Keywords Abstract
de Jong, M.. "A Classroom with Computers." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 28. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. Computer technology is now available in most schools in Sweden, and in many schools there are special rooms for pupils' work with computers. In preparing for IT, attention is paid mostly to the computers and programs, hardware and software. Little attention is given to the physical conditions of the space. In this paper, the interior design and use of a computer classroom in an upper secondary school are described and the spatial structure was analysed with the method of space syntax. The use of the room was observed during several lessons and a questionnaire about the room, seating preferences and proposals for change, was given to four groups of students. The aim of the study was to evaluate the layout of the classroom with regard to the demands of the teaching situations and the needs of the students. The use of the room differs between lectures but also during one lecture. Therefore, the adequacy of the design must be related to each type of teaching situation. The students show great awareness of the properties of the design. However, the same property can be judged as positive by some and negative by other students. Observed actual seating did not correspond in all details to the seating preferences expressed in the questionnaire. The motives for preferences indicate, that besides functional aspects (such as distance to the whiteboard and the teacher, availability of a computer, location in the back or the front of the classroom, position near door or windows) also social aspects of seating are important to the students. The results show, that it is positive when the design permits flexibility of use and that it would be of interest to let students participate in the planning of the design of the classroom.
Mitrany, M, and A. Churchman. "A Conceptual Framework for Housing Density Research." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 42. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. Over the years researchers in many fields, including in environmental psychology, have investigated the subject of housing density. The concepts used have been crowding, perceived density, density, and the attempt has been made to explore the relationships among these terms. On the whole, this research has suffered from three major problems: It concentrates on the negative implications of high density. It neglects to specify the quantitative density existing in the environment being studied. Each study deals with different groups, places and conditions, and with different dependent and independent variables, making it virtually impossible to generalize from the results and their implications, we are left without a comprehensive theory of the meaning of housing density for people living in environments of varying density. This paper will present the first stage of a research project that focuses on the meaning of housing density for the individuals experiencing it. This stage involves the formulation of a comprehensive conceptual framework, on which the later stages will be based. The research is application-oriented and with an urban planning focus, rather than a psychological-theoretical orientation. Psychological aspects of density are assumed to be intertwined with all the other aspects of the residential environment: social, cultural, physical, economic, ecological, technological, planning policy and politics. The formulation of the conceptual framework consists of four stages: (1.) Identifying the variables related to housing density in all of the related fields, as presented in the theoretical, empirical and practice-related literature. (2.) Identifying the hypothesized linkages between variables within a particular aspect, and betcen the various aspects, and between housing density. (3.) Selecting criteria for choosing variables to be included in the more specific conceptual framework for the next stages of the research (e.g., variables influenced by planning). (4.) Choosing the variables and their hypothesized inter-connections according to the selected criteria. // The first two stages lead to a general conceptual framework for housing density research. while the last two stages lead to the more specific framework that will be the basis for our own study.
Munakata, J, T Koga, T Kojima, and K. Hirate. "A Method to Grasp People's Own Point of View for the Evaluation of Townscape." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 45. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. The general idea of townscape is very complicated. What type of physical element should he focused as the target of evaluation? From what angle should we evaluate those physical elements? In order to study the pleasantness of townscape in the case of designing or improving a street, it is needed to understand these two issue in the view of the inhabitants. In this paper, we introduce a method which can grasp these issue by observer's photo taking and their description of the content of these photos. This method consists of two main phases. At first, observers are instructed to walk the street and take photographs under a simple theme (e.g. townscape you like or dislike). Observers are also asked to write down by their own words what element they noticed and why they like or dislike that element. In next phase, these observer's comments are collected, classified and linked. These classified words compose the evaluation data of the street. After these phases, the data can be used for farther analysis, comparison and to get a set of standard rating scales and objects to be considered for designing. A enhlightment effect can be also expected in this method by adding feed-back process or using this method in a workshop. Observers can realize the value of their town, recognize own view and understand other people's ones.
Salarna, A. M. A.. "A New Paradigm in Architectural Pedagogy: Integrating Environment - Behavior Studies into Architectural Education Teaching Practices." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 58. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. "Architectural education is not simply the imparting of knowledge and skills necessary for successful practice. It involves the development of values, ideologies, and philosophical positions. Currently, architectural schools are implementing positivistic philosophical positions; neglecting important alternative positions. This, ill turn, enables future architects to establish long_term attachments to international professional values. Unfortunately, this distances them from potential occupants of buildings and built environments, their social contexts, their traditions, and their social and human problems. The idea of this paper is culled from over ten years of exploring architectural education world-wide (1987-1997). It focuses on EBS "Environment_Behavior Studies" as a new paradigm, and how it can be introduced into architectural curricula. The paper asserts that it we want our graduates to be culturally and socially responsible, EBS should be introduced aggressively ill architectural pedagogy ill a manner which is based on the scientific study of human behavior, human needs, cultural differences, and the way ill which people interact with the physical environment. Intuition and subjective decisions and viewpoints should not be the concern in contemporary architectural education teaching practices. This paper calls for a fresh look at architectural pedagogy through the integration of EBS into architectural education teaching practices. The methodology involves a preliminary content analysis of the available theoretical literature and a literature review of the results of several surveys that have been conducted ill the Eighties and Nineties. Based on these analyses, four approaches have been identified ill order to bridge the gap between EBS and architectural pedagogy and to develop positive attitudes that architecture students, the budding professionals, take to the profession. The first approach emphasizes reconciling lectures and studios by integrating the theoretical knowledge about EBS provided ill the formal lecture and the process of learning to make judgments ill the studio. The second and third approaches affirm the importance of sensitizing students ill human aspects of architecture and urban design and developing their abilities of searching and thinking critically. The fourth approach emphasizes the incorporation of knowledge about behavioral research and real life experiences into design teaching practices."
Salama, Ashraf M. A.. "A New Paradigm in Architectural Pedagogy: Integrating Environment - Behaviour Studies into Architectural Education Teaching Practices." In Shifting Balances - Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design: Proceedings of the 15th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. In the last two decades the profession of architecture has changed dramatically, but the process of architectural pedagogy has been slow to respond to this change. With changes in the structure of contemporary societies, the emergence of housing problems and squatter settlements, the deterioration of historic cities, and the emergence of large structures and new building types, new knowledge became necessary for architects and educators. This eventually set the standard for skills architects need and the manner in which they should organise these skills as a profession (Guttman, 1988). In response to this change, one can argue that architectural pedagogy should offer a wider knowledge base for students to control their work and become real professionals.
Schenk, A.. "Acceptance of Nature Conversation Measures." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 59. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. In Switzerland nature and landscape conservation issues have a high priority since an intact visual and physical landscape is considered as an important ressource for tourism but also for the well_being of the population. Legislation about nature and landscape protection is fairly advanced. In the last years however it appeared that these goals couldn't be reached. It turned out that just to have laws is not enough, that other factors are essential as well. One of these factors seems to be the public acceptance of nature conservation measures. This project takes up this point. It is hypothesized that increased public acceptance of conservation issues increases the chance that conservation issues are successfully implemented in the long run. Thus, it is investigated which conditions and processes influence the formation of acceptance in a positive or a negative way. For that, people who are directly affected by nature_conservation measures are interviewed using qualitative interview techniques. After transcription, the interview textes are analysed in a interpretative way. The results should allow to suggest strategies for improving the acceptance of nature conservation measures. The success of these suggestions will finally be checked as well.
Gabidulina, S. E., and J. F. Coeterier. "Affective Qualities of Russian and Dutch Landscapes: a Cross_Cultural Study." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 20. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. Affective qualities of russian and dutch townscapes and landscapes were assessed by a russian (n36) and a dutch (n=32) group. The assessment was based on the theory of Schwartz that eleven categories of feelings are necessary and sufficient to describe people's affective reactions to environments. These feelings were used in a questionnaire. Sixteen environments were assessed by the two groups. The environments varied on four variables: country (Russian and dutch), geography (town and countryside), historicity (old and modern), and naturalness (with much or little green). Although a common affective structure exists, there are many differences, both in quantity and in weight of feelings. Notably the feelings of power and responsibility work different in both groups. The main conclusion is that it appears possible to investigate affective qualities of environments in a systematic and an objective way.
Banka, A.. "Ambition, Symbolism, and Psychological Structure of Postdemocratic Architecture in Poland." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 7. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. "The study focuses on the psychological perception of postdemocratic architecture designed to shift ambition of Polish "new_money families" (upstart). The architectural phenomenon is reconstructed in a context of psychological reaction to the ideal of the political assumption according to which every human being has a right to an affordable home. The process of cultural transformation in the eighties and the nineties caused people with high_ and high_middle_incomes to use residential environments and façades as a means of self_presentation. The study shows how the increased opportunities for new home ownership have been utilized by owners and architects to create new symbolism of designed houses. The paper analyses the psychological structure of a variety of housing designed for people whose lifestyles diverge from mainstream. In the experiment the professionals (architects) and nonprofessionals were confronted with eighteen patterns of design ranging from the "most democratic" (common) houses to "the most postdemocratic" (strange) ones. Factorial analysis lead to establish a catalogue of structural forms (e.g. pillars, towers, roofs) used to express the shifted ambition by clients and architects. An analysis of intrapersonal space reactions, based on the same method, revealed the differences in connotations and preferences for variety of structural forms between architects and nonprofessionals."
Kobayashi, M., R. Ohno, and N. Sekimoto. "An Analysis of Behavior in the Meeting Place by Time_Based Notation." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 32. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. "The purpose of this paper is to clarify by objective time_based notation how an environment which changes with time influence behavior. More particularly, this research deals with how behavior in the meeting place is affected by both time and the physical environment. At two popular meeting places in downtown Tokyo, a person's motion was recorded by three TV cameras set in different positions. The movement of each person who answered our interview after rendezvous was studied on the video tape. Items of interview included promised time to meet, description used to specify meeting place, and the experiences of using the place, which we call "initial information Based on observation of physical arrangements and people's distribution, several contour maps were created to show the level of local potential" in the meeting place for three basic desires: comfortableness (refuge), easiness to find (prospect), easiness to be found (retreat /reveal). The person's movement ti_ace was overlaid on these maps to see the changes of the level of potential before and after each movement. Thus a time_based notation was used to describe a series of position choices which reflect varying mental states, or the priority of three basic desires. An analysis of behavior using the notation revealed that, (1) such initial information as specified position and expected direction of approach influence behavior while waiting; (2) different spatial arrangement of the meeting place influences position choice for having good visibility; (3) in crowded situations the desire to be found seem to be growing as time passed. Finally, we proposed implications for the design of meeting places considering temporal, spatial and psychological factors."
Nathan, V, and R. W. Marans. "An Exploration of the Evaluative and Spatio_Cognitive Dimensions of Environmental Assessment." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 46. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. Peoples' knowledge of their environment affects their use and evaluation of the particular environment. Therefore, behavior in the designed environment should be understood in the context of the aspects of the users' environmental experiences. This study explored the link between environmental knowledge and evaluation, through a study of residential satisfaction. Housing environments ere chosen because the spatial significance of the home transcends its fundamental purpose as shelter. The empirical study involved an examination of residents' use, knowledge, and evaluation of a housing development in India. For the purposes of this research, residents' housing imageries were considered indicators of their housing related knowledge. Residents' spatial conceptions of their previous (or past), present, and ideal housing were examined. Environmental evaluation entailed the residents ratings of the attributes of their dwelling, neighborhood, and services. The evaluative data were collected through surveys, observations, and in_depth interviews. Spatial data were collected through mapping. where residents mapped or sketched their previous, present, and ideal house layouts. Behavioral data were collected through observations conducted over a period of two months. Data from the surveys and maps indicate that residents are more satisfied with their present housing) when the differences between present and previous housing are positive, and ii) if the present house is comparable to the image of the ideal house. The data also indicate that residents evaluated their dwellings using spatial references and their neighborhood and services using socioeconomic criteria. This study concentrated on the differences between different representations of reality (previous and present houses) and reality and imagination (present and ideal houses). Mapping as used in the context of this study transcended its value as a spatial analysis tool and explored the perceptual dimension of space as well. By addressing respondents' conceptions of their ideal houses, the present study is unique in that mapping incorporated a future dimension.
Moch, A, and Barbara Bonnefoy. "An Urban Olfactory Environment: the Parisian Subway." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 43. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. The amin purposes of this study were: (*) to characterise the traveller's perception of the subway 's olfactory environment and to study the annoyance toward the commuters. (*) to study the impact of individual factors such as age, sex, social condition and contextual ones such as the physical characteristics of the subway station (noise , temperature , light, design). (*) to compare the objective olfactory dimension of each subway station and the subjective evaluation by the commuters. (*) to evaluate the attitudes and the representations toward the subway itself, the comfort and the effects of the pollution on health. // A questionnaire has been filled out by five hundred representative commuters with regard to age , sex, social condition and to travelling frequency, in five different subway stations whith specific architectural and physical dimensions (noise , temperature, light...). We found that the cummuters experience the Parisian subway odour as a specific one. This specific smell in the subway results mainly from underground smells, human smells as well as odours coming from the material and cleaning products. These odours are usually welcomed by the travellers who associate them to cleanless and who find them rather reassuring and healthy. On the opposite, the three other kinds of odours, are very negatively perceived. We also found that individual factors such as age, sex or social condition have to be taken into account. The specificity of the subway station is also an important element: the olfactory perception and the annoyance do not strictly match the objective olfactory measurement. The other characteristics of the subway stations such as noise, light or temperature have also an impact on the odour's evaluation. Most of travellers associate bad smells to air pollution and to negative effects on human health; the more the people are sensitive to the pernicious influence of odors on human health, the more they evaluate negatively the olfactory environment . The image of the subway, people have in mind and the supposed effects of the pollution on health, seem to be very important factors to understand the annoyance due to odours in the Parisian subway.
Hermand, D., A. Simeone, and M. Vansuyt. "Assessment of Quality of Life in Rehabilitated Urban Areas." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 25. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. This research is a preliminary step in an attempt to develop a comprehensive and flexible instrument for the assessment of the quality of life in rehabilitated urban areas. The main purpose is to verify if some characteristics of a rehabilitated urban environment are able to influence the residents' evaluation of quality of life. It is, at the same time, a discussion of the feasibility of such a project, and of directions that further work might take. While methods to assess quality of life in rehabilitated urban are as yet imperfect, and are unfamiliar to planners and other professionals engaged in the field of interaction between people and their physical environment, they add useful information to evaluations of rehabilitation's, strengths and weaknesses of the living quality of urban areas in terms of their infrastructural resources, environmental health risks perceptions, human well-being, place attachment and social integration. Some polluted zones of the north of France coal-basins diminishes the quality of life of their residents, while physical and economic regeneration are able to improve it. In evaluating the quality of life in rehabilitated urban area, it is important to account for all these effects. So, the first part of this tool focuses on the objective characteristics of the rehabilitated urban settings: economic, cultural, environmental, pollution or equipment indicators (health, education, transport and leisure). Twentyfour urban settings were explored in six cities of the north of France. 192 Protocols were collected. The objective of the second part of this instrument is to determine the subjective perceptions of the rehabilitated urban setting residents about their quality of living. 480 Volunteers habitants were spread out at random in six cities, according to their urban settings and responded to the questionnaire. It was composed of five sections. The results of the statistical analysis underline the relevance to differentiate objective and subjective indicators of quality of life. Resident-level perceptions should be based on explicit consideration of quality of life. Consequently, quality of life assessment in rehabilitated urban areas should become an integral part of urban evaluation: it enhances the quality of life in rehabilitated polluted site.
Lee, Y. J.. "Attitudes Toward Facility Siting: a Taipei Survey." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 36. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. A citywide interview of Taipei residents in 1996 provided insight into residents' attitudes towards the siting of city facilities. Taipei residents expressed a modest concern over facility siting and expressed concern over the government's effectiveness in dealing with the facility siting information. Factor analysis revealed that five sub-scales exist for facility siting attitudes: psychological, social equity, political decision, motivation, and action. Correlation analysis indicated that bivariate relationships can be found between social characteristics and facility siting factors. Gender, education, age, and family income were found to show bivariate relationships with all the five facility siting factors, with the relationship between family income and psychological dropped to non significance when the effects of the other variables were held constant. Years of residence in our study showed no significant relationships with facility sting factors.
Lee, Yung-Jaan. "Attitudes Toward Facility Siting: a Taipei Survey." In Shifting Balances - Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design: Proceedings of the 15th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. In a pluralistic and diverse society, the possibility that efforts to manage the NIMBY (Not-In-My-Back-Yard) syndrome may result in an uneven reaction across society is a legitimate and serious concern. Accordingly, understanding the factors that influence adaptation and response to the NIMBY syndrome has become necessary to implement many environmental policies. Public decisions are a kernel component of policy strategies as the choices of individuals are viewed as protecting or degrading the environment, and as influencing the overall quality of life. Many non-regulatory strategies under consideration as alternatives to conventional regulatory approaches rely implicitly on individuals across society being active and effective participants in environmental management, for example, through the adoption of self-protective behaviour (Terris, 1990). However, experience involving and adoption of the NIMBY syndrome occur within a range of social contexts that may be associated with, or exert an impact on, psychological processes that directly modify the acceptance of NIMBY facilities. In light of this circumstance, designing and implementing policies that are appropriate and reasonable across a variety of social contexts are a major challenge for environmental policy.
Martens, Bob, A. G. Keul, W. Ritt, and G. Stimmeder. "Beautiful Form Versus Social Use." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 38. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. "This interdisciplinary symposium brings together technical specialists, design and simulation experts and social scientists. It will concentrate on the complex field of formal (construction, planning) aestethics versus social use and subjective aestethics of the final user. Planning processes of the built environment as well as of "natural" environments use formal principles well-known to the university-socialized design specialist. It remains unclear whether these formal principles interact smoothly with social use patterns and wishes of laypeople. The issue of human-environment-interaction seen from an expert and user perspective is crucial for the legibility and user friendliness of built objects. ie. the well-being of future users. Environmental psychologists join the discussion process answering questions about the predtctability of conflicts and about mediation processes resulting in "social design", i.e. a self-explanatory, user-friendly, easy-access design prototype for different projects (landscape, bridges, university lecture halls, housing)."
Im, S_B.. "Building Height Management Policy Based on Perceived Harmony and Contrast." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 28. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. Building height management is one of the most difficult problems for Landscape management in such a fast growing country as Korea, whose annual economic growth rate continues to be six to eight percent. Due to the extremely high land price and the growing demand for office and living spaces, high building are unavoidable in Korean cities and suburban areas. However, it is very difficult to decide the acceptable limit of the building height because there are so many factors in deciding the acceptable building height. Building height control policy needs to be based on the perception of general public. A strict control without public support is hard to succeed and a loose control might spoil the existing harmonious landscape. For the determination of the allowance limit of building height, two design principles, i.e., harmony and contrast, need to be considered at the same time. From the view point of 'harmony' lower building were found to be desirable, but from the view point of 'contrast' higher buildings were found to be desirable. This study focuses on the decision making of the acceptable limit of high buildings based on the people's perception of harmony and contrast between the proposed building and its surrounding environment. For the provision of a successful building height control policy and for the enhancement of landscape quality, scientific and systematic research on the perception of general public needs to be further carried out.
Preiser, W, E. Finch, R S. Walbe Ornstein, U. Schramm, and A. van Wagenberg. "Building Performance Evaluation at the Global Level Towards Standardized Methodology and Comparative Analysis." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 53. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. "The purpose of this symposium is to report on work in progress on a global network of building performance evaluation researchers. The intent is to standardize evaluation methodology and instruments, and further, to faciltate comparative, cross_cultural analysis of evaluation data on identical building types. The first phase of this project includes representatives from the countries of Brazil, Canada, Germany, Japan, Korea, the Netherlands, and the United States. A three_phase approach is envisaged for the project: (1) The first, conceptual phase of the project, will be designed to develop standard data collection instruments for the seven countries involved in the project, whereby culture_specific evaluation modules would be developed and added for each participating country and language area. (2) The second phase of the project will involve application and pilot testing evaluation instruments in field studies and identical building types such as intelligent office buildings or healthcare facilities. (3) The third phase of the project will aim at comparative analysis of data collected in the seven participating countries, as well as the development of recommendations and guidelines for the utilization of the data gathering instruments at a global level. It is expected that the outcomes of this project will be a "kit of tools" for building performance evaluation at a global level, involving at least the seven language areas which are represented by the participants in the proposed project. The value of this effort lies in applications of the methodology by multi-national organizations to the assessment and feedback of the performance of the facilities they own or operate worldwide, and, the implied improvement in the quality and performance that can be realized."
Emmit, S, and C. A. Gorse. "Building Procurement: the Challenge of 'real' Participation." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 19. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. It is widely acknowledged that the growing focus on environmental issues is associated with a cultural shift in society at large. However, building is notorious for its inability to adapt to change quickly and the relatively slow adoption of ecological concepts and technologies in the UK has reinforced this trait. Few researchers have looked at the difficult sociological or 'soft issues', the issues related to the way individuals communicate, interact and shape a building project during its life. Although a few of the papers presented at the IAPS 14 conference in Sweden started to tackle some of the soft issues, the authors believe that there is a need to investigate the social network(s) that form for individual projects and the opportunity for participation within them. Participation in building projects and the adoption of ecologically sound ideas within the project are. the authors believe, inextricably linked and influenced by the effectiveness of communication between the people in the network and the manner in which information is disseminated and managed within such a structural. More specifically, the communication between the people in the network will have implications for the level of participation and the way in which ecological ideas are taken up. The interaction of participants who are brought together in a temporary project team, or temporary network, to conceive, design and then implement a highly individualistic building is a particularly complex issue. This paper seeks to address some of these issues, illustrated with a case study.
Hanstroem, M. B., and R. Johansson. "Children and Youth in the Södra Station Area of Stockholm." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 23. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. This paper summarises an evaluative case study of a large newly built housing area framed by older inner-city buildings in Stockholm. It departs from the conditions for youths and children here. The study reveals that the separation of traffic within the area is a much appreciated quality. At the same time, the lack of schools within the area means that children's routes to school often go through neighboring older sections of the city where traffic is experienced as a risky factor. This is also the case when staff with groups of children visit the attractive green areas outside the housing estate. The density of the buildings and the rapid pace of expansion has made the area one of those with the highest proportion of children in northern Europe. The concentration of children in the same age group is very large and is rapidly becoming a sizable batch of teenagers. The youths are seeking more adult contacts. It appears that staff involved iii child care and youth activities know how the physical environment could be better designed. Their knowledge should be taken into account in the planning process.
A Dickson, Whiteside, A. C. White, and D. Beert. "Children's Perception of the Interior Environment." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 74. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. Public spaces must support a diverse group of users. Historically, designers of environments focused on the physical health and safety of users, particularly adults. In recent years, studies have emphasized the unique needs of special populations, some of which have led to policy making and an expanded concept of health and safety to include well_being. This has stimulated research focusing on understanding the psychological impact of the environment on adults, including their environmental preferences. Of all of the groups of users of public spaces, children have been the least considered. Typically, children are not part of the decision_making process, even when the designed environment is specifically for them, and adults often assume that children have identical environmental preferences. As the balance shifts and as roles change among the players involved in making the environment, children continue to be an underrepresented population among users, and little is known of their interior environmental needs and preferences. The objective of this study was to examine the interior built environment preferences of thirty 10-year old children from a moderately-sized southeastern American city. Three evaluative means were utilized. To determine overall preference, the children rated a set of colored slides of typical public spaces that a 10-year old child would commonly experience. To eliminate bias in their responses. care was taken to insure that all slides were of environments unfamiliar to the children. Further. Using an age appropriate semantic-differential scale developed by the investigators, the children again were asked to rate the slides to determine those environmental factors most influential in defining their preferences. To determine the relationship between preference and specific qualities of environmental space (volume, scale, enclosure, etc.), a series of computer_generated drawings focusing on these qualities were developed. The children sorted through the drawings to rank them according to preference for the various interior qualities. Findings will be analyzed and available for presentation at the conference. The research will describe the interior built environmental preferences of urban children, including an analysis of why the children have these preferences and what qualities of the built environment contribute to these preferences. Findings of this research will be of value to designers, architects, planners, and policy makers and will assist them in defending children's interests and in creating interior environments supportive of children's well_being.
Bobbett, C. C.. "Classroom Social Climate: Environmental Perception." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 9. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. The fields of psychology and education have long been studying classroom social climate, student perceptions of the social and psychological properties of their classroom group. Research literature suggests that classroom social climate has a significant effect on student performance issues such as academic achievement, attendance, course satisfaction and other variables. However, research in this field is considered by some to be complex and elusive as it deals with intangible judgements based on student perceptions of their classroom environment. This paper considers methodologies ol assessing the intangible nature of classroom social climate. The use of high inference measures is discussed with special attention given to the College Classroom Environment Scales (CCES).
Brindley, T.. "Community Roles in Urban Regeneration: the Effects of Partnerships on London's South Bank." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 10. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. The role of community groups in influencing the direction of urban planning and development in the UK has changed over time. In spite of formal mechanisms for consultation and 'public participation introduced ill the 1970s, the main channels for community influence have often been through conflict and confrontation. Oppositional strategies have occasionally been effective, but they act as a relatively 'blunt instrument' for communicating local needs and priorities in the planning and development process. In recent years, there has been a strong move towards the formation of partnerships, particularly in urban regeneration, and this has brought community groups and other voluntary organistions into the process in more direct ways. Partnership organisations have combined central and local government, community and voluntary groups, and business and commercial interests on an area or project basis, and appear to have forged an unprecedented cross-sectoral consensus. It is, however, not clear that this apparently consensual approach is achieving more for community interests than the old ways of conflict and protest. This paper explores these issues in the context of a case study of planning and development on London's South Bank. In 1986, after a decade of active opposition and open conflict, and a vigorous popular planning process, community groups in the Waterloo district on a famous victory over property developers and gained control of several prominent sites. They formed a non_profit company, Coin Street Community Builders, and proceeded with a plan to develop these sites. In recent years, CSCB has joined in partnerships with local employers, central and local government, in successful bids for urban regeneration funds for a variety of projects on the South Bank. The paper examines the Coin Street story to give a critical interpretation of the changed role of community organisations in the Waterloo area. It asks if the shift from conflict to partnership is a Faustian exchange, from which the community can only lose in the long run, or a realistic means of bringing community and popular interests into the planning and development process.
Potter, J.J, A.K Fuhrig, Winston X. Van, R. Narten, and J. Honebrink. "Comparison of Perceptions of Residential Satisfaction in Hannover, Germany: Ethnic Germans from Russia Versus Native Germans." In Shifting Balances - Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design: Proceedings of the 15th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. Over 200 years ago, Catherine the Great invited Germans to populate and cultivate the Volga Region of Russia (Levykin, 1995). With a few notable exceptions such as periodic demands for military service, they were generally treated as privileged citizens and by World War I, a total of 1.5 million Germans had moved to Russia (Lutheran Church Services, 1995). However, with the German invasion of Russia in 1941, Stalin declared the ethnic Germans traitors and conspirators (Downey, 1993 p1038). He had them all deported to Siberia and Kazakhstan within 24 hours, separating many families in the rush (Brauer, 1995 p22). Despite the dispersion, after the war many families settled near one another, continuing to speak German and practising the Lutheran religion in their home. With the easing of the Cold War during the 1970s, ethnic Germans in Russia began to re-immigrate to Germany. There were few re-immigrants at first, but since 'The Wall' fell in 1989, there has been a large influx. Today the German government sees its immigration policy for these people as a way to compensate them for the dispersion they suffered as a consequence of World War II (Child Welfare Services, 1995).
