" (Rapoport, 1986, 1990) or "inter-place system" (Bonnes, Mannetti, Secchiaroli & Tanucci, 1990; Bonnes, Secchiaroli & Mazzotta, 1992; Bonnes & Secchiaroli, 1992)."
RIVLIN, LEANNE G.. "Public Spaces and Public Life in Urban Areas." In The Urban Experience - A People-Environment Perspective: Proceedings 13th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Manchester, UK: E&FN Spon, 1994. The social structures and economies of many if not most countries have been changing over the past century, raising some troubling and challenging questions concerning cities, the role of their public spaces and the nature of public life. This paper will draw on experiences, largely in the United States, but the issues may resound with those in many other parts of the world.
Wong, Cecilia. "Quality of Urban Living: an Infrastructural Dimension." In The Urban Experience - A People-Environment Perspective: Proceedings 13th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Manchester, UK: E&FN Spon, 1994. Cities are seen as dynamic places which provide a wide variety of lifestyles, a great range of choices for both work and play, and a stimulating atmosphere. However, cities are also associated with crime, vandalism, deprivation, unemployment and all sorts of socio-economic problems. The economic restructuring since the 1970s has eroded the traditional manufacturing base of urban areas. Cities have suffered not only from the loss of employment but also from a rapid decrease in population. The counterurbanisation process has been evident with a tendency for population and employment growth to be concentrated in small and medium-sized towns and rural areas. However, in the 1980s, there have been suggestions of a trend towards re-urbanisation in most British cities. Statistics from the National Health Service Central Register show that the net out-migration rate of inner cities tended to be lower in the 1980s than the 1970s. This is partly related to the 'yuppie' culture as young single professionals have rediscovered the dynamics and excitement of city life. Also, the rapid increase in the number of dual career households means young couples prefer to stay in a metropolitan location to maximise the range of job opportunities available to both partners (Snaith, 1990). More importantly, the 1980s has been a decade when policy priorities have emphasised the regeneration of the social and economic fabric of declining urban areas in Britain.
Moudon, Ann, and Marion Ryan. "Reading the Residential Landscape." In The Urban Experience - A People-Environment Perspective: Proceedings 13th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Manchester, UK: E&FN Spon, 1994. conference:IAPS:13
Aydin-Wheater, Nazan, and Gaye Culcuoglu. "Regenerating the Lost Green of Ankara: a Hard Task Ahead." In The Urban Experience - A People-Environment Perspective: Proceedings 13th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Manchester, UK: E&FN Spon, 1994. Ankara is the capital city of Turkey. However, it is still Istanbul that has the leading position in capital market activities, trading, finance and information technologies. Ankara has recently also started to lose its unique character as the centre of Turkish media to Istanbul. Istanbul .views the world as a smaller place, and asserts itself to be more global, more cosmopolitan. Ankara, on the other hand, is currently in search of a reinforced identity, as opposed to that of Istanbul, the imperial capital of the past. Ankara aims at strengthening its well respected image as the voice of nationalism and Kemalism, but at the same time an enlightened positivism and westernism. It is above all, the capital city of the seventy year old Turkish Republic. This must be the core of the image it intends to promote. Seventy years ago, in 1923, Ankara was announced to the nation as the new capital city by the leaders of the independence movement. Selecting a new capital in Central Anatolia to counter-balance the power of Istanbul superimposed some necessary duties for the new regime: Ankara, in the early 1920's, was no more than a small Anatolian town of which economy was based on mohair production and population reached only about 20 000 (Akcura, 1971; Gunay, 1988.). The physically inadequate and desolate small Anatolian town was to be reconstructed to properly present the image of a capital city, and injected new functions to serve the nation politically and economically as well as geographically.
Nakainura, Y, K Maki, and M. Inui. "Relationship Between the Classification of Urban Streetscape and Overall Evaluation." In The Urban Experience - A People-Environment Perspective: Proceedings 13th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Manchester, UK: E&FN Spon, 1994. Diverse types of landscapes exist in Japanese cities. Just taking townscapes, for example, we find that the elements constituting townscapes vary greatly according to the function of the individual townscape such as office street or shopping street. This makes us doubtful about classifying them into the same group under the name of townscape.
