Keywords Abstract
Lozanovska, Mirjana. "(Re)Construction of the City and the Phantoms of History." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. conference:IAPS:16
Radovic, Darko. "(Re)Invented Urbanity a Pledge for Culturally and Ecologically Responsible Planning and Design." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Historic cities are in constant dialogue with past. The nature of that dialogue and attitudes towards tradition, present and future are critical for their development. While it is accepted that ecological sustainability makes a condition sine qua non of any vision of future, it is critical to see it as necessary, but not sufficient condition. To succeed environmental agenda must embrace all aspects of urbanity, and we need new, integrated approaches to development of culturally and ecologically sustainable environments. The paper offers a discussion of theoretical frameworks of politics, planning, design and urban management capable to generate and support culturally and ecologically sustainable urban environments. The focus is on dialectics between universally relevant themes and need for their place- and time-specific circumstantial adjustments. The paper is illustrated with examples from Australia (Canberra), former Yugoslavia (Perast and Mostar in Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina), and China (Beijing).
Tawa, Michael. "(Un)Making Place." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Architecture does not make place. It is only to the extent that it is (un)made-defeated, that architecture prepares for the arrival and event of place. Place takes place only in, and as, the withdrawal of the architectural as such. In withdrawing, architecture spaces the taking place of the unprogrammable - of what is neither previewed, nor designed, nor predestined. This (un)making-defeat of architecture is the advent of place.
Orbay, Aktuglu, Yesim Kamile, and Dokuz Eylül. "2Nd Largest City in the Land Brandenburg, Germany." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The second-largest city in Brandenburg, Cottbus dwells in Niederlausitz (Lower Lusatia) on the southern most edge of Spreewald. Cottbus, like most East German cities, has Altstadt, which is liberally sprinkled with historic buildings such as Klosterkirsche, Niederlausitzer Apotheke, Oberkirche St.Nikolai, Schlosskirche, Staatstheater Cottbus and others. While the natural potential of Spreewald is taking place, the built environment including old and new houses of Cottbus have a glorious view. BTU Cottbus creates a nice atmosphere, consists of youth, which is the life energy of a place, and also the university's activities in changing the built environment are together with the technology and the age of the time, as it should be.
zen, Hamiyet Ö.. "A City is a Machine for Living for the Next Millennium." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. conference:IAPS:16
Zeisel, John. "A Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective and Environmental Design Case Study: Alzheimer's Treatment Residences." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Person-environment (environment-bahavior) studies in the past have primarily employed methods drawn from sociology, anthropology, and psychology. The neurosciences now offer a new approach for design and design research. Neuroscience theory, findings and techniques -including PET and MRI scans -present us with intriguing new ways to better understand person-environment interactions. This paper presents an approach to designing for people with Alzheimer's disease employing such a neuroscience paradigm to augment the older « user needs » paradigme.scipline. The case study demonstrates how specific design guidelines as well as operational and communication approaches can be generated using an understanding of brains of those with Alzheimer's disease.
Speller, Gerda M., Evanthia Lyons, and Clare Twigger-Ross. "A Community in Transition: Detachment and Re - Attachment Conditions." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. conference:IAPS:16
Potter, J. J., X. W. Yan, and R. Cantarero. "A Comparative Study of Residents' Perceptions of Stress and Quality of Life." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. conference:IAPS:16
Kaufman, Sanda. "A Consensus - Building Tool for Sustaining an Urban Watershed." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. conference:IAPS:16
Lafrenz, Jurgen. "A Cycle Theory of the Evaluation of Pre - Industrial Townscape - since the Beginning of the Industrial Era." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Whereas in the pre-industrial times the physiognomy of occidental towns was characterized by high persistence, there had been more degrees of freedom between radical transformation and adjoining regulation in the further development of urban cores. In a heuristic manner the model of a cycle theory has been tested for a change of paradigm since the beginning of industrial times. The fundamental result is the identification of almost two synchronic cycles, which started with a period of overcoming and changed into a period of acquisition. In analogy of both cycles the idea arises whether a change to a third cycle will gradually take place, nowadays.
Oguz, Dicle, and Gaye Culcuoglu. "A Discussion on the Meaning of the Term Sustainability' in Turkey." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. conference:IAPS:16
Mori, K, M Ito, and H. Katoh. "A Guideline of Environmental Communications for Sensory Impaired People in a Station - Validity Study of an Environmental Communication Assistance System (Ecas)." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The purpose of this study is to clarify the method to design the environnemental communication for all people including sensory (visual and auditory) impaired people. In particular, environnemental communication in stations should be planned with consideration to correlation between any kinds of communication, because it includes visual auditory, and tactile communication . In this article, it proposes the guideline for universal design of environnemental communication in stations and the validity of « Environnemental Communication Assistance System(ECAS) » using new communication technologies for sensory impaired people.
Chawla, Louise. "A New Direction for Child - Environment Research." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Child-environment research crosses a range of disciplines and a range of physical settings from the child care center of the young child, to the urban neighborhood of the school-age child, to concern for sustainable development among some adolescents. This presentation reviews the potential of the Convention on the Rights of the Child to unify this diversity through a new research direction that focuses on identifying conditions for the successful implementation of the Convention at every environmental scale. It describes this new direction as a “third phase” of child-environment research, and briefly reviews the preceding phases on which it draws.
Gabr, H. S., and K. A. Al-Salla. "A Post Occupancy Evaluation of University Educational Buildings." In People, Places, and Sustainability: Proceedings of the 16th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. Paris, France: Hogrefe & Huber, 2002. This research evaluates the performance of college educational buildings in the United Arab Emirates University, in city of Al-Ain, UAE, to understand the mutual interaction process between buildings and user needs and find ways of improving the environment necessary to accommodate educational needs. The paper focuses on the existing Department of Architecture Building. The methods used to gather data include walk-through evaluation, recording of physical traces, technical measurements, and a photo questionnaire. Conclusions of the research highlight the technical, functional, and behavioral levels of building performance with respect to students and faculty needs. The study shows lacking facilities that are necessary to the improvement of the college environment for better learning and education. Sets of design guidelines are stated to assist in the programming and design of similar new facilities and for the improvement of existing ones. Implications for the utility of the findings and the methodology used are discussed.
Gabr, Hisham S., Al Salla, and A. Khaled. "A Post Occupancy Evaluation of University Educational Buildings." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. This research evaluates the performance of college educational buildings in the United Arab Emirates University, in city of Al-Ain, UAE, to understand the mutual interaction process between buildings and user needs and find ways of improving the environment necessary to accommodate educational needs. The paper focuses on the existing Department of Architecture Building. The methods used to gather data include walk-through evaluation, recording of physical traces, technical measurements, and a photo questionnaire. Conclusions of the research highlight the technical, functional, and behavioral levels of building performance with respect to students and faculty needs. The study shows lacking facilities that are necessary to the improvement of the college environment for better learning and education. Sets of design guidelines are stated to assist in the programming and design of similar new facilities and for the improvement of existing ones. Implications for the utility of the findings and the methodology used are discussed.
Jones, Stanto I.. "A Socially Inclusive Framework for Design: Landscape Ecology as Metaphore." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. conference:IAPS:16
Demirel, Oner. "A Study on the Evaluation of the Potential for Tourism and Energy Production of Coruh Watershed Area, Advantages and Disadvantages." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The watershed area of oruh river in Yusufeli region with its untouched landscape values is one of the distinguished potential areas where recreational and nature tourism activities can be carried out. In the recent years due to the rising need for energy of our country, the usage of the area to obtain hydroelectric energy is being considered, as the area has rich water resources. According to the Master Plan, a total of 10 dams and hydoelectric santrals are proposed to be built, on the oruh River. However a Tourism master Plan has also been made for the area by Turkish Ministry of Tourism which defines the area as a zone to be protected in regards to its natural values and its high tourism potential. In 1993, The International IV. Whitewater Rafting World Championship has been done in the area. With this study it is aimed to provide the environmental balance between the sustainable socio-economic development, the use of natural values for energy production and the use of the area for tourism activities. Also it is aimed to find out the possible negative and positive results which will arise from such uses of the area.
Valera, S, E Pol, and J. Guárdia. "A Study on Urban Social Identity in Barcelona's Olympic Village: a Longitudinal Perspective." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The paper aims to establish the theoretical relationship between the people's link with definite surroundings and the social identity processes derived from the relation with these places (Valera & Pol, 1994; Valera, 1997). Two theoretical traditions are reported for this purpose: the concept of place-identity and its developments (Proshansky, Fabian & Kaminoff, 1983) and the social identity theories derived from Tajfel and Turner's works. In fact, the paper presents the main results obtained from an empirical investigation which concern to the genesis of urban social identity in a new created neighborhood in Barcelona city appeared as a result of the celebration of the Olympic Games 1992'. Data collected in 1997 and 1999 are analyzed on the basis of social urban identity theory. Name and borders of the district, level of identification with it, differences perceived between the neighborhood and the other ones, and the presence of symbolic urban spaces are the main questions reported by the individuals.
Uzzell, David, Enric Pol, and David Baddenes. A Transactional Perspective on the Relationship Between Place Identity, Social Cohesion and Environmental Sustainability In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. This paper explores, through an empirical study and the use of structural equation modeling undertaken in Guildford, England, how differences in social cohesion, residential satisfaction, social and place identification in different neighbourhoods with different social histories, housing types and socio-economic composition may lead to different attitudes to environmental sustainability. The results show that while place-related social identity may be important, it is the combination of factors - how processes such as social cohesion and residential satisfaction interact and work together with identity processes - that leads to specific environmental attitudinal and behavioural outcomes. As one would hypothesise within a transactionalist perspective, the role of place identity as well as social cohesion may vary depending on the nature of the population as well as the nature of the environment.
Heurlin-Norinder, M.. "Accessibility Or Obstacles? Differences Concerning Design of Four Neighbourhoods and Children's Valuation and Independent Mobility." In People, Places, and Sustainability: Proceedings of the 16th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. Paris, France: Hogrefe & Huber, 2002. This study shows that design of neighbourhoods is related to children’s independent mobility and how they value their environment. Through complementary methods, i.e. participating observations of the environment, children (7 - 14 years old) were given the opportunity of showing their neighbourhood to me; what did they appreciate, what were they afraid of etc.? The results show differences concerning the interaction between the environment and people and the social interaction, what the environment affords and what the dwellers appreciate. The study also gives examples of what I interpret as the meaning of Place Identity and provides a platform for deeper studies about this issue.
Tsunekawa, Kazuhisa, Gen Taniguchi, and Akikazu Kato. "Achievements of Japanese New Office Awards - Toward Development of International Comparison Tools for Workplace Performance." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The Nikkei New Office Award, started in 1988, acknowledges a number of outstanding offices all over Japan, and in each of seven regions. Since 1995, NOPA New Office Standards have been used by the officials for pre-jury ratings. These ratings may not simply lead to the final jury selection. In this presentation, the tendencies in the juries are analyzed, focusing on case studies of awarded offices in the Region of Central Japan. The case studies include VR Techno Center, designed by an international architect, which was recommended by the jury of Central Japan Region, and which won the MITI Award of 1999.
Matheau-Police, Annie. "Activating and Inhibiting Psychological Factors Related to Sorting Behavior." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Sorting behavior is a complex phenomenon depending on both personal and situational variables. The study enables us to identify both the activating and the inhibiting factors contributing to sorting behavior. It involved a survey using questionnaire. The results indicate that opportunities for sorting activities can inhibit the influence of personal variables on sorting behavior. Nevertheless, personal variables, particularly the perception of coercion in carrying out the task, and the feeling of personal responsibility, allow for a higher situational threshold (greater distance from the place of residence to the waste recuperation facilities. In addition, the type of living environment, risk perception and current sorting behavior are factors wich have a noticeable influence on the acceptance of higher levels of coercion.
Matheau-Police, A.. "Activating and Inhibiting Psychological Factors Related to Sorting Behaviour." In People, Places, and Sustainability: Proceedings of the 16th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. Paris, France: Hogrefe & Huber, 2002. Sorting behavior is a complex phenomenon depending on both personal and situational variables. The study enables us to identify both the activating and the inhibiting factors contributing to sorting behavior. It involved a survey using questionnaire. The results indicate that opportunities for sorting activities can inhibit the influence of personal variables on sorting behavior. Nevertheless, personal variables, particularly the perception of coercion in carrying out the task, and the feeling of personal responsibility, allow for a higher situational threshold (greater distance from the place of residence to the waste recuperation facilities. In addition, the type of living environment, risk perception and current sorting behavior are factors which have a noticeable influence on the acceptance of higher levels of coercion.
Abdulaal, Walead. "Actors Involved in Shaping Urban Environment." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The urban environment is a result of the interaction of various variables, which include characteristics of the site, characteristics of actors involved in urban development, planning policy and the economic context. Within this perspective, this paper aims at examining the role of the actors on urban development by first, defining these actors, and second analysis their role in urban development. It is assumed that there is a wide range of actors which necessitate grouping them according to their interests and roles. Defining actors' role will enrich our understanding about our cities and urban areas, and paves the way for policy makers to estimate effects of planning policies on various actors and on urban development, especially as we are entering a new century. Theme of the paper focus on the Saudi experience.
Güzel, Neslihan. "Adaptable Designing Solution for Multi - Story Housings." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The aim of this article is to prefer an approach to the solution of Turkey's dwelling problem which is examined first as a developing country by emphasizing both quantitative and the qualitative aspects. Using prefabrication technologies on dwelling production is main argument that especially for the quantitative aspects of our solution. Also the qualitative aspects of subject examined with the concepts of flexibility, variability and adaptability. Last , we are also concentrate on subject 'how it works' the solutions of design and detail through the preferred establishing approach of the article.
Drottenborg, Helena, and Birgitta Gatersleben. "Aesthetics and Safety in Traffic Environments." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Road aesthetics, an area of great interest to engineers, architects and landscape architects, is relevant from a traffic safety point of view, since it influences road users' perception and behaviour. A possible relationship between aesthetics and safety is described through inter-disciplinary research within arts and aesthetics, environmental psychology and traffic safety. This work has revealed less tangible areas of road design in which both architects and engineers may find potential support when planning for an aesthetically positive road environment taking into consideration human characteristics.
Snowdon, Suzanne J.. "All Sidewalks are Not Created Equal." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Some question the influence of landscape design on the social and physical well-being of a residential neighborhood. Is it just an aesthetic amenity to enhance property values, or does it have a more powerful, long-lasting effect on the residents? Could the landscape design actually improve the health and well-being of individual residents and the neighborhood at large? The answer is yes, in more ways than one. Street amenities such as walks, street trees and benches can make a tremendous contribution to the social networking within a neighborhood, which, in turn, strengthens the sense of community. A community with a positive identity enjoys a strong sense of ownership, pride, safety, and security. All these attributes contribute toward one's well-being. But all sidewalks are not created equal, nor do they have the same effect on people. The condition, construction material, width and placement of a sidewalk are variables that influence the appeal of a sidewalk. The more a sidewalk is separated from vehicular traffic the more secure a pedestrian feels. This is further enhanced if large street trees are planted in the parking strip dividing the walk from the street. Not only do the hefty tree trunks serve as natural bollards to protect the walker from straying vehicles, but the canopy of the tree lowers the vertical plane to human scale, thereby providing a sense of security from overhead. Strong, healthy neighborhoods are the building blocks of strong communities. Landscape designers contribute toward this lofty goal by carefully selecting safe, but characteristic materials for sidewalks, designing sidewalks of ample width for two people to comfortably walk abreast, and thoughtfully placing the sidewalk a safe distance from vehicular traffic. It is only through such sensitive landscape designing that residents are encouraged to leave the security of their homes and begin meeting and networking with their neighbors.
Brauchle, Gernot. "Ambient Odors, Annoyance and Somatic Complains." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The examination ascertained the extend of the odor load field inspections modified for the alpine area. We checked the level of unreasonable annoyance and the impairments of state of health, include psychosomatic complaints. In the syurvey the effects of the odor loads on the population were examined with the help of a questionnaire procedure. This inquiry was repeated five times from 1995, till 1999. Emotional disorders were recorded from persons living in the exposed area. Subjects experiences more frequently feelings of irritation. Additionnally people believe that nausea is the proof of endangered health and a sign for the « hidden » toxicity of odor bearing substances.