Potter, J. J., A. K. Fuhrig, and X. W. Yan. "Comparison of Perceptions of Residential Satisfaction in Hannover, Germany: Ethnic Germans from Russia Vs. Native Germans." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 52. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

Spargelacker is a social housing complex, in a suburban area of Hannover, Germany. About 60% of the residents are native German citizens, 30% are Aussiedler (ethnic Germans from Russia), and the remaining 10% are others of foreign origin. The goals of this exploratory study were broad. focusing on three main areas. The first was to see if there was an objective difference between the demographic characteristics of the Aussiedler and the native German group. The second objective was to see if there was a subjective difference in the perceptions of the physical and social environment between native German residents and Aussiedler. The final goal was then to define which variables were most helpful in predicting the residential satisfaction of each group. Interviews were held by students from the University of Hannover who were native speakers of German. The total number of residents interviewed was 61. The questionnaire consisted of both objective questions and evaluative questions about the physical and social environment of the residents. First, frequency analyses of the five Resident Satisfaction questions were run to. compare responses based on origin. Additional frequency analyses compared the objective housing conditions of the Aussiedler and the Hannoverans. Next, each of the original variables was run through tests. This analysis compared the Aussiedler and the Hannoverans, revealing seven variables that were significant. The seven variables were then analyzed by multiple regression. From the results, it appears that practically speaking all seven variables that assist in discriminating between Aussiedler and Hannoverans embody a social component. However, the variables that help to predict resident satisfaction for Aussiedler and Hannoverans do not overlap often between the groups. In conclusion, it is clear that residential satisfaction is related to social factors. Further, it appears that fulfilling residential satisfaction will be a difficult task when trying to accommodate both Aussiedler and Hannoverans.

Weisman, Gerald D., and Uriel Cohen. "Creating Therapeutic Environments for Dementia Care: Effecting Change in Roles, Rules, and the Conceptualisation of Place." In Shifting Balances - Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design: Proceedings of the 15th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. The creation of more therapeutic environments for dementia care may well require substantial change in the traditional roles of client, planner, designer, and researcher; such 'shifting balances' may be essential if we are to reconceptualise the ways in which our society defines and provides places for care of the cognitively impaired. Many of these changes in roles, wies, and conceptualisation of place were presaged more than fifty years ago by Kurt Lewin in his formulation of action research. Building upon Lewin's model, we identify six conditions necessary for effecting environmental and social change. Projects directed toward the creation of more therapeutic environments for dementia care -carried out by a range of researchers and care providers over the past two decade- are then briefly reviewed to illustrate and reinforce these six preconditions for environmental change. Lewin argued that the implementation of social change -whether this be change as ambitious as reducing racial prejudice or as seemingly prosaic as increasing consumption of beef hearts in support of the war effort- first requires 'unfreezing of the situation'; some 'additional force' is required to overcome an 'inner resistance' to change. In the context of environments for the elderly and infirm, the emergence of public and professional awareness of the enormous social and economic costs of Alzheimer's disease and related dementias has played a powerful role in unfreezing our understanding of what nursing homes are 'supposed to be'.
Weisman, G. D., and U. Cohen. "Creating Therapeutic Environments for Dementia Care: Effecting Change in Roles, Rules, and the Conceptualization of Place." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 3-4. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. "The creation of more therapeutic environments for dementia care may well require substantial change in the traditional roles of client, planner, designer, and researcher; such "shifting balances" may be essential if we are to reconceptualize the ways in which our society defines and provides places for care of the cognitively impaired. Many of these changes in roles, rules, and conceptualization of place were presaged more than 50 years ago by Kurt Lewin in his formulation of action research. Building upon Lewin's model, we identify six conditions necessary for effecting environmental and social change. Projects directed toward the creation of more therapeutic environments for dementia care _carried out by a range of researchers and care providers over the past two decade -- are then briefly reviewed to illustrate and reinforce these six preconditions for environmental change. Lewin argued that the implementation of social change __ whether this be change as ambitious as reducing racial prejudice or as seemingly prosaic as increasing consumption of beef hearts in support of the war effort __ first requires "unfreezing of the situation;" some "additional force" is required to overcome an "inner resistance" to change. In the context of environments for the elderly and infirm, the emergence of public and professional awareness of the enormous social and economic costs of Alzheimer's disease and related dementias has played a powerful role in unfreezing our understanding of what nursing homes are "supposed to be." Further impetus for such change is to be found in a number of "demonstration projects" implemented over the past two decades in which facilities have been consciously created as test beds for exploration and evaluation of philosophical, organizational, and architectural innovations. Widely disseminated in the professional as well as the academic and popular press, these facilities have served as powerful agents for change, presenting other care providers with an enhanced vision of what is possible as well as more specific substantive and procedural guidance. Often associated with such demonstration projects are efforts to effect change in those rides, reflected in both local and national codes and standards, which serve to shape environments for dementia care. Such demonstration projects may be seen as reflective of Lewin's call for a more "integrated" or "systemic" approach to social research. Lewin believed that social change requires consideration of multipIe levels of aggregation [i.e., family, group, social institutions, neighborhood, and community and thus requires cooperation between fields as traditionally autonomous as psychology, sociology, and cultural anthropology. Such an "integrated" or "systemic" approach can be clearly seen in the research of environmental gerontologists such as Lawton and Moos as well as in more recent work on "special care units" for the cognitively impaired, including the conceptual framework which guides the work of our Institute on Aging and Environment. Many dementia care demonstration projects have likewise endeavored to explore the relationships among, as well as the impacts of, change within organizational, social, and architectural subsystems. The next two themes distilled from Lewin's work -- "a spiral of steps" and "group decision making" are perhaps most clearly reflective of his initial conceptualization of "action research' and can be usefully considered together. The notion of iterative cycles of investigation_action_evaluation is clearly central to most models of "action research" or "reflective practice," as is a commitment to a more inclusive and participatory decision making process. Many dementia care demonstration projects have emerged from quite extended and highly participatory planning, programming, and design processes. Most have been the focus of systematic evaluation, in one instance involving feed forward to two subsequent new facilities. Unlike the more traditional positivist model of science prevalent in his era, Lewin recognized the need to link "general" principles emerging from research with "local" circumstances. Diagnosis of local conditions as well as general principles are necessary, Lewin argued, for formulation of an appropriate course of action. Our own efforts to provide design guidance for the creation of therapeutic environments for dementia care has endeavored to reflect and respect this distinction between the "general" and the "local." Beginning with very basic characteristics of people with dementia, we endeavor to formulate broadly applicable "therapeutic goals" [e.g., provision of privacy, continuity of the self]. These goals then serve as the foundation for more detailed "principles for design" with their application to specific local circumstances illustrated through "prototypical designs" and [more frequently in recent years] through actual projects. Finally, Lewin argued that we must add to our traditional focus on research and action a third element __ training. The initiation of meaningful social change, to be carried out by participatory teams in cyclical fashion, requires the training of professionals with skills in group building as well as research and action_taking. The National Alzheimer's Design Assistance Project [NADAP], conducted by our Institute on Aging and Environment and now in it's second 3 year cycle, may be seen as one such effort to link training, research and action. Teams of designers and care providers with a commitment to the creation of new and innovative dementia care facilities are brought together for two days of training, including both didactic and hands_on sessions. The NADAP project has as its goal the nurturance of a next generation of model facilities for dementia care. In the context of facilities for the cognitively impaired, change may be essential as well as inevitable. Perhaps only through a reconceptualiation of the nature of this place type. along with the roles those engaged in their implementation, operation, and evaluation, and the rules by which they are designed and administered, can we adequately shift the balance toward the creation of truly therapeutic environments for dementia care."
Nordstroem, M.. "Cultural Differences in Environmental Notions in Children in France and Sweden." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 47. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. "A comparative research project in Sweden and France concerning environmental conceptualization in children of different ages indicates that their emotional investment in the environment differs considerably. The differences might have to do with differing models of interaction between children and adults as well as with differing ideals set by the adults of these cultures for children's attitudes towards the environment. The very concept of childhood might be concerned as children seem to be "made" to attach themselves on one hand "freely" to the surrounding physical environment and on the other hand explicitly by way of the social context, both of which strategies would be related to psycho-social norms in the children's cultures. The two different "strategies" in Sweden and in France adopted by the young child early in life indicate that they could be a matter of enduring emotional involvement. Some reflection will be presented on how - as a consequence of these "strategies" for adaptation - environmental values and interests characteristic of adult members of these two cultures differ."
Turgut, H.. "Culture, Space and Urbanization a Structural Analysis of Housing Pattern in Squatter Settlements." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 67. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. "The continuing process of squatterization constitutes a housing problem directly related to the rapid physical and socio_cultural changes occurring in the home environment and one which is especially epidemic to the urban centers of developing countries. Squatter_settlement housing patterns undergo a dramatic transition during this process of change, from that of a temporary shelter to a permanent house. On the basis of these arguments, this paper aims both to explore the transition process by focusing on the socio-cultural aspects of changing housing patterns in squatter settlements and to form an analytic model of the squatter housing pattern within the acculturative-urbanization process. This paper is mainly based on research projects carried out by the author whose aims were the identification of the effects of socio-cultural and psychological settings on the spatial formation in home environments during the process of urbanization. The theoretical approach of these studies is based on a holistic concept that includes cultural, psychological, spatial and temporal components in a transactional perspective. The paper consists of five sections with a brief introduction on the squatter phenomenon in Turkey in the context of culture and home studies. The first section deals with the relationships of culture, behavior and home environment in the 'acculturative urbanization process" based on the determination of the structural analysis of housing patterns within these processes. In the second section acculturation process in squatter settlements will be analyzed in the light of the structural analysis of housing patterns. Third section presents a "Structural Analysis Model of Squatter Housing Pattern within the Acculturative-Urbanization Process. This analytic model is based on an iterative structure determining the formation of the home within an input_output process; among cultural components - meaning of home - behavioral settings - use of home - physical setting of home. The fourth section covers a case study that examines the steps of acculturation process in squatter settlements. As a conclusion, results and finding of the research will he given in the last section"
Westerberg, Ulla, and Jan Eriksson. "Dwelling Habits and Values - Inertia and Change in Sweden." In Shifting Balances - Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design: Proceedings of the 15th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. This paper is mainly based on the results from a survey on dwelling habits and values in new flats. The survey is an integral part of a research project with the object to discuss expert knowledge on housing design represented by a method to evaluate design qualities. We call it the expert method. The criteria of the expert method are essentially based on the former building code as well as on rather well established expert values and knowledge about dwelling habits and housing design. The expert values, however, may be changing, and they are all the same questioned in the name of new housing ideologies. As a starting point for the discussion we have made an up to date description of changes in dwelling habits and values. What is the effect of decreasing household sizes, new furniture and other objects that are used or at least stored in the dwelling, changed eating habits and forms of social activities, expanding paid work at home? Variety is the key word in the mental change of housing policy today. In what respects would a greater variety be usefUl when it comes to housing design?
Westerberg, U, and J. Eriksson. "Dwelling Habits and Values - Inertia and Change in Sweden." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 74. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. How are new flats used and appreciated? Variations in dwelling habits and values are analysed with reference to household type and housing design qualities. The starting point is a survey of 820 households in a random sample of flats built in 1993. The image of everyday life emerging from the answers is compared with that of earlier surveys of dwelling habits and other studies on more limited aspects such as eating and cooking habits. Part of the questionnaire concerns home-based work, which could be paid or unpaid, desk work or other kinds of work, but not typical housework. These questions are supplemented with telephone interviews in some 40 households, most of them to some extent having reported home based work.
Reis, A.T.. "Dwelling Types: Implications for Territorial Control, Maintenance and Use of Open Spaces, and Housing Estate Appearance." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 56. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. This paper deals with the improvement of human well-being and the physical environment by looking at the implications of different dwelling types for territorial control, maintenance and use of open spaces and for housing estate appearance. Hence, the relationship between those who take part in the process of 'researching, planning, designing and actually making the environment' is examined by looking at the results of producing different housing environments where research almost does not exist and planning and designing are well far away from those who actually shape the environment, namely, the users. The results presented and analysed were produced from data collected in three housing estates in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, which comprise four different dwelling types. Data gathering means such as questionnaires, interviews and observation were used and non-parametric statistical tests were employed in data analysis, apart from the qualitative analysis. It was revealed that the different dwelling types have quite distinct impacts for territorial control, maintenance and use of open spaces and for housing estate appearance, and the importance of these aspects for resident satisfaction.
Wahl, H. W., U Lehr, F. Oswald, H. Mollenkopf, K. Gang, and E. Minnemann. "Elderly People and their Environments." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 72. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. "Over the last decades the societal and physical environments, including all types of technologies, have changed at increasing speed. For elderly people, in particular, it is difficult to keep pace with these developments because of several reasons: The prevalence of sensory loss, of declining motor performance, or of chronic illness is growing with advancing years. Unfavourable environmental and technological conditions are by this of more serious consequences and make an autonomous living inside and outside the home more difficult. Older people are largely cut off from modernisation processes which are conveyed by gainful labour. Therefore, the increasing mechanisation of public spaces and services by new information and communication technologies can lead to massive problems for them. As a consequence, the relationship of elderly people to their environments is of increasing importance because of individual and societal reasons. Before this background, this symposium includes several contributions of researchers of The German Center for Research on Aging. This Center, and in particular its Department for Social and Environmental Gerontology, has made the investigation into the issue of person_environment relations in old age its business. The primary aim of the symposium is thus to sensitise for this topic as well as to present a bunch of empirical results of according research projects done at the Centre. Also, the plan is to discuss these results with external discussants and interested participants in the conference. In the introductory paper presented by Hans_Werner Wahl, an general overview on recent research regarding the topic of person_environment relations in the old age will be given. Also, potential practical implications which probably may change the everyday life of the today's and tomorrow's elderly are highlighted. The second paper presented by Frank Oswald starts from the insight that housing research often put too much emphasis on the standard of objective housing conditions and the role of home modifications for older people. Little attention has been paid, however, to the subjective experience of home in old age and-to processes of "place attachment". The third paper by Heidrun Mollenkopf points to the fact that mobility is the decisive link between the individual and his or her social and built environment. To approach this issue, a report of the results of an international research project comparing the mobility and activity patterns of 55 years old and older men and women in three European countries with diverging cultural, geographical and structural backgrounds (Finland. Germany and Italy) will be given. A fourth contribution provided by Karin Gang will focus on one farreaching and mostly self-chosen change of the environment that is, relocation within private household living. As main part of this paper, motivations of move are analysed according to (1) function (push versus pull factors), (2) content (person, environment, other), and (3) basic (e.g., health) vs. higherorder needs (e.g., privacy). Finally, the presentation of Minnemann, Schmitt and Sperling will cover a broader life span regarding subjective and objective housing aspects. In particular. the German Interdisciplinary Longitudinal Study on Adult Development and Aging offers the opportunity to compare housing issues of a cohort of elderly born in 1930-32 with a cohort of middle-aged persons born in 1950-52."
Toyama, T.. "Environment - Behavior Study in a Dementia Care Facility, Based Upon Traditional Japanese Residential Architecture." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 66. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. The study illuminates environment_behavior study in one of the latest group living for people with dementia in Japan. The facility was designed based upon traditional Japanese residential architecture taking account of its responsiveness to the residents' lifestyle, daily activities, and rituals etc. As survey methods behavior observation and interviews with staffs were used and behavior maps of each identified residents were made every 10 minutes to record where respective residents were and what they were doing and in case of conversation whom they were talking with. The survey has been repeated three times (2, 4, and 7 months in use) on the same continuous three days of the week (Saturday, Sunday, and Monday). The results showed changes over time of the residents' spatial use patterns which suggest positive adaptive behavior. The residents' behavior is influenced by density of staff which varies among the three days.
Adachi, Kei, and K. Funahashi. "Environment - Behavior Study in Japanese Group Living." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 6. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. Dementia care has become one of the major social issues in developed countries including Japan. Dementia currently affects more than one million Japanese elderly people. About 75% of people with dementia stay in home, mostly being taken care of by family members. The remaining 25% are eared for in nursing homes, geriatric hospitals and other related facilities. Besides those conventional types of the environment, innovative facilities of group living have been recently built in homelike setting. The study illustrates environment-behavior study in one of the models. The new model has several group living units. Each unit has 10-12 residents. The behaviors related to dementia such as wandering, disturbance, acting out, were compared the three months data with the one year data after becoming residency. The frequency and time spent in such behaviors significantly decreased, especially wandering behavior. There were also significant differences among degrees of dementia. The study suggest that group living units are invaluable in terms of decreasing confused behaviors.
Pol, E, S Valera, E Cruells, A Paricio, O Pol, A Reixach, N Schilman, and N. Vatlés. "Environment and Urban Social Identity, a Case Study: Barcelona's Olympic Village." In Shifting Balances - Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design: Proceedings of the 15th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. Since the theoretical formalisation of the concept of place-identity (Proshansky, Fabian & Kaminoff, 1983) a new tradition has begun to evolve from the perspective of environmental psychology, which seeks to relate socio-physical aspects of the environment to processes and theories of identity. In the light of the existing literature, it seems valid to claim that this tradition has become gradually consolidated since then (Feldman, 1990; Giuliani, 1991; Hormuth, 1990; Hunter, 1987; Korpela, 1989, 1996; Krupat, 1983; Lalli, 1988, 1992; Proshansky & Fabian, 1987; Sarbin, 1983; Twigger & Uzzell, 1996; Uzzell, 1995; Valera, 1993, 1996, 1997; Valera & Pol, 1994). In summary, the aim is to bridge a conceptual gap highlighted by Proshansky, Fabian & Kaminoff: the fact that aspects related to the physical environment are largely neglected in psycho-social theories, and in particular in the theories of social identity.
Pol, E, S Valera, E Cruells, A Paricio, O Pol, N Rexach, N Schilman, and N. Valles. "Environment and Urban Social Identity, a Case Study: Barcelona's Olympic Village." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 51. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. The paper aims to establish the theoretical relationship between the people's link with definite surroundings and the social identity processes derived from the relation with these places. Two theoretical traditions are reported for this purpose: the concept of place_identity and its developments and the social identity theories derived from Tajfel and Turner's works. In fact, the paper presents the main results obtained from an empirical investigation which concern to the genesis of urban social identity in a new created neighborhood in Barcelona city appeared as a result of the celebration of the Olympic Games 1992'. A questionnaire applied to 300 subjects were used to obtain data. Name and borders of the district, level of identification with it, differences perceived between the neighborhood and the other ones, and the presence of symbolic urban spaces are the main questions reported by the individuals. The results shown the presence of a related urban identity based on the external social status the neighborhood has in relation with Barcelona as a whole. Only a little evidence of an own social identity construction appears.
Y de Kort, Slangen-, R Verhoef, Kei Adachi, K Funahashi, U. Cohen, A. Declercq, M Edge, G. D. Weisman, and T. Toyama. "Environments for People with Dementia. a Cross - Cultural Perspective on Research and Applications." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 61. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. The design of more supportive environments for people with dementia has emerged recently as a topic of concern in many nations worldwide, particularly in countries where the population is growing is aging more rapidly. The focus of this symposium, with presenters from the USA. Scotland. Japan. and The Netherlands will be twofold: what is the nature of the research that is done on environments for people with dementia in different cultures and what are recent, substantial findings? Secondly, the question if current research on environments for people with dementia is ready for a cross_cultural utilization will be addressed. Key issues will include: the usability of various research methods, the possible benefits of cross-cultural studies in this domain, and critical characteristics of the design of these studies, in order to facilitate comparisons between different countries and cultures. This will result in a formulation of future research directions on environments for people with dementia.
Ritt, W.. "Ethnic Life in Local Parks: a Challenge for Planning and Politics." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 56. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. "In the last years after the fall of the Iron Curtain, migration to Vienna rose significantly so that in some parts of the city the share of foreign population increased up to 30% and more. One of the most visible results for public life in the city was the development of "ethnic parks" in traditional working class neighbourhoods. From some parts of the public this was seen as the first sign for the development of "slums". New users brought in unusual patterns of use, conflicts between different use groups arose, and tensions were high especially during hot summer days (and nights). Political attention focused on park life more thanever before, and public perception was partly painted in black and white ("Vienna should not become Chicago"). Traditional concepts for the management and the design of these urban spaces were no longer suitable. As apolitical reflex a new form of park management was established. The goals of this study have been first of all to find out what's really going on in those parks, then to identify how the different social and cultural background of residents influences the pattern of use, and last but not least how characteristics of the built environment influence the behaviour of park users. The second goal was to review the exiting strategied for design and management of those public spaces and contribute to the development of a new strategy, instead of ad hoc interventions for those parks."
Murakawa, S, N Daisaku, and Y Jun. "Evaluation of Traditional Green Landscapes by Regional Inhabitants." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 46. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. "The green spaces in regional areas affect the inhabitants to have peace of mind. When the green space is identified as a traditional landscape, it will be a symbol in the area. However, the inhabitant's evaluation for the landscape will be changed by the characters of an individual such as his/her opinions for value system, life style, living conditions, affection to the region, etc. Therefore, the object of this study is to analyze the relationship between the evaluation of traditional green landscapes and personal characters and evaluation of green spaces. The authors carried out the questionnaire survey at Hikawa town of Shimane Prefecture in Japan, where is remaining the traditional groves called "Tsuiji-matsu"; a kind of pines. From ancient times, the inhabitants had planted the strong trees on the premises to protect a house from a flood of the Hi-i River. The present green landscapes had been formed about one hundred years ago. The groves of Tsuiji_matsu are from eleven to thirteen meters high; some higher than the top of a roof, and also have functions to protect a house against a seasonal strong wind in winter. The contents of questionnaire were classified roughly into five categories; (1) Evaluation of the living environment, (2) Character of answerer, (3) Evaluation of the green spaces, (4) Evaluation of Tsuiji Matsu, (5) Evaluation of the green landscapes by the four pictures attached to the sheets. In this paper, we analyzed the contents of the last 4 categories, and found the following main results: (1.) We clarified the characters of an individual, and got the basic data to analyze each evaluation. (2.) The evaluations of the green spaces were different among the three districts in Hikawa town. Especially, the streets area had low evaluation for the groves on the premises. (3.) The inhabitants had high concern, satisfaction and consciousness of preservation for Tsuiji-matsu. (4.) The inhabitants perceived the green landscapes with two dimensions of "Pleasantness" and "Tradition". (5.) The evaluation of "Tradition" was mainly influenced by persons who think nature important or not. However, the factors influenced in evaluation of "Pleasantness" varied in each landscape."
Kowaltowski, D.C.C.K, R.C. Ruschel, S.A. Mikami, A.D. Granja, and H.V. Harada de Oliveira. "Examples of User Representation in Brazilian Housing and the Need for Professional Support in the Self - Building Process." In Shifting Balances - Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design: Proceedings of the 15th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. Urbanisation at an increased scale has had a marked effect on housing in Brazil over the last thirty years. Urban centres have grown at a disproportional rate against rural population (Schütz, 1987) with resultant urban problems of poverty, low quality housing, housing shortage as well as increasing crime. During this period several tendencies in residential production can be identified with respective results in housing design and user satisfaction. This paper shows some examples from the state of São Paulo of these housing types of the last ten years, their representation of user interest and the resultant housing quality. The work will concentrate on the self-building process, presently the largest housing production in urban areas in Brazil, and discuss its problems and design interference needs. A house design tool for the self-building environment is presented.
Kowaltowski, D. C. C. K., R. C. Ruschel, S. A. M. G. Pina, A. D. Granja, and P. V. H. de Oliveira. "Examples of User Representation in Brazilian Housing and the Need for Professional Support in the Self_Building Process." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 33. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. This paper discusses some housing examples of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, and their user representation. It is shown that official projects have had little impact on the total housing needs in the region and that 60% of residential production is self-built. A sample of the self_building process was analysed in a specific municipality (Campinas, S.P.) to measure the need for professional help in the sector. The sample showed diversity of construction and comfort quality of houses. The difficulty in organising user groups in the local self-building process and the environment of economic constraint call for specific professional intervention especially regarding design of houses. A design tool, based in a popular CAD system, was devised. This method permits efficient attention to user needs and representation of self-builders with a degree of individualisation in house design.
Keul, A.G.. "Expert and User Opinions on Vienna University Lecture Halls." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 31. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. In the Lecture Hall Redesign Project at Vienna University of Technology (V.U.T.) highlighted by Bob Martens in his paper, planners and students were assisted by environmental psychology. The V.U.T. was the first Austrian university offering environmental psychology courses since 1991, followed by the Graz University of Technology. Other than in public schools, studies on university lecture halls have been sparse and unsystematic. Nevertheless, redesign studies of university environments belong to the classical fields of environmental design studies (e.g. Sommer's soft classroom). To generate useful input prior to the intended process, a qualitative, narrative questionnaire form followed by a semantic differential designed for university lecture halls, was used. The main object under study was the V.U.T. old lecture hall 7, called Schuette-Lihotzky-Auditorium, a 220 seat object with historic dignity but in a bad state with a high need of repair. Parallel studies were done in the recently renovated hall 18 (247 seats), hall l4a renovated longer ago (106 seats), and hall 6 (177 seats). Necessary upgrading of lecture hall 7 had in mind an aesthetic and user-friendly design. Besides user wellness, what are the functional focal points of a lecture hall fit for the next millenium? The practical study secured answers from experts (planners and university teachers) and student users (experts for lecture hall use !) and produced input for the design program. As the lecture hall users collected the empirical input and did the design work, the Lecture Hall Redesign Project is an ideal didactic prototype of a user participation process steered by architecture and environmental psychology.
Dovey, K.. "Forbidden Space." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 17. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. This paper is an account of the most enclosed and the most open centres of political power in urban history, the Forbidden City and Tiananmen Square in Beijing. It draws upon both spatial analysis and theories of representation to show how this inversion from the enclosed to the open operated as both a signifier of liberation and a cover for new practices of power. This story raises some general issues in our understanding of the space and power. Urban form, in both its structures and representations, always legitimates the regime which produces it. Yet when ideals such as democracy and liberty are inscribed and represented in urban form and public space, such sites may become potent places of resistance.
Dovey, Kim. "Forbidden Space: the Forbidden City and Tiananmen Square." In Shifting Balances - Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design: Proceedings of the 15th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. For much of Chinese imperial history the emperor ruled from within the nested walls of the Forbidden City in Beijing. Named 'forbidden' after its strict exclusion of the Chinese people, this was one of the most enclosed and segmented centres of power in urban history. The revolution of 1948 brought the construction of Tiananmen Square outside its entrance. Conceived as the antithesis of forbidden space, the square was a representation of the 'people', designed to contain over a million of them on its 40 hectare unwalled expanse. From April to June 1989 several thousand students camped out on Tiananmen Square, periodically joined by up to a million supporters. Under the gaze of global television the largest urban plaza in the world also became the most visible, the least hidden. So symbolically charged has this place become that the presence of the people in the people's plaza undermined the legitimacy of an empire. Forbidden space has been re-imposed.