Oyediran, Osuade. "Socio - Cultural Influence of the Hausas and Tivs of Northern Nigeria on their Traditional Architecure and Building Design." In The Urban Experience - A People-Environment Perspective: Proceedings 13th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Manchester, UK: E&FN Spon, 1994. "According to Rapoport (1989) : "Give a certain climate, the availability of certain materials and the constraints and capabilities of a given level of technology, what finally decides the form of a dwelling and moulds the spaces and their relationship, is the vision that people have of the ideal life. The environment sought reflects beliefs, family and clan structure, socio-organisation ways of gaining a livelihood, and social relation between individuals."
Armstrong, Helen B.. "Sustaining Urban Heritage in Multicultural Cities." In The Urban Experience - A People-Environment Perspective: Proceedings 13th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Manchester, UK: E&FN Spon, 1994. Urban heritage is a broad and encompassing term. It may refer to aspects of an urban way of life or to urban heritage places. Urban designers refer to it as an inherited identity or sense of place while cultural geographers consider it to be the customs and traditions which sustain meaning and value to an urban community. Urban places in Australia have a short history of 200 years. The first cities were created by British settlers and successive waves of immigrant groups have added to the accumulated urban heritage. Today most Australians tend to live in large cities scattered around the coast. The largest and oldest city, Sydney is a multicultural city which abounds in inner suburbs of complex mixes of ethnic groups, Anglo-Celtic Australians and Aboriginal Australians.
Groening, Gert, and Uwe Schneider. "The Allotment Garden as a Countryhouse Garden." In The Urban Experience - A People-Environment Perspective: Proceedings 13th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Manchester, UK: E&FN Spon, 1994. "By the end of the 19th century two different kinds of allotment gardens had developed (Brando 1965: 12-19, Groening 1974: 9-15, Goettlicher 1981: 16-17). One had emerged as a concomitant of industrial development in large cities during the last decades of the 19th century. This Laubengarten", was proletarian and had to serve primarily to secure survival. Some years earlier and under completely different economic and historical circumstances the 'Schrebergarten" of Leipzig had come into existence. It was a type of allotment garden with a solid infrastructure for all gardens and the community of the garden tenants. The founders of allotment gardens elsewhere, for example at Breslau, Silesia, refered to the Schrebergarten' idea in Leipzig (Dannenberg 1901: 118-119). The location, the infrastructure, and the rents point to relatively wealthy tenants. The design of the individual gardens shows similarities to contemporary designs for house and villa gardens (Hampel 19022: 1). Such lots were good for amateur gardening and leisurly pursuit. In Stettin petty bourgeois and bourgeois people (teachers and public servants) had rented the gardens (Schulze 1909: 61-66)."
Troeva, Vesselina. "The Changing Urban Values of the Bulgarian Cities." In The Urban Experience - A People-Environment Perspective: Proceedings 13th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Manchester, UK: E&FN Spon, 1994.

The political, social and economic changes in Central and Eastern Europe have their inevitable impact on the land use and planning and on the methods for urban development management. This is due not only to the transition from planned to market economy and the restitution measures. The changing forms of property and the new attitudes towards planning increase substantially the number of decision makers involved in development of Bulgarian cities. In this new environment, it appears necessary more than ever before, to face the current problems from a completely new perspective, borrowing on both the positive as well as the negative urban experience in the developed countries, whose route Bulgaria is trying to follow. At the outset, it appears very important to consider changing the public and professional awareness and understanding of few basic and simple truths: * The transition from planned to market economy does not mean in the least denying the need for planning; * Democratization in urban planning does not mean uncontrolled land use and management; * Private initiative liberalization does not mean encouragement of uncoordinated individual initiatives at the societal expense; * Property and land restitution does not mean neglecting the social mission of urban policy; Among all other principles for sustainable development, the professionals should find the way to enhance those proper urban values, which are basic in relation to the self-realization of the urban population. In this respect means should be found to control socially unjustified manifestations of personal creativity and initiative.