Ayyildiz, Ayla, and Atasoy Ayla. "An Appraisal on Identity, Place Attachment and Appropriation Case Study: Kuzguncuk – Istanbul." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. conference:IAPS:16
Senlier, Nihal, and Mehmet Karpuzcu. "An Approach for Realising Sustainable Development of Dilovasi Industrial District." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The prime condition of providing sustainable urban development is realisation of sustainable industrial activities. The observation today, especially for the developing countries is that the main effort is for the economic development and the structuring of industrial activities within the concept of sustainability is unfortunately a seriously neglected subject. Within this context, in this paper a study shall be submitted on the sustainability concept for the industrial settlement of Dilovasi, which takes place nearby Istanbul, the most industrialised region of Turkey. After presenting the existing situation of industrial activities, a set of suggestions shall be developed for the spatial organisation of sustainable industrial activities in Dilovasi settlement.
Ayataç, Hatice. "An Evaluation of Pedestrian Areas in Urbanisation and Being Urbanised Process." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. "The aim of this paper is to concluded that the importance and need of pedestrianization and pedestrian areas in order to use for "belonging in urban life" and "being urbanized", in relation of human-environment, human-public space according to change world conditions. Especially in developing countries and cities which are effected by the immigration from rural to urban, pedestrianization should not only aim at separating pedestrians and vehicles in urban traffic but should also play progressive role on individuals who are going through an urbanisation and being urbanised process and pedestrian areas which are an important role in urban transportation should have at the same time an educating role as well."
Schramm, Ulrich. "An Ibpe Case Study in the German Context." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The purpose of this paper is to report on an IBPE case study based on the practical experience of an architectural firm. At the very beginning of a new life cycle for the future office building of a car manufacturer, the performance of their existing office building was evaluated. Based on these results, state-of-the-art design criteria will be developed during the following programming phase, finally leading to the design of the new office building. The paper offers insights into the actual process of participatory building evaluation, programming and design by reporting on experience with techniques and instruments from the “IBPE Universal Toolkit.”
Teymur, Necdet. "An in - Between Discipline Or a Non - Discipline?" In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Why is it that a practice which is often said to be the second oldest profession still asks questions about its identity? Why is it that many a discussion in this field is punctuated by questions such as 'But, what exactly is Architecture?' Why is it that an activity and its products that touch almost every important aspect of life, has a discourse that is much less rigorous than almost all disciplines? Why is it that this practice and its discourse borrows much more that they are borrowed from? And, why is it that many of the members of architectural practice / profession / field / discipline / ... tend to be offended when questions such as these are posed? When doing research on architectural issues, is it possible to ignore such questions? If yes, why? If not, what are the implications of acknowledging these questions on research, design education and doctoral education?
zbilen, Ali Ö., and Arzu Kalin. "An Investigation About Symbolic Meanings of Trees, their Usage and Attractive Power." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Trees have an important role in the perception of visual environments. There are many special trees which remind people special feelings, events and objects. Theoretical base of this study is depended on the Sign Theory of Roland Barthes. In this study trees are taken as objects having cannotational meanings. The last part of the study consists of an evaluation about pictures of remarkable examples of some monumental trees, their specific usage and attractive views. As these trees are thought to create different feelings according to their cannotational meanings, first part of the study about aimed to form a conceptual background. Selected pictures of monumental tree trunks, their physical appearance are evaluated as positive and negative by a judge group.
Kalin, Arzu, and Muberra Pulatkan. "An Investigation of Formal Aesthetics Characteristics of Natural Landscapes Having Different Plant Combinations." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Admirable/prefered characteristics of a natural environment are the most dominant factors in the visual dimension evaluation of them. This study consists of the evaluation of natural landscapes having different natural plant combinations. Form: Formal construction of natural landscape and their characteristics (unity, scale, proportion, rhythm, symmetry, module) their interaction, characteristics of surrounding elements (solid/void balance) and their interaction; Colour: Characteristics of natural landscape colours, harmony and contrast effects, light and dark colours, background effects. Texture: Textural characteristics of natural landscapes, hard-soft textures and their interaction. Light/Shade: the effect of light and shade, silhouette effect.
Aranda, Guillermo, and Edward Finch. "An Investigation of User Categorization of Work Hazards." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. conference:IAPS:16
Vestbro, Dick Urban. "Apartheid Housing – Separate Cultural Development Or Industrial Logic?" In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The efforts of the first democratically elected government in South Africa to promote spatial integration of ethnic groups needs to confront the roots of apartheid housing. In this paper the racist character of “Bantu” housing policy is analysed as a background to today’s lack of innovative urban typologies, with resulting unsustainable urban sprawl. It is argued that a modernist planning doctrine, with its demands for standardised solutions, overtook the officially proclaimed apartheid ideology of ‘separate development’. Under the leadership of the Minister of “Native Affairs”, Hendrik Verwoerd, building researchers and architects in the 1950s worked out low-cost housing typologies which were rolled out all over South Africa regardless of local climate, topography or cultural background of the inhabitants. It is maintained that it was the industrial demands for cheap labour, and the aim of maximum control of blacks at minimum cost, that determined the house types that still dominate South African low-cost housing.
Vidal, Tomeu. "Appropriation of Space /appropiation De L'espace." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The appropriation of space is related to several terms like place attachment, place identity or sense of place. Assumptions of the concept based on cognitive approaches, phenomenological points of view and others theoretical developments show us that it is a complex phenomenon. There are some attempts to explore the diversity of its meanings (Korosec, 1976; Altman & Low, 1992) that illustrates the complexity of the study on the bonding of people to places. In this paper are shown some results from a dissertation about the process which people are attached to some spaces and the way or mechanisms of this appropriation process. Data are collected by means of a questionaire and focus groups. The study is conducted in a neighbourhood of Barcelona that is undergoing a process of change.
Mikellides, Byron. "Architectural Psychology (Iaps) - 30 Years on Educating for Harmonious Sustainable Environments." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. conference:IAPS:16
Robinson, Julia Williams, and David Vanderburgh. "Architecture and Disciplinarity: Perspectives from Sociocultural Studies." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. "This session will address the question "Is Architecture a Discipline?" from the perspective of scholars of sociocultural factors in architecture. The way that architecture defines itself generates an intellectual, social and political structure that profoundly affects its practices. If a discipline is defined as a branch of knowledge and a field is defined as a realm of knowledge, work or opportunity, and a profession is defined as a vocation requiring advanced training what definition is appropriate and what difference would it make? What sources are implied for architecture's authority and legitimacy? What kind of relation is generated between what are now the sub-fields of architecture, or between academia and applied practice? How permeable would architecture be to other fields of knowledge? What is the effect on economic realities such as research funding or status within academia or society at large? What structural changes to the profession and academia are implied by a proposed definition? Are there implications for the functioning of the field relative to the outside world, for example, can the proposed definition forward the ability of the field to address such current issues such as internationalization, post-colonialism, ecology, and social and economic inequity?"
Robinson, Julia Williams. "Architecture as a Discipline." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Despite the many political advantages of having a coherent field, architecture remains fractured into diverse sub-fields of knowledge whose names and boundaries vary depending on the context, each with different research methodologies, disciplinary standards and social structure (for example: technology which can be subdivided into such areas as structures, lighting, hvac, and materials; or architectural theory which can been seen as an independent field or one containing all or part of history, design methods and sociocultural studies). However, new research and forms of representation that suggest the possibility of a coherent and unified discipline. This paper will argue for conceiving of architecture as a single field, describing the development and application of knowledges as a political strategy to advance the societal position of the field.
Teklenburg, Jan, and John Zacharias. "Aspects of Pedestrian Behaviour in Downtown Environments." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. This symposium focuses on pedestrian behaviour in retail and downtown shopping environments. More in particular the symposium aims at discussing different techniques of predicting pedestrian behaviour in relation to physical characteristics of the environment. After an introduction in the literature (Jan Teklenburg) the symposium turns to a methodological question (Dina Shehayeb). Finally two case studies are presented, one on three Dutch downtown shopping areas (Dick Saarloos), and one on the Les Halles precinct in Paris (John Zacharias).
Lee, Y. J.. "Assessment of the Impact of Trade on Sustainable Development: Using Ecological Footprint Analysis." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. conference:IAPS:16
Aguaron, Xènia. "Barcelona - Image Through Mass - Media." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. conference:IAPS:16
Sargin, Güven Arif. "Between Amnesia and Memory: Emancipation, Public Sphere, and the Contestation of Urban and Rural." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Metropolis now becomes a spatio-temporal interface for recollection of atomized incidents, rituals, and ceremonial acts. The public sphere and collective memory in the post-cold-war metropolis, as a result, seem to dissolve in ephemeral spaces, and in turn yield to amnesia. The recent outcome in fact depleted the dialectic between urban and rural in favor of growth, speed, event, and intense chemical stimulant, i.e., the insentient retreat from nature. The multi-layered contestation between the two should be re-explored for the purpose of revealing a prevalent public sphere and to elevate a neoteric form of civic resistance that can eradicate the collective amnesia.
Després, Carole. "Beyond Disciplinary Boundaries: People - Environment Relations in the New Millennium." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The theme of this Symposium -Transdisciplinarity in people-environment relations suggests that collaboration between disciplines should be looked at from another perspective than the ones usually coined by the expression interdisciplinarity, multidisciplinarity or pluridisciplinarity. Transdisciplinarity in contrast suggests the mutual transformation of the involved disciplines and the exclusive character of the knowledge generated. This paper attempts to illustrate this theoretical mutation process in the context of a research and intervention programme addressing the renewal and intensification of postwar suburbs of Quebec.
Dickson, Ann W., and Allison Carll White. "Bridging the Disconnect Between Design Research and Practice." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. As we approach the new millenium, a critical breakdown in communication exists between researchers and design practitioners, and insufficient research is being produced to answer design-related questions in practice. This presentation is viewed as a way to begin to bridge the disconnect by stimulating communication between the players for the purpose of facilitating innovation in near environment research, with the intent of promoting more successful integration between man-environment research, education, policy, and practice in the coming years.
Tokman, Leyla Y.. "Building Housing Areas for Low - Income Groups." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Housing standards depends on a wide range of factors coming from people - environment interactions. In Turkey, houses for low - income groups are only being built according to building costs and total floor area. In my paper, the real relationship between people and their built environment will be discussed for low - income groups to give better standards of living and to improve the living environment, in the 21st century.
Mallory-Hill, Shauna. "Building Performance on - Line." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Pilot evaluation projects of “intelligent buildings” are being undertaken around the world by each of the nine participating members in the International Building Performance Evaluation (IBPE) project. The purpose of this effort is to develop a “Universal Toolkit” with culture-specific modules for analyzing and gathering data. Such performance evaluations are beneficial not only to building owners for improving their own facilities, but potentially as a mechanism for feeding-forward knowledge for the design of other “intelligent offices.” The question is, “How do we make this knowledge readily accessible?” Based on work done in the Netherlands, this presentation examines the concept of “feed-forward” and provides a view of how IBPE case data may be collected and browsed over the World Wide Web.
Brendle, Klaus. "Built Environment and Society in Transition.urban Design Approaches in Reunited Germany." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Since the reunification of Germany in 1991, the restructuring of open spaces in the central area cities of former Deutsche Demokratische Republik (DDR), has disclosed a complex process of design and human and professional interaction involving questions such as cultural identity, preservation or disregard of local heritage and the assimilation of Western values. This paper (1) outlines the main factors underlying the design and the production of urban built environments in cities of the former DDR as a result of Western and Eastern German professional and human interaction; (2), brings to the debate how to preserve local urban and cultural identity representative of a past undesirable regime; and (3), takes as a case-study, the city of Lübz , in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (Brendle: 1992), to discuss how the needs and values of a society in transition are expressed in the built environment, considering its ambiguous attitudes towards symbols from its recent past and its contradictions (preferences and rejection) towards Western aesthetic values.
Ramos, Tânia Beisl. "Built for No Change: the Experience of Brasilia." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. conference:IAPS:16
Booth, Christine. "Capacity Building Techniques for Women in Local and Regional Development." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The paper introduces the EuroFEM Toolkit, which has been developed to mobilise women in local and regional development. The toolkit is a collection of methods and stories taken from women's projects in European member states and is aimed at supporting, encouraging and facilitating women's involvement in every sector of local and regional development. The paper sets out the emerging debate around the role and participation of women in local and regional development, women as beneficiaries of policy initiatives as well as recent attempts to instigate change. Specifically, the paper draws on a wide range of examples, which provide a rich variety of approaches to building women's capacity in both southern as well as northern Europe.
Rae, Ruth A.. "Changing Households and Dwelling Redesign in New York City Public Housing*." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. This presentation will discuss a collaborative study of changing household compositions and dwelling redesign in New York City public housing. More specifically, the research examined how a redesign of existing apartment units might better meet changing household needs. The intention of the study was to examine the way that residents furnish and use typical public housing apartments, so that future modernization work might be more responsive to resident needs. It looked at different types of apartment configurations in three public housing developments. In-depth interviews were conducted with 67 resident households about their patterns of daily life activities and use of the space. Apartment use was also recorded on annotated floor plans which reflected how residents furnished them. Additionally, photographs were used to both document the space and to investigate resident feelings about it.
Stöbe, Sylvia. "Chaos and Order in the Modern Architecture." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. "The planning theory of the 20th century is dominated by a double-dualism between chaos and order. The rationality and spatial order in modern architecture compensate the increasing contingency (Kontingenz) and the fear of modernity, exemplified in the experience of chaos in the modern metropolis, by the urban development in the beginning of our century, by perceptional accommodation problems and by the situation of the society as well. But also mythical thinking helps as well to deal with the complexity of modernity. The postmodern change to less spatial order and less rationality especially in deconstructivist architecture shows the increasing possibility of perceptional accommodation and perhaps also of a higher acceptance of the contingency of modernity. The "New Simplicity" could be explained as an dialectical backlash of an ongoing accommodation process."
Nathan, Vini, and Robert Fleming. "Chaos Theory: Opportunities for Sustainable Design." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The creative promise of chaos theory and its offshoot, fractal geometry, continues to captivate designers. Equally important but under utilized concepts from chaos theory include sensitivity to initial conditions, amplification of small fluctuations, and interdependence. These three concepts are the bed rock of sustainable design by a) nurturing the creative manifestation of form that reflects with environmental and ecological sensitivity, and b) facilitating an interdisciplinary, collaborative design process involving multiple decision makers from the micro to the macro environment. The first section of the paper discusses chaos theory and focuses sensitivity to initial conditions and amplification of small fluctuations. The second section describes interdependence, the shared foundation between these two concepts from chaos theory and explains its relevance to sustainable design. The third section is a critical analysis of specific case studies that have successfully used fractal geometry and interdependence to create environments that have strong aesthetic, functional, and ecological appeal. The concluding section identifies specific ways through which studio curricula can facilitate a re-conceptualization of the design process as more than solely an aesthetic pursuit.
De Vanssay, B.. "Charte Sociale De L'eau Analyses D'experiences De Participation Des Usagers a La Gestion De La Ressource." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. L'étude a pour objectif la mise en évidence, (à partir d'études de cas, d'entretiens et de questionnaires), des processus d'implication des usagers dans la gestion de l'eau. Deux objectifs apparaissent comme des préalables essentiels, ce sont la rupture dans les modes de pensées habituels, et la restauration de la confiance sociale (confidence and trust). La démarche utilise, consciemment ou non, le modèle de la réponse sociale au dilemme des biens communs. Elle se construit à partir de la mise en visibilité d'un objet commun à partir de repères concrets chargés de sens pour chacun. Elle se traduit par la modification des structures qui permet de repenser la démarche toute entière. Les interactions entre les différents éléments du système sont résumées et présentées dans une matrice d'analyse structurelle.
Chawla, Louise, and Alain Legendre. "Child - Environment Research in the Context of Children's Rights." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. "In the last decade of the 20th century, a new theme has emerged which will lead child-environment research into the 21st century: the identification and creation of environments consistent with the Convention on the Rights of the Child. This symposium analyses research trends that relate the principles of the Convention to Agenda 21 of the United Nations "Earth Summit" and the Habitat Agenda of the "City Summit," and discusses three case studies which successively apply Convention principles to the particular needs of early childhood, middle childhood and adolescence in urban communities."
