Keywords Abstract
Pultar, Mustafa. "A Conceptual Framework for Values in the Built Environment." In Evolving Environmental Ideals - Changing Way of Life, Values and Design Practices: IAPS 14 Conference Proceedings, 261-267. IAPS. Stockholm, Sweden: Royal Institute of Technology, 1996. Along with formal knowledge and technology, individual, professional and societal value systems are fundamental determinants of numerous aspects of the built environment. Despite this importance, there appears to be no well-established, coherent and systematic framework for a discussion of value related issues in environmental analysis. This paper addresses the problem by considering the fundamental concepts that may be used in a discussion of values and interrelates them to form a conceptual framework. The preliminary discussion is centered around the need for and the importance and effect of value systems in the activity of designing, constructing and using the built environment. The concepts that form the elements of the framework are based on a process model describing the life-cycle of the built environment. It is claimed that the values held by planners, designers, builders and users have significant effects on this process. Concepts such as value, value judgement and value system are discussed and illustrated in environmental terms through examples. Further discussion concerns the origin and formation of values, their nature and types, codification; the expression and transfer of value judgements, changes in and conflicts between value systems. The paper concludes with suggestions for possible topics of research related to values in the built environment.
Sanoff, Henry. "A Participatory Process for Designing an Arts School." In Evolving Environmental Ideals - Changing Way of Life, Values and Design Practices: IAPS 14 Conference Proceedings, 204-211. IAPS. Stockholm, Sweden: Royal Institute of Technology, 1996. "This paper describes a case study approach using an intensive, research based design process to examine current and emerging needs of the Minnesota Center for the Arts, and to define the capital projects required to address those needs. In contrast to current educational facility planning models, a rigorous on-site data collection process formed the basis for stating justifiable needs and their corresponding costs. For three days, staff, students, parents, and clients of the resource programs division articulated deficiencies, needs and dreams, and designed what they considered to be "ideal" spaces. The workshop began with a walk-through evaluation consisting of student and faculty interviews. Assessments of each space recorded on a Spatial Data Inventory Form determined the adequacy of space, lighting, acoustics, temperature, flexibility of use, aesthetic appeal, functional requirements and floor area. An analysis of these data affected the development of the spatial requirements needed for subsequent stages of the process. Working in small groups, 200 participants developed 39 proposals for their new facility using a site plan of the campus, a floor plan of each building, a listing of required areas for each space and corresponding graphic symbols. Proposals included changes in the present use, expansion of existing buildings, additional floors, and the creation of new buildings. A content analysis of the walk-throughs, interviews and recommendations generated by the participating teams influenced the development of three proposals developed by the design team, one of which received unanimous support from students and faculty."
BARBEY, GILLES. "A Reevaluation of Post - War Mass Housing: Incentives for the Rehabilitation of the Dwelling Unit." In Evolving Environmental Ideals - Changing Way of Life, Values and Design Practices: IAPS 14 Conference Proceedings, 402-403. IAPS. Stockholm, Sweden: Royal Institute of Technology, 1996. This paper argues that the conservation of the built environment in general and of mass housing, in particular, should go beyond material and technical parameters to include social pertinence over the long term. This approach was not used to construct those post-war housing estates that have an excessive number of small housing units. Today, this kind of housing is outdated in relation to current domestic requirements including home-based work. Policy decision-makers should carefully formulate a strategy before undertaking renovation projects on an individual basis. The enlarged approach requested in this paper considers housing as lived-space rather than as an inanimate object. Each residential building has specific material, typological and spatial characteristics which are meaningful to people. The approach outlined in this paper reevaluates housing by a careful analysis of its material and experiential characteristics.
Zacharias, John. "Accessibility to the Neighbourhood for Mobility - Impaired Individuals and Others: a Comparison of their Space - Time Loci of Activity." In Evolving Environmental Ideals - Changing Way of Life, Values and Design Practices: IAPS 14 Conference Proceedings, 340-349. IAPS. Stockholm, Sweden: Royal Institute of Technology, 1996. While access to public facilities has been greatly improved, local travel patterns and the related physical and social networks of neighbourhoods remain understudied. Personal autonomy and local accessibility are thought to support physical and mental well-being along with a positive outlook on the community, but these goals have not been related to planning standards. This study set out to record the spatial-temporal aspects of activity and relate them to attitudes toward community, using a participant group of 241 individuals in two urban and two suburban neighbourhoods in Montreal. The urbanites travelled farther and more often than the suburbanites. Age and type of disability were unrelated to individual local travel habits, while positive attitudes toward the local community were related to the amount of travel. The mobility-impaired population travelled more extensively although not more frequently in the local environment, compared with the general population, and made extensive use of streets and public spaces. As expected, people who lived further from services had a larger activity field. Mobility-impaired individuals had a substantially larger proportion of long trips (>800m) than did the general population. The results from this study suggest that short-range local travel in a high quality public environment is very important in personal well-being and can be associated with the density and layout of communities.
Cavalcanti, Maria de Betâni. "Aesthetics and the Use of Local Resources in the Folk Built Environment of Pernambuco." In Evolving Environmental Ideals - Changing Way of Life, Values and Design Practices: IAPS 14 Conference Proceedings, 240-247. IAPS. Stockholm, Sweden: Royal Institute of Technology, 1996. Materials and construction techniques are modifying factors of house form and have a considerable effect on the way built environments are shaped (Rapoport: 1969). A distinctive framework for the villages and townships in the folk built environment of inland Pernambuco, Brazil, has been created through the use of local resources (wood, clay, hand-made brick, stone and traditional construction methods of using wattle and daub coloured lime washed walls) together with the aspirations of the people, as they express their lifestyle, ideals and ambitions through the design, colours and decorative elements of façades. This paper discusses the relationship between aesthetics and the use of local materials in the production of the folk built environment of inland Pernambuco, Brazil. The theoretical framework used to establish the process and product characteristics of such built environments is based on Rapoport's attributes for defining vernacular design (1990), such as the identity, intention, purposes and degree of anonymity of designers, nature of the relationship to landscape and site, effectiveness of response to climate, among others. Primary data were obtained from the findings of completed research by the author: Folk Architecture: A Study of Friezed Façades in the Low Income Houses of Inland Pernambuco, which contains an inventory of house types and their decorative elements, as well as a record of the designers' view of their work gathered through field studies carried out in over 100 villages and small towns in the state of Pernambuco.
Imamoglu, Vacit, and Olkay E. Imamoglu. "Assessment of Home Environments: Feelings of Control and Satisfaction." In Evolving Environmental Ideals - Changing Way of Life, Values and Design Practices: IAPS 14 Conference Proceedings, 177-183. IAPS. Stockholm, Sweden: Royal Institute of Technology, 1996. An extensive housing survey was conducted in 874 dwellings in housing estates of upper, middle and lower socio-economic-status (SES) in the central and newly developing suburban areas of Ankara. Dwellings and their neighborhoods were examined by an interdisciplinary team of psychologists, who interviewed the householders, and architects, who evaluated the dwellings and their surroundings. Feelings of personal control over one's social and physical environment appeared as an important determiner of satisfaction with the dwelling and its surroundings. Accordingly, the newly forming suburban areas, relative to the central areas, and the detached houses, relative to apartment flats, were assessed more positively in terms of both physical and social aspects and seemed to provide a more powerful feeling of control to their residents. In terms of SES and gender, the lower SES groups and women reported feeling less power of control over their environments and less satisfaction with their dwellings than upper SES and men, respectively.