Dener, Aytanga. "The Effect of Popular Culture on Urban Form in Istanbul." In The Urban Experience - A People-Environment Perspective: Proceedings 13th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Manchester, UK: E&FN Spon, 1994. "In 50s, with the new Government, the first liberalization attempts have begun and different local business groups and artisans have become effective in both Housing blocks for middle and lower class families have covered a considerable percentage of land in great cities within three decades. In these years, not the professional designers but the constructors determined the form of the buildings according to current values and preferences. The role of planned development has stayed at a minimum while popular approval has come forward. Formal endeavors have always been inadequate and people tried to find their own solutions. They usually have achieved alternative systems and prevented a social breakdown. The mutual inclinations have led to these spontaneous solutions. The houses have met the needs of middle class families at minimum costs and they embodied the minimum standards. At this point, "popular culture", can be accepted as the common behavior of middle and lower class people which is developed spontaneously in their daily lives. It is the reproduction of a certain life style and sometimes an escape from negative aspects of real life. Generally, governors approve this behavior because in this way protest or uprisings are prevented. However people without question accumulate some concepts or forms in their brains and build "banks of icons" for using as a template. They usually use similar elements in a simple and schematic way in order to realize popular products. In this way, people get used to stereotypes while it becomes easy and less painful to accept the present negative situation. (Oktay, A., 1993)"
Sanoff, Henry. "The Experience of Community Action in an Australian Town." In The Urban Experience - A People-Environment Perspective: Proceedings 13th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Manchester, UK: E&FN Spon, 1994. An emerging methodology of community development is based on the conviction that social improvement does not occur until the people involved believe that improvement is possible (Biddle and Biddle, 1966). As citizens are brought to feel a sense of community, and adopt goals that serve their concept of communty, they develop a stronger sense of social improvement.
Germain, A, B Blanc, J Charbonneau, and F. Dansereau. "The Experience of the Urban Spaces in Multi - Ethnic Neighbourhoods: Cohesion Or Segmentation?" In The Urban Experience - A People-Environment Perspective: Proceedings 13th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Manchester, UK: E&FN Spon, 1994. The assimilation process of immigrants is in part an urban issue involving housing patterns, participation in community life, the use of public service etc. How is the urban presence of immigrants reflected in the use of public space and what kind of specific social dynamic is emerging in this kind of space - a space which is in principle universally accessible? Does it encourage social cohesion, as many urban planners believe, or does its use reflect the loosening of social bonds, as some social scientists argue? In order to discuss these issues, we present the results of a study carried out in six neighbourhoods of the metropolitan region of Montréal, selected for there multiethnicity (in terms of numbers and of ethnocultural diversity), for their location (in the centre and in the periphery), and for their socioeconomic profiles (middle class suburb, low-income enclave, old socially heterogeneous neighbourhood). In each neighbourhood, we conducted interviews with key informants from about 15 local associations (sometimes perceptive observers of the social life of the neighbourhood). We made systematic observations of the sociability of the main public places (parks, metro [underground] station, shopping centre, café etc.) and conducted brief interviews with the users of these places. In this paper we will mainly discuss issues such as social segmentation of space and patterns of cohabitation by types of users, as well as the different connotations of the concept of appropriation.
Lay, Dias, Maria Cristina, da Luz Reis, and Antonio TarcIsio. "The Impact of Housing Quality on the Urban Image." In The Urban Experience - A People-Environment Perspective: Proceedings 13th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Manchester, UK: E&FN Spon, 1994. As good or bad environmental performance is specially reflected by the appearance of outdoor spaces, it has a major impact on the perceived image and morphological characteristics both of the residential environments produced and of their urban consequences. In housing developments in Brazil, standardisation of project design and building specifications were established as almost scale of the country, and the marked different regional characteristics of each of the 23 States, the nature of the system of provision based on economy of scale adversely affected the quality of construction by its overemphasized priorities for quantitative targets. Consequently, the design of most housing schemes was not appropriate for the satisfaction of user needs and aspirations.