Edge, M., and G.A. Slaven. "From the Special to the Universal in Design for People with Dementia; Housing Design and Culture in Rural Scotland." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 18. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. At the Scottish Centre for Environmental Design Research ('SEARCH') in Aberdeen, Scotland, research on environments for elderly people has focused on housing in small, rural communities. Such communities have a number of features which have commended a move away from 'special needs' provision and towards a 'universal' approach to the design of 'lifetime homes'. Most western societies face a crisis in social housing as the proportion of small households composed of elderly people rises dramatically and is set to rise further. In this context such rural communities are, in a sense, ahead of the field. The 'SEARCH' presentation summarises the research done on housing for elderly people in rural Scotland and presents the subsequent practical design results of this research, in the form of houses being developed as part of the Scottish Rural House Demonstration Centre. The opportunities for a deeper understanding of the requirements of environments responsive to the needs of people with disability, arising from this demonstration project, are highlighted. The implications of this work in relation to the care of people with dementia will also be discussed. It goes on to suggest that, whilst building designers need a greater appreciation of the particular requirements of housing for people with dementia, the future lies in flexible, adaptable, lifetime homes which can respond to the changing needs of people, rather than in institutional, 'special needs' housing provision.
Symes, M, and S. Pauwels. "Gatekeeping the New Urbanism: the Achievement of Sustainability in the Redevelopment of Hulme." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 65. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. "The role of town planning in British local government is changing rapidly. The most recent development is for planners to offer neither detailed prescription nor abstract goals but various forms of guidance. To evaluate this approach requires an understanding of the ways in which such published suggestions for action are understood or interpreted, and then adopted, modified or rejected, by those to whom they are addressed. This is particularly problematic where the guidance encourages the adoption of novel ideas and the abandonment of traditional approaches. The paper applies the theory of innovation-diffusion to this problem, arguing that addressing novel urban design criteria in an evolving design control system should be thought of as an interactive social process similar to those involved in the spread of technological innovations. The developers and designers who refer to newly defined guidelines in the specification of their projects, and their attempts to gain approval for them, are influenced by the activites of "gatekeepers" and critics of various kinds. They fall into a number of categories as to the speed with which they "adopt" the ideas, and they are more or less sensitive to "barriers" to the pursuit of their versions of the proposed solution-types. As a result, some innovative concepts of urban design "survive" and others are rejected. The paper takes as a example the trend for encouraging developers to consider sustainability in neighbourhood scale design and includes a detailed case study from Manchester. Ill this a description of the Hulme Regeneration project and its design guide is supplemented by discussion of a small set of interviews with members of the team who wrote the guide and are attempting to implement its provisions."
Pavlides, L, S. Mazumdar, J. Robinson, L. K. Hart, and G. Cranz. "Gender and Public Space." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 50. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. The papers presented in this symposium address the issue of public space appropriation in tcrnis of both the physical architecture of public places and the architecture of gender relations. Shampa and Sanjoy Mazumdar have studied India and Iran, societies where there are public spaces exclusive to each gender and a third accessed by both, being negotiated by women under certain conditions. Laurie Hart and Lefteri Pavlides examined access and utilization of public space in Greece. a society where gender segregation in public space has been replaced with gender integration over the last fifty years. Galen Cranz and Julia Robinson have investigated the utilization of public space in the USA where public space has been generally integrated from the inception of the culture. Use of public space can be seen as an agent of enculturation and socialization, either maintaining social roles and contributing to cultural continuity, or modulating change in social activities and becoming an instrument of cultural change. Physical continuity does not preclude social change as existing public spaces acquire new meanings through subtle or sudden shifts in behavioral changes. Conversely, social behavior and roles are maintained as construction of new public spaces is paralleled by the formation of perceptions which conserve existing social roles and relationships. However change often relies on a synergism between social and physical changes which initiate and reinforce each other. By researching how change or continuity in the architecture of public spaces are appropriated and used in relation to conservation or modifications of gender roles and actions in public places, each presentation sheds some light on the following questions: (*) How does occupying public places influence the conservation or transformation of gender roles? (*) How does the control of secular vs. sacred places vary by gender? (*) How do public spaces have served as arenas for maintaining or contesting the relative political power of the genders?
Brieger, C, and H Meier. "Globalisation and Flexibilisation of the Working Process and the Impact on Theories on Housing - Estate Rehabilitation and Revitalisation." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 9. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. "Rehabilitation and revitalisation of housing estates mostly takes place on the premise of stronger environmental links of the residents to the housing environment. Especially to one's own flat or house, but also to the local surrounding. If the identification with the flat or house increases, the environmental responsibility will increase as well, and the interest in an intact housing environment will also increase. By means of three examples, the redevelopment area Divis Flats (Belfast/Northern Ireland), the "Block 6 Projekt" in Hamburg_Steilshoop and the housing estate Neckarstadt-Ost/Mannheim (both in Germany) it will be shown that this rehabilitation approach has been successful. The intention of this paper for an intensive session is for that reason not a "pro or contra discussion" about this rehabilitation approach. The question to be discussed is rather: how can such rehabilitation approaches work ill the future of so called globalisation and flexibilisation? The theories behind such approaches as well as the ideas behind a large number of integrative housing projects like neighbourhood units, the "Gartenstadt Bewegung" (garden city movement) or working class house_building, are based on the principle of a better environmental link through more identification with the house and the housing estate. Several studies about the future of labour organisation assume more flexibilisation, more changes of employment and as a result of these changes a shorter time of living in one estate. A shorter time of' staying in one place, more frequent removals can lead to a “why should I have any interest in my local environment? I'll live here for just a short time” attitude. This makes it more difficult to create an identification with the flat/house and the local environment. What impact could the shorter time of staying have on future rehabilitation programmes? Is it possible to organize new rehabilitation programmes with the current rehabilitation approaches, in the face of huge economical changes and more flexibility and mobility? Or do we need a new theoretical framework? If so, what are the theoretical and political alternatives?"
Tanaka, C, T Noguchi, and I Majima. "Going Out of Disabled People and Aged, Approach Design and Snow Removal from the Access Areas to their Houses in a Cold and Snowy Region in Winter." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 65. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. The purpose of this study was to analyze the entrance and the access areas conditions and range of mobilities, such as home entrance space and access, of disabled and aged living at home in a cold and snowy region. We have studied 97 disabled people and 102 aged living at detached house in Hokkaido about the actual conditions of going out, approach design and snow removal from the access areas. Of the aged group, 70 percent are walking to the recreational facility which is near their home in winter every day. Shopping on their way home is considered one of the best enjoyments. On the other side, almost all of the disabled are going to a hospital and an institution for rehabilitation by car which is driven by nursing man once or twice for a week. They have little enjoyment for going out. There were houses which have over 1 0 meters long in an access. And also there were over I meter height of the first floor because of snow removal. Thus situations are harsh for them to go out. But it is good to escape much snow. In both groups, 90 percent were clearing snow for themselves or their family every day. However they pointed out as problems that it is hard work to clearing snow around the garage and an entrance area. Sometimes, they have not enough space for clearing snow. About 30 percent of all respondents were dissatisfied about snow clearing. On the other hand, we found design related factors in respect to snow removal. For instance a good design of a house appeared to be an exquisite combination of house and garage and a convenient roof for snow removal. Furthermore there were drains for the water and road heating. So people can be undamaged by the snow. In such circumstances it is easy to go out. For the two groups, hope of the installation of this type of support faculties is the highest for the future. If we think about disabled and aged in a cold and snowy region being able to go out easily, it is necessary that we take every factor, approach design, method of clearing snow, how to garage and the support machinery, into consideration.
Herholdt, A.. "Gqebera, Port Elizabeth: Recreation and Leisure in a South African Township." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 24. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. Gqebera, also known as Walmer Township, sprang up on the periphery of a plush white town in the 1920's. It was only proclaimed in 1948 as a residential area to bring it under the control of the Bantu local authorities of the day. The peripheral areas remained the property of the white local council. Due to the influx of people as a result of urbanization the township started expanding and by 1984 the peripheral areas were inhabited. The government of the day responded by threatening the township dwellers with evacuation and ordered them not to build their houses with permanent materials. These resulted in many wood_and_iron dwellings been built. Since then, and as Port Elizabeth expanded, several unsuccessful efforts have been made to close down and remove the township. Because of the governments resistance to the expansion of the township, newcomers to the township started erecting dwellings in the backyards of existing households, (now classified as backyard settlements) leading to high densities and little or no open spaces. The government remained uncommitted to developing the township and by 1984, there were only 15 taps serving a population of about IS 000. By 1990 it was decided not to move the township, and the existing transport laws were relaxed to allow taxis into the township. The South African National Civil Organisation took over the responsibility of cutting up and allocating the erven as well as laying out the roads. The attraction of its central location resulted in a massive influx of people: so much so, that after 1992 the expansion into the peripheral areas got out of control. Being neglected over the troublesome years of its development, it today lacks many of the basic facilities and infra-structure associated with an environment where people live. It is the aim of this paper to investigate one of these issues: recreation and sport. By means of a questionnaire, a survey of existing facilities and interviews with community leaders the intensi6n is to establish the recreational and sporting facility needs of this community and suggest possible solutions. Initial investigations show that the growing realisation amongst community leaders that Gqebera has reached its capacity should be put across to the community and that de-densification should be investigated in order to create a more balanced environment.
Moore, R, N Cosco, K. Malone, D. Driskell, P. 0. Zylicz, H. Wilhjelm, and I. Swart-Kruger. "Growing up in Cities." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 44. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

Twenty_five years ago, sponsored by UNESCO and under the leadership of Kevin Lynch, a series of field studies was conducted in cities in Argentina, Australia, Mexico, and Poland to investigate the urban environment of 10 to 14 year olds from low income neighbourhoods. In 1996, a replication of Growing Up in Cities (GUEC) was launched, expanded to eight countries, again sponsored by UNESCO, as well the Norwegian Centre for Child Research and Childwatch International. Growing Up in Cities builds on Lynch's principle that children most effectively learn self_confidence and achieve identity by engagement with the public places of their neighborhood and city. These are the same places where they will need to manage their own affairs and demonstrate social and environmental responsibility when they are adults. GUIC has attempted to understand how different urban environments encourage or inhibit these dimensions of development. The 1990s focus on the Convention on the Rights of the Child has given the study a strong participatory thrust leading to greater concern for policy development and presentation of the issues for public debate by young citizens themselves. Not only have their perspectives been expressed in standardised research results, they have also worked with the researchers and community_based organisations to articulate recommendations with their own voice to the municipal authorities_a critical first step in building effective governance structures. An important outcome of the research is that young citizens begin to build their own capacity for dealing with the issues embedded in the key research questions: (*) How do young people use and perceive their neighborhood environment, how does it shape their lives? What environmental and social supports do low income, working_class urban communities offer? (*) How do urban conditions facilitate or restrict healthy development? How can children themselves be involved in enhancing the advantages and reducing the problems of their urban environment? (*) What conditions prepare children to invest hope and energy in their communities and cities? (*) How do urban conditions around the world reflect rapidly changing global economic and social forces? How can the negative consequences of these changes be addressed through community action? // Much of Lynch's original methodology has been reapplied. Measures include inventories of environmental resources and risks, observations of children's behavior in streets, public places, and vacant land. Parents' and children's reports indicate the range of movement and activities within the local community and the surrounding city. Time budgets document typical weekday and weekend activities. Children made lists of community places and people they know, identified places of attraction and avoidance, described their degree of boredom or engagement, drew images and took photographs of their cities. Differences between girls' and boys' experiences have been evaluated. Children. parents, and city officials have assessed past and future urban changes and their effects on young peoples lives. The IAPS conference provides a unique opportunity to bring together members of the GUIC team to present study conclusions and comparisons between countries and to engage in a critical discourse on the action_research methodology employed.

Sagsoez, A, I Arslan, and A. Colak. "Harmony of Old and New in Historical Areas, Observed Approaches and Considered Project Principles." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 58. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. Plans made in historical environments, taking harmony between new and old one as the host important concept, create problems ill the approach generally followed by designers. Moreover, the principles of design considered by the designers, and especially facade features and materials, will be illustrated in this paper from an aesthetic perspective. Project principles ill a historical area are changing according to the characteristics of the area and are put forth according to the continuity of the area, location of the building, its formation, its functioning. its historical development, and the level of influence of each building process. Making a project in harmony is still a problem, especially to aesthetic worries. Basic concepts that create aesthetic activity are: order, settlement, harmony, symmetry, incidental details, and dispersion. From these concepts, order is defined as having one element in a building either ill itself or its being distributed in proportion to each other. Settlement is gathering all dimensioned elements with the best suitable way in a building. Harmony is like in a building wholeness, it is the other elements being wholly elegant and balanced. Symmetry is the harmony among the elements of a building and mutual influence on one side of a building to the other side. Incidental details is a view without error composing together with the other parts accepted as fully delightful shaped. Dispersion is the very good distribution of materials and building ground, its usage like using all these concepts ill the present environment_ it is also one of the major problems of forming new buildings ill these environments.
Horne, S. C.. "Hierarchy of Designability in the Classroom Environment." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 26. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. "This study is part of a Ph.D. that explores the relationships between the classroom environment and its effects on the practice of teachers. Through the definition of environment, a framework for defining the classroom environment has been developed, a hierarchy of designabilitv has been identified. he classroom environment has teachers, regulators and designers involved in the designing team. As diverse groups, misconceptions and different points of view occur. In the effort of identifying how these groups interact, an analysis of how they view the setting is developed into a hierarchy o! designability. The physical environment of the classroom has been classified into two main groups: hard architecture and soft architecture. Hard architecture is defined as fixed features, that is, physical features that are relatively non movable (eg. walls). There are three categories in the soft architecture group. These are: semi-fixed features (eg. electrical sockets), semi-flexible features (eg. bookshelves) and flexible features (eg. chairs). With these elements in mind, the classroom environment "design" team deals with them in very distinct ways. The importance given to each of the elements differs with each of the groups. For the teacher, hard architecture is of limited relevance because it is relatively non changeable. It is, for the teacher, not as significant as the soft architecture where he/she can have a greater impact. The regulator is more concerned with minimum standards primarily for hard architecture, the reverse of the teachers. Designers, on the other hand have an interesting position within this hierarchy. They can be seen as mediators of the other two. The designer has to be concerned both with the hard architecture and soft architecture and balance the requirements of the teacher and the regulator."
Dener, A, and I. M. Falay. "Historical Core of Istanbul: Continual Structuration of Spaces." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 15. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. "Three years away from the 2l century, Istanbul has gained huge dimensions which is very hard to manage and a quite different image regarding to 20's and 30's. Now, it has several high rise buildings, "modern" looking residential areas and a network of highway with a chaotic traffic. Thus, the city has many business and trade centers, various types of housing regions and social organizations serving to different social classes. People survive in these environments earning money, educating their children and trying to continue their sociocultural existence. In fact, every moment they live, modifying the present spatial structures they attach different properties to the city. Space is built by users either physically or mentally at first but continued to be evaluated by the time according to changing social, economic, ideological and psychological conditions. Ordinary people learn how to construct a space culturally. Most of the time, living in a space and reconstructing it every minute they are unconscious about the process. Some given codes lead people to reshape their environment and develop certain meanings. Istanbul, especially the Historical Peninsula being the core of the city suggest a suitable case to scrutinize environment/man relation. The aim of this paper is to discuss on "how" of this continual structuration of space at this special situation in order to equip the related theories with original information. It is necessary to understand the serial of characteristic meanings that are produced parallel to the "structuring structures". In order to detect the articulations of man to environment the users will be observed and photographed at certain times of days. A morphological study is needed to understand the physical conditions better. After these endeavors, the users will be interviewed and their spatial modifications and cultural accumulations will tried to be captured."
Gumpert, G., and S. Drucker. "Holocaust Memorials and the Shaping of Memory: Public Policy Or Designer's Vision?" In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 22. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. "As the Holocaust moves from lived experience to historical phenomenon, there have been an increasing number of holocaust memorials constructed or planned around the world. They serve to mourn victims, as commemoration in the absence of individual cemeteries and tombstones, as indictment against crimes against humanity, as homage to martyrs or as celebration of heroism. James Young curator of an exhibition on 'The Art of Memory: Holocaust memorials in History" at the Jewish Museum of New York (1994) argues that public memorials function to create "public memory." Monuments are designed and erected by diverse sources for disparate reasons. Governments sponsor Holocaust memorials to honor lost citizens, alleviate culpability or to "explain a nation's past to itself." Some are constructed as historical markers while others are conceived of as tourist attractions. Others are built by survivors of the communities destroyed so that many represent Jewish sponsorship and planning, evidencing the traditional Jewish directive to remember. Holocaust memorials are found around the globe, designed and built to honor Jews and non_Jews. Monuments have been erected in those nations from which victims were deported to concentration camps, in cities where survivors resettled, and at those sites which were the scenes of genocide. Nations which were invaded and occupied by Nazi Germany which became the sites of deportation such as the Netherlands and France provide a very different perspective on who and why monuments have been installed, raising troublesome debate over resistance, compliance and collaboration. The project initiators and their goals are as varied as the artistic vision of those employed to design memorials, how close they come to attaining their goals is influenced, perhaps determined by, decisions of policy makers with regard to the sites made available for public display. The one constant found in the process of memorial creation is a degree of conflict or disagreement with regard to design, placement, those people and actions to be commemorated and intended audience for the memorial. This paper will provide an approach to the study of memorials placed in public spaces around the world and will illustrate through projects in Berlin, Paris and Amsterdam. It is particularly concerned with the influence of time and policy that results in shifting meanings derived from planning and design."
Y Kort, Slangen_de, and R. Verhoef. "Home - Likeness: a Dynamic View." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 61. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. "In the majority of the Dutch dementia care facilities providing a home-like living environment for residents is one of the central issues stated in the philosophy of care. The question what exactly constitutes a home-like environment, however, still is a tough one to answer. Although issues like smallscale environments and ties to the healthy and familiar have gained the interest of policy makers and care providers, the concept of home_likeness probably imlies more than this. In our presentation we would like to discuss home-likeness in view of its dynamic character: linked to activity patterns during the day. We will present a study that investigates how the layout of a unit could reinforce "normal" daily activity patterns. Linked to this, the concept of differentiation in life-styles of residents will be discussed. This policy allows residential care facilities to provide residents with daily programs that tie in closer with familiar daily patterns."
Kutlusan, C. T.. "Housing and People Well - Being." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 33. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. Housing has played a vital role in maintenance and reproduction of human life. The house is not only a physical place but also has psychological, sociological, and symbolic value for people in their individual and social being. House / home exist in environmental and cultural context that effects human beings' relationships, behaviors, norms, and values in their living environments. Values and social meanings, including conceptions of the self depend n one's social world. The house, as commodity, has been tied to notions of individuality and self-actualization in community. People and their evironments are an integral and inseparable unit, and temporal qualities are intrinsic to people-environment transaction, so that homes are conceived of as a dynamic confluence of people, places, and psychological processes. Much of the work has focused on understanding the ecological context of behavior and the transactions between people and places that behavior or health effects of environmental condition are mediated by stiuational factors. Several sociological and epidemiological studies on housing environment, residential mobility and health have found that physical, and socio-cultural environment affects personal and family well_being. New research methods can be developed about people residential environments interaction for improving quality of housings and well-being.
Smeets, Jos J. A. M., and P. Dogge. "Housing Challenge: Managing Tenant's Appreciation." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 62. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. In the light of rentability problems, real estate managers are increasingly interested in the appreciation of the performance of their dwelling stock. Meeting the stringent demands of customer satisfaction is the greatest challenge facing real estate managers today. This paper deals with tenant's appreciation, housing performance and the way in which housing managers can cope with this. The performance concept is of major importance for a client_oriented approach. In our view the quality is determined by the match between offered and demanded performances. The better a housing stock matches the demanded performances, the higher the appreciation of tenants on the whole and the more successful housing management. We will see that the appreciation of performances varies for different groups of tenants, so called 'target groups'. In the paper the relation between the 'supplied' performance and the appreciation of different tenants groups will be investigated. Firstly we will deal with the measuring of supplied performance. Secondly, we will enter on the concept of 'demanded' performance by analysing the relation between the supplied performance and the appreciation (not: the preference) of the user. Thirdly we will distinguish several steps to match supplied and demanded performance. Next, the application of the method is illustrated on a extensive research in Eindhoven, a middle size city in the Netherlands. This research made it possible to analyse the relation between housing performance and tenant appreciation. Moreover, we will see that the appreciation is not only determined by the type of household, but also by the household income en the inclination to move. These insights are of great importance for housing managers and place them for a great challenge: how to manage tenants' appreciation.
Smeets, Jos J. A. M., and Patrick Dogge. "Housing Challenge: Managing Tenants' Appreciation." In Shifting Balances - Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design: Proceedings of the 15th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. In the light of the problem how to keep their houses in rent, real estate managers are increasingly interested in the appreciation and the performance of their dwelling stock. Meeting the stringent demands of customer satisfaction is the greatest challenge facing real estate managers today. This paper deals with tenant's appreciation, housing performance and the way in which housing managers can cope with this. The performance concept is of major importance for a client-orientedapproach. In our view the quality is determined by the match between offered and demanded performances. The better a housing stock matches the demanded performances, the higher the appreciation of tenants on the whole and the more successful housing management.
Priemus, H. "Housing Policy and Housing Research: What Follows What? the Relation Between Housing Policy Agenda and Housing Research Agenda in the Netherlands." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 54. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. Researchers often think that their research has some policy impact and that housing politicians do something sensible when they read their work (at least their conclusions) and base their policies on research. They give the impression that research programs lead to (changes in) housing policies, and even that a housing research agenda may trigger a housing policy agenda, immediately or after some time. Based on our experience in the Netherlands, we would argue that it is mostly the other way around housing policy agendas lead to housing research agendas: research follows policy. The definition of housing problems in housing policy largely determines which aspects are investigated and even how researchers regard housing phenomena. We will illustrate this general statement with the case of the Netherlands after the Second World War, where we can observe a broad development from urban development to urban renewal and recently from urban renewal to urban restructuring.
Dogge, P, and Jos J. A. M. Smeets. "Housing Services, Tenant's Appreciation and Service Management." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 16. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. This paper deals with the appreciation of housing services which are delivered by housing managers or housing associations. Housing associations deliver services to their tenants in all the diverse phases in the process of renting. The quality of these services is especially determined by aspects such as accessibility, customer orientation and interaction. The paper is based on a survey research in Eindhoven and Geldrop held on 13.000 households that are tenants of six different housing associations that manage a total of 35.650 houses. Firstly, the paper will focus on the way the appreciation of services by tenants differs for the six different housing associations. Then the different appreciation of the diverse aspects of services will be explained. Our research also shows that different types of households appreciate the aspects of service completely different. Aspects such as skewdness and 'the tendency of moving house' too influence the appreciation of services. Last but hot least, the relation between the appreciation of the housing situation and the appreciation of services will be discussed. In other words: In what way does the appreciation of services depend on the appreciation of the housing situation of tenants? Insight in these relations is very important to enable housing associations to improve on the services delivered. Which aspects need to be improved in the package of services? Is it useful to differentiate services by target-groups? Is it useful to improve services if tenants have a poor housing situation? These are questions that will be answered in the latter part of the paper.
van Zoest, J.. "How to Marry Nature with Planning and Design?" In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 77. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. Since historical times, people have enriched cities and towns with natural elements. Gardens, trees, parks and water bring joy and delight to urban dwellers, both as scenery and as places for restoration and contemplation. Urban green spaces offer opportunities for recreational activities and experiences not possible in built areas. Many studies have confirmed the important contribution of nature to the aesthetic and recreational quality of urban places, and hence to the quality of city life. Especially in this period of rapid urbanization and high density building, the role of urban nature as a psychological resource can hardly be overestimated. In a very real sense, urban nature makes a city complete. Yet, urban nature puts comparatively little weight in the balance with regard to planning decisions. Despite strong public sentiments, the green dimension of urban planning still attracts relatively little attention from urban planners. Moreover, the planning and design of green spaces is hardly ever based upon scientific knowledge about human needs and preferences. As a result, many opportunities for enhancing the quality of public space are overlooked, and urban nature remains one of the more vulnerable amenities. One reason for this paradox is the lack of practical tools for integrating the aesthetic function of urban nature with the planning and design process. In this paper, I will describe the methods developed by the city of Amsterdam to give the experience of nature its proper place in the urban planning and design process.
Funahashi, K.. "Human Behaviour by Family Patterns and by House Types in the Kobe Earthquake with Regard to Seismic Intensity." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 20. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. "As the first stage phenomenon among extensive socio_economic aftereffects by an earthquake, this paper discusses the behaviour patterns in the Kobe earthquake on January 17, 1995. 5:46 am. in terms of relationships with seismic intensity, family structure and house-type through questionnaires mailed to the whole members of 4,849 in the Kinki Branch of the Architectural Institute of Japan. The survey finally obtained behavioural records of 2,122 (43.8%) respondents and their family (6,190 altogether) in three-time sequences: that is "during," "just after" and "30 minutes after" the earthquake respectively. The results about the behaviour patterns of the respondents show characteristic tendencies as follows: (1) in general, the types of behaviour taken at each time zone are uniquely concentrated in a few dominant behaviour among 51 alternatives, and they shift from unconscious response to damage preventing action and to securing action with the lapse of time; (2) the differences among family types and the relational positions of each member in the family cause the role behaviour of each member such as: a) in the couple with an infant, the wife takes the protective behaviour to the infant, the husband seems to pay his attention rather to the inside of their dwelling than to the outside; b) in the couple with a school_age child(ren), both husband and wife continuously show safety confirming behaviour to the family members; c) in the couple with a grown_up child(ren), the role allotment among family members is not necessarily clear; and d) in the couple without child, there is no large differences between the behaviour of husband and that of wife: and (3) there are differences between the behaviour in a wooden house and behaviour in an apartment house such as; a) in the apartment house escape from the dwelling unit and evacuation are taken just after the quake, in the wooden detached house evacuation is taken 30 minutes after the quake because residents seem to more need safety checking and confirming behaviour than the apartment house even after the quake; b) and the meanings of the selected behaviour items correspond to the characteristics of the house-types; therefore, c) disaster preventing measures and emergency training methods which have been prepared as universal manuals seem to be revised by the each house-type."