Besgen, Asu, and Ilkay Ozdemir. "Cities? Spaces? People?" In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. After the experiments of Tokyo, Berlin and Los Angeles, planning cities as pieces has become more important. For this reason, city planners have tendency to in-piece design. The aim of this action is giving shape to urban pieces, on the one hand; and is restoring human relations, which are underestimated, on the other hand. In this context, throughout the study, it will be examined that, how people use outer spaces in cities, and that which outer space organisations result in what kind of human behavior. For this purpose, under the city-scale of Trabzon in Turkey, some old and new focal points will be determined and human-space influences in changing social life and in outer spaces, which are used in common, will be analysed. Under the light of outer space examples, the meaning of spaces, meanings that spaces gain throught time will be examined in sustainable development, under the coverage of sustainability.
Pol, Enric. City - Identity - Sustainability (Cis) 1996 - 2000. Five Years of Network Research: Theory and General Presentation In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. CIS network investigates the relationship among several processes related to social identification: quality of urban space, satisfaction, cohesion and citizens’ identification with community. Additionally, it analyses if these processes promote sustainability or if their absence make it difficult. The research covers seven cases in Latin America and Europe. A same questionnaire was applied. This paper discusses the theoretical background and the common plan of work.
Pol, Enric. City - Identity - Sustainability 1996 - 2000. Five Years of Network Research In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The current forms and urban structures as well as the type of social relationships that they are permitting, conditioning or favoring, they don't allow the adoption of the values neither the necessary behaviors in order to advance toward a sustainable development. In this context, to give information to the citizens (the most habitual strategy of management of sustainability) is not enough. It will be necessary to act directly in the ways of relationship and social organization, and indirectly in the forms and urbanistics structures. It will be necessary to adopt strategies of management of the urban change respectful with the social consolidated groups, independently of their level of wealth.
Kallus, Rachel, and Arza Churchman. "City and Gender: Women's Place in the Urban Environment." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. For many women the city, a concentration of social, cultural, and economic powers, is a source of independence, freedom and liberation as it offers them employment opportunities, freedom of mobility, and accessibility to cultural and educational options. However, the city is also a locus of alienation, violence and threat, creating fear, anxiety and frustration for many women. The aim of the symposium is to discuss the relations of gender and city. The discussion would evolve around a variety of issues related to the city as a physical, social and personal place.
Correa, Nidza. City Identities in Motion: Preservation, Prevention Andcommodification in the (Re)Construction of Urban Experiences In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. "Contemporary cities are exposing a radical transformation as they turn into "cities of capital". The shape of the city and the sense its subjects construct are mediated by the notions of space, fime and the commodity form. The fixed referents are rendered mobile and sometimes contradictory in late capitalism. The urban experiences in today's cities are shaped within the (re)construction of meanings as they re-circulate in metaphors of preservation, prevention, co-modification and sustainability. A "city of capital", the capital city of Puerto Rico -San Juan- will be examined assuming these presuppositions and explaining its re-spatialization as a model for consumption in Latin American and the Caribbean."
Ziada, Hazem. "City of Cent$. Formalization and Urban Change." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Formalization is the process of transformation from an informal to a formal economy. Given their vast reservoir of untapped informal assets, early 21st century cities particularly in the developing world, will be subject to intense waves of formalization in the Late Capitalist cycle of Globalization. European cities of the 17th - early 20th centuries have gone through a similar formalization process that transformed their economies and their urban structures. The process by which Europeans cities were transformed can generate guidelines for cities of the developing world undergoing the current transition. Through comparative analysis, this paper will investigate the parallels and differences between cities in both economic and cultural contexts, with the objective of outlining basic guidelines for approaching the plight of the contemporary city in the developing world.
Ziada, H.. "City of Cent$: Formalization and Urban Change." In People, Places, and Sustainability: Proceedings of the 16th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. Paris, France: Hogrefe & Huber, 2002. Informality’ describes unregistered economic activities that lack accessibility to organized markets, credit institutions and advanced technology. Given their vast reservoir of untapped informal assets, cities of the early 21st century particularly in the developing world, are subject to intense waves of formalization, in context of the current capitalist cycle of Globalization. On the basis that Informality is also an urban phenomenon with a particular narrative of historical events, this paper challenges the impulse for formalization as the only course of action towards this huge informal stock. It points out the anomalies and paradoxes inherent Formalization, and also speculates on future areas of research so as to closely study the urban implications of the process.
Torres, M. J. Hasell, and J. Scanzoni. "Cohousing as a Basis for Social Connectedness and Ecological Sustainability." In People, Places, and Sustainability: Proceedings of the 16th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. Paris, France: Hogrefe & Huber, 2002. Intentional communities such as co housing are among the alternative community models that are socially and ecologically healthy. Dissemination of this housing type depends on understanding the source of its apparent success. The principles of social contact design are regarded as a basic component of co housing. This action research study report presents the case study of Lake Claire Co housing in southeastern United States. It discusses whether its social contact design features contribute to the development and consolidation of a sense of community and environmental stewardship among the neighbors.
Keul, Alexander Guenter. "Cold Gateway to Metropolis, Poe of a Central Railroad Station." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Station square, main hall and passenger underpass of the Graz central railroad station freshly renovated according to a CD manual were evaluated by a POE (post-occupancy evaluation) to test their user-friendliness and subjective security, also at night. The new surface material was found to be aesthetic, but the speed-up concept of passenger transition was regarded as socially cold by railway users. The POE results are now used by the Austrian Federal Railways for a revision of the CD manual and a railroad station marketing plan.
Peluso, Marília Luiza. "Comfort, Intimacy and Privacy Among the Poor in Brasília/brazil." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. "Bourgeois ideals of comfort, privacy and intimacy in relation to the home have acquired considerable importance so that low income groups seek to obtain a territory that protects the «self» from the adversities of the outside world. This was confirmed in a research study conducted in one of Brasília's satellite cities, Samambaia. By internalising this core notion, the Capital's poorest residents also consider their houses to be comfortable and adequate for private life. Nevertheless, they do indicate their unfulfilled desire to have something better, as this respondent states: "I would like to have lots of different things, a bigger and better built house"."
Gumpert, Gary. "Communication Technology and the Immigrant Experience." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Upward and outward mobility is certainly intertwined with mediated communication patterns. Cultural identity, language and access to labor or working capital can be maintained with or without residence tied to the original ethnic enclave through the modern technologies of communication and transportation This process of immigrant mobility is part of the two-step diaspora in which not only are ties maintained with the country of origin but with the enclave of origin as well. Community in the modern diaspora is increasingly maintained through connections of media technology, de-emphasizing or eliminating the need for face to face contact in public space. Media dependence marks both stages of modern migration and diaspora life. This paper will explore the contestation of space within various ethnic enclaves in New York City.
Finch, Edward. "Comparing Empathetic Design Feedback Techniques." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Engaging users in a feedback framework that is essentially using participants as an extension of “building sensors” may undermine their potential contribution to the feedback process. Indeed, the human inability to act as reliable “sensors” and discriminate between environmental factors and other workplace issues is well documented. The study described will use two contrasting approaches to user feedback. The first of these will apply questionnaires and open interviews to establish degrees of satisfaction, based on the “reporting” model. The second approach will involve the use of empathetic design techniques to acquire feedback from users as “innovators.” The study will involve a student population in an educational facility. Given the diversity of cultural backgrounds, the effects of ethnicity will also be considered. Recommendations about how the results can be considered in the International Building Performance Evaluation Toolkit (IBPE) will also be given.
Wener, Richard. Comparing Pedagogic and Design Philosophy of Science Museums in France and the United States: Age Integration Vs. Age Segregation In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Science Museums or Centers have become a staple of large and small cities in the western world, both for their educational value and economic development benefits to the host communities. These places vary greatly in size and scope, but have common interests in disseminating often complex scientific concepts to the lay public. In this workshop we will explore the differences between French and American science centers, and discuss the pedagogic and design implications that they entail. The discuss will undoubtedly focus issues related to developmental and educational psychology, and their implications for museum design and operations.
Horelli, Liisa. "Conditions and Methodology for Involving Women into Local and Regional Development." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The aim of the symposium is to discuss and increase awareness of the conditions, concepts and methods which might be applicable when women are participating in local and regional planning and development. The background of the symposium lies in a series of international conferences in the 90s the issue of which was EuroFEM - Gender and Human Settlement network and a Toolkit for mobilising women into local and regional development (Horelli - Booth - Gilroy, 1998). The EuroFEM Toolkit, which will be available in English and French, consists of 50 techniques for different phases and purposes of development. Also the conditions and politics of successful involvement will be discussed.
Blossom, Nancy. "Connections and Collaborations to Sustain the Environment." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The design of the built environment has a direct impact on the future of the global environment. Design professionals and consumers acknowledge the need for responsible solutions to design problems. However, little attention has been paid to the interior designer's role and responsibility for designing healthier interior environments and the complexity this brings to a design project. Some scholars suggest that among the design practitioners, focus has been on the building envelopes and building systems. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the significance of the near environment and the role of the interior designer in the design of environmentally intelligent systems.
Misgav, Ayala. "Conservation of Israel's Haritage Through Historic Gardens and Landscape Sites." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The paper deals with site conservation in Israel in general and heritage garden conservation in particular, comparing it to other countries, particularly England. It defines them and their importance; introduces the existing policy of heritage gardens and landscape sites conservation in Israel through legislation, regulations and activities in the field; characterises the trends in historic gardens' conservation in Israel over the past fifty years and summarises with conclusions for the future.
Ustasüleyman, Tuba, and Banu Ç. Kurdo_Lu. "Contribution of Plants According to Energy Efficiency Landscape Plannings in Urban Development." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. "The concept of "sustainable development" is politically expedient since it attempts to make economic growth and ecological sustainability compatible. If "development" means the restructuring of the economic and not growth then there is no contradiction in the expression "sustainable development". It requiers a discussion of the relationships between poverty and environment. Ecological cities are about balance within human society as much they are about balance between humans and nature. Ecology is about the study of the relationships between all living things and the environment in which they live. Urban ecology studies the relationship between cities and natural systems and is based on the reality that cities are a part of-not separate from-the "natural" environment. In urban areas landscaping for energy efficiency is hardly a new idea. The earliest house builders used plants to modify the climate as well as for structural materials. The aim of this study is to discuss the contribution of plants according to energy efficiency landscape planning - especially in a view point of climate control - in urban ecology."
Armengol, M, A Paricio, B Tenas, and P. Vivas. "Creation of an Environmental Forum in Puigcerda (Girona - Catalunya)." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. conference:IAPS:16
nlü, A. Ü., Y Alkiser, E Edgu, and Z. Tonbul. "Crime as a Determinant of Environmental Quality." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000.

For the last two decades, in one of the city center districts of Istanbul, called Beyoglu (pera), there has an inverse proportion between the crime factor and the population been observed. The subject of the paper is to compare the crime factor and the urban quality parameters of two historically and physically similar quarters of Beyoglu. The analytical discussion of the parameters mentioned above , is based on the triple case studies such as built environnement anlyses, socio cultural profile analyses and the criminal files analyses. The results of the prove that there is an interactive relationship between crime factor and environnemental quality.

Candemir, Kadri Uygar. "Cultural Comparison Between Cities of Holyland with General Information." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Although there are so many things to do, we are not allowed to ,because of the policy. Do someone has to take the role of Haussman? Do we have to continue keeping heritage ? or till when ? what about citizen rights ?The things that we learned from Acco experiment. We have to learn to respect what we have, before its too late.
Salama, Ashraf M. A.. "Cultural Sustainability of Historic Cities: Notes on Conservation Projects in Old Cairo." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Historic preservation has been the subject of much debate in recent years. This paper envisions urban conservation as a culturaly sustainable process of change and development that involves restoration, demolition, renewal, and the psysical and socioeconomic impacts. The paper explores and outlines the European experience, and then investigates and analyzes a number of conservation projects in old Cairo. The aim is to delineate their positive and negative aspects within the scope of cultural sustainability. The projects examined are Arab Bureau for design and development, UNESCO, UNDP, and the Aga Khan trust for Culture (AKTC). The projects are examined in terms of physical aspects, socioeconomic and socio-cultural aspects, and actors and roles. The paper concludes a framework for sustainable urban conservation in which different actors are actively and properly involved in the development process of historic cities.
Meader, Nicholas. "Cultural Theory and Attitudes Towards Car Use." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Most research on cultural theory only examines the relationship between cultural biases and risk perception. This study attempts to look at the predictions of cultural theory in more detail. Myths of nature and cultural biases were found to be related to attitudes towards car use, and were also associated with one another as predicted by cultural theory.
Brais, Nicole, and Robin Monique. "Cycles De Vie Et Choix Residentiels : Paralleles Entre Une Etude Francaise Et Une Etude Quebecoise." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Les auteurs proposent de mettre en parallèle les différences et les ressemblances entre deux études qualitatives menées en France et au Québec sur la question des processus décisionnels touchant la localisation résidentielle dans les familles où les deux conjoints exercent une activité professionnelle. Cette confrontation mettra l’accent sur l’influence de la position dans le cycle de vie en comparant des couples en période de transition vers le rôle parental (enquête française) et des couples dont le projet familial est pratiquement complété (enquête québécoise).
Badoux, Anne, and Gabriel Moser. "Daily Stress Factors in a French Population." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. "The aim of the present study was to estimate the importance of daily stress factors in a general French population. Responses to our version of Lazarus' "Hassles Scale", which was published in the monthly magazine Science et Vie, were obtained from 2266 French adults. The quantity and intensity of daily hassles were calculated from these responses. In general, women of all ages felt more stressed than men, whereas men felt less stressed with increasing age. Greater stress was reported by the lower socio-economic respondents. Compared to results obtained 10 years earlier with the same scale, French adults appear to be more stressed at present"
Harms, Sylvia. "Decision - Context Stability and the Adoption of Transport Innovations." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Transport innovations like organised car sharing carry a potential to be environmentally more benign than private car ownership since they might fulfil a bridging function between car use and public-transport use. We conducted a qualitative study with 39 participants of two car-sharing organisations and found a change in their mobility-relevant decision-making context as the most important independent variable for giving up the own car and adopting car sharing. The results are embedded into a theoretical framework focusing on the importance of breaking through car-use routines prior to adoption, and their validity is tested in a subsequent quantitative study (in progress).
Salama, Ashraf M. A.. "Deep Sustainability and Architectural Pedagogy in the Developing World." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. This paper envisions ways in which deep sustainability can be incorporated into architectural pedagogy. It bases its argument on the belief that architectural education can open new avenues toward the achievement of real sustainable development. The paper introduces concepts, meaning, definitions, and characteristics of deep sustainability. By conducting a content analysis procedure it investigates the status of architectural courses in a number of schools in the developing world. MIU program, an example from Egypt, is presented as an endeavor to reconfigure the educational process in a manner that is based on deep sustainability. The paper ends of outlineing a set of recommodations that aim at incorporating the principles and practices of deep sustainability into architectural pedagogy.
Ganis, Mary. "Design for Urban Change: a Research Method." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. conference:IAPS:16
Horwitz, Jamie. "Designing a Loose Fit Between Landscape Ecology and Social Memory." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The concept of loose fit is introduced in this paper as a design strategy for layering the apparently opposing goals of a particular site. Inspired examples of a loose fit between the restoration of landscape ecology and the construction of public parks and heritage tourism can be found in flood parks in the US and the transformation of toxic industrial sites into public gardens in Germany. The concept and strategy of loose fit frames my work with a small town that moved out of the floodplain and the conservation of its abandoned site as a haunt for social memory.
Torres, M, M. J. Hasell, and J. Scanzoni. "Designing a Sense of Community. a Cohousing Case Study." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Intentional communities such as cohousing are among the alternative community models that are socially and ecologically healthy. Dissemination of this housing type depends on understanding the source of its apparent success. The principles of social contact design are regarded as a basic component of cohousing. This action research study report presents the case study of Lake Claire Cohousing in southeastern United States. It discusses whether its social contact design features contribute to the development and consolidation of a sense of community and environmental stewardship among the neighbors.