Uduku, Nwola. "Beneficial Sustainable Urban Redevelopment? a Cape Town - Liverpool Comparison." In Evolving Environmental Ideals - Changing Way of Life, Values and Design Practices: IAPS 14 Conference Proceedings, 212-227. IAPS. Stockholm, Sweden: Royal Institute of Technology, 1996. "The key issues the paper addresses are the effects of urban regeneration projects in inner urban areas, which have in the past been of a pronounced multicultural character, in the face of the larger dominant (in this case white) institutional and residential character of the central city. It questions whether the current forms of "sustainable" regeneration actually benefit local populations who have lived in such areas for the cultural and socio-economic structures which existed. It also considers the current day social policy planning and marketing motives behind inner city regeneration. By using the two case study areas, "District Six" in Cape Town, and Granby Toxteth (also known as "L8") in Liverpool, it seeks to illustrate two different areas which have some interesting contextual similarities. This serves to highlight the global nature of many of the problems associated with inner cities and also, by showing the clear differences of District Six and L8, the city-specific nature of urban regeneration. The paper concludes by discussing other planning models which could be beneficial to a wider cross-section of today's culturally diverse inner city populations."
Skantze, Ann. "Built Environment and Meaning: the Archtecture of a Suburb from a User Perspective." In Evolving Environmental Ideals - Changing Way of Life, Values and Design Practices: IAPS 14 Conference Proceedings, 277-282. IAPS. Stockholm, Sweden: Royal Institute of Technology, 1996. The physical environment of the home district is an essential part of residents' living conditions. The design and layout have different meanings for various categories, users, planners and architects. The aim of the research project, which is described in this paper, is to explore the architecture of a new suburb in the vicinity of Stockholm and to understand what it means to the residents. The main question concerns how different age groups among the residents experience and interpret the architecture and design of the built environment and how this is related to their development as individuals. The theoretical concepts used in the study are discussed, i.e., the interactional perspective in terms of meaning, aesthetic experiencing and human development. The methods employed in the study are qualitative interviews, observations and walking tours with the residents. The results show that the design of the built environment is an essential part of the inner dialogue that the respondents uphold concerning their identities as individuals, their futures and their life-stories, and their feelings of belongingness and estrangement.
Castello, Lineu. "Central Core: a Recollection of Images." In Evolving Environmental Ideals - Changing Way of Life, Values and Design Practices: IAPS 14 Conference Proceedings, 107-119. IAPS. Stockholm, Sweden: Royal Institute of Technology, 1996. In 1984, a research project commissioned by UNESCO's MAB Programme pioneered academic work on people-environment interaction. The project has been focusing on the city's interrelationships with its river, in different approaches ranging from the perception of environmental quality to ecologically sustainable development opportunities. One of the positive contributions of the project was the insertion of environmental perception in the methodological approach employed in urban analysis, in order to obtain deeper contextual information about the environment and to use this information to enhance the issuing of design strategies. In its 1986 phase, the project allowed for the identification of major structural components of the central area's urban landscape, as perceived by their users. At present, after a decade of decisive change in ways of life and of perceiving values, and after implementation of design policies for historical and cultural sets in the central core, people's views of the centre have been reexamined. New research, also employing environmental perception techniques, collected the repertoire of cultural elements as seen today by the population at large and by selected microcultural groups. This perception, when compared to official listings produced by experts, although convergent in several items, revealed the issuing of new elements. The emergence of elements in people's perception indicate how changing ways of life and different levels of education are significant for design guidelines in the presence of evolving values and environmental ideals.
Rassadina, Irene. "Changes in the Built Environment Caused by Housing Market Development in St. Petersburg, Russia." In Evolving Environmental Ideals - Changing Way of Life, Values and Design Practices: IAPS 14 Conference Proceedings, 437-443. IAPS. Stockholm, Sweden: Royal Institute of Technology, 1996. "This paper deals with changes in the built environment caused by the economic crisis and housing market development. Social polarization of the population affects St. Petersburg's built environment. After repairs, rich tenants buy comfortable apartments in the housing in the historical centre or cottages. Rich people congregate in isolated settlements in the suburbs and subdistricts of the city centre. These sectors are dissonant with the other urban districts, which gradually turn into slums because municipal authorities have no finances for new buildings and renovation. The main part of the city's residents have no opportunity to improve their housing conditions. They remain in delapidated housing in the city centre or migrate to cheap apartments on the outskirts. At present, St. Petersburg's built environment represents a set of "isles" for the rich and slums for the poor, while the rest of the housing stock undergoes a polarization process. Negative changes in the built environment make it necessary to work out mechanisms of housing management adapted to economic and social conditions. It could combine elements of state regulation with the housing market."
Hemsworth, Judith. "Childhood in Childcare. an Investigation into the Relationship Between Segmentation and Regulation of Space in Childcare Centres and Sociocultural Ideals and Practices of Childhood." In Evolving Environmental Ideals - Changing Way of Life, Values and Design Practices: IAPS 14 Conference Proceedings, 304-313. IAPS. Stockholm, Sweden: Royal Institute of Technology, 1996. "This paper presents the findings from a preliminary investigation into the relationship between the segmentation and regulation of space in childcare centres and socio-cultural ideals and practices of "childhood". Giddens' structuration theory and Bourdieu's "habitus" provided the theoretical framework for the study. The method consisted of the application of a syntactic analysis adapted from Hillier and Hanson's space syntax analysis to the plans of thirty-nine childcare centres produced from a generic Design Brief. The resultant analyses were compared to the ideal space syntax devised from the spatial relationships proposed in the Design Brief. A review of spatial rules expressed in the Design Brief was also undertaken. It was discovered that an unstated concern for protecting children from possible abuse appeared to be a major generator of spatial relations in childcare centres."
Norinder, Mia Heurlin. "Children, Environment and Independent Mobility." In Evolving Environmental Ideals - Changing Way of Life, Values and Design Practices: IAPS 14 Conference Proceedings, 314-323. IAPS. Stockholm, Sweden: Royal Institute of Technology, 1996. "While the importance of children's access to their environment is well-known, there are alarming reports concerning "children's loss of independent mobility" due to increasing traffic. Parents' fear of traffic forces them to escort their children to school or to friends and consequently restricts the children's freedom. This means that children are deprived of the opportunity to move freely, to meet other people and to experience the environment on their own. Seven hundred fifty children in four differently-planned residential areas completed questionnaires about the way they travel, where they play, etc. A number of children and their parents were interviewed and the children pointed out the routes they took to school, to their friends and to their favourite places. This paper provides some results from this study, but also discusses the consequences of planning the physical environment in such a way that it prevents children from achieving "activity independence". If the environment is perceived as a barrier (physical as well as social) it will undoubtedly have negative effects on children's cognitive and social development as well as on socialization."
Nordström, Maria. "Culture - the Missing Dimension of Environmental Psychology." In Evolving Environmental Ideals - Changing Way of Life, Values and Design Practices: IAPS 14 Conference Proceedings, 26-33. IAPS. Stockholm, Sweden: Royal Institute of Technology, 1996. Our colleague Enric Pol, newly elected board member of IAPS, has pointed out that environmental psychology - like any science - is a social construction and in his book Environmental Psychology in Europe he describes the development of environmental psychology in different European countries. The differences he describes are easily recognized by a European person as an expression of the cultural division of European countries into a northern Anglo-Germanic-Scandinavian part (in countries situated mainly to the north of the Alps) and into a Franco-Latin part (in countries south of the Alps).