Chougui, A.. "Ibadhites Cities: Synthesis of an Urban Culture." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 12. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. "In all religions, the first act of man is to insure his place where he lives. This act, in fact is a gesture that sometimes obeys to an unconscious law which are governed by a tradition whose souvenir has been lost. The human settlement which is the object of this study is the Ibadhite city "K'sar". If we try to look at these cities in particular, we are then susceptible to notice a series of traditions (inspired by the Islamic religion) that sometimes speaks to the spirit than the written one. The interaction between the whole of legal dispositions "La Shari'a" (religious law,) and the construction process has created a model of urban and architectural traditional culture. This model of urban and architectural culture typically Islamic covers notions related to a particular space organization coming from precepts of Islam as a revealed laws governing the life in its totality and especially that of the Ibadhite K'sar (the city) assembly place of all the believers. The objective of this study is to know and to identify the knowledge that has produced this architectural and urban traditional culture, then to see how to apply it on the contemporary city to insure a positive experience continuity and inheritance of the past. The used approach to reach the objectives, mentioned above was influenced by the investigation of ancient documents, notably the ancient manuscripts and historical annals, this approach rests essentially on two types of investigation: (1.) Study and investigation of the ancient manuscripts and historical annals that can put the light on the construction process of the Ibadhites K'sar (city), here the areas of the fiqh (Islamic law), Urf (common law) and Shari'a (revealed law) have proven their efficiency to lighten and at the same time to solve raised problems in the course of the construction process ofthe Ibadhite K'sar. (2.) Urban and architectural analysis of the Ghardaia K'sar that has no sudden large changes, to see how the social value system, the regulation system and the inspired legal positions of Shari 'a, have changed the framework of the built form of the lbadhlte K'sar."
Declercq, A, W Rommel, Ch. van Audenhove, and F. Lammertyn. "If 'the' Person with Dementia Does Not Exist, Then Who do We Have to Design For?" In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 14. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. "The results of a research project in 33 units of 15 nursing homes in the region of Mechelen in Flanders, Belgium show that environmental variables such as the services provided, the prosthetic aids available and the social climate ill the home have a significant influence on the functioning and well_being of persons with dementia. Moreover, the environmental features have a differential impact on severely (GDS-score of 6) and mildly demented (GDS-score between 1 and 4) elderly. The impact of the environment increases as the abilities of the person diminish, which confirms Powell Lawton's "environmental docility hypothesis". We would like to dwell on two major implications of this conclusion. Firstly, this has serious implications for the design of the unit. It could imply that the design of the unit should differ according to the degree of dementia the residents suffer from. Secondly, the findings of our research can contribute to the ongoing discussions on whether units should be organised homogeneously with only dementing residents or heterogeneously with dementing as well as non-dementing residents."
Stamps, A.E.. "Indefinite and Definite Concepts in Contextual Urban Design: the Case of Neigborhood Character." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 63. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

"Many cities face the challenge of making new construction compatible with the character of preexisting neighborhoods. This issue is called contextual urban design. Nearly all US cities have regulations regarding contextual design. European cities such as Berlin, Dresden, and other cities undergoing economic expansion due to German reunification or the spread of free_market economies into Eastern Europe can also expect to face similar challenges. However, traditional urban design notions such as 'context", "compatible", and "neighborhood character" are so indefinite that they create confusion rather than provide the information required for making planning decisions. One solution is to recast those principles from their indefinite forms ("Buildings should be consistent with established neighborhood character" ) to definite concepts based on configurations of material in three dimensional space. The indefinite concept of neighborhood character" can be made definite by expressing it in terms of frequencies of design features within a specified geographical area. For example, in a block of nine houses, the feature might be the number of stories. If all nine houses were one story, the character of the block would be "one story". If all nine houses were two story, the character of the block would be "two story". But what of the intermediate frequencies: I one story in 8 two stories, 2 one story and 7 two stories, etc.'? How many deviations can there be before the overall impression breaks down? This paper reports experimental evidence on the relationship between the frequencies of design features and the percentage of respondents who attribute a design feature to the overall character of the block. Three design features were tested: building heights (two and three stories), architectural styles (Craftsman and Spanish), and roof silhouettes (flat and hip). Altogether twenty-four blocks were tested. The results will provide urban designers with preliminary estimates on how fragile (or perhaps how robust) overall impressions of visual character are. They will also provide a method researchers can use to conduct future studies on relationships between definite physical design features and indefinite overall impressions."

Heijs, W.. "Influences of a New Residential Environment on the Behavior of Mentally Handicapped People with Behavioral Disorders." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 26. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. Two groups of severely mentally handicapped people with behavioral disturbances were relocated within an institution from old to new group homes. This longitudinal study aimed at discovering the effects of (elements of) the new environment on individual and group behavior. Dependent variables were adaptive and maladaptive behavior, social interaction, and the use of (elements) of the physical environment. Special attention was paid to the possible uncovering of seperate effects of various independent variables, including the physical environment, treatment conditions, the group atmosphere and group and staff characteristics, and the complex interplay between these factors. The poster presentation will focus on the methodological issues in such a study, the design and instruments chosen, the results that were achieved and the recommendations that follow for the design of homes for similar groups.
Lima, J.J.. "Instruments of Urban Governance as Mediators of Roles in the Design of Peripheral Developments in Brazilian Cities." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 37. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. The term governance has recently been used to address the interactions of not only governments and state agencies but also those between governments and non governamental organizations and communities and social groups in cities. Operationally, it aims at being a useful approach ill the assessment of changes in the roles of agents interested in the implementation of urban policies in developing countries. In such contexts, the actors involved _ local officials, public and private developers, and users of public and private hosing developments _ are grouped in different levels of organisation; their roles could be roughly described as being basically associated with the design and maintenance of settlements as integral parts of the whole city. The paper aims to situate the changes in housing policies in Brazil following the end of the military government in the 1980s within the scope of the existing alterations of legislative instruments, such as masterplanning and zoning ordinances, and other more morphologically based ones such as the cadastre used in property taxation system. These alterations have been emphasised in the so called urban reform to be not only instruments for physical adjustment, but also to the urban form have a social as well as economic function. Controversies in the stages of implementation of urban instruments arise in the adaptations of former administrative structures and the inclusion of users' perspectives in the process and the notion that settlements have physical repercussion in the long-term sustainability of the urban environment. The research takes housing schemes located on the city periphery and confronts them with the nature of zoning practices, and with the social appropriation conducted by users and local officials in order to integrate such developments within the overall structure of the city. The main objective of the discussion is to show how changes in the roles of agents are associated with changes ill the instruments used for urban administration ill a context of rapid urbanisation. It is also meaningful to reflect on the repercussions of the changes in urban occupation n the peripheries with the changes in attitudes of users within the process of democratisation taking place in Brazilian cities in the 1990s.
Cohen, U.. "Integrating Cultural Heritage in Dementia Care Environments." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 13. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. "Culturally-experienced phenomena provide what are often overlooked resources for creating more therapeutic programs and meaningful environments for older persons. These environments are particularly important for persons with early and mid-stage dementia. Continuing challenges include: 1) The development of a conceptual as well as an operational approach for the thoughtful integration of the latest research-based information about environments for older persons with culturally-relevant features; and 2) the education of both designers and clients to reconsider the superficial use of shapes, forms, geometries and decorations as an "appropriate expression' of culture, to be replaced with more meaningful, activity_based solutions. This presentation uses illustrations from several case studies and focuses on a conceptual framework which facilitates discussion about the transaction between the unique needs of the elderly and culturally_responsive environmental design. It addresses the need, and presents tentative approaches for a more thoughtful consideration of schemata behind the physical expression: the spatial organization of the environment and its responsiveness to lifestyle, social structure, daily activities, and rituals, as well as other factors, all of which hold meaning and significance to those particular users. It suggests the use of experiential __ rather than abstract __ cultural phenomena which reinforce, and are integratable with aging_related therapeutic goals and concerns."
Lawrence, R.. "Interrelationships Between Housing Policies, Research Agendas and Construction Programmes." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 34. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. This special session is organized by the IAPS Housing Network. Professor Hugo Priemus (Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands) has been invited to prepare and present a paper about his interpretation of the interrelations between housing policy and housing research. The abstract he has prepared is included separately in the Book of Abstracts. During the session each participant will have the opportunity to relate his/her experience to the overview presented by Hugo Priemus.
Staats, H, Terry Hartig, A. T. Purcell, J. A. Corraliza, J. P. Ruiz, A. E. van den Berg, A. E. Stamps, SE. Gabidulinai, and J. F. Coeterier. Issues in Environmental Evaluation Research and Its Application In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts). IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. A large body of environmental evaluation research has been constituted by researchers who have come to their work from widely varying backgrounds in design fields and the behavioral and environmental sciences. The diversity in their meta-theoretical and theoretical orientations, methodological skills and preferences, and practical concerns is reflected in the theories, empirical research strategies, and target applications to be found in the extant literature. Certainly, there has been considerable consolidation; some theories have stimulated more research than others, some methodological tools have proven more suitable than others for use by researchers with particular applications and resource limitations in mind, and some means for applying the results have been more widely utilized than others. Yet, as always, some questions should be asked. Do new - or old - data or conceptual arguments imply a need for modifying theory in the area? What additional steps can be taken to foster the coherent cumulation of findings? What (construct/internal/external/ecological) validity issues have not been addressed? Are there more effective ways to apply the results obtained? The proposed session is intended to provide researchers in the environmental evaluation field with an opportunity to reflect on and discuss larger questions such as these, to assess research in the area and discuss steps that might be taken to promote coherence in its further development and application. All of the papers gathered for the session have some bearing on significant theoretical and/or methodological issues in the field. Some of the papers illustrate arguments with results from recent empirical studies.
Muhammad-Oumar, A. A.. "Kano Tumbin Giwa: Spatial Themes and Variations in an African City." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 45. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. As a result of colonisation Kano, one of largest and most important cities in Africa, has witnessed tremendous changes in its socio-political fabric. This has had profound effects on the spatial dimensions of the city and its environs, in particular the city's rapid physical development. This paper examines the urban form of the city of Kano using the tools and techniques of Space Syntax. It shows that the tremendous spatial expansion and physical development of Kano has not significantly affected the basic spatial structure of the city. The city has been able to successfully absorb almost 60 years of colonialism and its concomitant physical development. It argues that this spatial resilience is due to the basic principles enshrined in the spatial culture of the Hausa.
Loureiro, C.. "Kids Out of the Streets: Spatial Differentiation of Control and Social Status in School Buildings in Recife - Brazil." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 37. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. The school, as a cultural institution, represents the way society selects, transmits, distributes and exerts power as well as principles of social control, as postulated by Bernstein (Bernstein 1975; Bernstein 1996). In the present days, Brazilian educational system is organised in a way that makes school a separate world from the reality: the roles are preestablished and well distributed in space and time. It is a world of punishment, rather than a place of formation - it is oriented to keep kids out of the streets. This paper suggests that the design of the school building have strategic effects on mechanisms of control and status differentiation - building layout have social functions over and above the technical and practical ones as described by the brief and which transcend management procedures. These functions can be described with accuracy by means of the techniques of configurational analysis in a way to reveal the spatial logic of the educational institution. A case study, involving 5 school buildings in Recife - Brazil, is proposed where the theory and method of space syntax (Hillier and Hanson 1984) are applied in order to describe and measure some basic spatial variables. The aims are the understanding of the social properties of the layout as well as of some fundamental strategic differences among the layout of buildings of different periods. It is, in this way, a diachronic study of the school-building type in Recife, Brazil.
Loureiro, Claudia. "Kids Out of the Streets: Spatial Differentiation of Control and Social Status in School Buildings in Recife - Brazil." In Shifting Balances - Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design: Proceedings of the 15th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. The basic argument for this study is that the school-building, as a people-centred type, has the explicit function both of the division of people into categories or class, and their disposition in space in a way to represents a particular field of social practice and knowledge. In this way, besides its purposive character, the building is multifunctional and translates a special scheme of ordering social relations and activities (Markus, 1993). The differentiation of two kinds of social relation occurring simultaneous within the building can be explored, i.e., the relations between those who, by force of their status, have control of knowledge and those which are controlled; they participate as subjects of the system (Hillier & Hanson, 1984; Markus, 1993). Markus stresses the role of classification on the process of development of building types. In the spatial discourse, class seems to be a key factor: classes of equivalent status appear at the same relative distance within the layout, maintaining a specific kind of relationship with other areas. This can be observed in hospital wards, observing the disposition of bed-space and non-patients area and medical staff (Markus, 1987, 1993). In this paper the concept of classification refers not only to what is classified, but also to the nature of the differentiation between classes, as postulated by Bernstein (1975 p88). In other words, classification concerns the degree of maintenance of the boundaries between classes.
L. Pierre, St.. "Learning Platforms, Experiments in Emergent Furniture." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 64. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. As the education of young children is redefined to involve listening, coaching and, facilitating their most eager interests rather than following a pre_determined curriculum, so too can educational environments and furniture begin to be redefined. This project documents the testing and prototyping of a series of learning platforms developed to support emergent curriculum philosophy in early childhood education. Integrated elements of furniture as staging tools for children's school activities are potentially powerful tools for shaping and promoting quality education. This project explores new ways of conceptualizing furniture that reflects current theories of play and learning, emergent curriculum philosophies in early childhood education, and leading examples of kindergarten architecture. Emergent Furniture 1 has been developed, documented, and tested. It's form and form relationships explore space which can be both referential, (therefore provoking specific use time after time), as well as interpretable, (inviting appropriation and mutual dependency). Dimensions and shape of place are related to child scale. Materials are tactile and directly understandable. During preliminary testing this piece of furniture has been very well received by children, staff, and parents. Emergent Furniture #2 and #3 are under development, and will be tested and documented by May of 1998. They will continue to explore space and play, as well as display, storage, and again the facilitation of specific activities.
Kang, S, and S. Park. "Making Pocket Park in Apartment Complex." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 30. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. This paper presents the pocket park example for the new projects to exclude the disadvantages of existing park. The pocket parks are used as meeting places, gardens, playgrounds, sometimes markets. Above all, parks are worked as the active role of the sense of community. There are many apartment complexes being built without considering outdoor spaces. The problems of existing parks are not clearly defined space, not well landscaped, not enough sitting space. Usually pocket parks are located in the middle of the complexes. Making pocket park well affects whole satisfaction, because it is important factors in outdoor space. Therefore, the new pocket park can be suggested to improve apartment environment. The accessibility, imageabiIity, and utility are considered thoughtfully in pocket park because it is a public space. So pocket park is an interactive place which contains diverse activities.
Wakai, S.. "Measurements of Overhead Clearance in Going up and Down the Stairs." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 70. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. This paper focuses on the Clearance dimensions based on the non-contact spatial area of the body movement, which a person composes consciously or unconsciously around his body by natural movement to his own purposes and aims in daily life. In particular, architectural investigations from the point of view of ergonomics are carried out in this paper about the relationship between an overhead clearance dimension necessary for going up and down the stars by walkers and its ceiling height. From the results through three experiments, it was verified that the adoption of results in going down is valid for setting the ceiling height in going up and down the stairs and a fixed overhead clearance dimension is necessary.
Moore, G, I. van Liempd, Participants: A. Aatov, S. Herrington, M. de Jong, E. Hoekstra, Dudek L. M Maxwell, and J. van Andel. "Methods for Evaluating Children's Environments." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 43. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. The purpose of this symposium is to comparatively assess the advantages and limitations of a variety of different approaches and methods used for evaluating children's designed environments. Children's environments include but are not limited to child care centres, kindergartens, outdoor playgrounds, primary schools, libraries, neighbourhoods, and urban open spaces. Many have been planned and designed, but few evaluated. Where they have been evaluated, the techniques are often one_off, that is, project specific, intended for the particular evaluation, but perhaps not generalised into broad evaluation methods. The more specific purpose of this symposium, therefore, is to look at, discuss, and comparatively evaluate a range of more generalised methods for evaluating different children's environments. Each of the primary participants has developed in the course of their research a particular method for evaluation. Each participant will (a) briefly summarise the method, and then (b) discuss the advantages and limitations of the method (perhaps relative to other methods of which they are aware), concluding with (c) recommendations for where the method could be improved. The focus, therefore, will not be on the value of different designed or planned environments, nor on participants' evaluation research of particular environments, but on a candid self_evaluation of the strengths and limitations of different methods of evaluation of the environments of children and Youth which each participant has de eloped and is using. In addition to the primary participants, others will be welcome to comment on their experiences with different methods from the floor.
Berglund, U.. "Mezciems - a Place to Grow up With? About School Children and their Families in a Large Scale Suburb of Riga, Latvia." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 8. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. "The poster aims to discuss my ongoing research project named The relative importance of habitation. This deals with the relations of suburban residents to there close environment. The main field of my studies is the tower-block suburb of Mezciems, Riga built in the 1970s. Its layout is of' a pattern common also in Western or Northern Europe. It is ill the form of a neighbourhood unit surrounded by green areas. Low technical quality, lack of maintenance constitutes a sad image, as does the impression of neglect of the place from the inhabitants. About 10 000 people, more than half of them "non-Latvians' live ill Mezciems and are for the time being facing a radical transition taking place ill their neighbourhood. Many private shops and other kinds of services and business have popped up ill the area. The school is divided into two _ one 'Latvian" and one "Russian". Lately privatisation of apartments and blocks of flats has started. How is Mezciems looked upon by its inhabitants today? Is this a place where families and growing children want to invest their feelings, their scarce money and own labour for a better future? Is the importance of place over all growing ill this transition to a modern market economy or maybe diminishing among all new problems, possibilities and available merchandise? Up to now I have studied some results from school children's drawings and writings about their neighbourhood, and have started interviewing parents and key persons. In this poster I try to formulate my early impressions of a place and its dwellers on the threshold to a new world, hard to understand and adapt to and full of possibilities, at least for young people. Life in Mezciems is about hope versus distrust and devotion versus indifference. The place holds many problems but there are also recognised as well as hidden qualities. This is my Nordic view on a neighbouring country which is geographically near but when it comes to modern history along another line. I hope to be able to get to know it more closely during several years of studies."
Philippides, D.. "Mitilene, Epano Skala; a Case Against Legibility in Planning Intervention." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 51. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. This paper is based on the theoretical implications of a recent (1996_97) research project where the author participated. It concerned the area of Epano Skala on the northern port of Mitilene, capital of Lesbos island. Epano Skala was occupied by a Turkish community, replaced after 1922 by Greek refugees from Asia Minor. It has since remained stagnant in contrast to the southern part of the city. A prominent feature there is the presence of neglected Turkish monuments and chance archeological finds, some exhibited in situ. Despite current trends which promote socio_economic segregation, with the blessing of both planners and politicians and in perfect harmony with the demands of consumerism, a city remains the uncontested locus of modern life. It may be fragmented, a mirror of social and economic inequalities, yet it remains a phenomenological entity that endlessly challenges the notions of identity and of meaning in life. Therefore the case lies squarely on the twofold issue of its legibility of intentions and of the end product. The Epano Skala research project thus addressed itself to 3 distinct levels: Policy. User preferences by inhabitants and planning initiatives by local authorities (politicians and planning officials) fail to identify the genuine character of the area and will eventually cause its demise. A planner's role is not to succumb to dominant trends for development but to challenge such catastrophic notions regardless of local prejudice and of strong reactions due to vested interests. Research. Conservation is routinely connected to singled_out ruins and monuments. Yet the patient search in situ for clues may lead to a definition of locus geared to daily life, here named Archeology of the City'. This leads to a revelation of the area's hidden structure, thus history and collective memory are restored as prime sources of identity. Their presence though should be implicit, sometimes indecipherable, thus avoiding exploitation by consumerism. Design. Discreet, low-profile intervention is currently considered ideal for any planning situation. Nevertheless contemporary design badly needs the nerve and audacity of large_scale gestures which are solely capable of reversing the tables and re_educate both politicians, experts and public.
Miura, K, and M. Kobayashi. "Natural Disaster and Restoration Housing in Asia, Role of Making a Critical Transition to a New Environment." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 42. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. Subjects place making was investigated through critical environmental transition that accompanied recent natural disasters in Japan, Indonesia and Philippine. Each residential phase constructed following these disasters-shelter, temporary housing, rebuilt-housing, and physical dispositions_was traced by focusing on the positive means as well as the negative means of making territory used in each private space. A comparative study was conducted to present typical examples of place making for each residential phase. Some mementos to recall the victims' memory or lost relations which used to be in their neighborhoods, have special meanings for subjects whose environment was forced to be changed inevitable by a disaster. Personalization in private space could be seen not only as special orientation but also as orientation across time for survivors who will confront the new environment which is not the same as the past one.
Kallus, R.. "Neighbourhood Planning - Neighbourhood in Planning." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 30. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. Is the neighbourhood an entity fostered by a way of life, which is in need of architectural/planning definition, or is it a concept used metaphorically to describe an architectural/planning invention? Posing this question is not meant as a reflection on the linguistic meaning of the term. Rather it presents the need to explore the connection between the conceptual meaning of the terni and its operational meaning in architecture and in planning. This is done in order to understand the interpretation of the concept and its use in architecture and in planning. The paper will focus on various concepts of the neighbourhood and will contrast them with neighbourhood architectural/planning practice as well is with contemporary approaches to neighbourhood design and management.
Brower, S., and R.B. Taylor. "Neighbourhoods and the Extent of Community." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 11. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. "A neighborhood, as generally understood by city planners, has two aspects: it is a bounded geographic unit, and it is a social unit characterized by a sense of community and represented by a neighborhood association. The two are assumed to have the same boundaries. The concept of coterminous social and geographic units is shared by other disciplines: psychologists study neighborhoods to find out what qualities are associated with a sense of community; sociologists to learn about the social structure of communities; and urban designers to find what elements contribute to the appearance of community. Practical experience, however, suggests that the concept of co-terminous areas does not explain the way things are. This paper reports on a series of in-depth interviews with leaders of neighborhood associations in thirty-eight neighborhoods in Baltimore City. Respondents were asked about the concerns, activities and operations of their associations, and about their own membership in other associations. The interviews were conducted in 1994-1995. The purpose of a neighborhood association, according to the respondents, is to address local problems. Sometimes these problems are handled by the organization, sometimes by individuals in the organization, and sometimes by calling on outsiders for help. In addition to the neighborhood association there are, however, a number of other groups and coalitions that also address local problems. although their area of concern may be limited to part of the neighborhood or extend over many, neighborhoods. A neighborhood community includes the network of affiliations that address problems in the neighborhood. At any one time and with respect to any one issue, some of the components of a community network are active and others are passive. Neighborhood planners who identify "the community" as their client, must recognize this network of affiliations. This may extend beyond the borders of the locality. The social and physical extent of neighborhood may, then, not coincide."
Hartig, Terry, H Staats, and E. Maris. "On Relations Between Environmental Preference and Well_Being." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 23. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. Some form of preference rating has been the focal dependent variable in numerous environmental evaluation studies. An assumption guiding much use of the preference rating is that it reflects innate sensibilities regarding what is important for effective functioning and survival, and so for health and well-being. To date, evidence of the tenability of this assumption has come largely from two types of empirical study. One includes environmental evaluation studies which have examined associations between preference ratings and variables that have implications for functioning and survival, such as coherence, mystery, and environmental content. A consistent finding of such studies is that scenes with natural environmental contents such as vegetation and water are associated with greater preference than scenes lacking in natural contents. The second type of study includes those concerned with restorative environment experiences, in which environmental content has been manipulated in testing for effects on variables that more directly represent health and well-being, such as emotional states, attentional performance, and blood pressure. Such experiments have manipulated environmental content in a coarse_grained fashion, as a natural versus urban comparison, and tell us that the natural environmental contents associated with relatively, higher preferences are of a kind with those contents that engender greater restoration in experimental subjects. Although the two types of studies in combination corroborate the assumption of a relationship between environmental preference and well-being. more direct evidence remains to be provided. One approach to developing this evidence involves a closer working integration of environmental evaluation and restorative environments research. 'he present paper discusses the theoretical bases for such an integration and presents the results of studies which bear on that integration.
Rutten, P, H Trum, and Th. Bax. "On the Strategic Design of Buildings." In Shifting Balances - Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design: Proceedings of the 15th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. In this paper we would like to stress the growing importance now and in the near future of the subject that the IAPS 15 organising committee has chosen to be this years' conference theme: shifting balances between the forces, the actors and the factors in all the fields that influence and contribute to the whole process of initiating, designing and making people's physical environment. Moreover, this subject forms the very centre of concern, attention and development of research and education according to the mission ofthe faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning of Eindhoven University of Technology since 1967 and more specifically in our Department 'Physical Aspects of the Built Environment', Also in this technological environment of researchers and educators a clear and steady shift in the university culture can be observed from emphasis on traditional fundamental and applied research and education of physical aspects of the built environment into the direction of a growing focus on building design and design related subjects. Research efforts aimed at knowing more about and understanding better the required human conditions in the built environment and even about the ways different building shapes and configurations, building parts, materials and installations can create desired conditions are no longer considered a sufficient basis for educating consulting engineers in the field of building physics. There is an observable and growing tendency that their future employers expect them more and more to actually and successfully participate in the design process, preferably also in the early stages, where the most fundamental, farreaching and irreversible design decisions have to be made, based on incomplete, insecure and only partially correct information. This represents a major shift in the traditional consultancy culture of the trade, and of the research oriented university culture.
Rutten, P. G. S., H. M. G. J. Trum, and M.F. Th. Bax. "On the Strategic Design of Buildings." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 2. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. In this paper six driving forces are discussed that have the potential of shifting the balances within the building industry and especially in the design professions. How strong these driving forces will be in time and what their respective influence will be on the future is uncertain. It is shown however that by varying their relative strength a number of scenarios can be described that tell the story of possible futures. Defining scenarios exclusively aims at gaining insight in potential threats, risks, challenges and opportunities we may face and helps to liberate fixed mind sets. The scenario described in greatest detail is called 'shifting balances' according to the theme of this conference and shows the most dramatic changes in industry. It describes the split between consultants and engineers. The point of gravity of the consultants' activities will shift towards the early phases of the project in which they engage in what is defined here as 'strategic design of buildings', whereas the engineers involved in the detailed design will move under the umbrella of the construction and manufacturing industry. The strategic design process is characterised by two key' aspects: (1) problem seeking and analysis. leading to a thorough understanding of the desired key, performances of the building, the related design challenges and potential accommodating system concepts and (2) the formulation of scenarios for the use of the building, based on an investigation into the possible dynamics of these performances in time so that the building features intrinsic qualities in terms of changeability. The strategic design process is conducted in multidisciplinary teams in the early phases of a project, when the information is scarce and the risks are greatest. It is characterised by concurrent design in which former consultants simultaneously act as co_designers in their own field and participate in the design process by offering partial variant design solutions, in order to attain the best match in time between performance demand and supply of the building. These partial variant design solutions can be integrated in the overall design. The paper proceeds with describing some underlying theoretical models as preliminary conceptual tools to understand and administer the complexity of the strategic design process in order to open up the possibilities of application of information and communication technology and enable the development of design decision and evaluation support tools. An example is given how the strategic design process has been conducted successfully at a Dutch project.
Teklenburg, J., J. van Andel, Jos J. A. M. Smeets, and A. Seidel. "On the Strategic Design of Buildings." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts). IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.