El-Nachar, Eman. "Designing Sustainable Communities Around Cairo: a Multi – Disciplinary Approach." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Strengthens human relationships and responsibilities toward others' needs and environmental problems (Girard, 1997, Salama, 1998). Co-operation: since the multiplicity of sustainable environment requires all various disciplines of the planning process to become part of the this process (Bonnes, 1998). Thus communication and partnership become crucial aspects in designing sustainable communities. Regenerative concepts: since regenerative design allows the implication of the ecosystematic order in designing the physical environment, meanwhile it provides unlimited opportunities for invention (Lyle, 1994). Thus art and science are merged in the design product. The study introduces examples presenting several projects for new communities, including the analyses of site planning, user groups, investments expectation activities required, the available natural resources, and systems used for agriculture and irrigation. Based on the argument introduced and the field survey the paper ends with a list of suggested strategies that aim to guide architects and urban planners how to cement connections between interests of different groups, the natural aspects, and the physical environment of the new communities.
McLenna, Peter. "Designing Workplaces for the 21St Century." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The 21st Century workplace is an experimental alternative workplace concept designed to improve work performance. This workplace uses flexible work settings as a means of supporting the changing work activities and improving resource performance, human and physical. The project was created with the direct involvement of the operational staff in the facilitation of the briefing and design process. This was followed by an evaluation through : staff satisfaction surveys, based and pre and post-occupation ; focus groups ; utilization surveys; and space measures. The evaluation suggests that the project achieved the objectives set.
Gatersleben, Birgitta. "Developing Acceptable Sustainable Transport Measures for Guildford." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. This project aims to develop acceptable sustainable transportation measures for a medium sized town in the UK Guildford. Four survey studies were conducted among Guildford residents, the commercial sector, elected members and Borough Council officers. Data were gathered on their perceptions of transport problems, of possible and necessary changes, and their willingness to change. The results of these surveys will be fed back to the relevant groups where they will be discussed in focus groups. The final goal being to come up with acceptable effective strategies for change.
Kell, Alan. "Developing Intelligent and Green Housing Performance Measures." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. In 1996, the European Intelligent Building Group organized a seminar entitled, “Intelligent & Green?” to test the hypothesis that the performance criteria for intelligent and green buildings are convergent and not divergent. From this seminar emerged the INTEGER Intelligent & Green Housing Programme, which has successfully produced step-change innovation in the UK housing market. This has been achieved by developing an innovation network involving house owners and managers, designers, builders and suppliers, as well as government and other agencies. Amongst these is the National House-Building Council (NHBC), who set standards for housing construction in the UK. The NHBC is co-operating with INTEGER to develop and implement practical standards for intelligent and green housing, progress on which will be reported through this paper.
Guzman, De, Maria Carina, and Toshihiro Hanazato. "Development of Domestic Space in Japanese and Filipino Collective Housing." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. This paper studies the development of domestic space in Japanese and Filipino collective housing. In studying the case of Japan, spatial configurations of traditional homes and modern collective units were compared, focusing on the influencing role of culture. The study on Philippine housing aims to provide studies for the development of collective housing in the country. A post occupancy evaluation was conducted on a public housing project to study how the residents have developed their units. Space syntax and privacy gradient graphs were used for the analysis.
Joensson, Catharina. "Development of Planning Tools for Hospital Design in a Multi - Cultural, Developmental Context." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. In this study socio-cultural dimensions of hospital use in a developmental context will be investigated. The patient's psychological experiences and activities during hospitalisation are the focus, and how these are related to the physical environment. The study will be carried out as a case study in which primarily qualitative research methods will be employed. The result of the study will be used to improve hospital planning tools and practices.
Nguluma, Huba. "Developmental Perspectives in Human Settlements: Understanding Housing Transformation in Informal Settlements in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Transformation of houses can be said to be well associated to modernization forces where people desire to adopt their houses to better suit their needs in time and place. Transformation of houses can also be seen as an aspect of human settlement development because during the other house types emerge. Understanding this phenomenon may contribute to the knowledge on urban housing evolu-tion. Transformation of houses also assumes greater significance in view of demonstrating how developmental aspects and dynamic qualities of houses in informal settlements could form a basis for a low -cost housing development.
Thompson, Bill. "Developmental Syntax Methodology." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The paper presents DSM, an invention of the author in 1998. DSM is a psychological model of the individual in space. The model is dynamic between the individual, space and other individuals. DSM can be used to model quantitative space and also social and moral phenomena.
Barbey, Gilles. "Devenir Urbain Et Vues De L'esprit (Mindscapes)." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Urban growth and sustainability are issues that cannot be specified in purely material terms. This paper follows a phenomenological perspective suggesting that the spirit of places or genius loci should be an integral part of urban studies. The complex meaning of the urban scene can be identified and summarized by referring to diverse concepts which are part of environmental philosophy.
Mollenkopf, H, O Schilling, F Oswald, and H. W. Wahl. "Different Residential Satisfaction in Different Neighbourhoods – What Makes the Difference?" In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. In a study comparing the satisfaction of older adults (1200 men and women aged 55 years and older) with their neighborhoods in different urban and rural regions in East and West Germany we found considerable differences. Our paper will present the results of hierarchical regression analyses including objective and subjective predictor variables, showing the importance of subjective evaluations of different neighborhood conditions. The findings can contribute to a better understanding of person-environment relations for the future planning of urban environments suitable for the well-being of the people.
Ramadie, Thierry. "Disciplinarity, Transdisciplinarity and Perspectives in the Analysis of Urban Space." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. An attempt is made to describe various examples of a transdisciplinary approach, focusing on the analysis of urban spaces and based on our own experience of scientific research. The objective is on the one hand to identify contexts that favour transdisciplinary research, and on the other hand, to demonstrate the importance of the theoretical framework employed in the implementation of a transdisciplinary approach.
Bonnes, M, R Lawrence, D Uzzell, and A. Churchman. "Disciplinary and Professional Perspectives on the Meaning and Application of Sustainable Development in the Urban Environment." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. "Four Panel-Speakers belonging to four different disciplinary/professional fields involved by the perspective of "sustainable development" ( Bruntland Report, 1987; UNCED, 1992) and selected from the followings disciplinary fields : Natural Sciences, Demography, Economics, Psychology, Ecology, Political sciences, Architecture, Urban planning ) will present their point of view on the meaning and use of this term/concept of "sustainable development" - under the theoretical and practical point of view, with related implications -, for their own disciplinary /professional domain/perspective."
Bih, Herng-Dar. "Disruptions of Home in Environmental Disaster." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. A house may be is the most important space for a person's development. It provides with the sense of safety and control, reflects a person's value, and offers a person the continuity and eternity. Using two examples: radioactive contamination and landslides in a community, this paper tries to show how environmental disasters create identity crisis, the upsetting of the concept of home, changes in family relations and uncertainty as regards the arrangement of home space for the residents.
Yildiz, Dilek, and Hülya Turgut. "Diversity and Identity." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The city of Bursa contains some of the oldest and most original examples of Turkish monumental and vernacular architecture, in a setting combining tradition, culture and history. Bursa's present appearance is a synthesis created by different civilizations. Cultural synthesis is more in evidence here than in most other Turkish cities.Today Bursa's unique historic identity has suffered considerably as a result primarily of industrialization and a high rate of urban immigration, bringing rapid and unplanned urbanization. The paper, therefore, examines the spatial composition of Bursa on the urban scale and discusses the cultural factors that have prompted changes in this composition within the historical process.
Hartig, Terry, and Maria Bodin. "Does the Environment Matter for Psychological Restoration Gained Through Running?" In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Several studies have shown that physical exercise can improve physical and mental well-being. However, it not clear what role the physical environment has in this process. The study to be presented has examined the effects of environments (rural vs. urban) on emotions and performance of cognitive tasks for non-professional athletes who just finished a run of several kilometers.
Berglund, Ulla. "Dreams and Reality in the Periphery Children and Places in an East European Suburb." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. In a ongoing study in Riga, the capitol of Latvia, children in a large scale housing area are studied. Their everyday reality is investigated as welle as their dreams about future. The study is running for four years, 1997-2001, and different methods are used. For examples the children has written compositions on how they want to live in the future. In their life of today as well as intheir dreams a strong feeling for nature shows but also a strong wish for consumption and western lifestyle. (The study includes more aspects of life in the periphery that are not described this time.)
Boussaa, Djamel. "Dubai: the Search for Identity." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Dubai is well known for its shopping and tourist activities. After the discovery of oil in the sixties, the city experienced an unprecedented construction boom. All buildings with various international fashion styles can be found in the city, ranging from high rise tower blocks, to five star hotels, and very attractive shopping malls. In order to provide sites for these new developments the bulldozer swept away many historical buildings and areas, therefore, unconsciously erased large chapters of Dubai's history. Today, when visiting the city it is hardly possible to feel that we are in an Arabic Islamic environment. We believe that one way of rediscovering the city cultural identity is to go back to its first roots and try to conserve and sustain them. This paper will try to raise the following question: How can urban conservation be a catalyst of regenerating theArabic-Islamic identity of Dubai? The Bastakia historical district at the heart of the city will be presented as case study of saving and sustaining the local character and identity of the city.
Boussaa, D.. "Dubai: the Search for Identity." In People, Places, and Sustainability: Proceedings of the 16th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. Paris, France: Hogrefe & Huber, 2002. One way of rediscovering the cultural identity of the city is to go back to its roots and tries to preserve and sustain them. This paper will try to highlight the importance of dealing with the urban conservation issue. The main question to be raised here is: How can urban conservation be a catalyst for regenerating the cultural identity of the city of Dubai? The Bastakia historical district at the heart of the city will be a case study of sustainable urban conservation and a way of saving the local character of the city. This might create an approach for reconciling the past with the present and future of Dubai and other cities of the UAE.
Naidoo, Vasie, and Michael Bruce Leary. "Effect of Informal Settlements on Human Behaviour and the Environment." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The study set out to determine the effect of living conditions in informal settlements on human behavior and the influence of human actions on the social and physical environment. It was hypothesized that because the environment creates poor outcome expectations, people are inclined not to believe in their capabilities to influence their situation and therefore tend to live a marginal existence. Few positive consequences of having poor outcome expectations on human behavior and the environment is therefore evident. Inthe study, possible interventions were proposed to improve people's outcome expectations and therefore their fonctioning in their environment.
van den Berg, Agnes. "Effects of Buildings and Water on the Evaluation of Cycle Routes Through Rural Areas." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The experience of landscape scenes while traversing an area is probably different than in the case that landscapes scenes are presented in isolation. In this study short bicycle trips were simulated through different landscapes that differed on a natural-built dimension. The results suggest that negative effects of artifacts (buildings) can be compensated for by introducing water in the landscape.
Erkip, Feyzan. "Effects of Global Trends on Istanbul: a Proposal for Metropolitan Governance." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Turkey has been experiencing a period in which global trends are extremely influential. This paper aims at analyzing the potential of informal ties and organizations in Istanbul to provide clues for a new urban governance structure as the existing one lacks the strategies and mechanisms to cope with the increasing complexity and inequalities under the influence of global trends.
Çağdaş, Gülen, and Asli Songur. "Effects of Housing Morphology on User Satisfaction." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. conference:IAPS:16
Lee, Y. J.. "Effects of Landscape Assessment in Campus: a Taiwan Case Study." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. conference:IAPS:16
Herholdt, Albrecht. "Empirical Observations on Economic Transformations in Port Elizabeth, South Africa, with Reference to Factors Influencing Location, Spatial Arrangement and Architectural Layout." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. "Port Elizabeth is an industrial coastal city; and forms part of the Port Elizabeth, Uitenhage and Despatch metrople. The city went through two phases of rapid development during the first half of the 20th century. However, since then and despite the dawn of the "new" South Africa in 1994, the process of rapid transformation was not matched in Port Elizabeth with major economic investments. Stumbling blocks include a lack of integrated planning, the huge influx of people to the metropole, severe unemployment, unacceptable levels of poverty and a high crime rate. This paper offers an overview of the economic transformations that has taken place since 1994 based on empirical observations starting with macro economic transformations and ending with micro economic transformations with reference to factors influencing location, spatial arrangement and architectural layout."
Robin, Monique. "Enfants Vivant En Quartier Central Et En Banlieue." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The aim of the study is to describe the specificity of mothers'perceptions of their living environment according to daily life with young children. Data from sixty-six employed mothers of two-year-old children were gathered in two contrasted samples : inner city Paris and a new town in the suburb of Paris. Data analysis were carried out with a specific software applicated to statistical processing of textual data : Alceste (Reinert, 1986). The three clusters extracted from the corpus of semi-structured interviews were related to : (1) residential environment related to family plans. (2) location of housing related to residential history (3) daily moving in urban context : constraints and need to escape. The third cluster was significantly associated to mothers living in inner city Paris.
Meyerhof, Pessia Grywac, and Elaine Rabinovich. "Environmental and Behavioral Intervention in a Preterm Special Care Unit." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. This study aimed to observe the influence of a set of behavioral and environmental interventions on premature babies, on the neonatal unit' s staff and the parent's uptake of follow-up appointments. The findings show that the intervention significantly reduced the mean number of days in hospital, the time spent in the incubator, and tube feeding. This study demonstrates the value of using low-cost techniques adaptable to the Brazilian reality, which facilitate the baby's integration with his/her environment.
le Hermand, Daniè. "Environmental and Societal Risk Perception." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. This study reported on mean risk magnitude judgements expressed by French participants aged 8 to 75 years , on a set of 91 hazardous activities, substances, and technologies. It then systematically analyzed the effects of age factor on the judgments. Between elderly people and young and mature adults, few notable differences were detected. The most important result was that a considerable proportion of children were able to estimate the risk associated with most items of the present study, and the linear association between children’s ratings and adult’s ratings was very high. This finding supports the view that the learning of the risk associated with various technologies, common in society, is a fast process, depending probably much more on exposure media information and family discussion (socialization) than on exposure to everyday reality.
Ramos, Isabel Loupa. "Environmental Attitudes and Behaviours: Distinctive Factor Between 'urban' and 'rural' Farmers." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The paper presents a research carried out in order to explore the man-environment relationship with emphasis on how farmer's environmental attitudes influence the conservation of the ecosystems within the space they manage. Thus, the case study is focused on the way farmers interact within their agriculture activities with the riparian ecosystem adjacent to their farm. The results of this study bring to light that distinct environmental attitudes and behaviours are closely linked to the variable 'residence', distinguishing here by two different subgroups, namely those of the 'rural' and 'urban' farmers.
Martin, R, J. A. Corraliza, and J. Berenguer. "Environmental Attitudes and Diffusion of Innovations: the Energy Saving Case." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. conference:IAPS:16
R. Herreros, Martín, R. Corraliza, and J. Berenguer. "Environmental Attitudes and Diffusion of Innovations : the Energy Saving Case." In People, Places, and Sustainability: Proceedings of the 16th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. Paris, France: Hogrefe & Huber, 2002.

The aim of this work is to assess the influence of different environmental attitudes and habit behaviours on ecological behavioural intentions affecting sustainability. A sample of Spanish citizens was asked to fill out a questionnaire expressing their intention with regard to an efficient behaviour (to adopt or reject a technological innovation for energy saving) and their environmental attitudes and behaviours. Behavioural intention was measured using a four-item scale expressing different levels of decision-making. Results show that habit behaviours related to sustainability are better predictors than environmental attitudes, and suggests that a sustainable future for humanity depends on changes in lifestyles.

Berenguer, J, J. A. Corraliza, and R. Martín. "Environmental Concern and Environmental Actions: an Interactive Process." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. conference:IAPS:16
Pinheiro, José Q., A. A. B. Maux, and F. L. Nunes. "Environmental Concern, Anthropocentrism and Sustainability: the Relevance of a Time Perspective." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The scale of environmental concern of Thompson and Barton, based on the dimensions of ecocentrism and anthropocentrism, was applied to three groups in Natal, Brazil, including an additional open question about sustainable development. Our results indicate an inverse relationship between embracing of an extended time orientation in life - expressed by the reported cross-generational sustainability - and a reduction in the anthropocentric account, a finding that signals to important implications for future studies on the subject.