Kose, Satoshi. "Emergence of Aged Populace: Who is at Higher Risk in Fires?" In Evolving Environmental Ideals - Changing Way of Life, Values and Design Practices: IAPS 14 Conference Proceedings, 324-329. IAPS. Stockholm, Sweden: Royal Institute of Technology, 1996. What are the capabilities of occupants who are to be safeguarded during a fire in a building? What type of disabilities should one assume exist? An enormous number of persons who will experience difficulties once a fire occurs have never been given the consideration that they deserve. Aged persons, in particular, who are to be regarded as being disabled due to their limited ability in perception, making decisions and taking action, have almost been neglected. In this society, which has an ever escalating number of persons in 65+ age group combined with highly complex systems, the number of persons to be regarded as disabled is much greater than was previously assumed. It may be simply that those disabilities are made to seem invisible because the gap between the capabilities of the 65+ and the physical character-istics of the buildings that are dealt with by alternative measures (i.e., the life safety protection systems). Should a fire occur, and those alternative measures not be effective or if insufficient time is available, it would lead to a tremendous disaster, the implications of which have never been foreseen. Therefore, it would be desirable to reconsider the philosophy of fire safety in buildings, to deal with the drastic change in the capabilities of occupants. It must be pointed out that in the recent disaster in Kobe, such a large number of fire fatalities was narrowly avoided, because the majority of people were at home. The main cause of fatalities was being caught under collapsed old timber houses.
Coeterier, Jan Frederik. "Environmental Ideals: Permanent Values in a Changing World: the Case of Historic Buildings." In Evolving Environmental Ideals - Changing Way of Life, Values and Design Practices: IAPS 14 Conference Proceedings, 120-128. IAPS. Stockholm, Sweden: Royal Institute of Technology, 1996. In a world that is changing at an ever faster pace, people need anchors. These are provided by historical buildings. Up to now, assessing the value of these buildings and determining municipal preservation policy is done by experts. Protests from residents against this policy are becoming more frequent, however and insight into lay people's criteria for evaluating historicity is required, so that their values may be taken into account. These criteria were identified by means of in-depth interviews among the inhabitants of a region in the south of the Netherlands. Four qualities determined the aesthetic evaluation of historical buildings: completeness, beauty, uniqueness and good workmanship. Information plays a role as well. It not only enhances beauty, but it also gives an object more meaning. Lastly, the state of maintenance, the function and the surroundings of buildings are important; historical buildings must not be dilapidated and they must fit into their environment. Only then do they provide anchors, giving stability to people's living environment. One of the differences between lay people and experts is that for lay people aesthetic criteria mainly determine historical quality, while for experts information value is the important criterion.
Devine-Wright, Hannah, and Glynis Breakwell. "Evaluating Visitor Behaviour in a Museum Gallery." In Evolving Environmental Ideals - Changing Way of Life, Values and Design Practices: IAPS 14 Conference Proceedings, 141-148. IAPS. Stockholm, Sweden: Royal Institute of Technology, 1996. Evaluation is particularly important when users have high expectations about the quality, accessibility, functionality and aesthetics of the designed environment. A multi-method approach including: behavioural mapping, structured interviews and self-completion questionnaires provided information about use of a museum glass gallery. The research supported the findings of Melton (1935) and Klein (1993) in that the majority of visitors traversed the gallery in a counter-clockwise direction despite a clockwise chronological organisation to the gallery. Other important factors included: time spent in the gallery and the level of aesthetic appreciation. The design implications of this research are related to maximisation of visitor satisfaction and knowledge gain in a gallery environment.
Watson, Christopher G.. "Evolving Design for Changing Values and Ways of Life." In Evolving Environmental Ideals - Changing Way of Life, Values and Design Practices: IAPS 14 Conference Proceedings, 228-235. IAPS. Stockholm, Sweden: Royal Institute of Technology, 1996. "This paper describes the current New Zealand practice of Post Occupancy Evaluation which is used routinely by several leading organisations to achieve buildings which are responsive to people. Growing diversities in ways of life and ongoing changes in technology, law and management demand good communication between people using buildings and those providing them. Opinions about built environments are recorded during touring walkthrough interviews of selected focus groups. The spatial experience of the walkthrough interviews provide participants with stimulus to respond with comments about strengths and weaknesses of their building. This paper describes the Post Occupancy Evaluation process used for banks, police stations, petrol stations, schools, offices, medical facilities and other buildings. The process is designed to record a wide variety of values and meanings including detailed, global, functional or aesthetic in nature. One common type of issue is buildings' provision of appropriate conditions for person to person interaction. An example of this is issues relating to customers' aural privacy at police station and bank counters while maintaining eye contact and close proximity to adjacent staff. Similar relationships for confidentiality and supervision are sought in examination suites of army hospitals. The process is designed to facilitate a "partnership" of design professionals with individual building users. In this way, they can develop ways of appropriately relating environmental features to evolving values and ways of life. Central to this approach is the thesis that sharing information between people with interests in subject buildings enables more efficient distribution of resources and evolution of buildings towards ideal environments."
Salama, Rafik. "Evolving Housing Environments: a Study of Public Housing Transformations." In Evolving Environmental Ideals - Changing Way of Life, Values and Design Practices: IAPS 14 Conference Proceedings, 193-203. IAPS. Stockholm, Sweden: Royal Institute of Technology, 1996. Public housing represents a notable percentage of the housing stock in many developing countries. Its shortcomings have been identified and examined by many scholars and experts in an attempt to investigate the possibilities of improvements in future projects. Yet, for many years and through their own initiative, dwellers in public housing have been engaged in alteration and extension activities aimed at adapting their dwellings to better suit their needs. These activities have resulted in the transformation of entire housing developments in many parts of the world. Understanding this phenomenon is a prerequisite to any attempt to provide better quality housing environments and to improve living conditions in existing ones. Therefore, this paper examines the development of transformations in different public housing projects in Egypt. A wide array of transformations were recorded during a survey of twenty projects in Cairo and Alexandria, from which it was possible to establish a typology of transformations, to examine the use of building materials and resources, and to distinguish between different patterns through which transformation activities take place. The study identifies some of the implicit factors that control change at both dwelling and community levels. It was found that user transformation of public housing projects should not be considered as a simple space enlargement process, but rather as a result of a complex set of inter-related determinants associated with both context and dwelling characteristics.
Kruse, Lenelis. "Evolving the Concept of Sustainability." In Evolving Environmental Ideals - Changing Way of Life, Values and Design Practices: IAPS 14 Conference Proceedings, 10-12. IAPS. Stockholm, Sweden: Royal Institute of Technology, 1996. Sustainable development is a new concept that has been introduced to a worldwide audience by the Brundtland Commission on Environment and Development (1987). The term, however, goes back to early nineteenth century forestry. Its denotation then did not primarily include ecological meanings but economic ones (forests were to be cultivated in such a way that they would yield maximum output in terms of market value over long periods of time).