Stimmeder, G.. "Perception of Cad - Simulated Highway Overpasses by Experts and Non - Experts." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 64. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. This study tries to resolve the questions of what methods are appropriate in evaluating and quantifying proposed engineering structures in the initial design phase. The objective was to create a set of criteria to focus on such important issues as environment and social acceptance in addition to technical and economical aspects. These methods are to provide a statistical sample and therefore a larger and more objective information to the decision making body at the time of selecting a final design. During the realization of this work a total of 160 people where interviewed and their opinions compared and evaluated. To obtain a broad spectrum of opinions, experimental groups made up of an equal number of engineers, architects, environmental experts and non professionals were selected to choose among 14 possible design alternatives for a freeway overpass. The proposed design variants were presented to them as a 3_D computer generated model. The first task was to select similar designs based upon a common attribute. Then, the groups were asked to rate the designs on a scale from 0 to 10 based on preference, impression, typicality and costs. The two tasks proved to be useful in allowing a statistical evaluation of the results and a qualitative interpretation of engineering structures. Application of this approach is promising in such areas as the realisation of public work projects or any other engineering conceptual design. An additional study deals with the influence of the visualisation medium (2D_drawings, 3D_drawings, video).
Giuliani, M. V., M. Tulli, and S. Barabotti. "Planning the Future of a Touristic Town." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 21. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. "In December 1996, an architect hired by the city council of San Vincenzo - a small town in Italy - to prepare its new Master Plan suggested I researched residents' expectations and attitudes toward the development of the town. The town council approved the research project and accepted to fund it as a part of the planning process. Council staff were actively involved in the research process, helping to define the research issues and collect data. San Vincenzo is a town of 7,000 inhabitants on the Tuscan coast. It is a fairly modern town, of no historical or architectural interest, and owes its economic growth to the tourist development of' the '60s, which resulted in the building of holiday homes that fill up in summer and increase the population to some 35,000 persons. Tourism and its effects on everyday life, the relationship between natural and artificial environment and the prospects of development, were the main issues investigated by means of a series of' in-depth interviews 26 priority respondents (representatives of local groups and economic, political, sporting and cultural organizations), followed by a survey carried out on a stratified population sample (150 between the ages of 1 8 and 30 and 150 between the ages of 55 and 70). The town Mayor was extremely supportive during every phase of the research. Yet he pointed out clearly from the outset that sponsoring the research did not mean automatically accepting the results as prescriptions for the Master Plan. The Master Plan goals had been laid down in the local government political programme, and choices already made could not be changed to suit any preferences expressed by respondents. I think that we can only agree with this statement. Indeed, there is a potential danger in regarding a survey as a tool for directing policies. It is not that data collection and interpretation are always far from being "objective", but rather that research simplifies reality, emphasising dominant trends at the expense of diversity and social change. The survey results indicate that, despite a general consensus concerning the objectives set out in the Plans political document, the populations perception of development priorities is partially divergent. Both the Planning Board and the Town Council found the results interesting and useful. But useful for what? The paper addresses this issue from the different viewpoints of people involved in the planning process."
P. Dursun, et al.. "Possible Solutions for Informal Housing Settlements in Turkey." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 17. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. "Despite the fact that all developing countries are different in kind and quality, all have problems and needs regarding the provision of decent and sanitary housing for their growing populations and this requirement constitutes one of the major problems for the governments of these countries. Many cities in the developing world suffer from regional imbalance. Migration from rural to urban areas has ended up with huge population growth in urban areas and eventually informal housing areas, or squatter settlements, have become a fact of life. In the case of Turkey, the squatter settlements spread across the face of the country's urban areas while initially developed to meet the housing needs of the mushrooming population they have become a vehicle for illicit profit taking. So, despite the fact that the squatter neighborhoods have increased the amount of housing available, they have also developed into tools for land speculation, thus acting as a barrier to the development of viable alternatives. Today, squatter settlements in Turkey as in developing countries reflect social, economical and environmental problems with their changing identities. In this process they must be seen as a formation which should be discussed by architects, planners, engineers, psychologist, economists or politicians, and some solutions, projects must be developed. This paper concentrated on discussion for solutions to informal housing in Turkey. The main objectives are to examine possible solutions and to reach valuable results in the scope of the findings. Initially squatter settlements in Turkey are described in general terms. Then legal and planning dimensions which have been implemented since 1950 are discussed. Among the planning measures that would be utilized following the passing of suitable laws are those which can be discussed under the headings of upgrading, prevention, and elimination. In relation to this approaches examples from Turkey and from other developing countries have been cited. The second section of this work includes a discussion of the applied research studies presented in "Housing for the Urban Poor" workshops held within the framework of the Med Campus Housing Network. This section briefly summarize the descriptions of the PYnar Squatter Settlement and the solutions suggested for the problems identified at the settlement. The last section uses the experimental work of the study to arrive at nation-wide level solutions for the squatter problem in Turkey."
Dursun, P, M Aksoy, H Turgut, and G. Saglamer. "Possible Solutions for Informal Housing Settlements in Turkey." In Shifting Balances - Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design: Proceedings of the 15th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. Squatter settlements are the result of rapid urbanisation processes in developing countries and are formed to meet housing requirements for urban poor which migrate to big cities and have no chance to find adequate housing supply. Squatter Settlements are defined as mainly uncontrolled, low-income and/or poor residential areas with an ambiguous legal status regarding land occupation, built to a large extent with people's own means, and usually not or poorly equipped with public utilities and community services. In most countries they are officially illegal, due to their non-conformity to national and urban planning, and building and servicing standards.
Van den Berg, Agnes E.. "Predicting Revealed Preferences from Gis - Based Measures of Landscape Variety." In Shifting Balances - Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design: Proceedings of the 15th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

Natural scenes generally vary in the number of different visual elements they contain. According to psychological theories, differences in landscape complexity play an important role in determining landscape preference. Psychological theories have described landscape preference as a function of two basic needs: a need for understanding the landscape, and a need for exploring the landscape (e.g. Appleton, 1975; Ulrich, 1983; Kaplan & Kaplan, 1989). Complexity is assumed to be an important characteristic in fulfilling exploration needs. Thus, as landscapes are higher in complexity, they may offer more opportunities for exploration.

van den Berg, A. E.. "Predicting Revealed Preferences from Gis - Based Measures of Landscape Variety." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 8. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. The present study examined the relationship between landscape variety and landscape preferences using data from a Dutch Geographical Information System (GIS). Multiple measures of landscape variety were used to predict two measures of revealed landscape preferences, i.e. the presence of touristic indicators and the occurrence of overnight stays. It was expected that revealed preferences would be more strongly associated with landscape variety than conventionally used stated preferences because they are more sensitive to human needs for exploration. Results show associations between measures of landscape variety and revealed preferences. The relative predictive power of the variety measures, and in a few cases, the nature of their relationship to revealed preference, was conditioned by land_use type and differed according to the preference measure used. Partly, the differing patterns of results may be explained by the suitability of the two revealed preference measures for reflecting longer-term versus short-term exploration. Taken together, the results of the present approach offer promise towards bridging the gap between psychological models of landscape evaluation and their application in landscape management.
Madani, S, and A. Diafat. "Process of Urban Transformations in the Colonial City. Between Heritage and Patrimony." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 38. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. "This study is part of a research work on urban transformations of the historic centers in the Algerian cities of colonial origin. These centers, previously designed as cities for French population, are now appropriated by Algerian population and become down towns in today's cities. Setif, as a case study, is a typical example. In general, it is established that the contemporary city in the West draws its legitimacy from its historical roots. Whereas the contemporary city of colonial origin in developing countries like Algeria, seems to have its historical core rather balancing between heritage and patrimony. Though people and values have changed, this core remains the permanent city center where people likely find the urbanity they need. Concerning this "patrimony", visions and attitudes are not shared by the different actors involved in the urban transformation process. Although its usage value, this colonial heritage is undergoing a fast deterioration process. The problem of identity is more acute in Algeria than anywhere else, it is thus necessary to approach the issue of heritage and patrimony in a different way where every actor can play his role and participate in shaping his living environment. An insight evaluation of this urban and architectural production may help to identify 'value indicators' allowing a contemporary vision towards this heritage. Then, the issue will be how to preserve this heritage or patrimony. Our research strategy is based on the typomorphological analysis of the transformed plots and buildings of the colonial period combined with the study of the usage and significance of urban life for the Setifians. Finally, the role of every actor will be investigated and the extent of users participation will be addressed."
Brierley, E.S.. "Processes of Transformations in Environmental Situations." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 10. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. The perception that people have of the nature of changes and transformations iii the environment is associated with both the phenomenon of culture and society and also with the processes of change. Theoretical models have been suggested which may indicate some of the influences upon the transformations of both public and private space and the relationship between people and the environment in particular situations. Although theoretical models tend to be structured in a rational way, the process of transformation can also be perceived to an extent in either an experiential or narrative manner. A discussion on that basis can be developed in the context of a study of the significance of cross cultural influences and ethnicity. This can provide useful indications of the comparative changes which occur in cultural and environmental transformations. By this means recognition of the diversity, of' cultural identities in specific situations can be made. This form of analysis has over the years been one of the reference points for research into aspects of cultural studies. The view of social change and environmental transformation which is produced by this type of analysis is then set in the context of temporal and spatial factors. The perception of change suggested by a narrative understanding of tile processes of change is more ethereal and may be symbolic. An ambivalence is perceived when tradition and thoughts on the nature of decay are put into the context of transformations. This may be due to the nature of the phenomenon involved so that in particular situations there is an exchange of functions between imagination, memory and perception. Observations of these processes of change when considered in terms of the structured rationalisation of theoretical models clearly can often indicate a lack of awareness of the subtleties involved. One view that has attempted to resolve the ambiguity of the relationship between structural rationalism and cultural values is that whereas structuralism indicates that, in general, experiential values can not be tile ground of evaluative study, experience can on the other hand be based upon cultural frameworks.
Weisman, G. D.. "Professional Environmental Assessment Protocol." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 73. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. The Professional Environmental Assessment Protocol was developed by a team of environment_aging researchers for the evaluation of specialized care environments for cognitively impaired elderly. Rather than more typical checklists of discrete environmental features, the PEAP requires an observer, with some training in its use, capable of making integrative judgments regarding 9 dimensions of the care environment. The 9 dimensions, deemed to be relevant to the creation of a therapeutic environment focus on safety and security, awareness and orientation, support of functional abilities, regulation of stimulation, opportunities for personal control, provision of privacy, facilitation of social contact, and continuity of the self. Data regarding the psychometric properties of the PEAP will be considered as well as its use in the facilitation of environmental change.
Mazumdar, S, and S. Mazumdar. "Public Space and Women in Islamic Societies." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 40. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. "Lately, there has been an increase in interest in the study of public space with respect to women. This paper examines the meaning of public space in the experience and lives of Muslim women. Drawing on examples from Iran and India, we provide an understanding of the Islamic conceptualization of public and private. We describe situated notions of public and private and how Islamic religious ideas of purdah and gender segregation affect the conceptualization of "public space". Within this gender segregated society, males and females experience differential levels of inclusion and exclusion in public space. We discuss three forms of "public space". First, there are public spaces which are almost exclusively male where women are allowed limited or no access. Muslim women are rarely seen in tea shops where men spend a lot of time socializing and exchanging information, nor do they frequent the bazaar (market). Second, there are public spaces which women negotiate under certain conditions, such as when appropriately dressed (hejab), or accompanied by a chaperone, and at specific times. Examples of such spaces are public baths and public libraries. Third are those spaces which are almost exclusively female where men are allowed limited or no access. These are the neighborhood shrines (imamzadehs) some of which are used only by women for women's rituals and are guarded and maintained by women. Religion both limits the mobility of women in "male" public space and simultaneously provides the context, pretext, and the opportunity for women to appropriate and convene iii 'female" public spaces. We show how women, despite limitations, are not mute victims but exercise agency in appropriating, negotiating and using public space. In conclusion, we call for a reexamination of general notions of public and private, as well as a renewed focus on religion as a way to facilitate a better understanding and conceptualization of women's interactions with public space in non-Western settings."
Misgav, A.. "Public Visual Preference for Vegetation Groups in Israel." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 41. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. One of Israel's unique natural resources is its vegetation groups and their visual diversity. An accelerated rate of development in the country often causes a negative impact on this resource. This threat requires the setting of a policy and management program to insure the protection of its visual and ecological quality. Objectives of the research were: To classify and evaluate the visual qualities of selected native and planned forests and other vegetation groups in Israel, through people's eyes. To identify the degree of visual preference by selected groups of users. The study attempted to answer two related questions: To what degree does a select public distinguish visually between vegetation groups, and on which physical properties of the individual plant in the group is this distinction based ? What types of vegetation landscapes are preferred by the public and on which physical properties of the individual plant in the group is this preference based? The data used to answer the above questions were collected through the use of 150 personal interviews using a formal questionnaire. Persons were interviewed in their home and were aided by sets of four colored photographs that described each of the 44 vegetation groups and their physical properties. The questionnaire data enabled the use of statistical methods for analysis. Findings led to three main conclusions: The existing botanical-ecological classification of vegetation groups used in the research was also found to be suitable for evaluation of it's visual qualities. People do distinguish visually between different vegetation groups. Levels of public preference varied and depended on the type of vegetation groups. The visual preference for vegetation types could he derived from the individual plants physical properties and the latter could be used to forecast the level of public visual preference to a proposed vegetation plan.
Ruiz, J. P.. "Public's and Experts' Evaluation of Landscape: Applications to Planning and Management." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 57. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. "This paper focuses on landscape assessment and tries to develop a general model from the results obtained by our research group in several different projects. We have carried out a number of tests in which samples of the public chose the image they preferred from pairs of landscape photographs. Of particular interest are the results coming from the application of a test including pictures representing the main world biomes to a sample of 4900 people from very different cultural and geographical backgrounds (including an Australian sample with European, Oriental and Aboriginal subsamples, several groups in Spain and samples from Venezuela, Puerto Rico, Ecuador and Mexico). There are strong preferences for lush vegetation, running and clear water and mountainous scenery, corraborating previous experiments and hypotheses. These results are relevant for a general model of landscape preferences in an eco_ethological framework of human habitat selection. In order to develop this methodology for it to be useful in specific planning and management problems we have carried out landscape evaluations by the public and experts connected with several applied projects in Spain and Venezuela. These include: landscape cartography and evaluation in the Basque Country, scenic impact assessment on the coast of Alicante, preferences of visitors and local populations for landscapes in protected areas such as the Alcaraz mountains in Spain, Morrocoy national park on the Venezuelan coast and El Avila national park nearby Caracas. In all these cases we have used the landscape photographs pairwise comparison technique to compare the preferences of the public with those of expert panels knowledgeable of the areas. In the Venezuelan studies we also asked the experts to try to predict the public's preferences. From this work we are able to detect the landscape units that act as indicators of what could call "landscape value awareness'. We identify two steps in the process of increased scenic value awareness: first, and the typical reaction of experts, is the preference for natural landscapes and the rejection of impacts; in a further, more advanced, stage comes the appreciation of cultural landscapes particularly relevant in the evaluation and conservation of European landscapes."
Oi, N., J. Munakata, and K. Hirate. "Reappearance of Space Using Photographs for the Visual Environment Evaluation." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 48. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. How to evaluate the actual situation or intended design of landscape is one of the most important processes in designing landscape or cultivating a town. We focused on the reappearance of space by photographs for visual environment evaluation. This paper discusses about the technique of photographing and presentation for evaluation of landscape in the city street. As transparencies and projectors are usually used for subjective experiments, 35mm color reversal films were used in this study. Also wide angle lenses are usually used to take photographs for evaluation of landscape. We chose the lens which has 15mm focal length (horizontal angle of view : lOOdeg. vertical angle of view : 77deg.) and 28mm focal length (horizontal angle of view : 65deg. vertical angle of view : 46deg.). Presentation sizes are 45 inch, 74 inch, and 120 inch (in diagonal) slide projection using a rear screen, and 186 x 126111m color print. For the geometrically accurate reappearance, observation distance should be arranged that the photographing angle of view is equal to the observation angle of view. We arranged two distances, one is the geometrically accurate distance, and the other is three times as long as that. SD method was used for the subjective evaluation. Is the subjective evaluation influenced by the way of presentation? From the result, we can understand the difference of evaluation related to the way of presentation. Generally, when the presentation size become larger, variance between the subjects become smaller. Influences of observation distances are different between variables. We found that the geometrically accurate reappearance is important for the evaluation of Spaciousness.
Martens, Bob. "Redesign and Accompanying Evaluation of University Lecture Halls." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 39. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. "As to common opinion the present state of the lecture halls at the Vienna University of Technology does not live up to the requirements of a present-day teaching atmosphere. Thus, a design program was developed for architecture students aimed at adaptation, conversion and add-ons regarding the exiting building substance in terms of improvements concerning teaching purposes at the university level. The main issue was to determine what performance could be expected from future lecture halls. New formulations and reinterpretations of the topic "lecture" as well as of the discussion forum including considerations regarding infrastructure and in particular referring to multimedia implementations were to be devised. As to capacity only lecture halls for no more than 100 _250 persons were to be dealt with. The approach was not to be regarded as a mere face-lifting, but to focus on the paradoxical relation between "old" and "new". Simultaneously, a practical evaluation of succesful and less succesful species of lecture halls at the Vienna University of Technology was carried out based on (self-) observation within the framework of the lecture course Environmental Psychology furnishing the empirical input of the planning process to this design program. The user perspective was of major importance throughout the evaluation, the actual main users, i.e. the students, being actively involved in the planning process of the lecture hall. Learning to use the set of tools of environmental psychology can be regarded as meaningful for future architects. Due to the social developments throughout the period of life devoted to "studying "calling for innovative forms, maximum user friendliness of the built environment "lecture halls" is of utmost importance."
Vanagas, J.. "Regeneration of a City's Historical Part and Changes in the Moral - Psychological Climate of the Local Community." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 68. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. Subject of the paper is to present results of two comparative studies carried out in the historical part of Kaunas city (Lithuania). The first one was related to the regeneration project of this area elaborated in 1969 while the second one was repeated twenty years later following the completion of this project implementation. The first one of those studies disclosed the phenomena of very intensive concentration of numerous asocial, deviated behavior in the local community. Interaction between various levels of environment and intensity of these phenomena were mathematically verified: the coefficient of correlation calculation has shown the existence of close interrelationship between them. It enabled to select the most acute drawbacks and evils of environment and to formulate the programme of their gradual elimination. The programme of this project implementation was based on the sociology survey of local inhabitants, respectively to the reiteration of the mentioned undesirable features of living environment. Thanks to the two decades consequent implementation of this programme that initiated numerous essential urban, functional and architectural changes in the old part of Kaunas city: previously deteriorated historical kernel had become the representative and attractive part of the city. Twenty years later as the implementation of the regeneration project has been completed, the research of this area was repeated keeping to the same scale, methodologies and procedure as the pre_project before. Its results revealed evident positive changes in both physical and psychological health of local population, its life style and well being. This fact has been proved again by the new mathematical interpretation of summarized data.
Davidovich-Marton, R, and N. Zeidenover. "Regional Economic Planning, Pilot Project in the Minorities Sector in Israel: Strategy for Regional Economic Planning in the Wadi Ara Region." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 14. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. The Wadi Ara region links Israel's heartland to the Palestinian Autonomy areas on the one hand, and to the Galilee on the other hand. Significant economic potential is concentrated around the Wadi Ara Road (Route 65), one of the central_most routes countrywide. The plan's aim was to realize the region's inherent economic potential and to promote sources of income for both the authorities and the population. For this purpose, a comprehensive study was carried out, defining the region's competitive profile and identifying projects likely to lead to realization of its potential. The mutual relations between the region and its surroundings provide the point of departure for the planning process and its products. This pilot planning project is the first of its kind for the Israeli Arab sector, and its significance is augmented by the ongoing peace process. It may serve as an example for regional development processes based on a contextual approach, enabling flexibility and innovation in the planning process and its products. The combination between theoretical aspects and actual decision_making processes underlines the project's importance as a pilot study from which broad planning generalizations, conclusions and analogies can be drawn.
Depeau, S., and G. Moser. "Representation of Danger and Child's Environmental Autonomy in Urban Environments." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 16. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. "The child and the city or the child within the city constitutes initially, for one is interested in the development of the former, a paradoxical relationship. Indeed, the child faces varied intensive stimulations and complex and rich informations. He is taken, despite him, in a contradictory report: the city is a social and spacial experience place and at the same time a place safeless, sometimes threatening, from where lie is held off and from where his security may sometimes be built excessively by adults. Consequently, we propose to show how the child's environmental autonomy varies according to the urban environment type, more specifically according to physical and social qualities, as well as to the nature of dangers to which the child can be confronted. Purposely, this study consists of articulate interrelations among child's mobility-behaviors (range of environmental experience and journey homeschool) and child's and adult's representation of danger. A sample of 10-13 year old children was interviewed at school individually. They come from different neighborhoods which differ in their urban structure (traditional neighborhood with road danger presence, and a "new town" neighborhood with adjustment of pedestrian systems distanced of all road dangers). We have proceeded as following: (1) cognitive map of the journey home-school (to allow, on the one hand, to evaluate objectively the type of dangers to which the child is confronted and on the other hand to observe the representation of the danger); (2) cognitive map of the territorial home-range and range of experience around the home (to measure the degree of the child's mobility as well as his environmental barriers); (3) open-ended questions beside children and parents. What imports us in this preliminary work, is not to show it may exist dangers in the urban environment, but rather to understand how this reality is perceived. We will pose the system of representations through which the environment and its dangers are appraised by parents and their child. At first, we will show that modes of appropriation of a situation by parents then by the child (attributed meaning and its system of representation) lead the child and especially parents to accept or not disadvantages of the urban environment as well as they lead to place in terms of practices in a report of confrontation or avoidance. Finally, experience range and therefore child's environmental autonomy differ according to urban structure environment."
Onal, S, U Dagli, and N. Yildiran. "Revitalisation of Yeni Bogazici Village: a Rehabilitation Policy for a Unique Pattern." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 48. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. The island of Cyprus has been a homeland for many different cultures all through the ages. The crosscultural impact of the Ottoman, Greek and British styles on one another, stresses the homogeneous atmosphere of Yeni Bogazici (Ayios Serylos) village, and old residential settlement in North Cyprus, on the scale of buildings and urban space. The village appears as the core of the local quality of the pattern exposing an identity, plural but similar at the same time. Such a circumstance makes the village original in exhibiting a unique cultural synthesis of Ottoman, Greek and British styles. Although that is a common situation for the whole of the Island, the merge of these cultures have been realised in Yeni Bogazici (Ayios Seryios) village in an attractive way. In such a unique district that is important in cultural and historical terms, if some design criteria are not implemented in the planning and building process, the urban quality may be lost along with the cultural and historical identity. In a historical environment formed by anonymous architecture like Yeni Bogazici village, the process of designing new buildings should be in three stages. First of all, the evolution of the built environment and the urban fabric should be determined and analysed with the aid of verbal and written sources. Secondly, the architectural and physical properties of the buildings should be well_defined up to their original period, a type catalogue and its grammar should be formed by the aid of typological analysis. Finally, alternative designs for the new buildings should be proposed based on the type catalogue and its grammar. Besides, considering the planning process, before any alterations for any buildings, spaces or any new developments, an overall conservation/revitalisation plan and policies should be made at the urban scale which determine the functional areas and possible contemporary uses of buildings. All new developments and design policies as well as conservation policies in historic settlements should be based upon the architectural and the urban heritage. In this paper, based on the findings of a previous research in which the first two stages mentioned above have been conducted, first, conservation and revitalisation policies which determine the functional areas and possible uses of buildings in Yeni Bogazici (Ayios Seryios) village will be introduced and then a design guideline for the village will be proposed. The aim here is to preserve the unique historical identity of the village while improving its image physically and functionally.
Ganis, M.. "Sense of Control in the Exploratory Behaviour of Design Professional and Nonprofessional Groups." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 21. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. This paper will discuss different people's exploratory behaviour in an urban environment. It is proposed that curiosity and competence are factors which can motivate people's exploratory behaviour. Groups of design professionals and non professionals individually explored Fortitude Valley, Brisbane, an inner city suburb. The intent was to investigate the influence of their professional and personal experience on their exploratory behaviour. The subjects' exploratory route was recorded on a prepared map of Fortitude Valley. Immediately after the walking tour, the subjects were given an instruction sheet which requested them to draw the route of their walking tour on the map of Fortitude Valley which had been provided. Furthermore, they were asked to number the places they visited in sequence and to list them on the side of the map. The extent of the subjects' exploratory behaviour indicated the area which they perceived to be Fortitude Valley. The exploratory route of each subject group was expected to be different. This difference was based on their knowledge structure as design professionals or non professionals, with or without local knowledge of Fortitude Valley. The results showed that there was a significant difference between some of the groups.
Horne, S. C.. "Shared Visions? Architects and Teachers Perceptions on the Design of Classroom Environments." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 27. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. This paper focuses on the classroom environment and its effects on the practice of teachers. It is part of a Ph.D. study that explores the relationships between the designed classroom and how teachers use it. It is based on semi-structures interviews with teachers and architects. Teachers are immersed in the physical classroom on a daily basis, intuitively modifying the space to improve the overall learning environment. Teachers identify what kinds of influence they had on the design of their classrooms and to what extent they are aware that they can design and influence their classroom. Architects design schools and have their own approach to designing a learning environment. This study explores the ways in which architects understand and influence the learning environment. Knowledge of what happens and how the school design system is organised gives both designers and teachers a greater awareness of learning spaces. The interviews were cross_referenced to identify how the two groups perceive the classroom environment and how much interaction teachers and designers have. There are similarities in these perceptions but also conflicting views of how the interactions do happen and what they contribute to the process Understanding this relationship informs the degrees of impact that each group has over the classroom environment.
Lawrence, R, A. Rapoport, G. Moser, L. Kruse, L. Rivlin, K. Dovey, D. Uzzell, and G. Barbey. "Shifting Foci on Research Priorities in People - Environment Studies." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 34. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. During the last 4 decades developments in the broad field of people_environment studies have been chequered. This is not to be unexpected as there rarely is a linear sequence in the history of any academic discipline or professional practice. Changes in subjects of research in this field have been noteable (e.g hospital wards, landscape scenery, place and the applicability gap to mention a few). Likewise the rise and fall of some research methods, including the semantic differential, checklists and photographic surveys, can be noted. In addition, there have been alternative orientations that focus on people or the built environment, and theoretical development or applied design research. An overview of the shifting emphasis attributed by contributors in this field to research subjects and methods is not meant to lead to some kind of broad consensus about the number and scope of variations or their sequence. Rather, the purpose of this symposium is to raise and debate a number of' questions that could become subjects of study in their own right. Each invited contributor to this symposium is asked to consider dimensions of constancy and change: then propose shifts in the status of research concepts and methods, and highlight some benchmarks and/or periods lacking innovation. In relation to the general theme of this IAPS 15 conference, each contributor is requested to discuss and debate whether constancy and change 'In the research agenda of this field can be related to one or more of the following: Shifts in public policy of national, regional or local governments and institutions (e.g. a concern for addressing the housing requirements of specific groups). 2. Shifts in public awareness and concern about specific issues (e.g. criminality and insecurity in urban neighbourhoods). 3. Environmental catastrophes such as Bhopal, Chernobyl, Los Angeles and Kobe. 4. International conferences including Habitat l in 1976 and Habitat 11 in 1996. 5. Political trends associated with the quest for the recognition of local, ethnic and regional identities. // In addition participants are asked to consider those innovative and well-known research subjects and methods of study that will be required in the future if this field is to contribute actively to the definition, implementation and evaluation of public policy.