Colbeau-Justin, Ludvina, and Bernadette De Vanssay. "Environmental Disasters and Social Responses." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Endangering humans, their values and their activities, the natural or technological disasters enhance crucial questions about social organization: how to cope with, is it possible to get some protection against, how to recover after, what kind of resettlement adopt? The symposium introduces, through various and complementary approaches (architecture, environmental psychology, and planning), examples of specific case study. The main point of this symposium is to underline how research in social sciences could give tools for prevention or recovery to public authorities responsible for safety, land use management, etc
Staats, Henk, and Terry Hartig. "Environmental Evaluation and Restorative Environments." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Now that considerable expertise has been created regarding the effects of some type of variables on landscape preference, in particular informational and content variables, it seems that researchers in the field are turning to more sophisticated approaches to examine, more explicitly than in the past, the functional aspects of being in and being part of landscapes. Despite the variety of issues that will be presented in this symposium it appears that the characteristic that underlies all research is that these functional qualities of landscape preference are being approached with new theories and methods.
Elali, Gleice A.. "Environmental Psychology in Brazil: an Academic and Multidisciplinary (Recent) Tradition in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Within the context of the development of Environmental Psychology in Brazil, we describe and analyse the teaching and research endeavours at Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, in Natal, Brazil. They started in 1983, as an elective discipline within the Course of Psychology, and soon a bridge was built between Psychology and Architecture, leading to the development of additional disciplines and research projects. Nowadays the postgraduate programs in both areas have incorporated «green» themes and broader social approaches, including merging efforts towards distinct academic and applied areas, as well as interchange with other regions of Brazil and other countries.
Gärling, Tommy, and Terry Hartig. Environmental Psychology – Past, Present, Future In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Psychological research has for decades informed understandings of people-environment-relations and their applications in architecture, urban planning, and other design arenas. This session brings together four senior scientists working in environmental psychology to reflect on the past, present, and future of the subdiscipline. They are asked to pay particular attention to the problems, successes, and still latent potentials in environmental psychology's relationship to the broader environment-behavior field. Organized in collaboration with the Environmental Psychology division of the International Association of Applied Psychology (IAAP), this session is intended to help distinguish the contributions and limitations of a scientific psychological approach to theoretical, methodological, and practical problems at the interface of environment and behavior.
Dimoulias, Katina. "Environmental Quality Influencing Programme Outcomes in Youth Drop - in Centres." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. This paper explores the impact that environmental quality can have on achieving programme outcomes in a youth centre. In this research environmental quality comprises organisational, social and physical factors. Using the Milieu Therapy concept and the research of Rudolf Moos, a single case of a youth centre setting is examined. In order to study the effect of environmental quality on the programme outcomes, an in-depth qualitative investigation of the setting was conducted. This provides an opportunity to further explore the model of milieu therapy and assess the environmental quality of the setting.
Buckingham-Hatfield, Susan. "Environmental Sustainability in Deprived Neighbourhoods." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. conference:IAPS:16
Boudon, Philippe. "Epistemological Problems for the Field of Architecture." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Architecture, today, is more and more considered as an object of investigation and research to the point of constituting a special field. Sociology, psychology, semiotics, architecturology, typo-morphology are various disciplines taking architecture as an object or as a field for research. Other points of view could still emerge (does an economy of architecture exist ?) even if not developed yet. Are they constituting themselves a discipline ? Starting from scientific considerations which drove me to the idea of architecturology, my concern will be to try to estimate the epistemological problems involved with the variety of architectural research. An in-between Discipline or a non-discipline?
Drucker, Susan. "Ethnic Food and the Immigrant Experience: from City to Suburb." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Culturally defined eating patterns including not only what is consumed but when and where (i.e. public vs. private locations), are supported by ethnic enclaves. This paper will explore the role of food stores, restaurants, cafes, taverns and other food -related institutions found in ethnic areas to examine their social functions. The study will address “ethnic” areas with special emphasis on “immigrant” or foreign born populations and the life cycle of an immigrant communities.
Drucker, S.. "Ethnic Food and the Immigrant Experience: from City to Suburb." In People, Places, and Sustainability: Proceedings of the 16th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. Paris, France: Hogrefe & Huber, 2002. Ethnic enclaves and immigrant communities are characterized by the institutions, which emerge to meet the special needs of that community The relationship between space and food is significant in meeting culinary and social needs of the immigrant population while serving as site of interaction between host and newcomer. The sustainability of community, ethnic enclaves and personal identity are inextricably linked with food consumption and services. Ethnic food spaces are explored as sites of cultural and regulatory conflict. This paper offers a typology of community types, ethnic food spaces and the evolution of urban ethnic enclave.
Walden, Rotraut. "Evaluation - Based Recommendations: Estimating Monetary Benefits for Future Buildings." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. A model was developed to measure the quality of office design in terms of employee work efficiency. This approach included three domain facets, such as three overall impressions of the building, nine areas of the environment, and six criteria to judge office quality. Two five-point rating scales were used in the facets assessing : (1) present quality and (2) future importance. The results of an office building survey (307 offices, 159 questions) show the importance of design aspects in regard to work efficiency through regression analysis. The aspects with the highest contribution to work efficiency are linked to a list of indicators for the monetary value of office design improvements: fire extinguishers; fire escape routes (r²=0.77) or natural light; cleanliness of the entire building (r²=0.57) or work stations; as well as furniture and light regulation in single offices (r²=0.54). The results allow for the ranking of design aspects in terms of associated benefits.
Oi, Naoyuki. "Evaluation - Construct for Livingroom Lighting: Difference from Elements and Cultural Backgrounds." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. conference:IAPS:16
Moch, Annie, Barbara Bonnefoy, and Isabelle Maramotti. "Evaluation and Perception of Atmospheric Industrial Pollution." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. This paper concerns the way people living in an industrial environment perceive, and evaluate the impact of atmospheric industrial pollution on annoyance, behaviors and health. The fact that the factories provide many jobs is a very strong key to understand the way the people experience the environmental pollution. Age, sex and geographic localisation seem to be important too .For these reasons, it is clear that the evaluation of environmental nuisance have to be analysed within the specific context it occurs.
Preiser, Wolfgang F. E.. "Evaluation of Intelligent Office Buildings in the Cross - Cultural Context." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. "The purpose of this symposium is to report on progress in the International Building Performance Evaluation (IBPE) project, which includes nine member countries at this time. In Phase I of the project, a "Universal Toolkit" is being developed for data gathering and analysis techniques. This toolkit will have culture-specific modifier modules attached to it which reflect different countries' and cultures' office space allocation, utilization, ambient environment, and other relevant performance criteria. Pilot evaluation projects on intelligent office buildings are being carried out in the participating countries with the purpose of refining the methodology and toolkit, as well as to develop the culture-specific modules further. Eventually, the "Universal Toolkit," the case studies, as well as the modules, will form the basis for a book. The symposium will report and debate examples of specific case study evaluations."
Sureda, Vincenç. "Evaluation of the Jornada D'auto - Reflexion in Five Muncipalities of the Province of Barcelona." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. conference:IAPS:16
Ozcevik, Ozlem Gungor. "Evaluation of the Socio - Demographics, Economics and Physical Process Analysis in the Istanbul Metropolitan Periphery." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. With the result of urbanization in the second half of the 20 th. Century when there was a transformation, not only within the core of the cities, in the socio-demographic, economic and physical structure of metropolitan cities. But also it spread out the peripheries of the cities. This effect between the metropolitan core-periphery and the transformation have between with Istanbul metropolitan periphery too. In this paper, as an example pf developing country's metropolitan, the change and the transformation in istanbul city periphery, is put forward with process analysis.
Aksoylu, Sevin. "Evaluation of the Squatter Policies in Turkey." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Towards the end of the 1950's, extensive areas of the big cities were completely occupied by squatter houses and the proportion of low income households to total urban populations has risen steadily in Turkey. The preference of government lay with industrialisation and housing sector was seen as an unproductive sector and governments reduced their expenditure on social housing every year until the mid of 1980's. Legislation of squatters by amnesty laws, respectively weakened fear of demolition of these houses, encouraged the construction of these houses. In this paper, the squatter policy of Turkey will be evaluated in terms of some housing policy criteria.
Owens, Patsy Eubanks. "Excluding Teens from Public Places: Design Practices and Public Policies." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. This paper addresses the exclusion of adolescents from public spaces through design practices and public policies. Design practices in four public settings -- commercial areas, parks, neighborhoods, and schools -- and the impact of those practices on adolescents' activities and development are explored. In addition, public policies, such as curfew laws and skateboarding ordinances, and their restrictions on teens' use of public space are examined. Lastly, recommendations on how design practices and policies can support adolescents' use of public spaces are presented.
Thompson, Bill. "Expecting and Presenting Buildings: Transdisciplinary Approaches to the Production and Occupancy of Spaces in and Around Buildings." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Our awareness of brain functions and ecological systems has increased greatly during the last century and literally extend the 'self' to inner and outer boundaries which demand a revision of our approach to concepts of social value. Ideas of social reproduction and growth can now be compared more globally and value systems are less likely to resist the creative intervention of individuals and ideas from other cultures. Disciplines which were built upon fixed social values, such as good taste in architecture, must continue to re-appraise their relationship to other cultures and become transdisciplinary rather than simply 'good communicators', as with multidisciplinarity approaches in the past.
Arias, E. G., G Fischer, H Eden, E Scharff, and A. Gorman. "Extending Participation's Limits Through Innovation: the Envisionment and Discovery Collaboratory (Edc)." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. This paper introduces the research prototype called the Envisionment and Discovery Collaboratory (EDC) as an information technology innovation to enhance informed participation in planning. It represents some of our conceptual concerns for future collaborative technologies and their roles on how to: capture and integrated distributed knowledge, support stakeholders in articulating their own knowledge in a form that other people can understand, sustain the timeliness and utility of evolving information, and assist stakeholder to increase their shared knowledge in the context of collaborative planning activities.
Gedikli, Bahar, Ozlem Gokbulut Savaci, and Eda Unlu Yucesoy. "Fate of an Urban Region." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. "This paper arises from the author's realization of the need to underline the differences between theories of "sustainable development" of the developed countries and with an understanding of the policies of "sustainability" of the developing countries, and to achieve the so-called principles of sustainable development within the context of most painful experiment."
Piche, Denise. "Feminist Perspectives on the Urban Environment: the Canadian Contributions to Theory and Action." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The presentation reviews the main Canadian contributions to feminist urban theory and action. It identifies how they construe their representation of the city and the suburb, deal with the differences between women within the urban environment and, in view of the perspective taken, define the relationship between gender and the city. The analysis focuses on the difficult fit between the diversity in women's needs and aspirations, on the one hand, and the urban strategies adopted by the women's movement, on the other hand.
Churchman, Arza. "Feminist Research and Person - Environment Studies: What do They Have in Common?" In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The purpose of this paper is to analyze feminist research and the field of person-environment studies, in terms of their basic theoretical and methodological premises. Such an analysis reveals many things in common between the two seemingly distant fields, but also some differences. Some of the commonalities can be seen in the emphasis on the social constructionist perspective, contextualism and transactional principles, even though these particular terms are not necessarily known to all, or used by them. The main difference is in the political-ideological stance of much feminist research, although person-environment studies once had such a stance. The paper will conclude with thoughts on how each of these fields could benefit from the other.
Buchecker, Matthias. "Finding a Balance Between Individual and Collective Identification as a Key Factor for a Sustainable Development of the Everyday Landscape." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Recent studies have shown that with the increase of urbanisation, local residents more and more stay away from their village or their neighbourhood. This indicates that the everyday landscape can no longer satisfy the needs of the individuals - especially the needs of identificaction and social inter-action. This study tried to find out - by way of empirical investigations - why these needs can no longer be satisfied and how the everyday landscape could be revitalized. It was found that the existing social structures which make the residents adapt to collective norms prevent the satisfaction of these need and that the function of the everyday landscape can only be reactivated by creating sheltered frameworks which allow the individuals to have an influence on shapping the landscape.
Keddy, Karen. "Foucaultian Concepts of Architectural Totalitarianism in Science Fiction Films, Metropolis, 1984, Brazil, Gattaca, and Dark City." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. When architecture students study the work of Michel Foucault to gain an understanding of power relations in architecture, they would benefit from looking to film for ways in which the director designs and constructs this imagery in the built environment. The concepts of power, resistance, discipline, and surveillance as outlined by Foucault are clearly demonstrated in five science fiction films set in the future; Metropolis, 1984, Brazil, Gattaca, and Dark City. These films express Foucaultian concepts through the set design, expression of bodies in space, lighting effects, film techniques such as framing scenes, and carefully composed camera angles. By analyzing how an image of power and discipline is achieved with bodies in space through the use of ordering principles found in architectural design, the architecture student can deconstruct how this powerful image is created. Camera angles that capture how the body interacts with the built environment on both the micro and macro scale are utilized to express the concept of surveillance. Directors use strategically constructed close-ups, worm's eye views and bird's eye views that act as dramatic perspectives. These film techniques give the student of architecture valuable clues on how to effectively represent these concepts, much like choosing which drawing will best capture his or her design concept in a presentation.
Elzeyadi, Ihab. "FROM PALACES TO ORGANIZATIONS." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. conference:IAPS:16
Santosh, Gosh. "Future Life Styles: Asian Cities." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. In the 21st Century most of the Megacities will be Asia. There is globalization , economic development and new technology. There are severe environmental problems with socio economic conflicts. The relation between environment and development is yet to be established in the changing lifestyles . There are a number of programmes for Urban Rejuvenation but ecological restructuring may bring new hopes for the Asian Cities.
Tentokali, Vana. "Gender - Sensitive Housing: Undoing the Architectural Boundaries." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. "The results of an educational architectural program on the issue of "Housing within the city" (Tentokali 1989-99) are presented in the proposed text. Starting point for this program is a "play" from a gender perspective with the notion of "absence". "
Tentokali, Vana. "Gender - Sensitive Housing: «Undoing» the Architectural Boundaries." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. "The results of an educational architectural program on the issue of "Housing within the city" (Tentokali 1989-99) are presented in the proposed text. Starting point for this program is a "play" from a gender perspective with the notion of "absence". "Absent" is the definition of the names for: The individual, familial or social identity of the users, since it is transformed rapidly under the current economical and cultural conditions. The house that consists of the subject of the architectural design. It will not be either a condominium or a townhouse."
Folkesdotter, Gärd. "Gender and Places in the Eye of the Beholder." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. A place may be interpreted as genderised - connected to i. e. different forms of femininity or masculinity - or gender neutral. The importance of some factors - shape, building materials, decoration or equipment, pieces of art, people using or frequenting the place - will be discussed with the help of some examples, especially focussing on pieces of art in public places and how they have been interpreted.
Kallus, Rachel. "Gendered Perspectives on the Urban Environment: Defensive Or Protective?" In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Urban public spaces - streets, squares, plazas, gardens, and public buildings – are the skeleton of urban public life. Public activities that occur in these spaces, are what make a system of physical discrete places into a vital and livable city. Therefore, a proper urban performance relies on the accessibility that these spaces allow to urban resources (business, entertainment, employment, etc.) The paper examines issue related to women accessibility and mobility in the urban public space, in light of two conflicting approaches in urban planning. The first maintains that existing environments have to be corrected in order to make them more accessible for women. The other sees the necessity in developing alternative environments for women, which will allow them to better operate in a male dominating society.
Guardia, Joan. Global Analysis of the Empirical Model In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. It is compared the adjustment of the seven case studies to the general model of CIS network. This comparison is made through a system of structural equations. The total sample is built with 1421 people. The different estimates of parameters show a moderate adjustment of the theoretical models, being larger that of ‘identification’ in the samples of high urban level and that of ‘cohesion’ in the samples with lower urban level. Based on these results, management and intervention strategies are suggested to advance toward the sustainability.
D Lemos, Carro, García R Mira, and Romay J. Martínez. "Global Versus Local Problems: Dimensions of Environmental Concern." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. conference:IAPS:16
Evans, G. W., S. J. Lepore, and K. M. Allen. "Going Beyond the Myth of Cultural Differences in Crowding." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Despite widespread belief that cultures vary in their tolerance for crowding, there is little definitive evidence on the issue. Caucasian, African-American, Vietnamese-American and mexican-American adults do not differ in their levels of psychological distress in relation to residential density (people/room). Consistent with common belief, however, Mexican and Vietnamese Americans judge given levels of density as less crowded than Caucasian or African-American.