Wetterberg, Ola. "Garbage in the City: Mortal Threat Or Economic Gain: Waste Disposal, in Gothenburg, Sweden 1860 - 1930." In Evolving Environmental Ideals - Changing Way of Life, Values and Design Practices: IAPS 14 Conference Proceedings, 82-93. IAPS. Stockholm, Sweden: Royal Institute of Technology, 1996. The purpose of this paper is to offer a few pointers as to why the methods for recycling waste that were employed during the nineteenth century were entirely replaced by flush toilets, incineration and garbage dumps during the 1920s. The study is based on studies of historical sources that relate the story of the development of waste disposal in Gothenburg. This paper attempts to trace the contours of the motive forces underlying this development. Waste disposal was developed in a field lying between concepts of the danger of garbage and its usefulness. Yet this assertion must be modified. Medical misgivings were boosted by culturally accentuated experiences of waste as unpleasant and morally ruinous. The utilitarian aspects of waste were discussed on the basis of political economic arguments in which a type of recycling was advocated. In reality, the discussion of the value of garbage was often reduced to a question of its market value. Attitudes to growth, social organisation, hygiene and prudery all contributed to develop waste disposal systems in a particular direction.
Sadan, Elisheva, and Arza Churchman. "Global Sustainability and Community Empowerment." In Evolving Environmental Ideals - Changing Way of Life, Values and Design Practices: IAPS 14 Conference Proceedings, 184-192. IAPS. Stockholm, Sweden: Royal Institute of Technology, 1996. Global sustainability is for most people an abstract slogan that is neither relevant to their daily lives nor amenable to their influence. This paper shows how a community empowerment process, that bridges the gap between individual and community concerns, leads to an expanding definition of the boundaries of people's world. This is illustrated by a case study documenting the struggle of high school students to prevent the closing of their school. The community empowerment process achieves a growing commitment to and feeling of responsibility for the community, participation in decision making concerning local environmental problems, and confidence in the ability to make a difference. The purpose of such a process is to expand the boundaries of the environment defined by the members of the community as their collective responsibility. One of the main conclusions is the need for interdisciplinary theory, research and practice that creates links between the disciplines concerned with ecological sustainability and those concerned with community development, urban and regional planning and environmental psychology.
Zafiropoulos, Sarantis. "Greek Theatre a Paradigm of Ecologically Conscious Architecture." In Evolving Environmental Ideals - Changing Way of Life, Values and Design Practices: IAPS 14 Conference Proceedings, 93-96. IAPS. Stockholm, Sweden: Royal Institute of Technology, 1996. This paper studies the development of ancient Greek theater design and its attitude towards landscape. It focuses upon the interrelations between its layout, space, form and the specific spaces, forms and meaning of the surrounding landscape. This analysis produces some ecologically conscious architectural principles (landscape interlocking builtscape, creative utilization of slope, building's attachment to land) that may be useful for a wider range of current architectural problems.
Lawrence, Roderick J.. "High - Rise Housing Reconsidered from an Integrated Perspective." In Evolving Environmental Ideals - Changing Way of Life, Values and Design Practices: IAPS 14 Conference Proceedings, 428-436. IAPS. Stockholm, Sweden: Royal Institute of Technology, 1996. Studies about high-rise housing can be characterised by their diversity and disagreement. A variety of interpretations has been used to study the rationale and practices of constructing housing of this kind. The ambiguity of high-rise housing is partly related to the fact that the values and functions attributed to it have varied from continent to continent, between regions and within specific countries, both at one point in time and over long periods. This paper will reconsider high-rise housing in a broad ecological, political and social context including the experience of diverse individuals and groups. It will examine high-rise housing not only in terms of architectural, commodity and economic dimensions, but also in terms of personal experience, the health and well-being of the residents, and the use of resources. The merits and shortcomings of this kind of residential building will be considered in terms of their intended and unintended impacts.
Vestbro, Dick Urban. "Iaps 14 in Stockholm." In Evolving Environmental Ideals - Changing Way of Life, Values and Design Practices: IAPS 14 Conference Proceedings, 1-4. IAPS. Stockholm, Sweden: Royal Institute of Technology, 1996. The initiative to hold a research conference in Stockholm under the umbrella of IAPS, the International Association for People-Environment Studies, was taken in 1992, when KTH's School of Architecture offered to arrange a housing network conference in the summer of 1995. When the IAPS Board later asked us to transform our offer into organizing the 14th IAPS conference scheduled for 1996, we were hesitant to accept the task due to the vast responsibility involved, but were subsequently persuaded to do so.
Satterthwaite, David. "Identifying Environmental Priorities in Cities in the South." In Evolving Environmental Ideals - Changing Way of Life, Values and Design Practices: IAPS 14 Conference Proceedings, 16-25. IAPS. Stockholm, Sweden: Royal Institute of Technology, 1996. This paper considers the scale and range of environmental problems in cities in Africa, Asia and Latin America and who is most affected by them and why. In so doing, it will question the accuracy of much of the existing literature on environmental problems in cities in the South and the conventional explanations given as to why these problems exist.
Reis, Antonio Tarcisco. "Illegal Occupation of Uncompleted Blocks of Flats: Effects on Residents' Satisfaction, Attitudes and Behaviour." In Evolving Environmental Ideals - Changing Way of Life, Values and Design Practices: IAPS 14 Conference Proceedings, 444-453. IAPS. Stockholm, Sweden: Royal Institute of Technology, 1996. This paper investigates the effects of the illegal occupation of part of the Rubem Berta housing estate in Porto Alegre, Brazil, on residents satisfaction, attitudes and behaviour. The illegally occupied four storey blocks of flats were uncompleted at the time of the occupation. A comparison is made between the degree of satisfaction, attitudes and behaviour of those living in the uncompleted and occupied part and those living in the completed and commercially sold section of the same Rubem Berta estate. Both dwelling aspects and housing estate aspects are evaluated in the two sections. Questionnaires, interviews, and observations were used as data gathering methods in the Rubem Berta estate. The results show that the main dwelling and housing estate aspects affecting user satisfaction, attitudes and behaviour in the uncompleted and occupied four storey blocks of flats are similar to the aspects affecting those living in the completed and commercially sold four storey blocks of flats. Nonetheless, levels of user satisfaction with many dwelling aspects and housing estate aspects are quite different, due, mainly to the tolerance of the problems by those who went through the difficult process of housing occupation.
Y de Kort, Slangen-, C. J. H. Midden, and A. F. Van Wagenberg. "Independent Housing and Older People: the Adaptive Problem Solving of Older Persons in their Homes." In Evolving Environmental Ideals - Changing Way of Life, Values and Design Practices: IAPS 14 Conference Proceedings, 294-303. IAPS. Stockholm, Sweden: Royal Institute of Technology, 1996. As individuals get older, independence may be reduced by problems they are confronted with in the home. To allow for an prolongation of independent functioning, environmental pressureure on older individuals should be diminished but, at the same time, individuals' ability to solve these problems themselves should also be enhanced. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the problems in older people's homes and the corresponding types of adaptations/solutions, and to test a theoretical exploratory model, describing the various factors influencing adaptive problem solving and the outcome of this process. In this model different types of factors influence the problem solving process. These factors are: (1) the problem type; (2) personal factors of competence such as education, knowledge, and financial resources; (3) factors describing the social network and (4) factors describing the physical environment. Adaptations were categorized as physical/technical, social, personal or mental. The results of an extensive survey among 120 elderly households show that the type of adaptation a person chooses is not only dependent on the type of problem he/she is confronted with, but also on personal qualities (education level, technical knowledge/experience) and physical housing characteristics (adaptability). Implications for future research are discussed.