Witt, T.. "Shifting the Balance of Power in the Classroom: Evaluating the Performance of Women in Design." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 75. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. "This paper is written to report on a qualitative experiment with Performance Based Evaluation for students, 15 women and I man, in the Interior Design Program at Arizona State University. For thirty years that I have been teaching in interior design and participating with colleagues, mostly male, in complaining about "how hard it is to teach women, to make them competitive, to get them to exercise the creativity we know they possess." For the past seven years I have been researching and developing methods of evaluating almost everything from student performance in the design studios to thermal comfort. In the spring of 1997, I developed an evaluation instrument based on performance. This evaluation instrument references the significant research that has been done which indicates that women working in competative environments have difficulty accepting and asserting their own knowledge as valuable and in expressing their ideas in places where evaluation is taking place. At first apprehensive, the women began expressing themselves freely and asserting their ideas openly, intelligently and forcefully. The work for the semester was the best I have ever seen. The Performance Based Evaluation empowered women in the design studio."
Delen, F. M. L.. "Simulation and Perception of Changing Landscape Identity." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 15. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. In the Dutch landscape a tendency is going on of scaling down in open areas and scaling up in enclosed areas. The characteristic scale diversity and extremity contribute less and less to the identity of the different landscape types. The governmental report 'Nota Landschap' ( 1992) introduced the identity concept as a mean to finish the uniformization process of the rural landscape. The interpretation of the concept is not clear. Landscape design stresses the unique structure of the characteristic features. Environmental psychology and human geography stress the meaning of a place for people. However, any agreement does not exist about the way of filling in and the application of the identity concept in landscape planning. Research of environmental psychology in the context of landscape design could ' den the concept of identity. The design and the perception research will be carried out in two regions who represent the morphologic diversity and the different scales in the Dutch landscape. Both areas have been subjected to (drastic) changes in the scale of the landscape. Processes of scaling down occur in the northern part of Westergo, an open sea clay area. Processes of scaling-up occur ill the central part of the Achterhoek, an enclosed sandy area. The design consists of two parts: the identification of the landscape characteristics by the researcher, and the design and simulation of realistic landscape changes. The perception part focuses on the landscape perception by human; the identification of the landscape characteristics and the simulated landscape changes will be researched. The first case study is carried out in the open landscape of Westergo. More and more groups of wind turbines are appearing everywhere. Different configurations and locations of 500 kW wind turbines were simulated. The variables for the computer simulations were: the number of the wind turbines, the balance between a group of wind turbines and a group of landscape elements, the viewing distance to the wind turbines, and the location of 100 wind turbines (spreading or clustering). A small group of farmers and inhabitants of the villages did evaluate the photos. Some examples of the computer simulations, some results of the evaluation and a few recommendations for the planning policy will be presented on the poster.
Lay, Maria Cristina. "Site Layout, Territorial Organisation and Social Behaviour in Residential Environments." In Shifting Balances - Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design: Proceedings of the 15th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. Festinger and his colleagues at MIT clearly showed the influence of the layout of the environment on contacts between people (Festinger et al, 1950). Since their study, a considerable body of research has been conducted that has allowed a number of conclusions to be drawn. Canter (1970) claims that one of the most significant effects of design on behaviour is that of facilitating or discouraging interaction among people. Through planning decisions it is possible to influence patterns of activities, to create better or worse conditions for outdoor events, and to create lively or lifeless environments (Geh], 1987). Geh] remarks that those activities, such as walking, standing, sitting, seeing, hearing, talking, playing or other community activities, which make outdoor residential environments particularly attractive and meaningful to be in communal outdoor spaces are also the most sensitive to the quality of the physical environment.
Lay, M. C. D.. "Site Layout, Territorial Organisation and Social Behaviour in Residential Environments." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 35. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. Territory was analysed as the expression of social organisation in spatial terms. Characterised by particular patterns of behaviour and attitudes, territorial organisation of outdoor residential environments is investigated as defined by the patterns of functional activity and the behavioural types of socialisation occurring in each space as well as the dwellers' attribution of territory regarding each space category. Territorial definition and residents' perception of space definition are discussed as a means of affecting residents' sense of community, security, sense of place and control, and the overall maintenance of the site. The degree of social definition of space was assessed through the investigation of territorial behaviours in semi-public, semi-private and private outdoor spaces of two low-income housing schemes (Brazil). Results show that residents tended to reinforce or modify the physical definition of spaces, either by developing strategies to clarify space definition and to make apparent who was responsible for what space, or by creating categories of social spaces which had not been suggested by design. It was found that the common semi-public or semi-private spaces, when indicated by design, may not correspond to what residents perceive as their semi-public or semi-private territories. The more intelligible territories were, the better spaces were socially defined.
Kabisch, S., A. Kindler, and D. Rink. "Social Atlas of Leipzig, Instrument for Sociological Analysis and Evaluation of Urban Ecological Structural Change." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 29. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. The Social Atlas of Leipzig is the first atlas considering the social and urban ecological structural change in a big East German city. The main objectives are spatial registration, cartographic representation and assessment of these social consequences that accompany the abrupt transition from the centrally managed economy in the former GDR to the free market economy. Thus the social-spatial differentiation has to be investigated by means of selected social, political and economic factors including the actual land use, as well as structural, infrastructural and environmental characteristics. In consequence urban areas where gentrification or filtering down processes with concentration of poorness can be identified. The atlas consists of a textual part and a cartographic part. The textual part is divided in: (1.) description of objectives, structure and methodology of the social atlas (2.) discussion of roots and symptoms of segregation tendencies in East German cities (3.) characterization of nine types of social spaces inside the City of Leipzig (4.) analysis and evaluation of initial stages of social_spatial differentiation in Leipzig by means of interpreting several maps. // The cartographic part includes 49 maps: 23 maps describe the socio_demographic structure, 15 maps the residential structure, 6 maps the social infrastructure, 3 maps the land use and I map the types of social spaces. The atlas serves as a scientific basis to find out both common features and differences in the development of several urban areas, exemplary for the City of Leipzig. But the methodology can be used also from other cities. It has been created for a broad audience _ for urban and regional planners, investors, different authorities, scientists dealing with urban development and, last but not least, for the residents.
Corraliza, J.A.. "Some Dilemmas in Environmental Evaluation Research." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 14. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. Environmental evaluation research is one of the larger areas of activity within environmental psychology. Several of the theoretical and methodological distinctions made ill this area present researchers with key choices regarding how to carry out their research. This paper discusses some of these distinctions, which can be and have been construed as presenting dilemmas that researchers must face. A multiplistic approach is then proposed, an approach that reflects a choice to view the various distinctions, not as dilemmas, but as opportunities for much needed syntheses. From the theoretical point of view, the main distinctions have to do with the emphasis on the affective versus the cognitive component of evaluation, on evolutionary versus cultural accounts of environmental preference, and on the use of informational versus content variables for characterizing environments. From the methodological point of view, one of the more common dilemmas researchers face has to do with the distinction between quantitative versus qualitative methods. A distinction between basic and applied research has both theoretical and methodological implications. The present state of environmental evaluation research is such that a multiplistic approach is needed, one that recognizes the roles of both affective and cognitive variables, the merits of both qualitative and quantitative methods, the contributions of both cultural and evolutionary accounts, and so forth. Elaboration of a multiplistic approach is provided with reference to landscape perception research carried out by the author.
Aydinli, S.. "Spatial Analysis of Housing Settlements and Dwellings at Istanbul." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 7. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. "A growing dissatisfaction with residential environments indicates that socio_cultural and psychological factors are neglected in housing design. The life_style in a modern industrial society consists of contradictions between technological developments and the social structure of the housing. Nowadays a continued increase of public concern for the housing quality emphasizes the need to research on spatial quality which are to meet the social and psychological requirements. Spatial quality is considered a matter of both the actual, physical properties of space, as well as how they are perceived and experienced by human subject. On the other hand, housing quality has two interrelated sets of components: those economic, social and physical components of the residential environment, and perceived meaning values and uses of' these components. A judgment on housing quality has to be spatial. The level of satisfaction in relation to spatial character in turn make our human settlements more habitable. The aim of the research is to explore design parameters in relation to spatial patterns that will increase the housing quality. These parameters must be derived from the correlation between the physical variables of the housing that can be measured and the perceptual variables that can be evaluated. A relation between abstract non-material "subjects" and material "objects" is considered as the basic idea for this research. Therefore, space syntax analysis was used to investigate the relation between composition and configuration. As a result, it is possible to understand formal and geometric limits of architectural possibility by using space-syntax methods for analyzing architectural actuality."
van der Voordt, Theo J. M.. "Spatial Implications of New Policy Trends and Changing Concepts of Housing and Care for the Elderly." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 70. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. As in many other countries, in the Netherlands, too, the field of housing and care for the elderly has seen almost revolutionary changes over a period of less than twenty years. Key concepts are the prolonging of independence, upgrading of the housing function in institutional settings, and individualised care. By substituting residential care for home care and assisted living, the authorities try to reduce the number of people over 65 living in either a home for the elderly (6.8%) or a nursing home (2.9%) to an average of 5%. Home care is upgraded by improving the co_ordination of the care offered and the funds made available by recently introduced Acts of Parliament. Institutional settings have widened their scope and offer now also so_called 'extramural' care to people living outside these institutions. Architectural measures in mass housing aim to improve its accessibility and useability for all age groups, including elderly people and people with physical disabilities. These developments have cut across the lines separating four strictly defined segments, each with their own target groups and standardised provisions. This has resulted in a differentiated offering of combinations of housing and care for the elderly. The main drives for these developments are cost control and the desire of a large number of elderly people to remain independent as long as possible. This article addresses the architectural, financial and organisational measures taken to reshape the traditional system. Some innovative projects are highlighted in order to demonstrate the reflection of changing policies and new care concepts in the spatio-functional layout. The article is concluded with a summarised assessment of the experiences with these projects.
der Voordt, Van, and Theo J. M. van der Voordt. "Spatial Implications of Policy Trends and Changing Concepts of Housing and Care for the Elderly, Current Trends in the Netherlands." In Shifting Balances - Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design: Proceedings of the 15th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. The traditional facilities focus on a particular level of care and a clearly defined (referred) target group. Changes in the level of care required may force people to move as often as four times: first, to a house more suitable to their physical abilities (no high thresholds, no steep stairs); then, to an intermediate facility such as a service flat; next, to a home for the elderly; the final stage is a nursing home. In practice, people will often arrive at a nursing home from their own private house, either directly (prompted by dementia) or after hospitalisation (prompted by physical disability). But a number of older people do indeed pass through the four different environmental settings mentioned above. One rung higher on the care ladder will mean higher costs, less independence and a more restricted housing.
Pavlides, L, J. Robinson, and G. Cranz. "Student Research in Support of Architectural Practice." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 50. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. The objective of this symposium is the presentation of the results of courses in which students are matched with architects in order to complete research on human aspects for the a design project currentely under design. We will share our experience in organizing and running architecture courses that provide environmental design research to practicing architects through student research. We will also discuss strategies for evaluating every aspect of such courses and solicit ideas for improving them and disseminating them to architecture schools. Areas we will explore and invite discussion, criticism, and ideas from the audience include: (1.) Who were the architects who participated in this pioneering program, what were reasons they participated, what were their expectations, and how were they recruited? (2.) What input did the participating architects have in formulating the research project and how was the research methodology designed? (3.) What were the lecture topics and readings in preparing students for the research and how did the students perform bibliographic search for their projects? (4.) How was the interaction between students and architects structured and how did it work? (5.) What were the building types researched by students, the range of findings, how were the findings presented to architects, and how did architects utilize the findings for designing? (6.) What were the educational benefits to students and what were the benefits for the architects? (7.) What is the potential of such courses to provide continuing education to architects as students bring ideas and literature from the University to practicing architects? (8.) How to evaluate the impact of student research on improving the built environment?
Y. de Kort, Slangen -. "Studies on Environment, Ageing and Adaptation - the Older Individual as Actor, Agent and Research Participant." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 61. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. In the past four years we have been working in a line of research on ageing and independent living. The central theme in this study was the concept of adaptation. Adaptation is defined as the dynamic process of minimizing the discrepancy between an actual and a desired state or situation, and is a concept that deserves the interest of researchers from both the field of environment-behaviour and the field of gerontology. The aim of this work was to study the role of the older individual as an active agent in the process of independent living. This process is regarded as an adaptation process in which the role of the individual, the various adaptive strategies and important determinants can be studied. In a rather eclectic way, knowledge has been combined from research fields in coping and adaptation, perceived control and self-efficacy, problem-solving, motivation theory, and participatory design, all in relation to ageing. A number of studies have been performed, ranging from quite fundamental, theory-based experiments, to an explorative survey and a more applied interactive training session. During this presentation I plan to discuss the most recent findings in this line of research and the validity of the various research methods used in this study, especially in relation to older research participants and environment-behaviour research in general. Implications for both research and practice will be discussed.
Zacharias, I.. "Sunlight, Temperature &human Activity in Public Open Spaces in Downtown Montreal." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 77. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. As part of a larger study aimed at the development of human comfort criteria for the outdoor buikt environment, this longitudinal study recorded behaviour in a number of public areas within a part of downtown Montreal. Observations at intervals included the number of people and their distribution across the space sitting, standing and engaged in some activity. These public spaces have different levels and temporal patterns of use even though they are located close together. Nevertheles, the same threshold conditions for presence seem to apply, in keeping with the theoretical human comfort mode!. That is, sunlighting abd temperature appear to have a preponderant role in observed behaviour. In another part of this study, visitors to one of the public spaces were interviewed and provided assessments of the comfort levels prevailing at the time. The questions to be addressed with regard to the behavioural record are: Do the subjective responses to microclimatic conditions correspond to the obsered levels of use? What part of the variation in use and different behaviours can be explained by setting and what part can be explained by the human comfort model?
Vestbro, D. U.. "Swedish - People - Environment Studies - with Or Without Modernism?" In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 69. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. In Sweden modernism became a leading doctrine in housing and town-planning as part of the welfare policy of the Swedish Social_Democratic party. An important part of the Swedish model was to develop state-supported people-environment research, which was used for direct implementation all over the country. Early such studies were started already in the 1940s at the Home Research Institute (later the Consumer Institute). The kitchen studies carried out in this institute lead to the standardization of fittings for kitchens in both one-family and block apartment housing. Later the Building Research Institute and the schools of architecture were given ample resources to develop the field of people-environment studies. In this paper the question is asked to what extent people_environment research should be seen as part of the modernism doctrine and what such a causal relationship might have meant for the theoretical development of this research. Special attention is given to the problems of integrating people-environment studies at the schools of architecture, where a positivist social science perspective came into conflict with traditional concepts of the architect as the cheif artist. It is also discussed what the down-fall of modernism in architecture has meant for people-environment studies today, and whether new ideals about sustainability in town-planning and building design will lead to the comeback of a revised version of modernist people-environment studies or not.
Gumpert, G.. "Symposium: Compatible Or Conflicting Needs: Urban Renewal, Gentrification and Migrating Populations." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 22. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. "As policy makers and public officials attempt to revitalize cities, efforts have been made to preserve, rehabilitate, create new cities resembling the old or build a renew. Praiseworthy goals include social and economic benefits, enhanced quality of life, reduced crime rates and safety. But these goals are not achieved without change and upheaval for some. In Postmodern Urbanism Nail Ellin wrote "gentrification usually results in the displacement of people and businesses because it increases land values and rents even when occurring in already abandoned sections of town, due to the 'domino' as 'spillover' effect. In some instances, this has occasioned the rise of counter-gentrification movements organized by people living and working in the area, who ironically make similar pleas for preservation." Often the needs and pocketbooks of immigrants and minorities inhabiting urban environments are distinct and in conflict with the vision of others. The process of urban renewal and gentrification may come either to the benefit of or at the expense of the needs of other inhabitants. Can populations co_exist or must one population displace another in this process? How is place to be revitalized without excluding, rejecting and evicting those individuals who are the present and make this their home? This symposium will explore theories, compare cross_country evidence and examine case studies in which conflict over the built environment arises."
Yan, X W., K. C. Kuivinen, and M. E. England. "The Built Environment in Polar and Circumpolar Environments: an Environmental Behavioral Approach of Design." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 76. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. Extreme environmental and social conditions in polar and circumpolar regions present great challenges to human beings. The conditions are much harsher and the challenge is much greater for those who have to spend extended periods of time at remote stations in isolated and confined environments (ICEs). While high task motivation and unusual scenic landscapes help humans adapt to the harsh conditions, appropriate design and management of the stations can play a significant role in reducing stress and adverse effects of ICEs on human well-being. Recently, the authors of this paper were principal members of a team that designed a new research station at the summit of Greenland for the Office of Polar Programs of the U. S. National Science Foundation. The station is to host scientists and their support personnel working on research projects at the site through winter seasons. Drawing from literature studies and design process of the station, this paper discusses critical issues pertinent to the design of built habitats in isolated and confined environments (ICEs). Several design considerations of the new station at the summit of Greenland are also reported. Findings of preliminary evaluations by its initial users shortly after the station was built and occupied are also reported. The paper concludes with a suggestion that nine issues should be appropriately addressed in the design and evaluation of similar stations in polar and circumpolar regions in the future from an environmental behavioral perspective. The nine issues are: privacy, social space, separation between private and public as well as spaces of distinct functions, flexibility in interior environment, means of personalization, noise, lighting, visual stimuli, and perception of safety. The paper argues that appropriate design considerations addressing these issues will make the habitat become more than merely a survival protection. It can help ease the adaptation process, alleviate stresses associated with polar and circumpolar ICEs, maintain a higher level of well-being among its inhabitants.
Van, Xiaoying Winston, Karl C. Kuivinen, and Marijane E. England. "The Built Habitat in Polar and Circumpolar Environments: an Environmental Behavioural Approach of Design." In Shifting Balances - Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design: Proceedings of the 15th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. The polar and circumpolar regions present a physical and social environment that greatly challenges human habitation. The challenges include not only the physical environmental conditions such as the hostile climate, high attitude, extreme light-dark cycle, low humidity and lack of sensory stimulation, but also social environmental conditions such as prolonged isolation from family and friends, confinement in small groups and lack of privacy. The harsh environment makes surviving in the polar and circumpolar regions no less difficult than surviving in undersea or space habitats.
Chang, K, and S. Park. "The Color Schemes of Heavy Industry Factory." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 11. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. This presentation describes the process of selecting the proper color scheme for the heavy industry factory. The color of heavy machinery factory is the good element for improving the working environment and decreasing the industrial accidents. The color scheme is used inside and supergraphic is used outside. The theme of outside supergraphic is the traditional dance at full moon. The meaning of the dance is harmonization, union, and elegance. The factory represents not for the machine shop, but for the working environment. The shape of the pattern and the usage of three primary colors look like Korean traditional costume. Also, the shape is from the moon and the mountain in Korea. The rhythm of the pattern is also that of dance. The important points of interior color schemes are differenciation, efficiency, and psychological color effects. The color of safety zone is differed from that of machine shop. The vivid colors are used for easy identification. The soft colors are used at the background for the atmosphere and mood of the workers.
Yamacli, R.. "The Concept of Place in Connection to Architectural Design and Environment." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 76. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. "Architectural design and environment have symbiotic relationships for people within different contexts. The physical environment is said to be the mirror of culture. In this paper, architectural design and environment are considered to be the whole of artificial conditions, effects, forms and forces which surround organisms, affect and change them, and at the same time are connected. Place is an important concept in connection with architectural design and environment. Environments can teach its users about the nature of change or give them a chance to cause it. Structure and identity of the environment are very vital. But in terms of prevention of changes, the "city image" can bring the environment in a process of uncontrolled and unplanned development which an assessment of potential environmental impacts can reveal. The way developed in this approach is the steps and characteristics taking people to a final environmental preference."
H Yone, Law, and R. Kallus. "The Dynamics of Spatial Segregation in Israel." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 35. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. This paper looks at the dynamics of spatial segregation in Israel as an outcome of state policy. In particular, the spatial distributions of two populations were examined, Eastern Jews versus Western Jews, and Arabs versus Jews. The analysis relates to the statistical natural areas of the country and the municipal areas of three main urban centers: Tel Aviv, Jerusalem and Haifa. Data used was that available from the national census data of 1961, 1972 and 1983. The findings were based on a computed index of segregation which has its origins in the index of dissimilarity in statistical geography. The research findings show that contrary to official statements there is no evidence to support the thesis that with time the spatial differentiation based on class and race is disappearing. On the contrary, a significantly large degree of residential segregation at the national level and at the urban level was observed. This is despite national programs which proclaimed integration and dispersion. Israeli society is becoming increasingly bifurcated, notwithstanding the official narrative which has declared rapid upward mobility of Eastern Jews and of Arabs who belong to the talented and educated sectors. Parallel to the official narrative, an alternative narrative of the separation and the concentration of the ethnic underclass must be faced. According to the research findings there are clear indications of the spatial differentiation and concentrations of ethnic groups. This finding, in conjunction with previous research showing widening gaps in level of residential quality between ethnic groups, leads to the conclusion that if present trends in governmental policy based on privatization and market solutions continue, Israel will see an increasing ghettoization of the ethnic underclass both nationally and in the urban areas.
Bonnes, Mirilia. "The Ecological - Global Shift, Environmental Sustainability and the 'shifting Balances'." In Shifting Balances - Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design: Proceedings of the 15th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. Here I will discuss the problem of 'Shifting Balances', on the basis of my almost thirty years of research experience in the area of environmental psychology. I refer to my long research experience, which has allowed me to grasp some important changes which I believe have taken place over the last twenty years in the sciences of the human physical environment. These changes have led to progressively different modalities of understanding the physical environment today -with regard to the human behaviour taking place in it- compared to how it was initially considered by environmental psychology and in the early scientific interests of the International Association for People-Environment Studies (lAPS). These changes seem to have been partially received by lAPS, as may be shown by the history of its acronym. M the older members are more aware of, from its founding period (starting in 1976 and ending in 1981) up until 1990, this was the 'International Association for the Study of People and their Physical Surroundings', changing after that date to the 'International Association for People-Environment Studies'. I believe that this change of name demonstrates the willingness of the Association to shift its interests regarding human behaviour in relation to the physical environment, considering this not only in a spatio-physical sense -i.e. as simple 'physical surroundings' of human behaviour- but with the more complex modalities the term 'environment' suggests today. Here I will try to discuss these changes, in order to show that the 'Shifting Balances', which are the concern of this conference, may in part be due to those changes currently taking place and not yet sufficiently assimilated by lAPS.
Bonnes, M.. "The Ecological Shift, Environmental Sustainability and the 'shifting Balances'." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 5. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. "On the basis of her almost 30 years of research experience on Environmental Psychology. to understand people's interaction with their physical environment, the author discusses the great change that has occurred in the last 20 years in the concept of "physical environment", affecting researchers, designers and decision makers. This change is due to the effect of the "ecological/global revolution". which began in natural sciences, and received strong support from various International and United Nations Organizations and Programmes (such the MAB-UNESCO Program) since the 70s'. A milestone in this process was the 1992 Rio (Brasil) United Nations Conference on "Environment and Development", which identified "sustainable development" _ and thus "environmental sustainability"_ as the main human goal and challenge for the 2lth Century and approved the "Agenda 21" as the main indication of action in this direction. Two major "revolutionary perspectives" can be distinguished within this "ecological revolution", because of the different ways they have in considering the relationship between human behavior and environment and thus the role of human behavior for a sustainable environment. Both perspectives should be involved in order to move towards sustainable development.The implications of the introduction of the concept of "sustainable environment" for researchers, designers, decision makers and users are discussed, pointing out how the adoption of this new concept imposes a much wider spatial and temporal perspective on all of these environmental actors, in the consideration of the physical features of the environment, ranging from the local to the global and from current to future generations' needs. It is proposed that most of today's "shifting balances" discussed at the present IAPS 15 Conference could be related to the impact of these changes, not yet sufficiently assimilated by this Association, on the study of people-physical environment interactions."
Pakdil, 0., and F. D. Cetin. "The Effect of the User Requirements and Environmental Factors of the Planning of P.t.r. Departments." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 49. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. The user requirements and wishes are the two terms that are always used ill the same meaning. In fact the meaning of two terms are so different. Requirements define the standard comfort for users, the wishes define the preferences of users. These terms are all related with environmental factors. Some searchers have studied over them and classified the factors. As a result they mentioned that these factors must be the source of planning because they effect the performances of buildings. The P.T.R. departments are the buildings which have different kind of users. So the requirements are also different because it has five types of users: nurses, doctors, physical therapists, hospital attends and patients. The patient of P.T.R. departments are unable to do some of their functional activities. So the wheelchairs are used in the department frequency. However, these departments should be expanded and. renewed for new requirements. These requirements change with new health facilities, laboratory employment and inventions. In this department the wheelchairs are used frequently, the dimensions of wheelchair must be attended during the planning stage. In this paper, it is mentioned that the user requirements affect the planning of P.T.R. departments. The requirements that are examined in P.T.R. departments belong to environmental factors are classified. A model of planning stage in P.T.R. departments is found by the help of these classifications.
Maxwell, L. E.. "The Effects of Noise on Prereading Skills of Preschool - Aged Children." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 40. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. "A considerable amount of research has documented the effects of noise on elementary school_aged children's cognitive performance and motivation. However, although the preschool years are critical in terms of cognitive development, very little research has been done with this age group. In addition. research on the effects of noise is often done in large metropolitan areas where the noise source is external to the home or school, i.e., road traffic, train traffic, airplane traffic. Noise levels, ho ever. can also be excessive due to design features, i.e., room adjacencies, ceiling heights, too many hard surfaces. In this study preschool_aged children were evaluated on measures of cognitive performance. All of the children attended a child care center in a small town away from any major external noise sources. Due to the design of the classrooms and center, the "internal" noise levels were substantial, approaching decibel levels found in classrooms adjacent to busy airports. A cohort model was used to evaluate changes in cognitive processes before and after major sound attenuation renovation at the child care center. A total of 90, 4 and 5 year old children participated. Children were evaluated on a standardized index of reading readiness. Children were also evaluated by their classroom teacher on language skills utilizing a standardized scale. Approximately half of the children were tested in the first year of the study in the noisy condition. The other half were tested after the renovations were made to reduce noise levels. Family income and parents' educational levels and occupation were comparable for the two cohorts. After the renovations, there was a significant reduction in classroom noise levels. These reductions in noise levels, in turn, appeared to have positive effects on children's cognitive performance. Those in the quieter conditions were rated as having better language skills (e.g., the child's ability to understand others when spoken to, the child's use of language, and the child's ability to be understood by others). Children in the quieter classrooms also performed significantly better than their peers in the noisy classrooms on items from the TERA (Test of Early Reading Ability) testing for children's recognition of letters, numbers, and words."