Jackson, Barry. "The Legacy of the Harlem Model Cities Program." In The Urban Experience - A People-Environment Perspective: Proceedings 13th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Manchester, UK: E&FN Spon, 1994. "In 1966, in the midst of America's urban chaos, the United States Congress passed PL89-754, The Demonstration Cities and Metropolitan Development Act, which stated partially that "bold new innovative programs... must be designed to 1) renew entire slum neighborhoods by the combined use of physical and social development programs and 2) increase substantially the supply of standard housing of low and moderate cost" (United States Congress, 1966). Each city designated for the program was to choose its own area to renew based upon the criteria of the program. New York City designated Harlem-East Harlem as one of the areas.' In New York City, the Model Cities program was under the aegis of the Housing and Development Administration, a newly created "super agency" developed in a major effort to deliver housing to the city. New York City was clearly in need of an improved housing stock. In 1968, Paul Davidoff reported that New York required "one million new and rehabilitated low- and moderate rent units" (Davidoff, 1968, p.11). The rate of new construction, while sufficient to meet middle- and upper- income demand... fails to provide new units, or liberate enough existing units through market operation, to satisfy more than a small portion of the city's need for low-income families" (Davidoff, 1968, p.12)."
Tekeli, Ilhan. "The Patron - Client Relationship, Land - Rent Economy and the Experience of Urbanization Without Citizens." In The Urban Experience - A People-Environment Perspective: Proceedings 13th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Manchester, UK: E&FN Spon, 1994. I come from Turkey, a country which has been experiencing a rapid urbanization process for fifty years similar to many developing countries. I have been faced with this experience as a citizen, struggling with its daily problems; as a city planner, trying to find solutions to these problems; and as a university professor, trying to make some conceptualizations and theoretical explanations. Throughout these fifty years, both the phenomenon we have been experiencing and our ways of perceiving it have changed continuously partly due to our failures as city planners. These will continue to change in the future as well. With the aim of comprehending this experience, I will try to explore this issue by concentrating on the mutual interaction of three variables which I find worth considering nowadays. These three variables are; 1) a dominant populist attitude in the political field in those countries or the patron-client relationships, 2) an urban land-rent economy, 3) a lack of the formation of citizenship in those cities, or 'urbanization without citizens'. Presenting the mutual interaction between these variables will expose more clearly the barriers which stand in the way of development of healthy and safe urban forms and the enrichment of the quality of urban life in developing countries. On the other hand, it should be noted that these three variables, though very important, will only partially represent such a phenomenon as complex and overdetermined as urbanization. What I seek to do in this paper is to attract attention to various relationships which have barely been considered.
Duarte, Siqueira, and Cristiane Rose Duarte. "The Raising of a Community: Urban Experience in a Low Income Settlement in Rio De Janeiro." In The Urban Experience - A People-Environment Perspective: Proceedings 13th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Manchester, UK: E&FN Spon, 1994. "The object of this study is "Vila Pinheiros ", one of the low income settlements built ten years ago to host a population of 65000 people who lived in a shanty town named Favelas Mare, located in Rio de Janeiro. After being established at the low income settlement, this population, made up essentially of extremely poor rural immigrants, suffered a hard adjusting process to the urban environment. This process, however, ended up in transforming these isolated immigrants in a real community in the social meaning of the term. Currently, this popular neighbourhood is completely transformed by its inhabitants, both in its physical aspect and in the use value of its spaces. This study is supported by a field work which followed the development of Vila Pinheiro 's social practices along 4 years. It presents an analysis of a social and cultural process of spatial modifications related to the adjusting period to the urban environment experienced by this population of rural immigrants. In order to contribute to the understanding of the realities of this group of inhabitants through the observation of the social- spatial dialectics, this study tries to bring evidence that while the community builds its spaces, its is at the same time building it self."
Kroll, Lucien. "Towards an Urban Ecology." In The Urban Experience - A People-Environment Perspective: Proceedings 13th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Manchester, UK: E&FN Spon, 1994. Some contemporaries - non-moderns, who are thus post-moderns - tell us about their own obvious logic, and not about Reason (which too often gives way when one stops watching it). Matter does not conform with the physicists' great schemes and disobeys their orders. What about planning then? The town of Curitiba is managed like a compost heap. We know that the great manoeuvres of our economic (and cultural) mercenaries towards the poor and the distant, towards the Third and Fourth Worlds, require a complicity with offensive mechanization, which, if left unbridled, appears more and more unbearable, unfair and self-destructive. We must give priority to eco-sociology. Let's not talk about architecture, which lends us to manufacture, artifice and separation. Let's talk about process, and therefore about landscape. A landscape builds itself up, using its personal and communal energy (phytosociology), and without any creator's direction. A landscape is a living entity (therefore representing more than the sum of its components). It slowly establishes its balance (which is always temporary) through disturbances, in which it answers rationally all the motives of its own creation, even those of the lowest energy. Sometimes a piece of architecture can become a landscape. Who is rational?