Lawrence, Roderick J.. "Integrating Environmental Ideals, Concepts, Values and Lifestyles in Research Agendas." In Evolving Environmental Ideals - Changing Way of Life, Values and Design Practices: IAPS 14 Conference Proceedings, 5-6. IAPS. Stockholm, Sweden: Royal Institute of Technology, 1996. Studies about high-rise housing can be characterised by their diversity and disagreement. A variety of interpretations has been used to study the rationale and practices of constructing housing of this kind. The ambiguity of high-rise housing is partly related to the fact that the values and functions attributed to it have varied from continent to continent, between regions and within specific countries, both at one point in time and over long periods. This paper will reconsider high-rise housing in a broad ecological, political and social context including the experience of diverse individuals and groups. It will examine high-rise housing not only in terms of architectural, commodity and economic dimensions, but also in terms of personal experience, the health and well-being of the residents, and the use of resources. The merits and shortcomings of this kind of residential building will be considered in terms of their intended and unintended impacts.
Després, Carole, and Pierre Larochelle. "Le Rapport À La Rue Des Résidants Du Vieux Limoileu À Québec." In Evolving Environmental Ideals - Changing Way of Life, Values and Design Practices: IAPS 14 Conference Proceedings, 412-427. IAPS. Stockholm, Sweden: Royal Institute of Technology, 1996. Cette communication traite du rapport à la rue des résidants de maisons à logements superposés du Vieux-Limoilou, un quartier de la ville de Québec édifié entre 1906 et 1949, en relation avec, d'une part, leur trajectoire résidentielle et leur statut d'occupation et, d'autre part, la transformation des normes et pratiques culturelles d'habitat au Québec. Notre stratégie de recherche combine l'analyse typo-morphologique du milieu bâti à l'étude des significations de la vie urbaine et du chez-soi ainsi que des usages du logis. Nous avons interrogé un échantillon non représentatif de 100 résidants, photographié les élévations avant et arrière de leurs immeubles et établi les relevés de leurs logements. L'analyse compare la forme des prolongements extérieurs avant et arrière du logis ainsi que les usages et significations qui y sont rattachés. Les résultats suggèrent qu'en dépit des transformations des modèles d'habitat, des styles de vie et de la vie urbaine en général, le type de rapport à la rue à partir des balcons avant, dont l'origine remonte à la période d'édification du quartier, s'est maintenu à travers des générations successives de résidants.
Samuels, Robert. "Lifestyle at the Edge of Chaos." In Evolving Environmental Ideals - Changing Way of Life, Values and Design Practices: IAPS 14 Conference Proceedings, 71-81. IAPS. Stockholm, Sweden: Royal Institute of Technology, 1996. "The tenuous balance between emergent self-organisation and disorganisation is the edge of chaos. We are witnessing an exponential but insidious emergent disorder in global climatic conditions, partially disguised, shrouded with uncertainty. Interacting atmospheric, built environment and human factors are exceedingly complex; one review of salient literature during 1993 alone covers 380 papers, with suggestive evidence of global warming. Policy-makers propose adopting the precautionary principle, Rio and Berlin signatories are committed to CO2 stabilisation and reduction, and environmental design for responsibility and sustain-ability is promoted at tertiary level. Yet "bottom line" fiscal arguments prevail; "best practice" is frequently a reliance on the goodwill of industrialists rather than to disadvantage them with carbon taxes, and generally we are threatened with economic chaos and rampant unemployment if economies stop growing. Just 50 years hence, when, in all likelihood, atmospheric CO2 concentrations and world population will have doubled, and consumption levels of urbanised developing countries approximate those of the developed world today, our children will inherit a world where disorganisation reigns: a supreme act of intergenerational inequity. Is there a glimmer of hope: a renewable energy revolution? Or is there embedded in this apparent panacea an ecological fallacy i.e. when energy is clean and abundant will we not consume ourselves into extinction? In all probability, only lifestyle change (in the context of in-built eco-design) could have the necessary impact on otherwise unavoidable climatic chaos."
Wikström, Thomas. "Local and Virtual Realities. the Spatiality of Dwelling in the Age of Computer Mediated Communication." In Evolving Environmental Ideals - Changing Way of Life, Values and Design Practices: IAPS 14 Conference Proceedings, 467-479. IAPS. Stockholm, Sweden: Royal Institute of Technology, 1996. The aim of this paper is to discuss the conceptual tools necessary to understand the consequences for everyday life of the new, computer-based information technology. In the discussion about a sustainable society, much attention is directed towards local community or rather local contexts: A sustainable development depends upon society's functioning on the local level. The growth of information systems, from the telephone system to the computer network, changes peoples relations to space. New technology and new patterns of interaction create new forms of spatiality. Local, concentric space of action and experience is challenged by a space that can be described as interregional, polycentric and multilocal. The issue of virtual spaces of communication and interaction becomes important when many people connect their computers to the Internet and start socializing or working together. One field where local space coincides with virtual space is computer-aided work. The increasing number of people working at home makes it important to analyse the consequences of this development for local interaction in the home and neighbourhood. To make the analysis possible, we need new or modified conceptual tools. One rich source for this is the phenomenological tradition of thought. This paper is based upon (1) experiences from ongoing research about telecommuting, (2) the debate about telematics, new life styles and evolving conditions for interaction and cooperation and (3) a number of phenomenological texts about space and spatiality to make proposals of conceptual tools for the analysis.
Shomina, Yelena. "Local Democracy - Participation in Action." In Evolving Environmental Ideals - Changing Way of Life, Values and Design Practices: IAPS 14 Conference Proceedings, 454-466. IAPS. Stockholm, Sweden: Royal Institute of Technology, 1996. "This report describes the history of housing movements in Russia as part of the development of local democracy. The last few years has brought new market-oriented types of organisations of residents and new types of participation in improving the living envronment. Our own "Ladder of Participation" (from letters and complaints, which was the most widespread form of participation in the former Soviet Union, to the creation of the City Public Council on Housing Policy and the organisation of election campaigns), also means "Steps to Democracy". The report is based on 60 in-depth interviews with leaders of housing movements and officials, conducted as a part of an international research project, "Housing and Environmental Movements - Changing Social Citizenship in Russia, Estonia and Hungary"."
Roslin, Mary. "Making Connections." In Evolving Environmental Ideals - Changing Way of Life, Values and Design Practices: IAPS 14 Conference Proceedings, 7-9. IAPS. Stockholm, Sweden: Royal Institute of Technology, 1996. As an international forum we bring with us different cultural experiences of social change. Coming from a variety of age groups, we also bring a diverse historical perspective. Our priorities and concerns may appear to derive from unconnected sources loosely bonded together by a shared examination of the people/environment relationship. Yet global ecology does not recognise national boundaries or personal differences. It joins us together in our humanity and this is its power.
Gumpert, Gary, and Susan Drucker. "Media Technology as a Determinant of Urban Form." In Evolving Environmental Ideals - Changing Way of Life, Values and Design Practices: IAPS 14 Conference Proceedings, 362-368. IAPS. Stockholm, Sweden: Royal Institute of Technology, 1996. In approximately 150 years, technologically assisted or mediated communication has altered concepts of work and home, public and private, urbanity and community. At times, mediated communication has become a substitute for interaction with others, while sometimes a distanced mediated mode has become the preferred mode. There is a connection between urban design and communication, between public space and media technology. Spaces are being modified and expropriated by developments in communication technology. Every media development alters the availability and nature of traditional private and public place. The newspaper influenced and defined, in part, the barbershop, the village green,and the café. The telephone shaped the division of home and work place. Radio altered the experiences of the living room, the car and the doctor's office. The computer keyboard opens up distant retrievable vistas in cyberspace. This paper superimposes a communication analysis of urban design and proposes an environmental planning paradigm integrating media technology and human social values by coordinating the physical landscape with the changing communication landscape. A survey of relevant communication theories will be provided and ethnographic methodology employed to explore the relationship of media and architecture in an age in which beepers, headsets, cellular phones and laptop computers have taken to the streets and an era in which many turn to a life lived in the spatial realm of cyberspace.