Wells, N.. "The Efficacy of Self - Help Housing for Low - Income Urban Mothers." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 73. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. Housing policies are undergoing changes worldwide. In the United States, responsibility for low income housing is increasingly shifting from governmental entities to communitybased non-profit organizations fueled by volunteers and by low-income individuals themselves. The self-help housing movement represents a dramatic shift, not only in housing policy and in the physical design of buildings in which people live, but perhaps more significantly, in its potential impact upon residentparticipants. This research employs surveys and interviews conducted with low_income, primarily minority urban mothers participating in Habitat for Humanity's self_help housing program. Interviews were coil during the early stages of the women's involvement in the program while they were residing in their original home, and again after they had resided in their new homes for several months. By this time, they had worked side-by-side with volunteers, investing hundreds of hours of sweat equity toward the construction of their own home. This research provides insight into the efficacy of the selfhelp housing model. Among factors impacted are the mothers' feelings of empowerment, their view of themselves and their family, and attitudes about the future. These issues have important implications in terms of the broader efficacy of housing policy and programs. Housing need not be merely about shelter but may, through empowerment, also influence issues of community-building, educational achievement, employment success, and family solidarity.
van der Wardt, J.W.. "The Evaluation and Prediction of Neighbourhood Quality in Amsterdam." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 71. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. Neighbourhood quality and sustainability are key concepts within the environmental policy of the city of Amsterdam. Applied to neighbourhoods both address a different aspect of quality: neighbourhood quality refers to the evaluation of the living environment by inhabitants; sustainability refers to conservation and the future prospects. Implementation of policy based on these often conflicting goals was hampered by the lack of valid indicators for sustainability and neighbourhood quality. Within this context two studies were carried out for the city of Amsterdam. This paper reports findings from the study examining the determinants of neighbourhood quality and the validity of objective indicators. For the study 1.853 inhabitants of fourteen neighbourhoods were questioned on fifty neighbourhood attributes and their overall satisfaction with the neighbourhood. Results show that the evaluation of neighbourhood quality in the first place depends on the visual appearance (beautiful, well_kept, decent); the spaciousness and the amount green areas; noise and disturbance by neighbours; arid social heterogeneity. To a lesser extent the following aspects are important: crime; vandalism: air pollution; outdoor facilities for children; public transport and shopping facilities. In inner-city neighbourhood satisfaction is also enhanced by liveliness and the proximity of bars and restaurants. Results indicate that neighbourhood satisfaction is strongly influenced by the evaluation of ones own home. In the second part of the study the relation between perception and objective attributes was investigated. As could be expected the potential indicators had little validity on the individual level. On an aggregate level the validity was much higher. Average housing quality in the neighbourhood (size and value), the amount of green space and social structure (income, unemployment, density) seemed useful predictors of the average level of satisfaction. This means that on a global level neighbourhood quality can be evaluated using objective indicators, but that little will be learned about the way individual inhabitants perceive and evaluate their neighbourhood. The policy implications of this conclusion are one of the themes discussed in the paper.
Lay, M. C. D.. "The Gap: Designers' Intentions Versus Outcomes." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 36. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. This paper emphasizes the need for bridging the gap between designers' intentions and their predicted and actual outcomes in the design and production of residential environments. It summarizes a conceptual review, which includes the discussion of theoretical issues in mass housing design, the possible solutions to the problem put forward by researchers in the past and new explanations which emerge from the analytic examination of the literature. It follows from the notion that research and practice are part of the same process of making better environments. That is, findings from evaluative studies should be fed back into the process of design so as to result in residential environments more responsive to the desires and expectations of its users. Although this argument might seem quite obvious, evidence shows that actual cooperation between research and practice does not occur effectively. The different views identified in the literature as attempting to 'bridge the gap' in the production of residential environments are grouped into three approaches: (1) the social gap, that is, the group which claims the need to understand the users specific cultural background to enable the creation of projects that reflect users culture and values; (ii) the group which claims that user participation is the answer to the administrative gap that exists in the design process; (iii) the group which looks for answers to the holistic conceptual gap, based on post_occupancy evaluation transfer strategy. Discussion about the differences between the approaches in seeking to answer the question of how design could increase the probability of success are the key subject of this paper.
Koolen, M., and H. Sanoff. "The Glaxo Project: an Evaluation of Playrooms in a Child Development Center." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 32. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

The case-study is conducted in four playrooms of The Glaxo Wellcome Child Development Center (North Carolina, USA). It consists of an assessments and a series of observations per room. The theory of activity centers was used as the theoretical frame. It focuses on providing an environment for selfdirected learning and thus enables us to study the environment-behavior interaction from an educational point of view. Self-directed learning means that the children can choose their own activity out of a range of possibilities provided. An activity center has five defining attributes: (1) a physical location, (2) visible boundaries, (3) work and sitting surfaces, (4) storage and (5) display of materials. When the playroom is set up by using activity centers, a diverse palette of possibilities is provided to the children in a clear, understandable and attractive way. The building occupants, children and teachers, are chosen as the focus of this study. The teachers ere involved through discussions and little exercises. The transfer of knowledge from researcher to the teachers was an important part of the evaluation. The assessment of the playrooms mainly focused on two aspects. First, the quality of the activity centers was assessed by denoting the number of physical borders, the display of materials and the available working surfaces. The overall quality of the centers was good. Second, the availability of children's places was assessed. A playroom, as well as the entire building, must provide places for children that differ in atmosphere, by stimulating different senses of the children. In this respect the playrooms were not very well equiped. The observations consisted of eighteen time samples (with intervals of five minutes) for each playroom. Besides the place of the child, additional information was denoted. The categories 'behavior related to the activity center' and 'behavior not related to the activity center' were introduced in the observation system to be able to discuss whether the centers send clear cues to the children, so they start activities in the areas set up for the specific activities. To discuss the observations, hypotheses were formulated. One hypothesis was clearly supported by the data: Moving and wandering children are observed in less well defined activity centers and the circulation areas of the playroom. This is a confirmation of the theory. The search for support for the theory of activity centers was successful only to a certain extend. Some evidence of the positive effects of the application of the theory of activity centers was found.

Maki, K, and S. Kobayashi. "The Hierarchy of Words Used in the Evaluation of Environments: Streetscape Evaluation." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 38. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. One research approach to ascertaining the validity of predictor variables is to have subjects rate their environmental preferences and the related predictor variables. Upon using this type of approach in rating experiments, the authors encountered an inconsistency: the inability to ascertain the predictor variables' relevance to evaluation, even though those predictor variables were in fact the parameters cited by the subjects as justification for their evaluations. Data from rating experiments were used to verify the authors' hypothesis that this inconsistency arises from the difference in direction (i.e., positive versus negative) in the parameters' effects on evaluation. It was also demonstrated that changes in the direction of effect on evaluation arise from differences in a parameter name's connotation. The fact that some parameter names have different connotations in different circumstances while others have a consistent connotation is said to indicate the existence of a hierarchy in the connotations of the words used to represent parameters. Finally, the need for hierarchical analysis is stated.
Kabisch, S.. "The Importance of Natural Environmental Quality for Residential Quality." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 29. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. Environmental quality comes increasingly at the top of the list of reasons for choice of residential area. Furthermore, it is a main stimulating factor for place attachment or, in the negative sense, for migration and population decline. This hypothesis is in the focus of my argumentation on environmental perception and place attachment. In the frame of urban ecological structural change the perception of environmental quality plays an important role, when it comes to initialization of concrete projects and participation by the inhabitants. To improve the environmental conditions and to take care of it (e.g. green spaces, playgrounds, resting places), one should know the needs, the wishes and the dissatisfaction of the residents with regard to their housing conditions. Sociological investigations, combined with data analysis on distribution of air and noise pollution in an Geographical Information System (GIS), is an instrument to get spatial informations on environmental potentials and the residents' perception. Investigation results in urban residential areas with different building and social structures and specific surrounding features show chances and difficulties of concrete actions at the local level. The starting point must be the understanding of the close links and interdependencies of built, social and natural environment. Survey-results on housing satisfaction with respect to the environmental conditions will be discussed, in relation to urban ecological aspects. An interdisciplinary approach, with cooperation of sociologists, geographers, cartographers and natural scientists, will be presented. The research results will be presented also in visual forms by maps and photo-documentation.
Park, S.. "The Interrelationship Between Clothing and Architecture." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 49. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. Clothing is called 2nd skin and architecture, third skin. Protection and comfort are the major functions of the skins. Above from the basic functions, there are many similar points to discuss such as, beauty, symbol, design. Historically, clothing and architecture are dominated by the culture of that time. The culture as broad meaning governs the phenomena of the society. Also it affects everyday life of ordinary people. The trends can be found in the design fields. The trends can apply to both clothing and architecture. This paper presentation attempts to demonstrate the similarities of design concepts of clothing and architecture. The similarities are ecology, minimalism, post-modernistm, materialism, inside-out, romanticism, even deconstruction. The design could be diversified to satisfy the needs of our life.
Fiortoft, I., and J. Sageine. "The Natural Environment as a Playground for Children, Learning Effects of Outdoor Activities in Pre - School Children." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 19. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. There is a growing, concern about children spending too much time sitting indoors in stead of playing outdoors. Recently it has been focused on how the natural environment affords possibilities and challenges for the children to explore their own abilities for exercise and mastering. Studies have shown how children's play in the natural environment stimulates their motor fitness. Other learning effects on linguistic and conceptual context, spatial perception and biological knowledge have also been noticed. An experimental study was carried out with 5 and 6 years old preschool children. The experimental group (N=46) was given motor training through playing in the natural environment. The physical landscape, vegetation and topography, was the arena for allround activities and free play. The experimental group visited the arena 1-2 hours every day when they attended the kindergarten. The reference group (N=29) was similar to the experimental group in age and living conditions. The reference group was attending normal kindergarten activities, but visited the natural environment only occasionally. The study lasted for 9 months. Both groups were tested before and after the implementation of the study. As testing methods the Eurofit Motor Fitness Test was applied. Preliminary results show a better improvement in mnotor fitness in the experimental group compared to the reference group. Significant differences (p<.ol were="" found="" in="" coordination="" balance="" skills="" and="" agility.="" age="" maturation="" related="" competencies="" such="" as="" body="" strength="" flexibility="" improved="" all="" groups="" but="" do="" not="" show="" similar="" significant="" differences="" between="" the="" groups.="" it="" was="" also="" noticed="" that="" amount="" of="" free="" play="" experimental="" group="" increased.="" there="" an="" considerable="" increase="" children="" interests="" knowledge="" nature.="" can="" be="" concluded="" by="" playing="" all-round="" activities="" natural="" environment="" motor="" fitness="" is="" improved.="" nature="" affords="" possibilities="" challenges="" for="" to="" explore="" their="" own="" abilities.="" feel="" more="" comfortable="" being="" about="" increases.="" study="" indicates="" a="" stimulating="" arena="" mastering="" learning="" processes="" pre-school="" children.="">
Kallus, R, A Churchman, and Law H. Yone. "The Quality of the Residential Environment: an Integrative Approach." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 30. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. The assessment of housing, as practiced by officials in government agencies, is usually done by using objective indicators such as dwelling size, density, ownership and price. Such an approach is limited for two reasons: one it relates only to the dwelling itself and ignores the characteristics of the surrounding environment that may be a significant factor in the welfare of the residents; two, it assumes that objective characteristics are sufficient, and the feeling and preferences of the residents either unnecessary, non-measurable or too subjective. Scientific research presently available either focuses on economic indicators and economic analysis (pricing of housing characteristics) or has examined the subjective attitudes of residents to separate aspects of the residential environment: the dwelling unit, the residential building or aspects of neighborhood services. No research has systematically looked at all of the various aspects that together make up the 'dental environment, from the point of view of the residents, in an integrative fashion. The paper, a report of a study in progress, offers a multidisciplinary, multilevel and multimethod approach to the housing discourse. It suggests an approach to the study of housing based on the inclusion of all aspects (social, physical, environmental) and all levels (dwelling, building, neighborhood) of the residential environment, and the differentiation between subjective housing bundles of different population groups. Our goal is to contribute a socially conscious approach to the development of housing indicators to be used by policy makers.
Kanyama, A. A.. "The Role of Planning System in Managing Progressive Physical Development: an Analysis of User Participation in the Planning and Building of Dod Oma." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 31. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. The alliance between policy makers, planners and designers in the planning process often results in the implementation of policies by relying on regulations and if necessary coercion. This situation has resulted in the mismatch between intentions and outcome of physical development. This paper studies the planning and implementation of the master plan of Dodoma in Tanzania. The study includes reviews of the planning process, the extent of the plan implementation and interviews with both planning officials as well as the users of the built environment. The investigation showed that plan implementation was slower than expected. The shortfall in physical achievement was in part due to the fact that the actual users and builders of the environment could not participate ill the planning process. The planning of Dodoma was preceded by clear objectives outlined by the government which, as the client of the project, had anticipated specific town planning solutions for the development of the capital. Planners tried to cope with the programmatic objectives by searching for general solutions not sanctioned by the effective users and builders of Dodorna. As such, building became problematic because of the need to maintain the whole concept of physical development over time irrespective of changing day to day conditions.
Herrington, Susan. "The Role of the Garden and the Outdoor Environment in Fröbel's Kindergarten." In Shifting Balances - Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design: Proceedings of the 15th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. There has been a growing dialogue concerning the quality of outdoor play environments for young children (Nabhan, 1994). This dialogue has taken the form of journal and popular press articles, books, symposiums, and research projects that have criticised the condition and pedagogical use of outdoor play areas at schools and child care centres. In the United States this criticism has illuminated not only the paucity of natural elements in these play areas, but the allocation of outdoor space for mainly pre-fabricated equipment and organised sports like soccer, basketball, and baseball.
Herrington, S.. "The Role of the Garden and the Outdoor Environment in Fröbels Kindergarten." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 25. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. The kindergarten is an educational experience that has been shared by a diversity of cultures since the 19th century. Invented in 1839 by Friedrich Fröbel, a controversial German educator, the word kindergarten described the educational philosophy he developed for children three to six years old. An aspect of the kindergarten, implied in the word itself , is the garden. In the outdoor play spaces of Fröbel's original kindergarten, children tended to plants, cultivated gardens, and investigated the environment around them. Since the translation of kindergartens into the United States during the I 850s. the outdoor components associated with Fröbel's original concept have been forgotten. Today n the United States, the garden in the kindergarten is considered a metaphor. However, designers and educators are re-introducing outdoor play opportunities and activities, like gardening and nature observation, into schools and day care centers in the United States. With this recent trend away from equipment-based playgrounds to more garden and landscape based outdoor play environments, it is prudent to investigate the historical precedent of outdoor educational systems. This investigation is particularly relevant in light of another recent trend by administrators to enact no_recess polices in public schools. Given it's longevity and breadth of influence, the kindergarten provides a starting point for this type of inquiry. The following asks what were some of the salient features of the original kindergarten? What was the role of the garden and outdoor environments in this educational system? What did children do in these gardens and outdoor environments? With a more complete understanding of this well known educational system, an important historical dimension about the pedagogical use of outdoor spaces can be adjoined to the current and future debates concerning outdoor play.
Ramadier, T., and G. Moser. "The Structure of the Conceptual Representation of Urban Environment: Towards the Concept of Social Legibility of the City." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 55. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. "Research on spatial cognition is limited to the spatial and behavioral dimensions of the legibility of the city. Nevertheless, from a psychological viewpoint, the urban environment is not only the material product of human action. It is also the symbolic product of individual and collective experiences. In other words, the construction of the spatial image is based on meanings. However, meanings depend upon physical, sociological, functional, and use dimensions, because the environment is multidimensional. By reverting to the person/environment model and the transactional theoretical perspective, and by examining the social component, our research has enabled us to understand social legibility and to describe its modes by referring to the cultural component of familiarity with surroundings. Indeed, the city is culturally marked and the individual is a social subject. Thus, by making variations in initial sociospatial familiarity, we were able to verify the following hypothesis: initial sociospatial familiarity influences the structure of the conceptual representation of the city. We opted for quasiexperimentation, choosing Paris, a city imbued with European culture, and questioning foreign students from either Southern Europe (strong initial familiarity) or Sub_Saharan Africa (weak initial familiarity). The "longitudinal-transverse" design allowed the evolution of the representation in the period from arrival to the second year of residence (temporo-spatial familiarity) to be analysed. We found two types of conceptual structure when subjects arrived in Paris: a structure where the use dimension (egocentric representation) predominates when familiarity is weak, and a structure that supports the use dimension as well as the physical, social and functional dimensions (diversified representation) when familiarity is strong. These two structures do not indicate a distinct cognitive process for each cultural group because we observe, at the end of the second year of residence, an evolution of the egocentric representation towards a diversified representation when familiarity is initially weak. Thus, the socio-physical characteristics of surroundings in all their complexity are not legible for all residents. These considerations are accompanied by results concerning the influence of the structure and evolution of conceptual representation on spatial representation and activities undertaken in town."
Teklenburg, J. A. F., A. W. J. Borgers, Waerden P. W. J. van der, and Harry J. P. Timmermans. "The Use of Pedestrian Exits in a Suburban Shopping Centre." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 66. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. Pedestrian counts before and after a major reconstruction of a suburban shopping centre in The Netherlands reveal that the use of pedestrian exits is remarkably constant over time. Although the reconstruction changed the layout of the shopping centre dramatically, and included a major change in the location of parking facilities, the distribution of use of pedestrian exits that were not affected by the reconstruction shows strong correlations between the before and after situation. The same effect was found within the before and after situation: for each situation the distribution of use is constant over different days, and within days over different parts of the day. This is not to say that a change in layout would not affect pedestrian behaviour: pedestrian flows in the shopping centre were affected by the reconstruction. Although the distribution of use was constant, the absolute numbers are not: there are major differences between days and between different parts of the days. In the situation after the reconstruction the number of visitors had increased slightly. These results may have an impact on the way cordon counts are performed, but further research in shopping centres with a different layout is needed.
Sadan, S, A Churchman, and 0. Shemer. "The Use, Abuse and Nonuse of the Outdoor Physical Environment in a Child Abuse Situation." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 57. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. "The outdoor physical environment is the focus of an analysis of an event of sexual violence against children, that occurred in a temporary settlement for Jewish immigrants from Ethiopia set in a rural area in Israel. The story begins when the local police station received a complaint that several young children were sexually abused during a period of several months by a group of adolescent boys. Both victims and aggressors live in the settlement. The complaint was not made by the childrens' parents, but by the social service agency responsible for the site. The first part of the presentation will introduce the event and the main actors taking part in it: The police, the social workers, the children, the adolescents, the parents and other people living in the neighborhood. The main part of the presentation will be devoted to the outdoor environment of the settlement that plays a very important part in the event. The layout of the site, the materials it consists of, its physical and geographical isolation, and its natural surroundings have substantial and symbolic roles in the story. "The scene of the crime", "community" and "mute subconscious contex" are some of the meanings of this environment with which the various actors cope, but of which they are sometimes unaware. We will analyse the way the relations with the physical environment reflect the social position, and the social feelings of marginality, social isolation and alienation that characterize the life of the settlement and its residents. We will conclude with recommendations for more awareness of the role that the physical environment plays in problematic social situations that are seemingly not directly connected to it. We will show the new possibilities for therapeutic social solutions that arise when the physical context of social problems is made explicit."
Uzzell, D. L., and C. Clark. "The Visual Impact of Buildings: the Meaning of Building Entrances." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 67. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. The research which has been undertaken to date on visual impact has largely focused on architectural perceptions and identifying the criteria which ought to be taken into account in design review and architectural, and comparing professional and lay judgements of buildings. Comparatively less attention has been given to architectural meaning. Research in this area has tended to separate perception from meaning. There is an interaction between preferences and meaning in the visual impact of buildings. Several studies have focused on the impressions about the occupants of houses, as judged from the perception of their homes. Also the affect of visual impact on recognition memory of buildings has also been studied. It is hypothesised that a subject's impressions of a building entrance will influence their memory of that building; more specifically those building entrances which generate a positive impression will be more memorable. Twenty non_structured multiple sorts were undertaken on 44 photographs of building entrances. This was performed in order to generate different types of building entrances. On the basis of sorted similarities, the photographs were divided into two groups with 15 photographs in each group. Forty nonstructured multiple sorts were then carried out on the two groups of photographs (20 sorts on each group of photographs). A week after the multiple sort, a recognition memory test was carried out using the 15 photographs originally shown and a further 15 photographs as distracters which were similar but not originally shown. The paper will report on both the meanings of the building entrances generated by the structured sorts and the relationship between preferences for certain types of building entrances and recognition memory.
Zacharias, J., and J. van Andel. "The Walking Trips of Visitors to Eindhoven City Centre." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 77. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. The path choices and walking behaviours of regular visitors to Eindhoven city centre were observed and related to characteristics of the local environment. The detailed walking behaviour of a sample of observed visitors was examined to see whether entry point to the Markt area was important in the itinerary followed and whether behaviour varied in different parts of the city centre. These detailed behaviours were related to the statistical flows and path choices of all visitors. In a second study. we examined whether hypothetical choices using picture sets are the same as real choices. A sample of regular visitors were asked to make a hypothetical itinerary using sets of photos and explain the motivations for their choices. Half were started at one entry point and half at another. The hypothetical itineraries of the two groups were compared. These results were then compared with the statistical choices of all regular visitors as observed over a number of days. In addition, the same picture set representing the path choices at intersections in Eindhoven city centre was applied to a sample of people unfamiliar with the local environment. Their choices and observations were compared with those of the regular visitors. The results of this study help shed light on how the design and layout of the environment affect spatial behaviour. Some evaluation of the use of tracking and photo sets in spatial behaviour is also offered.
Abarkan, A, and J.L. Kimaryo. "Towards Good Urban Spaces: Modern Versus Historical Urban Design in Africa." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 6. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. One of the major criticisms to modern urban design has been its failure to lead to socially popular urban spaces. It is generally believed that this failure of modern urban design is mainly a result of its non_contextual approach by which factors pertaining to local community contexts were overlooked. Accordingly, contextualization of urban design is now seen as an important approach through which the above failure could be corrected. In this direction, historical urban spatial forms are seen as important sources of knowledge and inspiration. This paper supports and contributes to this current discourse about urban space through presenting and discussing the findings of analyses of the modern city centre of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and the historic city centre of Fes, Morocco. Analysis of Dar es Salaam city centre illustrates further the above failure of modern urban design. It shows how land use paterns, traffic circulation system, density standards, urban solid_void relationships, and urban space treatment which did not take into account existing local circumstances led to public urban spaces which are underutilized, misused, and modified by users. Analysis of Fes city centre demonstrates the potentials of historical urban spatial forms for informing current urban design in its endeavour to generate good urban spaces. In Fes city centre, a study of the physical and social structures of the historic centre reveals a rigid order in the organization of urban spaces. Two different types of urban spaces structure the historic centre. A central public urban space is surrounded by private urban space. Together they are strongly related to each other by an important network of communication channels. This physical structure is adapted to certain way of life. The private urban space is a physical element placed in a special relation to surrounding buildings and streets that connects it to the public urban space. The private urban space is also a social element which belongs to a social group tied to familiar relations, ethnicity, profession, etc.
Popov, L, and U. Cohen. "Towards Theory Building in Facility Programming: a Methodological Analysis of Human Activity." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 52. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. "There are numerous models of "activity" developed in the social sciences, in a variety of different domains. These models are created for pure academic pursuits or for the needs of management, marketing, social work, education. These conceptualizations include predominantly the socio_normative nature of human action. They are less relevant to the study of the sociospatial interactions. The purpose of this paper is to suggest a perspective on human activity which can facilitate the analysis of its elements and structures relevant to the built environment. The main thesis is that the study of activity in respect to built environment should consider both social and spatial elements. The analysis should focus on the structures of activity that include both the necessary conditions as well as the undesirable influences (impediments and restrictions) in respect to facilitating and sustaining the activity processes. Structures of this type emerge as a result of the social interaction in and with the physical environment. From this perspective the sociospatial relations of people and activities are constituted on the grounds of the conditions necessary for effective performance. The paper consists of three sections: The first section presents several abstract conceptualizations of activity. They are intended to provide a general direction for choosing activity models that have a potential for guiding sociospatial research. In the second section of the paper, selected activity models are analyzed in brief. The purpose of that part is to discover theoretical resources that are instrumental for construing the sociospatial structures of activities. In the third section, the spatial relations of agents and activities are discussed. The analysis is focused on the dimensions of activities that are most deeply influenced by the availability of spatial resources and the configuration of spatial structures. This viewpoint establishes the grounds for a "conditions and resources" perspective to activity. This perspective is intended as a methodological approach to the study of activity in facility programming and to provide guidance for formulating the information gathering tasks."
Hultén, P.. "Transport and Mobility Within the Limits of Environmental Sustainability." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 27. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. Our recent recognition of the consequences of greenhouse gas emissions and the emergence of global warming' as an issue have had a dramatic impact oil our perceptions of the ecological role we human beings play. The decommissioning of existing nuclear installations in developed economies and an equitable rise in the material standard of living in other countries will together require a reduction in current carbon dioxide emissions from the transport sector in industrialized countries by as Much as a factor often. It is highly doubtful whether automotive transport will be able to free itself from reliance oil fossil fuels within the span of the few decades we have at our disposal. Only if we manage to devise new, environmentally sustainable transport solutions - in lime - can we hope to avoid what failure to achieve this goal may entail. Such solutions will have to do more than simply ensure that the engines use new fuels more efficiently. They must also reduce the number of engines ill operation ill relation to the total need of mobility, since the number of engines in the world is growing too fast Consequently we need new solutions in public transport within the micro-region, where the use of engines is most frequent. The purpose of the study is to explore the possibilities of stimulating socioeconomic development by adapting means of transport ill micro_regions to the constraints imposed by environmental concerns The task is complex and necessarily involves numerous disciplines and interconnected areas of inquiry. Taking the versatility of flexible vehicles - multimobiles - as a means to develop public transportation on local and regional levels as a working hypothesis, the study explores how such vehicles might be designed. The multimobiles design features have been specified in cognizance of new directions in which design theory should be developed to respond to the requirements posed by the need to attain sustainability. Specifying the requirements which a variety of common urban and built up structures make of transport systems in an integral, non-reductionist manner makes it possible to design a 'family of vehicles'. This product family, comprising some dozen complementary types of vehicles, can be constructed of no more than a handful of modules in a 'vehicle construction kit'.The contents of the kit are then applied to three different demo_geographical contexts: sparsely populated rural areas, all urban network consisting of small towns (the Falun-Borlaenge region), and an urban centre (Uppsala). The vehicles produced from the kit are evaluated in terms of their ecological, economic, social and cultural benefits and impacts. Finally, the study explores the possibility of furtiler user-steered product development, assuming that local can influence the design characteristics and performance of public transportation vehicles in accordance with the commitment to achieve environmental sustainability.