Imamoglu, Vacit. "Urban Experience in an Ottoman Town in Central Anatolia." In The Urban Experience - A People-Environment Perspective: Proceedings 13th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Manchester, UK: E&FN Spon, 1994. This paper aims at exploring some dimensions of urban experience and general characteristics of the architectural environment in Kayseri at the first half of the 20th century. In addition, it attempts to explain how people lived, what hardships they faced in their daily lives, what attitudes they had and which values they wanted to keep in relation to their town and neighbourhoods. A final aim might be to draw some inferences concerning people-environment relationships that might be of relevance today.
Rae, Ruth A.. "Urban Home Ownership: a Study of New York City Co - Ops." In The Urban Experience - A People-Environment Perspective: Proceedings 13th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Manchester, UK: E&FN Spon, 1994. It is assumed that given the choice, most people would prefer to own their homes. Home ownership is thought to be the superior form of tenure which provides financial, psychological and societal benefits. It is regarded as a dream all Americans aspire to and should be able to achieve. Home ownership is thought to be a natural desire, and to result in a superior way of life (Borgos, 1986; Duncan, 1982; Kemeny, 1981; Saunders, 1990; Stone, 1986). It is related to people's sense of identity, and important as a symbol of self or status (Agnew, 1982; Cooper, 1976; Dean, 1945; Duncan, 1986; Saegert, 1986; Turner, 1972). A home owned is suppose to offer security, control and independence (Depres, 1989; Gilderbloom & Appelbaum, 1988). Supposedly, given accessibility and adequate resources all households would choose to own (Kemeny, 1981).
Neary, Susan J.. "User Needs and Evaluation / Introduction." In The Urban Experience - A People-Environment Perspective: Proceedings 13th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Manchester, UK: E&FN Spon, 1994. The second part of the conference interprets the urban experience from the point of view of the user, reflects on their needs, throws light on their perceptions and evaluates various aspects of the urban experience past and present. It also includes a number of chapters which deal with the evaluation of urban interventions and policies and discuss methodologies for increasing understanding of the forces at work in reshaping cities. The authors cite examples and case studies from Bulgaria, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden, Turkey, the United States, and the United Kingdom.
Stamps, Arthur E.. "Validating Contextual Urban Design Principles." In The Urban Experience - A People-Environment Perspective: Proceedings 13th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. Manchester, UK: E&FN Spon, 1994. "Ever since the publication of Trystan Edwards' Good and Bad Manners in Architecture in 1924 it has been recognized that an important part of the urban experience is the design of buildings which fit into the existing visual context. Clearly contextual compatibility impacts many aspects of the urban experience, including urban quality, urban landscapes, urban planning, urban conflicts, urban policies, urban design, urban housing and urban neighborhoods. Many authors and designers (Cullen, 1961; Brolin, 1980; Bently et al., 1985; Tugnutt & Robertson, 1987) have commented on the need to fit new buildings into existing visual contexts, not to mention architectural critics ranging from the Prince of Wales down to the rest of us. What has not been so widely recognized is the virtual absence of scientific validation for the basic principles of contextual design. For example, most cities in the United States have implemented aesthetic controls on architecture (over 80% of all U.S. cities and 93% of the cities with populations of 100,000 or more have "design review" requirements for new projects) and over 75% of those cities sometimes or always used contextual principles to evaluate new buildings (Lightner, 1993). Yet, in a recent international conference on design review, 49 papers were presented, but only three papers were grounded with scientific data (Preiser & Lightner, 1992). The importance of scientific validation in design review can be ascertained by inspecting the connections between public policy, the judicial system, and the scientific establishment."