Gullström, Charlie. "On Representations of Change in Practical Philosopy." In Evolving Environmental Ideals - Changing Way of Life, Values and Design Practices: IAPS 14 Conference Proceedings, 13-15. IAPS. Stockholm, Sweden: Royal Institute of Technology, 1996. Some of the researchers present here, like myself, are concerned with people and the built environment while others are more concerned with the green environment. You may say that this distinction is unnecessary and that we are all addressing environmental problems. But I believe that there is an important difference which needs to be emphasised as a key issue of this conference. I would therefore first like to stress the issue of change in both approaches. I believe it is a relevant question to ask the conference whether change is treated differently in research concerning the built versus the green environment. In fact, I would like to question whether the issue of change is treated at all.
Brower, Sidney, and Ralph B. Taylor. "Qualities of Ideal and Real World Neighbourhoods." In Evolving Environmental Ideals - Changing Way of Life, Values and Design Practices: IAPS 14 Conference Proceedings, 99-106. IAPS. Stockholm, Sweden: Royal Institute of Technology, 1996. A study in Baltimore found that residents recognize four ideal types of neighborhoods, each associated with a different combination of qualities. This paper reports on a follow--up study in which residents were asked to assess some of these same qualities in relation to their present neighborhood. The findings showed that the assessments clustered around three dimensions and that each dimension agreed with an ideal type. Neighborhoods were not necessarily true to a single type - some were scored positively on several dimensions, which means that residents attributed to them qualities of several types. Neighborhoods with different profiles were found to house different types of residents, showing that each type embraces not only the concept of a desirable place, but also that of a desirable community. If residents' characterizations of real-world neighborhoods are in line with ideal types, then we can expect their ratings of residential satisfaction to be affected by the type of neighborhood they consider to be ideal.
Bernard, Yvonne. "Quelques Hypotheses Prospectives a Propos De L'habitat." In Evolving Environmental Ideals - Changing Way of Life, Values and Design Practices: IAPS 14 Conference Proceedings, 404-411. IAPS. Stockholm, Sweden: Royal Institute of Technology, 1996. La communication est consacrée à une analyse des changements qui sont susceptibles de modifier la manière dont on doit réfléchir à l'avenir de l'habitat. après un bref historique de la situation française on evoquera les changements qui caractérisent le contexte démographique: vieillissement de la population, diminution de la taille des ménages, augmentation du nombre de personnes seules, nouvelles formes d'organisation familiale. A propos de chacun de ces constats on établira des comparaisons entre les différents pays européens. La derniére partie sera consacrée à l'évolution des modes de vie et aux conséquences de cette évolution sur les modes d'habiter.
BARBEY, GILLES. "Reevaluation Du Logement Collectif D'apres - Guerre: Perspectives De Restructuration Du Plan D'habitation." In Evolving Environmental Ideals - Changing Way of Life, Values and Design Practices: IAPS 14 Conference Proceedings, 395-401. IAPS. Stockholm, Sweden: Royal Institute of Technology, 1996. Plus que jamais auparavant, la protection du domaine bâti en général et de l'habitat collectif en particulier doit être animée d'un souci de pertinence sociale et de pérennité des dispositions, qui n'exclut toutefois pas un nécessaire renouvellement des constructions. Le nombre excessif de petits logements lancés sur le marché dans les années d'après-guerre pose aujourd'hui problème en raison de l'exiguïté des surfaces dévolues aux habitants. La fréquente perte d'emploi et la nécessité du travail à domicile rendent urgente une restructuration du plan d'habitation. Confrontés à l'urgence d'un recyclage des bâtiments devenus obsolètes, les organes compétents se trouvent dans l'obligation d'aborder une réflexion de principe plutôt que de se cantonner à la résolution du cas particulier. La perspective qui s'impose à l'attention incite à considérer l'habitat non pas comme un milieu inanimé, mais davantage comme un organisme vivant, caractérisé par des circonstances d'occupation humaine, où le comportement des individus doit être pris en considération. A cet égard, une méthode d'auscultation détaillée débouche sur un pronostic susceptible de fournir l'argument et le programme d'un projet modéré de revalorisation du bâti.
Lay, Maria Cristina D.. "Relationships Between Site Layout and Spatial Behaviour in Low Income Housing Schemes." In Evolving Environmental Ideals - Changing Way of Life, Values and Design Practices: IAPS 14 Conference Proceedings, 159-168. IAPS. Stockholm, Sweden: Royal Institute of Technology, 1996. Residents' perception of the design factors affecting their sense of legibility and the subsequent degree and type of use and appropriation of communal outdoor spaces was investigated. The specific relationships, which might suggest the way spatial behaviour can be supported or inhibited by the level of clarity of physical and social space definition, are explored. There is an analysis of the relationships between the orientation pattern of buildings, spaces and the circulation system provided by design, and the effects of these relationships on user perception of space hierarchy, territorial definition and spatial behaviour. The results allowed the identification of the more important elements affecting and conveying user perception of physical and social definition of spaces.
Dovey, Kim. "Social Theory and Space Syntax: Exploring Power and Spatial Programming." In Evolving Environmental Ideals - Changing Way of Life, Values and Design Practices: IAPS 14 Conference Proceedings, 149-158. IAPS. Stockholm, Sweden: Royal Institute of Technology, 1996. "How are power relationships embedded in the spatial programming of buildings? This paper explores the possibilities for development of such theory based on the social theories of Giddens, Bourdieu and Foucault, coupled with methods of space syntax analysis. Giddens' structuration theory suggests that spatialized practices of power can be modelled as enabling and constraining relations between "structure" and "agency". Bourdieu's theory of the habitus suggests that the built environment constructs the real as spatial ideology. The division of space is a vision of the world. Foucault's work suggests that modern power is a dispersed set of micropractices, many of which are spatial and operate through the normalizing gaze of panoptic regimes. Spatial practices construct subjects employing architecture as disciplinary technology. Hillier and Hanson have developed spatial syntax analyses of building plans which reveal social ideology buried in architectural genotypes. Such methods offer significant potential for the development of programmatic theories of power in architecture, exemplified in recent work by Markus. However, they are limited in application to the current production of space. This paper explores the prospects for developing space syntax methods, grounded in the social theories of Giddens, Bourdieu and Foucault. It also suggests some potential for moving beyond environment-behaviour models of spatial practice."
Sebba, Rachel. "Social Values as Key - Factors in the Design and Organization of the Dwelling." In Evolving Environmental Ideals - Changing Way of Life, Values and Design Practices: IAPS 14 Conference Proceedings, 268-276. IAPS. Stockholm, Sweden: Royal Institute of Technology, 1996. The paper deals with the meaning of home in a multicultural society which is undergoing cultural change. Through the analysis of dwellings in Arab villages and Jewish settlements in Israel, the paper reveals the characteristics of the dwelling as a cultural instrument that at the same time serves to preserve traditional values from the past, supply its dwellers with ongoing demands of the present and affords them the conditions to change in the future. By comparing the physical variables of the home in both cultures, the paper points to the differences between them and refers to their roots.