Nordström, Maria. "Growing up in the Countryside in France and Sweden – Different Conceptualizions of the Environment." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. conference:IAPS:16
Ramutsindela, Maano. "Healing the Wounds: Land Reform in South Africa's National Parks." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. South Africa's national parks are inextricably linked with various threads of the history of that country. Inevitably, policies of the post-apartheid government such as land reform have a direct impact on the future and management of the parks. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the conflicts of interest that are bound up with land claims in the national parks. I argue, by way of detailed case studies, that, contrary to popular perceptions, land reform could be a useful mechanism for long-term environmental goals and national reconciliation.
Uluoilu, Belkis, and Pelin Dursun. "Hereke: Industrial Subservient of the Metropolis Restructuring Its Identity." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Hereke gains importance with the establishment of the textile factory in 1843, producing fabric and carpets for the Palace. Later, it becomes an industrial subservient of the Istanbul metropolis. Partly due to its geographical structure and partly due to the subsistence of a cultural artifact manufactured here for more than a century, Hereke continuously discarded the development of a generic industrial subservience. This paper will present some of the more salient aspects of a discussion on the identity of subservient settlements of metropolises in general, with specific reference to Hereke, presenting comparative observations made over some years and documents that date back as far as the 19th century.
Uzzell, David. "Heritage Interpretation and the City: a Transactional Perspective." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Arguably the transactional perspective in environmental psychology is essentially a post-modern approach, as the emphasis shifts from social and environmental 'givens' to examining how people (socially) construct their world and make sense out of it. This might be characterised as a distinction between 'meaning-taking' and meaning-making'. The urban environment is an important setting for such meaning-making: not only do we have a personal relationship with its past, but the collective urban memory over single and multiple generations also contributes to our understanding, attitudes and actions within the city. Heritage interpretation through, for example, museums, visitor centres, historical re-enactments and urban trails has become an important device by which people come to understand the past. The psychological models we use to tell the story of the urban past can have a profound impact upon what the past comes to mean.
De Azevedo, Laura Novo. "Historic Preservation X Urban Dynamics: a Visual Impact Assessment Study." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. conference:IAPS:16
Rapoport, Amos. "History and Environment - Behaviour Studies." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. This paper essentially restates the argument about history made in my book History and Precedent in Environmental Design. The restatement is extremely brief and concise, a summary of the essence, in order to draw attention to the most important points made in the book. Two principal points are made. First, the important role that history need to play in the development of environment-behaviour studies (EBS) and more specifically in the development of an explanatory theory of environment-behaviour relations (EBR). Second, given this particular role of history there are implications for the kind of history that is needed.
Mårtelius, Johan. "History of Built Environment: a Swedish Experience." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The history of the built environment, stressing social, typological and vernacular aspects, has formed a strong current among Swedish historians of art and architecture, at least since the 1950's. This paper discusses the study of historic built environment in Sweden through focusing on the work of Gregor Paulsson, art historian and key figure in the Swedish modern movement from the 1910's through the post-war period. In his inter-disciplinary approach, social, economic and aesthetic aspects were joined.
Kruse, Lenelis, and Carl F. Graumann. "History, Ideology, and Urban Identity." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Both identifying a place (a city, a quarter) as ours and being identified with a place by others convey personal and social attributes to places as it makes people adopt their qualities, be they shared as real or imaginary. Studies of city identity as well as the history of urban research reveal that individual and collective states of mind and phantasmata permeate and interact with the identities of and identifications with places.
Rivlin, Leanne G., and Jeanne Andmoore. "Home - Making: Supports and Barriers to the Process of Home." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The process of home-making changes over a lifetime. For many, including newly resettled homeless people, the home-making process is difficult, challenging and sometimes unsuccessful. This paper draws on research concerning the experiences of homeless families in New York and studies of homelessness in London and Dublin. It argues that there are supports and barriers to the home process which include social, physical, environmental, financial and practical. Central conclusions are that home does not arrivewith a roof, but is rather that home-making is a complex social psychological process. Developing supports to home-making may offer tangible ways to enable this process to flourish.
Reis, Antônio. "Housing Appearance as an Indicator of Sustainable Housing." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. conference:IAPS:16
Lawrence, Roderick J.. "Housing at the Beginning of the 21St Century." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The end of the 20th century can be characterised by rapid change, diversity, mobility and uncertainty. Our knowledge of contemporary societies has grown during the 1990s, whereas those concepts, methods and projects to understand and deal effectively with them still need to be developed and applied. This symposium is intended to examine the implications of the societal dimensions mentioned above in relation to the design, maintenance and long-term use of the housing stock in precise localities.
Kose, Satoshi. "Housing for an Ageing Society: Adapting Housing Design Towards Universality." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Japan is expected to be one of the most aged society in the world in 2000. It is estimated that about a quarter of the whole population in Japan will be 65 and over in 2025. To solve problems related to the trend, the Ministry of Construction started a five-year research and development project on design for the aged society in 1987. The author took the leading role in defining the aim of the project, and put Design for all ages as the key concept, discarding the traditional idea of special design for the aged. It is a clear departure from age segregation that has been the idea of sheltered housing scheme. It assumes that residents will age in place, and that the dwellings should be able to respond to the changing needs of residents.
Law-Yone, Hubert, Arza Churchman, and Rachel Kallus. "Housing in a Post Welfare State." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. "This paper will attempt to examine some issues in housing theory and policy in the wake of transformation trends in the nature of the modern Welfare State. Public housing and its concommitant ideology has been one of the hallmarks of this socio-political formation and with the current slide towards the "shrinking of the State", it is perhaps worthwhile to look at what this implies for the future of housing. In particular, we wish to re-examine the relevancy of studies aimed at devising evaluative criteria for the quality of housing, in view of the re-comodification strategies of the State. In general, this question can be situated in a discussion of the basic issues of housing production, tenure and rights, as we move away from state interventions to a more consumer oriented market."
Ginsberg, Y.. "Housing Problems of Ultra - Orthodox Jews in Israël: a Case of Volontary Segregation." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. conference:IAPS:16
Cranz, Galen. "How Corbusier's Ear Opened: Why Ronchamp is Different." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. "The role of the body in architectural design (Cranz, Lepori, Franck) is dramatically llustrated in this case study of Corbusier. He undertook a special kind of listening therapy developed and executed by Dr. Alfred Tomatis of Paris. Before his "sonic opening" Corbusier's work was characteristically narrow, constrained, tight, orthogonal,. After his ear opened he designed Ronchamp, characterized as organic, open, asymmetric, flowing and dynamic. The Tomatis method is described in order to explain how this therapeutic intervention might have affected Corbusier's design process. Interviews with Dr. Tomatis describe his direct experience in treating Corbusier."
Matsumoto, T, and N. Oi. "How Does People - Existence Influence on Space Impression." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The purpose of this article is to investigate the direct and indirect effects of the other people's existence in the interior space. We believe that other people's existence is very important for impression of interior space. On these experiments we have come to the conclusion that the number of existing people's has influence on impression of interior space.
Nordström, Maria. How is Societal Change Reflected in Children's Views of the Environment? In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. From a theoretical point of view environment and change might seem opposed conceptually, environment representing something stable and enduring, physically concrete, time representing an abstract changeable entity. Young children, up to approximately the age of 12, for developmental psychological reasons, seem dominated in their conceptualisation of a concrete attitude to environment. How is their thinking influenced by changes in their societies and how can it be studied in their views on the environment?
Nordström, Maria, and Ulla Berglund. "How is Societal Change Reflected in Children's Views on the Environment? Proposal for a Workshop." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. From a theoretical point of view environment and change might seem opposed conceptually, environment representing something stable and enduring, physically concrete, time representing an abstract changeable entity. Young children, up to approximately the age of 12, for developmental psychological reasons, seem dominated in their conceptualisation of a concrete attitude to environment. How is their thinking influenced by changes in their societies and how can it be studied in their views on the environment?
Kei, A, T Akagi, T Oku, and M. Kusaka. "How Persons with Dementia and Developmental Dosability Can Avoid Barriers on their Way?" In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Wandering behaviors in dementia and developmental disability often cause the stumbling or slipping accident. Purpose of this study is to prevent persons with dementia and developmental disability from these accidents by evaluating on the basis of the experimental data using eye reflection camera how they find barriers. The data were compared with normal group. The results were summarized as follows: Bigger barriers attract more eye fixations in three groups. Time to find smaller barrier in the dementia and developmental disability group is slower than in the normal group. The dementia and developmental disability groups tend to fail discovering the goal in order to concentrate more eye fixations on barriers.
Folkesdotter, Gärd. "How They Tried – Women´s Co - Operation and Opposition in Local Politics in Gävle." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. "Since 1911 women have been represented in the town council of Gävle, a middle-sized Swedish town. They used various tactics to promote their issues and sometimes cooperated with women from other parties and organisations. Social issues were women's main interests but their engagement in planning and environmental questions has increased. Data mainly come from a research project - "Local politics in the hands of women - what happens?" – funded by FRN (Swedish Council for Planning and Coordination of Research)."
D. Aguilar, Miguel Angel. Identity and Daily Space in Two Municipalities in Mexico City In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. After some months of field work in two Mexico City suburban settlements, we will propose a hypothesis in regards to the link between space and identity.
Jimenez, Bernardo, and Rosa López.. Identity and Sustainability in Two Popular Neighborhoods of Guadalajara (México) In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. As part of the international project City, Identity and Sustainability, a study was done in two popular neighborghoods of Guadalajara (México). One of them traditional and well consolidated (Analco) and the other, a new one and in the process of consolidation (Los Colorines). An adapted survey was applied for evaluating identity, sustainability and demographic data. When compared, it was evident, that the relation between greater or lesser consolidation, and practices of sustainability, is mediated mainly by factors of identity and colective satisfaction with the place.
Pol, Enric, Emilia Moreno, Joan Guardia, and Lupicinio Iñiguez. Identity, Quality of Life and Sustainability in a Urban Suburb of Barcelona. Adjustment to the Cis Network's Structural Model In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The objective of the study was to identify and analyze potential social effects of the plans for the town’s urban growth. The fitness to the CIS network’s structural model is analyzed. An ethnographic analysis, as well as, quantitative and qualitative studies was performed. The level of satisfaction and perceived quality of life obtained was high and correlated with propensity to sustainability. The results are related to the emergence of a positive social identity that follows the ‘cohesion’ social model in poor and standard areas, whereas the ‘identification’ model is follow in well-structured urban areas.
de Jong, Ronald G., and Henk M. E. Miedema. "Improving Insight in Moderators of Annoyance by Pooling Data." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Understanding noise annoyance and the processes behind this concept is hampered by difficulties in comparing results of different socio-acoustical surveys. Analyses on the combined research data in the international TNO data archive clearly demonstrate that knowledge about noise annoyance will increase rapidly once socio-acoustic surveys would be harmonized on aspects such as the terminology and scaling of annoyance questions, and factors that can influence annoyance.
Rozec, V.. "Influence of a Specific Urban Planning on Sound Environment." In People, Places, and Sustainability: Proceedings of the 16th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. Paris, France: Hogrefe & Huber, 2002. "This study explored the sound perception of the residents in two Parisian districts new adjustments of the roadway system (“30 zone”). Then we compared the perception of "30 zone" to the perception of the streets without installation. We can assume that in this privileged environment (“30 zones”) the quality of the life contributes to a positive evaluation of sound environment for the inhabitants. The results confirmed this assumption. Indeed, we noted several differences in sound perception according to the place of dwelling (“30 zones” versus other streets)."
On, Samuel Iyiola. "Influence of Cultural Activities on Traffic Congestion in Metropolitan Lagos, Nigeria." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. conference:IAPS:16
Legendre, Alain. "Influence of Environmental Features on Children's Emotional Reactions in Day - Care Centers." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. In day-care centers, toddlers are often confronted with situations that challenge the limits of their social skills and involve emotional arousal. We investigated whether the environmental attributes of day-care centers modulate the emotional reactions of children regularly attending such group settings. Results show those stress reactions--as measured by steady cortisol increases--varied significantly among the 8 groups participating in the study. Higher cortisol increases were related to environmental attributes such as large group size (n >15), important age differences among children in a group and available surface per child inferior to 5 m2.
Van Dorst, Machiel. "Informal Settlements in the Netherlands." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. conference:IAPS:16
Medvedovski, Nirce Saffer. "Inserting Public Housing Schemes in the Town:regularization and New Citizenship." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. conference:IAPS:16
Uzzell, D, J Groeger, R Leach, and A. Wright. "Inter - Group Conflict on Shared - Use Paths: Fact Or Fiction?" In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. conference:IAPS:16
Gurel, Meltem O., and Joy K. Potthoff. "Interior Design Curricula in Architectural Programs." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. This study examined interior design course work taught in accredited architectural programs at universities in the United States. Department Chairs were asked to indicate the year of study their students addressed given topics which related to interior design. Second, program catalogues were analyzed for interior design content. The findings showed that many interior design concepts were not well addressed in the architectural program curricula (for example, furniture selection and layout; interior materials and finishes; decorative elements). Also, on average, only 0.44% of program content was dedicated to interior design curricula.
Kaaja, Mirkka. "Internet as an Instrument for Engaging Girls and Boys into Neighbourhood Improvement." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Internet-assisted urban planning and development has opened new opportunities for girls and boys to participate in neighbourhood improvement in both urban and rural settings. Three recent experiments in Finland have indicated that the Internet – interactive web-site or community net – has to be integrated into the planning and development cycle from the very beginning of the project. The internet cannot replace face to face collaborative planning, but it increases the access to locally relevant information dealing with everyday settings, if the information is appropriately edited and presented. The internet-assisted planning seems to call for a new type of methodology which, however, seems to be more easily appropriated by the young than by the adults.
Vanagas, Jurgis. "Interrelationship of Life Quality Parameters as a Paradigm of Urban Ecology." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The presentation presents an original method of establishing measures for improving life quatlity parameters and reaching the maximum of their effectiveness. These parameters were distributed into two conditional contrasted groups of « cause » and « consequence », after Spearman's rank correlation coefficient between them was estimated. A computerized calculation of statistical ties disclosed a strong interrelationship betweenthem, and it enabled to line the « cause » parameters according to their importance. The housing standard was among the most important factors in the programme of life quality improvement.
Dovey, Kim. "Is Architecture a Discipline?" In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. A 'discipline' is at once a branch of knowledge or learning, and a system of rules and methods for its 'disciples'. As a noun 'discipline' denotes submission to such rules and methods, while the verb 'to discipline' deals with those who stray. In all of these ways architecture is a discipline with disciples and its own disciplinary regime. I would suggest that the question of the disciplinarity of architecture can be usefully explored within Bourdieu's notion of a 'field' of cultural production. From this view there are interpenetrating, nesting and overlapping fields (of art, architecture, housing, education, urban development, social theory). Much of what we consider to be the 'discipline' of architecture can be construed as a struggle for power and autonomy within the broader fields of cultural production. This may help in understanding why social critiques of architecture are seen as a threat to the discipline.
Orhun, Deniz. "Is It Necessary to Understand Spatial Structures of House?" In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. In Turkey as elsewhere, building apartments at great scale to accommodate populations who come to settle in big cities has created many disappointments. On the other hand, studies on traditional architecture indicate possible relationships between the space organisation and the well being of the occupants. Therefore, we have investigated a sample of house plans originating from different regions of Turkey using space syntax, an analytical tool for studying spatial patterns. Our results show that in spite of apparent similarities structural differences embodied in the spatial structure of houses can be revealed.
Seidel, Andrew. "Is It Peace Or is It Prozac: Speculations on Whether Living a Virtual Life is like Living?" In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. This presentation will examine briefly the history of technological advances in the twentieth century and how able we were to predict the changes that advancing technology brought. It will then discuss some of the more dramatic predictions otherwise credible sources are making about the coming cyber age.
Gumpert, Gary, and Susan Drucker. "Is There Life in Cybercities?" In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. conference:IAPS:16
Kimaryo, Jacob. "Issues in Historical Research Within Ebs." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The past couple of decades have seen a growing interest in historical research of the built environment. The symposium discusses the importance and role of such research to the broad field of Environment-Behaviour Studies (EBS). It also discusses recent theoretical and methodological issues within this area of research. The focus of the symposium is on the following themes: a- Why should we study the history of the built environment? b- What do we expect from such studies? c- What are the theoretical and methodological tools available for historical research of the built environment? d- What are the theoretical and methodological deficiencies/problems? e- What could be done to enhance theoretical and methodological development in historical research of the built environment which is relevant to EBS?