Nilsson, M.. "Travel Behaviour and Environmental Consideration." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 47. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. Pollution caused by traffic is one of today's fastest growing environmental problems in urban areas, but the pollution could be reduced if people's modal choice had been more environmentally responsible. From an environmental psychology perspective, this study analyses the importance of attitudes and environmental knowledge to driving distance, travel behaviour and acceptance of various traffic restrictions. The analysis was based on a questionnaire answered by 422 (51% response rate) citizen of Lurid in the South of Sweden. Five different attitude dimensions were defined in a factor analysis. Three dimensions interpreted as environmental concern, hazard/efficacy perception and car dependency were connected with driving distance, travel behaviour and acceptance, whereas two dimensions public transport attitude and environment and health interest were not. Neither was environmental knowledge. Politicians and civil servants are in decision-making positions, with tools as well as responsibility for actual implementations of traffic restrictions. 122 (51% response rate) local politicians and civil servants in the municipality of Lurid were asked to complete a similar questionnaire as the public previously had answered. Also in this group of local decision-makers, acceptance of traffic restrictions was related to environmental concern, perceived hazard and car dependency. Naturally the decision-makers had a wider knowledge of the environmental impact of traffic. They held the same level of acceptance as the public, but preferred restrictions of a more financial nature. This enhance the importance of a well functioning communication between local decision-makers and the public, as to what restrictions should be implemented. A similar psychological process seems to direct the acceptance of traffic restrictions for both the general public and local decision_makers. Personal attitudes stand out as important, foremost towards the environment and the car. These results suggest that it may be important to focus attitudes when promoting an environmental travel behaviour rather than solely relying on factual information. Environmental attitudes begin to develop in pre-school age and it may be advantageous to attend to environmentally responsible attitudes and travel behaviour among children.
Uzzell, D.L.. "Treading Lightly Towards Environmental Sustainability: Policy and Practice in a Spiritual Context." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 68. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. Introducing sustainability practices amongst the adult population has had a history of mixed success. One problem has been identifying a meaningful target group that has a collective identity based on something more psychologically meaningful than age, residential location or even occupation. encouraging sustainability practices among a social group whose values and beliefs supposedly incorporate a concern about the earth should have a significantly higher chance of success. This paper will report on a recently introduced project called Tread Lightly in the Diocese of Guildford (Surrey, UK). The Tread Lightly Programme aims to encourage church groups (of all denominations) think about, assess and act to reduce the environmental footprint of their churches. Tread Lightly takes groups through a ten stage process from forming an action group to initiate change, identifying the church's environmental effects by means of an environmental audit, developing an environmental policy in response to the findings and implementing an action plan to change consumption and waste practices within a spiritual and theological context. The paper will describe the Tread Lightly Programme in detail and assess feedback from the early stages of the implementation of the pilot programme.
S. Ornstein, Walbe. "Trends in Post - Occupancy Evaluation Applied in Greater Sao Paulo, Brazil: Environmental Quality of Workstations." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 71. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. "This article demonstrates and analyzes a Post-Occupancy Evaluation (POE) applied to four large office buildings located in the city of São Paulo, assessing user satisfaction in regards to environmental comfort. It seeks to explain new trends in the application of POE in Brazilian metropolitan areas. whose more recent urban and technological transformations demand a greater number of interdisciplinary studies of the evaluation of the performance of office work environments. The buildings studied here are designed as "landscape offices" and total more than 86,500m2 of built area, and at the time of the study (1995/1996) contained 2,512 workers. Buildings "A" and "B" are highly automated, and "C" and "D" are traditional buildings representing three distinct generations of architecture and philosophy of business administration. Since productivity and absence from work for health reasons are often associated with the satisfaction of users with the quality of their work environment, this paper will present key methodological issues and results of the research in regards to environmental comfort (lighting, temperature, acoustics and ergonomics), with a view to the establishment of design performance criteria."
Edge, Martin, and Joanne Milner. "Universal Design: a Social Agenda Within the Ecologically Designed Built Environment." In Shifting Balances - Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design: Proceedings of the 15th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. This paper argues that a valid architectural expression needs to be found for the social issues of the twenty first century. It is axiomatic that in the UK at least, the profession of Architecture is in crisis. Pressured on all sides, many architects have become entrenched in a historicist self-view more appropriate to the creation of a Victorian monument than the sensitive design of appropriate environments for people at the millennium. Others however are searching for and developing new approaches, aimed at reflecting changing environmental and societal needs. As one of these new movements, ecological architecture has grown from radical beginnings to a kind of respectability and maturity. As the post-war architectural agenda has been changing, social concerns and the approach to their solution by social scientists have, largely unnoticed within mainstream architecture, also been shifting. Sociology in particular has moved away from micro-interactionist, or structural approaches, in favour of more anti-reductionist and post-structuralist perspectives, such as Giddens' structuration theory, which attempts to bind together the micro and the macro (Giddens, 1993). In the post-modern world, the central tenets of social policy have moved away from their predominant 'Fordist' focus on mass solutions to mass problems. Within the sociology of the built environment, this is reflected in the emergence of alternative approaches, such as 'universal design'. This approach to architecture seeks to inject a social and environmental philosophy, consistent with long-term sustainability and users' needs, into all design solutions. With the growth of the philosophy of ecological architecture, the aims of recent theoretical approaches to sociology and architecture are not, in reality, so far apart. We have yet to find a common expression however, for these coincident aims.
Edge, M., and J. Milner. "Universal Design: a Social Agenda Within the Ecologically Designed Built Environment." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 18. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. During the 1980s and 1990s architecture, in crisis in the UK, retreated from a former interest in the social sciences, particularly sociology, and the needs of people, into its traditional domain as a profession concerned primarily with aesthetics. Where there have been challenges to the Beaux Arts view of the profession, they have tended to come from technology and the physical sciences, rather than from the social sciences. Many architectural movements continue to adopt manifestos from time to time, to inform the design agenda. Such manifestos are still adopted in preference to any rigorously formulated philosophy and only a few of the more marginal architectural movements have any serious social agenda. Research by the authors in higher education has shown how deeply culturally ingrained is the resistance to social sciences and the interests of users within mainstream architecture. As architecture has abandoned the often deterministic social agendas of the post_war years, so the social sciences have been changing their focus. In sociology in particular, micro-interactionist, or structural approaches have given way to more anti-reductionist and post-structuralist perspectives, such as Giddens' structuration theory. Ironically such approaches, moving as they are, in tandem with much thinking on the philosophy of science, away from a reliance on empiricism and reductionism. may more closely match the project based activities of the architect. The field of universal design ['or example, with its holistic, inclusive approach to the built environment reflecting the desire to consider the needs of the widest possible spectrum of physical and sensory ability, is essentially proposing what might be seen as an architectural approach. Yet research has shown the difficulty of infusing ideas about design, emanating from the social sciences, into the conventional, studio based, architectural education process. It is suggested that the failure of architecture to adopt a rational social agenda can be addressed through the increasingly respectable and mainstream field of ecological design. This approach to architecture, once a marginalised, minority interest, is becoming both more sophisticated and more acceptable to majority architectural opinion. Ecological design has long espoused an interest in the user and a social agenda, yet has failed to base such an agenda on the kind of objective, informed approach which the social sciences have to offer. It is suggested that universal and ecological design are complementary and necessary to one another, as ecological design seeks a rational social agenda and universal design seeks acceptance in an architectural culture.
Priemus, H.. "Urban Restructuring and the Social Structure of Dutch Urban Areas." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 54. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. Both in the United States and in the Netherlands the contrast between the city and its surroundings is sharp. There are no reasons to expect a spontaneous back-to-the-city movement in the near future. In 1997 President Clinton announced a number of measure to strengthen the urban housing market by promoting urban home ownership. In this contribution it will be argued that the proposed measures will not do the job. In Dutch government announces in 1997 as well a new policy to strengthen urban districts: redifferentiation of the housing stock and restructuring of a large number of urban districts with a large share of social rented dwellings, mostly in multi-family estates. An amount of about 1 billion US dollars will be spent by the Dutch government until 2010 to promote urban restructuring: demolition of lo quality dwellings, upgrading, renovation and joining units, sale of rental property and improvement of the urban structure. Although a number of fundamental questions are not yet answered the new urban policy of Dutch government looks promising. It seems easier for the Netherlands - with a fairly wide range of incomes among the urban population - to strengthen urban housing markets than in the United States were the gap between the core city and the suburbs may be too wide to bridge.
Salama, R.. "User Transformation of Public Housing: the Actors, their Roles, and the Outcome." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 59. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. Governments in many developing countries still face the great challenge of responding to the increasing demand of low income populations for affordable housing. Policy makers and housing experts in those countries have often opted for the provision of completely finished flats in multistorey walk-ups. This has been the main trend in public housing policy in Egypt for the last forty years. Yet, on the other hand, public housing dwellers have been engaged, for many years and through their own initiatives, in informal alteration and extension activities aimed at adapting their dwellings to better suit their needs. This has resulted, not only in an increase of housing accommodation but in improving the socio-economic conditions of families and in changing static housing environments into dynamic multiple_use developments. Understanding this phenomenon is a prerequisite to future interventions in housing. This paper investigates more closely the transformation process though an in_depth analysis of case studies selected in a project in Cairo. It identifies the actors involved and examines their roles in different phases of the transformation process such as the decision making, the financing and the construction phases. Finally, it assesses the costs and benefits of user transformations, and discusses the new roles which could be played by governments and housing professionals in supporting existing self_help processes. The research supports the argument that professional intervention in housing should be based on a careful understanding of the way people have traditionally transformed their environment to improve their own living conditions. The findings could provide planners, designers and policy makers, with new tools in order to formulate feasible and sustainable housing intervention strategies for low income populations.
Windsor, A.. "Users as Planners: Physical Planning of Psychiatric Hospitals." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 75. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. As part of the planning process of several government run psychiatric hospitals, staff in two hospitals were interviewed. Users' views and needs from the physical environment were to be translated into planning terms and integrated into the programming and physical planning of new psychiatric hospital departments to create treatment environments in congruence with therapeutic methods. Findings indicated that then_existing perceptions of planners regarding psychiatric patients and psychiatric treatment methods, could no longer serve as the basis for programming and physical planning. Staff emphasized patients' needs for privacy and territory within the hospital, regardless of their mental health condition - a previously unheard - of view. Privacy, territory, and independence, and their balance against staff supervision and control, were discussed in the context of the psychiatric hospital environment. Showers and toilets are of particular significance for both patients and staff, and their preferred location and number were discussed at length in light of privacy, supervision and independence. The overall layout of departments was also a case in point. An attempt was made to balance between privacy and supervision in regards to the shape of the overall layout of hospital department: While one group of respondents stressed the need for supervision thus preferred a centralized shape (with nursing station in the middle of patient rooms), others objected to such a shape because of the compromised degree of privacy it allowed patients. Staff also requested a new type of psychiatric department. to contain all treatment possibilities, and thus eliminate moving patients between acute/open/rehabilitative departments as fluctuations occur in their condition. Patients would stay, under the care of' the same staff when changes in condition take place rather than have to adjust to a new environment and new staff each time their condition improves or worsens. Using professional perspectives and treatment approaches of psychiatric staff as the basis for programming and physical planning is a method of user participation that is not commonly utilized in health care facilities design. The method, its implications, and specific findings of this project ill he presented in detail.
Stamps, A.E.. "Using Science to Evaluate Magnitudes of Aesthetic Effects." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 63. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. This paper focuses describes a valid, reliable, and feasible method for estimating the magnitudes of aesthetic effects. The work is need because it appears that traditional methods such as blue ribbon architectural juries, professional design review, and citizen participation work poorly. The correlation between the results of these traditional methods and public preferences has been about r = .09. However, when scientific protocols are used for design review, the correlation between the scientific results and public preferences rises to r = .79. Accordingly, a scientific protocol is suggested as a more valid and reliable method for evaluating aesthetic impacts.
Stamps, Arthur E.. "Using Science to Evaluate Magnitudes of Aesthetic Effects." In Shifting Balances - Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design: Proceedings of the 15th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. This paper suggests that scientific methods can be adapted to the problem of evaluating aesthetic effects of environments. It is not, perhaps, clear why a scientific method of evaluating environmental aesthetics is needed. The dominant paradigm in environmental aesthetics is discourse about aesthetic or legal theories, supported by the prestige of authors or institutions, carefully selected examples, and excellent presentations. This paper presents a different method, one that is based on scientific experiments. This scientific paradigm is presented on the hope that it may allow designers or regulators avoid problems that are irreconcilable within the discursive tradition. In order to see if that hope can be justified, the remainder of this paper will present the reasons why a new method for evaluating aesthetic effects is needed, some results from the scientific literature, a brief description of how the proposed method works, and some reflections on possible relations between the scientific and discursive applications.
Mathur, Mayank. "Values Judgement in Housing." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 39. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998.

This study is an attempt to relate a socio-scientific phenomenon i.e., values with that of physical development i.e., housing. The term 'values' may refer to interests, pleasures, likes, preferences, ditties. moral obligations, desires, wants, needs, aversions and attractions and many other modalities of selective orientations. Values, in other words, are found in the large and diverse universe of selective behaviour. However, it is very doubtful that any one description coil do complete justice to the full range and diversity of recognizable phenomenon. One of the more widely accepted definitions in social science literature considers values to be conceptions of the desirable, the latter being equated with what we ought to desire, values regulate impulse satisfaction in accordance with the whole array of hierarchical enduring goals of the personality, the requirements of both personality and sociocultural system of order, the need for respecting the interest of others and of the group as a whole in social living. Although housing provides many needs at varying levels, people can weigh each need and category, differently. Values related to housing show what is desirable and worthwhile to the occupant. In designing housing policy, it is important to know whether a value remains constant over time or changes with a household's situation or community. In measuring values and interpreting the results, value type must be considered. Values may also be intrinsic or extrinsic. All intrinsic value is the desirable and self sufficient quality of an experience, while an extrinsic value is the meaning or worth desired from the relation of one tiling to another. Thus intrinsic values are ends in themselves, while extrinsic values are designed for a purpose, this distinction may be applied to housing values. Recognizing the need to study housing values, in my study, titled as values judgement in housing' a case study of self financing scheme in New Delhi was taken in which, I considered the following factors: Anthropometrics: internal spaces, private open spaces; Social: Life style, privacy, security/safety; Psychological: aesthetics, prestige. The study helped in creating a feedback system through which an agency can design better designs and housing policies for the user's satisfaction,

Sime, Jonathan D.. "Visual Access Configurations: Spatial Analysis and Occupant Response Inputs to Architectural Design and Fire Engineering." In Shifting Balances - Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design: Proceedings of the 15th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. The primary aim of this paper is to argue that the concepts of visual access and occupant response represent an important link between environment and behaviour. Visual Access (VA) is a design criterion not only in terms of visual aesthetics and socio-spatial relations. VA influences the way a building or setting functions for it occupants. The focus of this paper is on behaviour in an emergency such as a fire. In this respect, spatial analyses need to address physical structures, spatial configurations, VA and Visual Access Configurations (VACs). Attention is required to the information inhibited or conveyed by alternative VACs.
Sime, J.. "Visual Access Configurations: Spatial Analysis and Occupant Response Inputs to Architectural Design and Fire Engineering." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 60. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. This paper explores the relationship between environment and behaviour, in terms of visual access configurations (VAC5) and occupant response in fires. The paper contrasts stimulus response (S_R) and occupant response (O_R) models of the relationship between people and settings in emergencies. Both models assume that the location of occupants is important. The S_R model expresses this in terms of global spatial dimensions (a fire, distance to exits and width of exits). The O_R model emphasizes local knowledge, interpretation of a situation and action (the location in relation to its visual field and building as an information system). The paper focuses on VACs as a primary O_R functional design criterion. The relationship between visual access (VA) to a fire, between occupants and to exits and O_R time is considered. Three illustrative examples of VACs are discussed: open plan = full VA, back_/front_stage = medium VA, closed plan = limited VA. Spatial analysis measures offer possible insights into patterns of movement (e.g. towards integrated entry vs segregated emergency exit routes). Architectural design and fire engineering appraisals should assess the relationship between VACs, starting time distributions from different locations, warning systems, occupant movement other than escape, exit arrival and flow times (termed occupant response escape time).
Venemans, P, S Tan, and R. Daru. "Wayfinding and Orientation in Public Buildings: a Critical Comparison of Three Indicator Methods for the Building Layout Complexity." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 69. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. Wayfinding and orientation problems for visitors of large buildings such as hospitals and offices still occur due to an insufficient orientation quality of the building. The building layout is one of the major factors affecting the orientation quality of buildings. Easy to use indicators of layout complexity with respect to wayfinding and orientation might be useful to enable the communication and support of design decisions and of POE-analyses. Some published indicators for this purpose are assessed in this paper: the STAGG-method, the labyrinth-factor, and the lCD. The STAGG-method is intended for the evaluation of health care facilities, with orientation quality as one of the evaluation aspects. This orientation quality is based on the number of choice possibilities along the routes towards a number of predefined destinations for the different user groups. For the labyrinth_factor the number of route direction changes are counted on a floor from the vertical transport to the destination, with a higher weighting factor for angles not equal 900. A fixed criterion value is specified. The lCD (= InterConnection Density) is based on counting for each node the number of corridors (connections to other nodes), and averaging them over the nodes of the floor plan. In the paper firstly these indicators are analyzed for their basic theoretical assumptions, and secondly, for possible problems and constraints when applied at detailed floor plans. The results show that for all three methods, some adaptations are necessary to improve the applicability. Only in the STAGG-method the connection of several floors is included. The lCD turns out to be not always sensitive for major differences in building layouts: for some layout types any number of corridors can be added without affecting the resulting lCD value. Third, a wayfinding experiment was run in two university buildings with a different type of layout, as an attempt to test the validity of the STAGG-method and the labyrintfactor as indicators for the orientation quality. For both indicators the observed wayfinding errors are positively related to increasing indicator values, as expected. However, different situations with an equal indicator value do not correspond to equal wayfinding performance. Other aspects have to be taken into consideration also to arrive at a valid measure of layout complexity.
Hayata, N., and S. Ino. "What Types of Simulations are Reliable for Evaluation Research in People - Environment Studies? from the Viewpoint of Our Visual Cognition and Image Information System." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 24. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. In spite of the various objects of evaluation and different purposes of research, only a few popular media, e.g., single and successive static picture, are used in people-environment studies. There are many studies which have checked the reliability of the popular simulation media. However, not only the authors but a number of researchers have expressed doubts concerning the reliability of those methods. The authors perceived strange answers and results when using static photos and the evaluation grid method in evaluation experiments. For example, when using static photos, some participants evaluated the environment from specific elements found in those photos. However, the same participants mentioned that they did not notice the elements, which affected their evaluation strongly, ill the actual situation. This means that the results of this kind of experiment might be different from the results in the actual situation. The question is, why did these differences occur? In the present study, the authors, applying ideas from cognitive science, checked the validity ot' sonic simulation methods and found differences in the results of townscape simulation experiments when using different types of simulation media. At the IAPS 15 Conference, taking the above into consideration, the authors will show better combinations among simulation media, object of research. and purpose of evaluation, and make some comments, e.g., the advantage and disadvantage of the simulations for research in people-environment studies.
Purcell, A. T., E Peron, and S. Falchero. "Why do Preferences Differ Between Scene Types?" In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 55. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. A recurring finding in the landscape preference research is that there are differences in preference between different scene types. One characteristic of these experiments however was that the number of different types of scenes in any one experiment was small and there has been no systematic attempt to examine and account for the scene type effect. In a recent experiment we collected data relating to a number of different types of preference _ global preference judgments of the type that is general in the field and preference as a place to live and work or visit on a vacation _ together with judgments of whether the scene was natural or built. The data were collected using matched sets of a systematic selection of twelve scene types from two geographic locations with participants from each location making judgements of each scene type. Although our main interest was riot in differences between scene types as such, the results of the experiment demonstrated that there were very large differences between the scene types and that these effects were much larger than, and could not be accounted for by, the different models. The scene type effect was not only large but applied in a similar way to participants judging scenes from their home environment and scenes from outside of their home environment. The scene type effect would therefore appear to be an important facet of environmental preference. In examining our data however we became aware of a number of aspects which point towards an explanation for the scene type effect. The relationship between the different types of preference and the natural and built judgements suggest that the scene type effect may be related to another area of landscape research: the restorative effects of environments. The paper to be presented will review the results of our research from the perspective of this possibility and will report results from new experiments which obtained judgments on the restorative environment scale of the same set of scene types.
Cold, B.. "Why is the Environmental Architectural Research So Boring? Should We Develop Our Communicative Roles as Researchers?" In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 13. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. "I have a strange feeling that a lot of our research with excellent and creative concepts, theories and empirical investigations reaches no further than "the neighbour next door". Am I right? Are we as architectural, psychological, environmental researchers satisfied with writing proper scientific papers, presenting them at conferences, publishing them at proceedings and using them as tools for climbing the academic mountains? Could we reach people who need and perhaps want the knowledge we produce by developing our communicative roles? Could a more "juicy", tempting, challenging, aesthetically exciting, pictorial and narrative communication also help the scientific sphere to be more broadly informed? I want to share some reflections and frustrations with you, and perhaps we could have more fun writing about and communicating our research."
Churchman, A, and R. Kallus. "Women's Safety in the Urban Environment: the Canadian Experience and Its Applicability to the Israeli Context." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 12. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. The subject of women's safety in the urban environment is now recognized to be an issue that requires the attention of the planning profession, and of the municipalities. Awareness of the problem has been the result of grassroots demands for action. Cities around the world have responded in various ways, some more than others. A major contribution to the planning of safe cities was made by a group of women in Toronto. Canada. Their pioneering work has been described in a book by Wekerle and Whitzman'. The strategies and methods that they developed have since spread to other cities, and have been adopted to local contexts. This paper reports on a comparative study of public policy and official or unofficial strategies and practices designed to improve women's safety in Canada and in Israel. The purpose of the study was to analyze techniques and strategies used at the urban and the community level in Canadian cites, in order to test their applicability to the Israeli context.
Potthoff, Joy K., Thomas R. Chibucos, and Harold Rosenberg. "Women's Satisfaction with Residential Drug/alcohol Treatment Facilities: Interior Design Implications." In Shifting Balances - Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design: Proceedings of the 15th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. An increasing number of substance-dependent women are being seen in residential treatment programs. Whether privately funded or supported by tax dollars, a substantial amount of money is spent on the structure, furnishings, and maintenance of the physical environment of residential facilities. There is a need to better understand the relationship between patient satisfaction with the interior environment of treatment facilities and patient well-being.
Potthoff, J.K., T. R. Chibucos, and H. Rosenberg. "Women's Satisfaction with Residential Drug/alcohol Treatment Facilities: Interior Design Implications." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 53. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. The purpose of the study was to determine the satisfaction of women patients with the interior environment of live in-patient drug and alcohol rehabilitation treatment facilities located in the Midwest. USA. An increasing number of substance-dependent women are being seen in residential treatment programs. Whether privately funded or supported by tax dollars, a substantial amount of money is spent on the structure, furnishings, and maintenance of the physical environment of residential facilities. There is a need to better understand the relationship between patient satisfaction with the interior environment of treatment facilities and patient well_being. An important by-product of the current study was the development of procedures that can be used to identify problem areas in treatment facilities. This documentation can facilitate the quest for funds to make needed improvements. The study's objectives were to (1) assess female patients' satisfaction with the interior environment during their course of treatment and (2) compare satisfaction across facilities. The sample for this study consisted of 52 female patients receiving treatment in the live designated treatment facilities. Photographs were taken to record the wall color, upholstery and window treatments, the style-type of furniture, and the general layout and aesthetic atmosphere of the interior environment. Subjects completed a self_report survey of their perceptions of the facility interiors. The type of space, furniture, and finishes found in the live facilities did relate to patient satisfaction with the facility. Patients cited number of occupants in rooms, wall color, furniture comfort, and the need for privacy and time for quiet reflection as primary concerns. Satisfaction with the quality of the child care areas was indicated as a very positive feature of the facility. However, noise problems in the shared areas (living rooms, dining rooms) was a concern particularly for patients without children. The study's findings show that the environmental survey can be readily used by health-care personnel to assess how well a treatment facility's environment is meeting the needs of its patients and to identify problem areas.
Mikellides, B.. "Workshop: Human Aspects of Design, Shifting Balances and the Eec Directive." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 41. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. The workshop illustrates how Psychology and Human Aspects of Design has been taught at the Oxford School of Architecture as an integral part of Architectural Education rather than a collection of odd lectures or projects. It outlines in simple terms the aims and objectives of the course. the syllabus in each of the 3 years as well as a select list of bibliography and sample examination questions. There is also reference to the teaching methods involved and Environmental Psychology projects that students chose to carry out during their second year of architectural education. In an era where shifting balances between policy makers, project initiators, designers, planners and clients, the architect should be educated not only to meet the EEC directive in a cosmetic fashion but in real terms of studying seriously Human Aspects of Design in both theory and practice. After all some architects have done it in the recent past by winning not only RIBA gold medals but in meeting human needs and aspirations in both local schemes and international projects. It is suggested in this workshop that the main contribution of Psychology or other courses on human aspects in architectural education should be made in she first three years of the course and that once the groundwork has been laid down it does not matter what direction in Architecture the student pursues afterwards. The important fact is that undergraduate students of architecture should be instilled with a 'psychological eye' in addition to their traditional 'creative' eye to enable them to search for human consideration not considered in their designs before. The criterion of success is not to be found in the practical rules of thumb that are acquired, but in the general framework and awareness of the nature of science in relation to our aesthetic and social needs. By far the vast majority of architects will practise their profession. It is that group of architects that Psychology has a major role to play. After all, over the past 29 years we have produced more than 2,000 graduates in Architecture who have studied Architectural Psychology and Human Factors not as an option but as an integral part of their 3 year course in Architectural Studies. It is not surprising therefore to find that in the current EEC directive Chapter I Article 3, six of the eleven criteria address the subject matter of this course.
Schiavo, R. S.. "Young Adults' Commitment to their Hometowns." In Shifting Balances: Changing Roles in Policy, Research and Design (IAPS 15 Book of Abstracts), 60. IAPS. Eindhoven, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 1998. "This research examined environmental factors related to commitment to a community. Commitment can be seen as a component of place_identity and the perceived importance of the community for one's personal future, the feeling to 'want to stay.' Laili developed a scale to measure this dimension and four other dimensions of place-identity. In this study I modified Laili's questionnaire to refer to any community the participants chose as their hometown. Fifty undergraduates participated and each completed several questionnaires. (1.) Hometown Assessment Questionnaire (modification of Laili's original scale). The commitment subscale consists of four 5_point Likerttype rating scales. Commitment is defined as the sum of these ratings. (2.) Community Resources Questionnaire. Participants evaluated various resources within the neighborhood and the community. (3.) Psychologically Important Places. Participants listed all places in their hometown "which they cared about, which were important to them," and the reasons why. Similarly participants nominated all community places they disliked or about which they had negative feelings. (4.) Demographics. Participants identified their hometown residential areas using postal Zipcodes. These were used to select nine demographic variables from the 1990 US Census. // Detailed results of this study will be presented at the conference. In general the results showed that the hometowns of these young adults figured more prominently in their future plans directly with the number of places in the community about which they had positive feelings. Availability of particular kinds of resources within the local neighborhood was also associated with commitment. A number of these important places and neighborhood resources allowed the young adults opportunities to develop social relationships and to develop experience-based ties to the community. The presence of these facilities and resources within the local neighborhood varies with the community's zoning policies. The current findings can be seen as relevant to community consideration of such policies. It is important to note that experiences of personal assaults, awareness of 'bad areas in the community, and the lack of early childhood experiences in the community did not weaken commitment to the hometown. In addition, the neighborhood and community facilities attractive to these young adults may not influence commitment in other age groups."