Hartig, Terry. "Some Developments in Restorative Environments Research." In Evolving Environmental Ideals - Changing Way of Life, Values and Design Practices: IAPS 14 Conference Proceedings, 50-60. IAPS. Stockholm, Sweden: Royal Institute of Technology, 1996. Attentional restoration and psychophysiological stress reduction approaches have been proposed for understanding how natural and other environments aid recovery from excessive demands on functional capacities. Two series of studies have tested aspects of these frameworks. The first consisted of experiments which mapped the emergence of attentional, emotional and physiological outcomes in conjunction with comparisons of the restorative potentials of commonplace urban and natural environments. The second was dedicated to the development of a measure of perceptions related to the restorative potentials of environments. Restorative potentials of select sites were measured with items intended to represent the constructs being away, fascination, coherence and compatibility. The sites differed along theoretically relevant dimensions and were evaluated by subjects from different populations under various field and simulation conditions. The paper summarizes the main findings from each series of studies, drawing attention to the structure of restorative experiences, the time course of restoration and the relative restorative values of natural and urban environments.
De Jong, Marjanna. "Spatial Structure and Use of School Buildings." In Evolving Environmental Ideals - Changing Way of Life, Values and Design Practices: IAPS 14 Conference Proceedings, 129-140. IAPS. Stockholm, Sweden: Royal Institute of Technology, 1996. This paper is concerned with the spatial structure of the school building and the preconditions it contains for the users. School buildings are designed to support the work of the staff and the education of pupils. The design is based on ideas about pedagogy, learning and instruction as well as on principles of school organization. Also ideas about the relations with parents and about the role of the school in the neighbourhood have an influence on the design. Not all ideas are realised in the building, but once it is built, the design has a powerful influence on both pupils and staff, as well as on their use of the building. The paper is based on preliminary results of a research project where school buildings are studied with the space syntax analysis. The approach is interpretive and has an educational perspective. Syntactical properties are considered as preconditions for the use of the building. Use of the building is discussed in terms of e.g. movement through the building and occupancy of spaces. Of special interest are spaces for different non-classroom activities, such as the staff room, school library, lunch room. The relation between different syntactical properties and views on children is discussed.
Thiberg, Sven. "Summing Up: Final Panel Discussion." In Evolving Environmental Ideals - Changing Way of Life, Values and Design Practices: IAPS 14 Conference Proceedings, 34-37. IAPS. Stockholm, Sweden: Royal Institute of Technology, 1996. "Just when I dropped into Intensive Session No. 11 on Landscaping, on Wednesday afternoon, Sarantis Zafiropoulos was starting his poetic presentation of the Greek theater, its location and relation to the landscape. Sarantis explained the meaning of the word "theater" - "thea" means "see and understand" (my interpretation) and "tros" means "instrument". On the one side is the wide and mysterious landscape, sometimes friendly and beautiful, sometimes threatening and brutal, the orchestra (the chorus) and, on the circular stage, the actors. On the other side, is the audience, comfortably located on stone steps, overlooking the scenery. Some watch from high positions with the wide landscape in front of them, others are on the bottom level, close to the actors, which means they have different perspectives of the performance."
Emmitt, Stephen. "The Diffusion of Environmentally Responsible Ideas and Practices." In Evolving Environmental Ideals - Changing Way of Life, Values and Design Practices: IAPS 14 Conference Proceedings, 42-49. IAPS. Stockholm, Sweden: Royal Institute of Technology, 1996. For a new idea or practice to become established, it must be both diffused and adopted by a social system. As both building designers and opinion leaders, architects could be viewed as important agents of change within their social system. Although a small proportion of the architectural profession is willing to try innovative ideas and methods, it has been argued that the majority of architects are slow to adopt them, preferring to stick to a palate of favourite products and practices. Thus innovative ideas such as sustainable building and the cradle to cradle construct are likely to be adopted much more slowly than envisaged by the promoters of such ideas and values. The communication of change, therefore, has implications for environmental design and the rate in which the built environment will respond. This paper draws on both the large body of diffusion literature and mass communication literature in an attempt to identify the networks, opinion leaders and the external factors which influence architects' design approach within a changing environment.
Ramutsindela, Maano. "The Environment and Internal Migration in South Africa." In Evolving Environmental Ideals - Changing Way of Life, Values and Design Practices: IAPS 14 Conference Proceedings, 61-70. IAPS. Stockholm, Sweden: Royal Institute of Technology, 1996. "Any aspect of the South African situation can hardly be explained without reference to the apartheid grand scheme which shaped the society and its environment. Although migration occurs in many parts of the world, its character in South Africa is shaped by local policies and conditions of life. The focus of the paper is on intrarural and rural-urban migrations with their consequent effects on the environment. While voluntary rural migration is noted, the paper emphasizes the results of state-induced migration. Rural-urban migration is discussed in the context of urbanization in the homelands and in what was considered "white" South Africa. The paper argues that while the livelihood of rural blacks was disrupted by, inter alia, the state, existing urban planning policies were designed for two different societies with different environmental conditions. Consequently, conditions in areas occupied by blacks remained poor and the environment deteriorated. It is concluded that problems affecting rural and urban environments emanating from the rural-urban migration process require planning and development strategies which impact on rural and urban areas simultaneously."
Davidovich-Marton, Ronit, and Arza Churchman. "The Event and the Context; .a Theoretical Approach and Planning Implications." In Evolving Environmental Ideals - Changing Way of Life, Values and Design Practices: IAPS 14 Conference Proceedings, 353-361. IAPS. Stockholm, Sweden: Royal Institute of Technology, 1996. This study presents the development of the event and context approach as an approach to research in the person-environment relations discipline, and as a model for the planning discipline. This approach is meant to serve as a tool in devising planning approaches expressing a contextual consideration. Research work included a theoretical development, empirical research and a consideration of the planning implications of this approach. The event and context approach proposes a theoretical basis and research methodology predicated on two cornerstones: a definition distinguishing between event and context, and the principle of splitting. The event is a series of activities having in common the same grouping of players, and is marked by interdisciplinary characteristics. The context is a collection of events, and is marked by characteristics identical To this end, a theoretical and methodological development of the event and context approach was worked out, based on a to those of the event, with the exception of scope: the context is invariably wider than the event. The principle of splitting derives from this definition, and guides the methodology of splitting contexts into events, and events into sub-events, thus enabling to relate to events and contexts without having to resort to separation between various disciplines, but rather by using the event as an encompassing interdisciplinary research unit. This formed the basis for the empirical research conducted on the subject of daily events in various contexts of dwelling and employment. The study made use of households as an integrative analysis unit, and incorporated a new methodology for processing information and obtaining profiles of daily events within different contexts examined in the course of the research work.
Franck, Karen A.. "The Suburban Sanctuary: Mapping a Moral Landscape." In Evolving Environmental Ideals - Changing Way of Life, Values and Design Practices: IAPS 14 Conference Proceedings, 171-176. IAPS. Stockholm, Sweden: Royal Institute of Technology, 1996. "In the United States we have attempted to build a landscape of conceptual dichotomies: public/private, old/young, built/natural, work/leisure, non-family/family, poor/rich, frail/ strong. The second member of each pair is considered somehow "better" than the first member, often morally better. Therefore we have tried the keep the contents of the categories separate, to prevent some kind of contamination of the second category by the first one. The urban/suburban division and the social and physical form of the suburban house and community in the U.S. result from a mapping of these categories onto the landscape. Thus the suburban community excludes much of what pertains to public, old, built, work, non-family, poor and frail and promotes that which is private, so-called natural, pertaining to leisure, family, rich and strong. One intention was, and still is, to create a sanctuary for each family household, a place where nuclear family members are safe from all "outside" influences believed, where they can focus exclusively on one another, where there are no distractions from and no incursions into the sacred activities of domestic life, a life believed to be free of struggle, conflict, or stress. This paper explores the history and the consequences of both seeing the suburban house and community as a sanctuary and trying to make them one."