Morini, Annalisa. "Italian Housing Programmes for the Elderly." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Urban environments need a balance between many factors in order to have and maintain an attractive, good level of quality. Trying to combine different uses within the same part of the city (what is called mixed use development) is one of the possibilities to renew cities and promote a general improvement of urban quality and social context. According to these principles, in recent years the principal Italian public experiences related to urban renewal have been devoted to programs of constructions - so called ‘Contratti di quartiere’ that means ‘Neighbourhood contracts’ - in which users participation, promotion of job creation and private investments are more underlined and integrated. The aim is focused to provide not only a new built environment but also a ‘piece’ of the city, with a specific attention to productive and social activities, which would guarantee that the intervention can be a vital one.
le Hermand, Daniè, and A. Oudry. "Judgement of Quality of Life in City." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The interest for the comprehension of interaction process people-environment has behaved to formalize the judgement of Quality of Life in city according to six indicators such as green spaces, development of urban network, density of health professionals, feeling security, place attachment, neighboring relationships. Functional Theory of Cognition (Anderson, 1996) and its methodology have based the problematical according to one of the orientations of environmental evaluation proposed by Bonnès & Secchiaroli (1995). Global results, in regard to indicators impact and differentials results, concerning sex, age and place of living, have been established.
Bilsel, S. G., E Yaslica, H Hisarligil, and M. Fakultesi. "Kayseri, the Future Metropolis of Central Anatolia and Germir and Tavlusun, Two Small Historical Towns Within the Vicinity." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. conference:IAPS:16
Sacko, O, J Munemoto, and T. Yoshida. "La Vie Collective Dans Les Concessions Conventionelles a Bamako." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. In Bamako, the urbanization and the rapid population growth is changing the scale and the density of conventional courtyard houses. The high density results the transition of conventional houses from single-traditional-family into multi-family houses. For Bamako, the existing collective living in courtyard houses which is more coherent with and interresponsive to the life style, is an important living style. In this paper, based on an observation survey on residents activities in the courtyard, we attempt to clarify the problems related to high density living and its influences on the courtyard.
Alon-Mozes, T, and S. Amir. "Landscape and Ideology: Vernacular Gardening Culture in Pre - State Israel." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The construction of small vernacular gardens accompanied the development of the new Hebrew culture within the land of Israel since the late 19th century. These gardens flourished in the agricultural settlements, as well as in the newly built neighborhoods. They were small, modest, and sometimes even poor, but for their creators as well as for the local establishment and its cultural agents, they were extremely meaningful. This study examines the sources of gardening culture in Pre-State Israel, its development, and the role of the Zionist ideology in promoting this project. By examining diverse and fragmented literary and visual sources, this study portrays the development of the new gardening culture of Pre-State Israel.
Corraliza, José A.. "Landscape and Social Identity: the Construction of Territorial Identity." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Each individual develops his individual and social identity in a specific physical environment. What is the role of these transactions for the development of preference for a landscape and for developing a conception of identity? The study that will be presented at the symposium, concerning these questions, has been performed in different regions in Spain.
Zhaolu, Wu, and Xu Fengai. "Landscape Ecological Construction of Towns:a Case Study of a Tibetan Town in Southwest China." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Case study of a Tibetan Town in southwest indicated that town development was based on the special natural environment and ethnic culture. The ancient town and Tibetan Temple located on the axis of due north--south in the mosaic landscape of hills and mountains alternated with meadows, wetlands and rivers reflect the architectural pattern of the town with traditional Chinese culture that nature and man are in one. The fast development resulted in the degradation of forests, meadows and wetlands and the water pollution, particularly landscape pollution. Experts, local officials and indigenous people got together and, in terms of landscape ecological construction, worked out an ideal town development plan characterized by traditional environmental outlook (Fengshui), Tibetan culture, dense forests, colorful meadows and clean rivers.
Sillos, Jacques. "Landscape Heritage and the Urban Design in the Contemporary Complexity." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The present paper is concerned with the study of urban landscape as culture. It is part of a broader research focusing on the design of a public open space, which was the first city square created in Rio de Janeiro in the 16th century. The city center has been through many drastic reforms along its history. The preservation of buildings isolated from their historical context has produced numerous voids resulting in the lack of identity in the landscape and the loss of urban vitality in significant public open spaces. Through computer aided design, different historical moments of the square and its surroundings have been reconstituted in order to understand these changes and what were the cultural values behind official plans.
Kabisch, Sigrun. "Landscape Remediation and the Quality of Life." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Landscape remediation is a very important task in the densely built up agglomeration around the big cities leipzig and halle in east-Germany in the wake of lignite mining, which for decades revaged enormous areas. Open mining pits and carbo-chemical plants caused enormous emissions and quality of the population has suffered. After the german reunification, the socio-economic changes, the lignite industries declined in importance. Thus, the landscape has undergone tremendous changes. First post-mining landscapes such as recreation areas are visible. These new conditionsencourage the residents to take part in revitalization of their communities. There is a close link between social renewal and remediated natural surroundings.
Ozaslan, Nuray. "Le Caractere Artificiel De L'espace Urbain Moderne." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The structural rationalism and formal repertoire of the modern designer, feed and inspired from the machine aesthetic, became the physical responses for the social problems. Form-giving principles of art and architecture were detached from the natural connections loosing their de facto character the abstract and rational design methods. Pragmatic logic of relationships among things in the context of naturally bound world were replaced by the man-made parameters defined often by the individual and social conditions of Man himself. This has caused artificiality in the approach and application of design which was reflected in the urban space. Now, the man should be redefined according to the ethic principles that must not consider merely his/her materialistic welfare and development but an happy and continious character of life.
Zacharias, John. "Le Quartier Des Halles: Piétonnisation, Appropriation Et Transformation." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The daily movement of people through Les Halles pedestrian area, the pattern of their activities and their occupancy of public space have distinct patterns that can be related to certain design and layout characteristics of the urban project that included the pedestrian area. In this study, recent changes in land uses, pedestrian itineraries and social appropriation of the public spaces of Les Halles are related together.
Yoon, Youngsun, and Yeunsook Lee. "Leisure Behavior of Korean Adolescents and It's Implication for Community Planning." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. conference:IAPS:16
Shin, Hwakyoung, and Yeunsook Lee. "Leisure Behavior of Korean Women and It's Implication for Community Planning." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The purpose of this study was to find current leisure behavior characteristics of housewives and their desire for future activities, and corresponding space and facilities for the present and the future, finally to produce useful implication for some leisure facilities within community and neighborhood environments. Data were collected from Korean housewives by questionnaire survey. The results of study showed the change in leisure behavior patterns and implicated the need for some leisure facility development within residential community in the future.
Després, Carole, and Andrée Fortin. "Les Pavillonnaires Revisites: L'exemple Des Banlieues De L'agglomeration De Quebec." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The suburbs, their residents and related ideologies have led, during the sixties, to seminal research to which we are still referring to (Gans, 1966; Haumont , 1975). Residential suburbs were described as socially and physically homogeneous: the nuclear family, with its at-home mother and young children, was the norm, so was homewnership. Recent sociodemographic data reveal a very different portrait. This paper proposes to re-visit five suburbs of Quebec City's metropolitan area. Semi-directed interviews with 173 Ranch house homeowners are used to identify the main transformations and/or mutations in the spatial behaviors and meanings typically associated with residential suburbs.
Moore, Jeanne, and Ricardo García Mira. "Levels of Rootedness: Comparative Study in Galicia and North East of England." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. This paper contrasts the experience of rootedness across two cultures. This follows work on the experience of rootedness (Moore, 1998) and work which explored Galician identity (Romay, Garcia-Mira & Azurmendi, 1999). The paper examines the type and qualities of current connections to places for young adults living in La Coruna and Middlesbrough. Central hypotheses are that there will be more a shared emphasis on the city, regional and national levels of rootedness than on the local. Furthermore, it is expected there will be a difference in focus of the level of rootedness, with regional being more salient to the Galician students than those in England.
Moore, Jeanne, and Ricardo Garcia. "Levels of Rootedness: Comparative Study in Galicia and North East of England." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. This paper constrasts the experience of rootedness and attachment to place across two cultures. It examines the type and qualities of current connections to places for young adults living in La Coruna, Spain and Middlesbrough in the North East of England. In particular it compares the experience of attachment to place and rootedness across levels of place Central hypotheses are that there there will be a difference in focus of the level of rootedness, with regional being more salient to the Galician students than those in England. Furthermore, it is expected there will be more a greater emphasis on the city, regional and national levels of rootedness than on the local.
Mitropoulos, Mit. "Living in the Together/separate Environment, with and Without Technology." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The state of being simultaneously Together and Separate,has always been characteristic of the semi-private/public spaces in the Cycladic architecture,Aegean Sea,Greece.Same with the plethora of new communications technologies we all have access to in our time. Similarly with interpersonal relationships that have evolved in the same direction,during the last 30 years.The combining of physical space with electronic space,can afford us a vision for the future of isolated human settlements, especially on islands. On the other hand,islands are becoming part of the urban continuum,whilst the city scale itself becomes transitory,along the networks of movement and communication making the Together/Separate element even more evident.
Piche, Denise. "Local and Regional Development: Convergence and Difference in Women´s and the State´s Interest." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. In the nineties, the State of Québec adopted a decentralisation policy towards the regional and local levels and called for development sensitive to women’s needs and the inclusion of women in local and regional structures. In spite of the State's hidden agenda, the new policy sparked off a vast investment in local and regional affairs and a search for strategies that would give women more power on the local scene without them loosing any momentum in the influence gained over the State. The presentation reports on a partnership between an academic feminist research group, local women's groups and regional authorities aimed at involving more women in local and regional issues.
Romice, O.. "Local Communities and Urban Renewal: a Holistic Approach to Study Users' Process of Environmental Experience and Use It in Design." In People, Places, and Sustainability: Proceedings of the 16th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. Paris, France: Hogrefe & Huber, 2002. Involving local communities in the design processes concerning their city or neighbourhood can play a role in creating responsive environments and achieving satisfaction of communities. Interaction between clients and professionals is essential to encourage the resolution of disputes at the design stage rather than once actions have been taken, since their different roles and expertise can enrich the process of interaction. This study supports the idea of a form of participation based on research in environmental experience and aims to generate a procedure for the involvement of local communities in urban renewal actions as an informed, organised and effective activity and then to apply this approach in praxis. Visual literacy is trained, and a combination of environmental assessment techniques and informative activities are linked to encourage community groups and professionals to work together on the development of observational and analytical skills and on the formulation of design solutions.
Kazemian, Reza, and Abdellah Abarkan. "Localization Strategy for Stockholm: Towards Sustainable Flexibility in Location Decisions and Interactive Urban Systems." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The paper will deal with these questions through presenting a number of historical factors and background of the localization policy in Stockholm. It will speculate some visions for the future development of localities in Stockholm.
Franck., Karen A.. "Loose Fit: Spaces of Possibility and Imagination." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Within the social and spatial ordering of the environment there are places whose meanings and uses are loose and open to various interpretations. These places allow for the unexpected and the unplanned to occur; they offer space for activities and experiences that have no other place; they give room for experimentation and change. Whether the places are indoors or out, dangerous or safe, derelict or well-tended, they are places of possibility and imagination.
Kylin, Maria. "Making Outdoor Places for Children. How Children's Needs for Outdoor Places are Reflected in Community Plans: a Pilot Study." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Although it is well known that a stimulating outdoor environment is important for children's learning and development issues, the outdoor environment is often found to be poor and dull from the children´s point of view. The topic of this paper is a discussion on the differences between community plans and children's perspective on outdoor environment.
Bernardi, Jose. "Memoires Et Continuites: Quelques Pensees Sur La Reinterpretation Du Concept Du Patio." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. "This paper will discuss the work of two Argentinean architects who used an interesting reinterpretation of the concept of a patio. 1- In the public sector, the work of Miguel Roca with his proposal for the center and the neighborhoods of the city. This work was initiated in the 1980's and has been continued by new administrations until today. 2- In the private sector, the paper will turn to the work of Jose Ignacio Diaz. By using the characteristic construction material of the city (brick), his buildings provided balconies, livable "patios at higher level", and generated small piazzas, creating a sense of enclosure which redefines the street as the city's communal place."
Bonfanti, Godlive. "Methodologie D'analyse Et D'evaluation De La Vulnerabilite Des Elements Structurels Urbains Face Au Risque Cyclonique: Etude Comparee De Trois Metropoles Dans La Region Caraïbe." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. L’évaluation quantitative du risque d’ouragan en zone urbaine est abordée dans ce travail par le biais de l’analyse de vulnérabilité. Les analyses en retour du passage des événements Hugo à Pointe-à-Pitre (Guadeloupe), Georges à Saint-Domingue (République Dominicaine) et Irène à la Havane (Cuba) sont utilisées comme source de données sur les caractérisations dommages dus aux impacts du vent sur les habitations dans les zones urbaines en croissance. La méthode d’évaluation de la vulnérabilité du bâti face au risque cyclonique est ainsi développée et testée dans certains quartiers représentatifs. Cette approche quantitative est complétée par une analyse sociologique de l’investissement des habitants dans le processus de réduction de la vulnérabilité de leur habitat, grâce aux outils réglementaires - dans la perspective de contribuer à une meilleure gestion du risque.
Jacob, Benoy, and John Zacharias. "Micro - Enterprises on the Street: the Case of Montreal." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. conference:IAPS:16
Boussoualim, Aïcha, and Alain Legendre. "Microclimatic Characteristics Incidence on the Outdoor Public Space Occupation." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. conference:IAPS:16
Saarloos, D.. "Modelling the Distribution of Pedestrians Within City Centre Shopping Areas." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. This paper presents a model for the prediction of the number of passers-by in a downtown-shopping district. The model assumes that (i) an urban environment can be represented by a configuration of lines and nodes, and (ii) the segments of retail streets are frequented because of their relative attractiveness. Three Dutch city-centres have been studied, where the number of pedestrians in a street segment was the dependent variable. The resulting model explains 78.5% of the variation of pedestrians present in a street segment by using the following independent variables: the centrality of the street segment vis-à-vis public transport stops (and/or bicycle parkings), seven morphological features, four functional features and three aesthetical features.
Vestbro, Dick Urban. "Modernism and Development of Rational Society." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Based on Holston's analysis of the modernist principles guiding the planning of Brasilia, and on Vale's analysis of the expression of power and nationalism in high status buildings in third world countries, the paper discusses the validity of modernist assumptions about using environmental design to form life styles compatible with the development of a rational society. While some of the assumptions of the early modernists can be considered erroneous or outdated, the basic idea about spatial organisation having an influence on life styles can not be dismissed, especially not in underdeveloped countries, it is argued.
Nilsson, Maria. "Motivating Children and Adolescents to Travel by Pro - Environmental Means of Transport." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. conference:IAPS:16
Evans, Gary W.. "Motivational Consequences of Environmental Stress." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Children and adults chronically exposed to noise, crowding, traffic congestion, or pollution manifest motivational deficits that closely resemble learned helplessness. Experimental studies with manipulations of stressor controllability indicate the key role of control in these findings. The field data and laboratory results are highly convergent. Both laboratory and field studies of motivation and environmental stress are critically reviewed and needs for future research summarised.
Steg, Linda. "Motives and Behaviour in Real - World Social Dilemmas." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Although environmental problems are often discussed as typical examples of social dilemmas, very little applied research has been done to better understand behaviour in real-world social dilemmas. The present study is aimed at examining to what extent psychological motives influence behaviour in a real-world social dilemma. The results suggest that the social dilemma paradigm can contribute to the better understanding of car use. Selective car use was dependent on individual as well as collective utilities. Moreover, different psychological motives that enhance co-operation in social dilemmas appeared to be correlated, i.e., the more respondents valued the collective interest, the fewer psychological barriers they faced to contribute to the solution of collective problems.
Maxwel, Lorraine E.. "Museum Physical Characteristics and Effects on Children's Retention of Information: a Case Study." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. This study demonstrates the effects of physical characteristics of the museum setting on children's retention of details of a museum visit. Children with learning disabilities were found to be easily distracted by certain physical attributes of the setting and did not retain information presented during the visit. However, when the setting eliminates some of the distractions these students can have a more positive experience and retain more information.