Liu, Ying, and Adenrele Awotona. "The Traditional Courtyard House in China: Its Formation and Transition." In Evolving Environmental Ideals - Changing Way of Life, Values and Design Practices: IAPS 14 Conference Proceedings, 248-260. IAPS. Stockholm, Sweden: Royal Institute of Technology, 1996. The courtyard house, a residential compound with buildings surrounding a courtyard on four (or sometimes three) sides, has been representative of housing patterns for over one thousand years in China. It has been a historical heritage deeply rooted to the specific Chinese traditions and culture. From the collapse of the last imperial dynasty (1911) to the establishment of the People's Republic of China (1949), China underwent a series of wars which entailed destructive impacts on the development of the courtyard houses. Due to some inappropriate policies after 1949, most traditional houses faced changes and deterioration. In addition, there has been a tendency since the 1980s to excessively replace the traditional courtyard houses by multi-storey buildings. All of this has seriously affected the cultural continuity of the traditional Chinese housing form. From the 1990s, some housing projects have been initiated in Beijing and are called redevelopment and renewal of dilapidated traditional residential areas. Some new types of courtyard houses have been explored in an attempt to balance the house shortage and the social inheritance due to the rapid growth of population. The construction principles of traditional courtyard houses are being utilised to set the new courtyard house system. Having outlined the above, the purpose of this paper is to examine the following issues: (a) the various aspects of the traditional courtyard house and its transitions; (b) the impact of social changes and the influence of national policies on the transition of the traditional courtyard houses; and (c) the identification of the main characteristics of the new courtyard house system.
Rådberg, Johan. "Towards a Theory of Sustainability and Urban Quality: a New Method for Typolgical Urban Classification." In Evolving Environmental Ideals - Changing Way of Life, Values and Design Practices: IAPS 14 Conference Proceedings, 384-392. IAPS. Stockholm, Sweden: Royal Institute of Technology, 1996. Planners and politicians are searching for action plans to increase the environmental quality and sustainability in the large cities. But the search is hampered by the lack of theory. The confusion over the issues of quality and sustainability stems from the fact that theories are formulated on a general and abstract level. What is needed is a theoretical framework to analyse the empirical observations on the existing urban environments. We need a systematic descriptive classification of the urban structure on the microlevel. The paper outlines a methodology of classification of Swedish urban types. The classification is based on parameters that can be obtained from central data bases. The registration of objects will be implemented in a Geographical Informations System (GIS). The result is (a) reliable descriptions (maps, data bases) of the existing urban structure in a given city and, (b) in the long term, new knowledge of the relationship between urban form and environmental capacity.
Rubadiri, Lindiwe. "Towards the Strategic Design of Accessible Buildings for Disabled People - a Botswana Perspective." In Evolving Environmental Ideals - Changing Way of Life, Values and Design Practices: IAPS 14 Conference Proceedings, 330-339. IAPS. Stockholm, Sweden: Royal Institute of Technology, 1996. In the developing world, Botswana has experienced one of the fastest rates of development in construction. However, it is evident that the building codes that are applied pay minimal attention to designing buildings that are easily accessible to occupants with mobility problems and that are also easy to evacuate. According to the statistics, at least 10 per cent of the Botswana population experience some kind of disability. It has been of primary concern to the government to assume the responsibility and care of disabled people. Such responsibility would include the provision of an environment within which disabled people could move freely, particularly in urban areas. This paper discusses some loopholes in current building design approaches and presents a framework for design that incorporates a measure of the ability of building occupants to move during an emergency; when quick and planned movement is often necessary. This framework, based on the evacuation performance index concept developed by the authors, provides a useful tool that links the design of buildings to the movement requirements of both disabled and able-bodied populations. With the present rate of construction in Botswana, significant changes in design are inevitable. The framework described makes allowances for any given change in design that might occur in this field.
Björklid, Pia. "Traffic - Environmental Stress. a Study of Stress Reactions Related to the Traffic Environment of Children." In Evolving Environmental Ideals - Changing Way of Life, Values and Design Practices: IAPS 14 Conference Proceedings, 285-293. IAPS. Stockholm, Sweden: Royal Institute of Technology, 1996. There is a risk that we slowly are adapting to environments that are injurious for us, both in the short- and the long-term. A central dimension emerging in this research programme is anxiety and fear related to children's upbringing which arise from ever growing traffic. This anxiety and fear is summarised in the concept of traffic environmental stress, i.e. stress triggered by factors in the local traffic environment. The programme is conducted in the framework of a theoretical model on environmental stress and people's ways of coping with stress. The objective of the programme is to describe if and how parents and children experience and manage traffic environmental stress in various traffic environments in their neighbourhood. This paper describes some results that have emerged from a questionnaire study of around a thousand parents in different residential areas. The presentation is based on parents of children in the first form at primary school, i.e. children aged seven years. The conclusion drawn from the results is that the design of the future built environment should not be determined exclusively by the desire to minimise accident risks. This is self-evident, but certainly not a sufficient motivation. Outdoor environments must also add to the quality of life in the broad sense of the word, by being safe, wholesome and stimulating for children's development.
Hultén, Per. "Transport Systems to Suit People and the Planet." In Evolving Environmental Ideals - Changing Way of Life, Values and Design Practices: IAPS 14 Conference Proceedings, 375-383. IAPS. Stockholm, Sweden: Royal Institute of Technology, 1996. "The problem of rising demands for mobility versus the need to reduce the CO2 emissions from car traffic makes mass motoring, on a global scale extended to all peoples, an impracticability. Will the nations of the world, sometime around the year 2025, have to reach an international agreement on mandatory quotas of public transportation, to decrease the number of engines? The paper discusses a systems approach as a base to deal with this "glocal" dilemma. One solution might be to give urban networks in intermediate regions a greater role to play in future. If so, ecologically sound and versatile vehicle systems must be developed for these regions around the world - within a dialogue between "North" and "South". Such a perspective also opens up new opportunities to obtain more sustainability in the urban structures and the already built environment. This could have an important social and cultural impact on regional welfare and the economy: regional urban networks can develop into attractive sustainable societies."
Horelli, Liisa. "Women and the Changing Scene of Planning?" In Evolving Environmental Ideals - Changing Way of Life, Values and Design Practices: IAPS 14 Conference Proceedings, 369-374. IAPS. Stockholm, Sweden: Royal Institute of Technology, 1996. "This paper deals with women's role in participatory planning and environmental politics. The latter are major platforms where societal and ecological change is dealt with. Women's opportunities to contribute to the new "strategic planning" are analysed on the basis of the author's experience with participatory planning with children and women in Finland. The conclusions indicate that the use of a flexible methodological "tool kit" and the consideration of planning as part of environmental politics may contribute not only to the participation of women, but also to an alternative version of strategic planning from different positions. In the long run, it may have an impact on environments to become more congruent with the needs of women and those of nature."