Poortinga, Wouter. "Myths of Nature and Environmental Management Strategies - a Field Study on Energy Reductions in Traffic and Transport." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Cultural Theory states that there are four Myths of Nature, namely Nature Benign, Nature Tolerant, Nature Ephemeral and Nature Capricious. Myths of Nature can be regarded as archetypal worldviews, which reflect the perception of the vulnerability of nature and the environment. Each of these Myths of Nature is associated with a preference for a distinct strategy for managing environmental risks. In this paper de relationship between Myths of Nature, general management strategies, and measures aimed at reducing energy use in traffic and transport is examined.
Poortinga, W., L. Steg, and C. Vlek. "Myths of Nature and Environmental Management Strategies. a Field Study on Energy Reductions in Traffic and Transport." In People, Places, and Sustainability: Proceedings of the 16th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. Paris, France: Hogrefe & Huber, 2002. In this study the relation between Myths of Nature and preferences for environmental risk management strategies is examined. It appeared that subscribers to the different Myths of Nature differed in their preferences for government regulation and market-oriented strategies to solve environmental problems. However, this relationship was only partially in line with Cultural Theory. The relationship between Myths of Nature and preference for behavioural solution strategy was as expected. Moreover, subscribers to the different Myths of Nature differed in the acceptability of behavioural and technological measures aimed at energy savings in traffic and transport. This relationship was more straightforward as expected.
Lupala, John M.. "Neighbourhood Typologies and City Transformation." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Formal and Informal Settlements in Tanzania Planned neighbourhoods in Tanzania depict a variety of urban typologies, some of which are divorced from its context and hence do not function well. This is attributed to planning concepts and ideology that were inspired by western ideas and the waves of 'modernism'. Informal settlements which emerge independent of planned areas are organic in their development pattern follow a certain logic which is yet to be examined and developed. This paper attempts to examine the relevance of typologies in planned areas and make comparisons between formal and informal neighbourhoods in Tanzania.
Staffans, Aija. "Net Or Trap? Local Stakeholders on an Internet - Supported Neighbourhood Forum." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. conference:IAPS:16
Di Castri, Francesco. "New Urban - Rural Interactions in the Information Society." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. A strong concentration and accumulation of information in cities have traditionally shaped the interactions between urban and rural systems. A part of this information was used to drain, at low cost, flows of energy, materials and people from the rural to the urban side, thus establishing a pattern of exploitation and dependence between these two subsystems. What was essentially a unidirectional, vertical, and hierarchical flow of information, resulted in a large concentration of capital, machines, educational potential, job opportunities, services, and most decision-making processes in cities.
Ribeiro, T.. "Occupational Accident Scenarios and Work Spaces on Industrial Environments." In People, Places, and Sustainability: Proceedings of the 16th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. Paris, France: Hogrefe & Huber, 2002. This paper, which is part of a larger study of industrial accidents under the paradigm of the ecological psychology, analyses the impact of the physical environment on the accident rates of a working setting of the foundry industry. People’s work environment are considered as holistic entities following Barker’s (1968) concept of the behaviour setting. Occupational accidents are conceptualised as consequences of the behaviour-milieu non-synomorphy. Results show the importance of some aspects of the working ecological context on the occurrence of industrial accidents. The contribution of this study to its theoretical background and to the safety field is discussed.
Ribeiro, Teresa. "Occupational Accident Scenarios and Work Spaces on Industrial Environments." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Occupational accidents have strong links with work environments, particularly when then happen in industrial work settings. This paper, which is part of a larger study of occupational accidents under the ecological perspective, aims to analyse the impact of the work settings environmental features on the accident scenarios in the burr workshop of the foundry industry.
Teklenburg, Jan A. F.. "Old Ways for New Urban Environments, a Comparison of an American New Urbanist and a Dutch Vinex Location." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. This paper compares two new urban environments, one being ‘Celebration’ in Florida and the second ‘Dierdonk’ in the city of Helmond, The Netherlands. The paper compares the organisation of public space in association with the uses of the spaces. The goal of the paper is to explore whether the new urban movements of which both cases are an example have incorporated any effects of information technology, and if so, how this incorporation becomes apparent.
M. Giuliani, Vittoria, Fiorenza Ferrara, and Silvia Barabotti. "One Attachment Or More?" In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. This research aims to explore empirically attachment to the residential place in the context of residential history of people, focusing on a high mobility population.
Giuliani, V., F. Ferrara, and S. Barabotti. "One Attachment Or More?" In People, Places, and Sustainability: Proceedings of the 16th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. Paris, France: Hogrefe & Huber, 2002. Attachment to place was explored in the context of residential history of people. Data have been collected trough self-administered questionnaires submitted to couples living in a number of Air Force villages in Italy. The results show that, even among mobile population, feelings of attachment toward the current place of residence and/or previous places are expressed by the majority of respondents. Furthermore, people with multiple bonds are the most satisfied of their life. Finally, feeling emotionally tied to a previous place does not mean necessarily being willing to live there, suggesting that a careful definition of attachment to place is needed. The results will be presented and discussed, together with their implications for a more comprehensive theory of affective bonds with places.
Nalbantoglu, Oktan, and Belemir Dalokay Güzer. "Open Areas as a Tool for Post - Disaster Urban Re - Construction: Learning from Adapazari." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. conference:IAPS:16
Francis, Mark. "Open Space Oriented Development." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. This paper will explore the relationship of open space to the design of new communities. Past approaches to planning new communities with open space in mind will be examined including new urbanist planning efforts. Case studies of past planned communities that have utilized open space as central organizing element will be examined including Radburn New Jersey, Greenbelt Maryland, and Village Homes in California. Past research on the value of open spaces to the community and public life of these developments will be explored. The paper will conclude with a framework for developing open space as a central organizing feature in future new communities.
Horelli, Liisa. "Opportunities and Constraints of Internet - Assisted Urban Planning for Young People and the Neighbourhood." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. A decade of experiments with participation of nearly 700 children and young people in neighbourhood improvement indicate that young people are sharp analysts of and producers of ideas for their settings, but the gatekeepers of local development are reluctant to expand their top-down, expert-based mode of urban planning to include new groups. The aim of the paper is to discuss the opportunities and constraints of internet-assisted urban planning with young people in the light of three new experiments in Finland and to draw lessons for future development of internet-based collaborative planning.
Kruse, Lenelis. "Opportunities for Transdisciplinary Research in a New Era of Thinking About People - Environment - Relations." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. It is only when environmental changes began to be conceived of in terms of the individual and societal solutions that it became evident that a transdisciplinary approach is needed. This paper presents a new paradigm, based on the concept of 'syndromes', in keeping with the problem-centered methodology required by transdisciplinarity.
Craig, A.. "Overcoming Expertocracy Through Sustainable Development: the Case of Wastewater." In People, Places, and Sustainability: Proceedings of the 16th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. Paris, France: Hogrefe & Huber, 2002. This paper reviews the potential for taking a more holistic, interdisciplinary approach towards one of the less visible dimensions of the built environment: water and wastewater infrastructure. On a worldwide scale, there is an ever-increasing demand for water, along with an urgent need for improved sanitation.  Conventional wastewater engineering fails to take into account many of the issues raised by the concept of sustainable development.  As such more radical systems of approach need to be considered, concerning society as a whole.  This paper will outline some of the main issues surrounding the subject of water and wastewater management, and will discuss the issue of public participation in water and wastewater planning.  The influence of psychological factors on acceptance of wastewater technologies is also discussed. Tentative conclusions, along with possible implications for further research are then presented.
Craig, Anthony. "Overcoming Expertocracy Through Sustainable Development: the Case of Wastewater." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. This paper reviews the potential for taking a holistic approach towards the urban water and wastewater infrastructure. It argues for a synthesis of natural and social science perspectives on the subject. An argument is put forward for looking beyond merely social acceptability of new wastewater technologies, towards the 'social sustainability' of such wastewater management solutions
Gifford, Robert. "Overglow: the Psychology of Light Pollution." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Pollution may be defined as material that is harmful for life. One pollutant that has not yet received much attention is excessive light, or light pollution. Many people experience light as a pollutant. I present the case of a family who live next door to a sports field where large new light standards were added. The family assert that it has greatly interrupted their sleep and their social life. Their lack of control in the matter is very stressful. When I sought research evidence to examine the family’s claims, I could not find a single study of light pollution. Light can be beneficial, but so fire; too much of a good think is a bad thing. It is time for environmental psychologists to begin the scientific study of light pollution.
Bonaiuto, M, A Aiello, and M. Bonnes. "Participation in Urban Design: a Multidimensional Approach." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. A multidimensional approach to the perception of environmental quality is presented within a study aimed at involving inhabitants on a project of urban renewal for a square in a peripheral neighbourhood in Rome. Different constructs and instruments are used in order to evaluate people perceptions, evaluations, activities, representations, expectations, at various place specific levels (neighbourhood and square). Convergence and complementarity of results from the different instruments, gathered on a sample of 100 inhabitants, are used in order to outline possible choices and guidelines for the project.
Sanoff, Henry. "Participatory Action Research." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Participatory action research is seen as the development of a communities' potential; as collaborative problem solving; and as a synonym for 'user participation' in planning and in the decision-making process. Participatory action research attempts to break down the distinction between the researcher and the researched, the subjects and objects of knowledge produced by the participation of the people-for-themselves in the process of gaining and creating knowledge. In the process, research is seen not only as a process of creating knowledge, but simultaneously, as education and development of consciousness, and of mobilization for action.
Windsor, Ahuva, Joshua Manor, and Ayelet Zikli. "Participatory Design of Government Office Buildings." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The Israeli government launched a 10-year program to build 250,000 sqm of modern buildings for its head offices in Jerusalem and in several regional centers. The physical design of these intelligent buildings supports greater efficiency and flexibility in government work, while providing a better environment and improved quality of life for office workers. The participatory design process included active involvement of user representative committees in physical design, and a preparation program for workers to the physical-organizational change in their work life. This two-dimensional process, which helped lay the basis for a future POE, was essential in light of the organizational structure of government offices. The presentation will focus on methodological issues of the participatory design process.
Lerner, Dan. "Participatory Design of Government Office Buildings: the Users' Perspective." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) underwent a profound change, from a rigid government organization into a client-focused public service. It soon realized its need for a physical work environment that would serve as a professional tool, to support its new organizational culture and work methods. This view was reflected in the choice of an “intelligent” building: the building technical systems allow introduction of modern data communication systems, the open-office layout supports teamwork, and the overall interior design enhances the quality of life for all workers. This view of the environment as a professional tool also underlined the CBS’s active involvement, over the next three years, in the physical design process.
Hanazato, Toshihiro. "Pencil - Houses Or Apartments: Alternatives of Urban Dwelling in Hanoi." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. This is to describe the housing situation of Hanoi, Vietnam, after the introduction of market economy under the socialist regime. Under the current situation, there are two types of houses: one is the pencil-houses, relatively large and privately owned, and the other is the apartment units, small and rented from the government. There is a large gap between these two alternatives. The former is popular but the efficiency of ventilation and consequently, the living condition varies under the weak control of building regulation. People in the latter require more space and extension is often undertaken. It is necessary to control the situation for the improvement of the dwelling condition.
Benjamin, David. "People - Environment Studies Between Archaeology and Architecture: Future Colonization Efforts." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. This paper will examine how the recent built environment history of humanity may affect future colonization efforts off the Earth. The uncritical use of the myth of the American West and the repetition of Earthbound forms of architecture and settlement, need to be evaluated, both for their ability to inspire appropriate extra-terrestrial development extra-terrestrial ethics.
Busch, Esther. "Peoples Vision of Shopping Galleries." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. conference:IAPS:16
Hilaire, Stéphanie. "Perception of Housing in Single Parent Families Living in Socio - Economical Precariousness Situation." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. This research focus on the transactional relationship between people and environment in adverse circumstances The aim of this study is to describe the relationship between single-parent families living in socio-economical precariousness situation and their economic, social and spatial environment. Data from ten single-parent families living in socio-economical precariousness situation were gathered with semi-structured interviews, LOC scale (Rotter, 1966) and time orientation line (Cottle, 1968). Data analysis were carried out with Alceste, a specific software applied to statistical processing of textual data. One of four clusters extracted from the corpus was related to residential aspect. The housing perception of single-parent families living in socio-economical precariousness situation is about (1) qualitative perception of environment (security/insecurity) and (2) social or familial support. Some examples of specific words of this cluster will be done in discussion in order to illustrate the housing perception of those families.
Mitropoulos, Mit. "Physical and Electronic Spaces Related: Place, Scale, Distance, and Community." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. "Debating the Social Life Of Wired Cities, is not only an interesting exercise, but also a necessary one for asking "what went wrong? It concerns all of us living in these cities, and even more so, for those who organise the urban space and have realised that the current definitions of their conceptual tools are no longer valid. As we shift from physical space into the electronic one, it is worth making observations of positive use of cyberspace, as well as reflecting on smaller scale human settlements that start on their way into networking--to see clearly how their social life responds. "
Brown, Barbara, Graham Brown Doug Perkins, Douglas D. Perkins, and Graham Brown. "Place Attachment in a Revitalizing Neighborhood." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000.

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Speller, Gerda. "Place Attachment in the Context of Today's Society." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The concept of Place Attachment gathers importance in todays mobile and multicultural society. Some theoretical issues are being addressed by the researchers in this symposium. Fried argues that place attachment is a rich and variable tapestry which reflects core features of an individual's life and that the dynamics of place attachment modulate over time in conjunction with lifespan experiences and inner developments. Moore & Garcia Mira contrast the experience of rootedness and attachment to place across two cultures (England and Spain) and point to the difference in focus of the level of rootedness. Brown, Perkins & Brown ask how long-term residents experience gradual neighbourhood decline and population change and whether their place attachment acts as a resource which may foster neighbourhood improvements or whether it may have the opposite effect. Giuliani, Ferrara & Barabotti focus on multiple place attachments of a high mobility population to expand current theory of affective bonds with place. Speller, Lyons & Twigger-Ross suggest that there are particular conditions which need to exist for place attachment to occur. The final contribution will be made by Puddifoot by taking a closer look at the notion of the residential researcher.
Devine-Wright, P, P Fleming, and I. Lindley. "Planning a Sense of Place for Sustainable Urban Development." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. This research paper reviews empirical research findings concerning the relation between place and urban design, derived from an innovative development process at Ashton Green, Leicester, U.K., that has utilised renewable energy resources to achieve a sustainable urban housing development.
Stevens, Quentin. "Play in Urban Public Spaces – the Case of Stairs." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Everyday life in cities isn't purely rational. This is particularly true of activities in public spaces, where the social context is complex and relatively unstructured. This paper focuses on a diversity of playful activities observed in one kind of urban space - public staircases. These observations illustrate how the design and location of urban space frames opportunities for playful social behavior. Play opens up new possibilities of social practice, and in doing so expands the possible meanings and functions of urban space.
Ornstein, Cláudia Miranda de, and Brenda Chaves Coe Leite. "Post - Occupancy Evaluation of a High - Tech Office Building in São Paulo: Final Results." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. This paper will present the final results of a POE applied to a large-scale and high-tech office building (34 floors) named Plaza Centenário. It is located in São Paulo city and occupied by different users and businesses, most of them related to information technology. The first research phase was a pilot POE applied to four floors occupied by the headquarters of a manufacturer of domestic appliances. In this second research phase, an adapted questionnaire was administered to the largest possible sample of businesses in Plaza Centenário. Also, technical walkthroughs and specific measurements were conducted in environments identified by users and specialists as critical ones, in terms of layout, environment, comfort, safety, etc. This enlarged set of building performance data will make possible comparisons among differences in layouts, floors, businesses, gender perspectives, etc. We will develop final results for the building as a whole, in order to establish guidelines for the future, to be used in similar workplace designs in the social, economic, cultural and global context of mega-cities such as São Paulo.
R. Mira, Garcia, Real E. Deus, and Durán M. Rodríguez. "Predicting Environmental Attitudes and Behavior." In People, Places, and Sustainability: Proceedings of the 16th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. Paris, France: Hogrefe & Huber, 2002. The need to explain the nature of the relationship between the people and the environment has contributed to widespread research. Out of this general framework, there is increasing focus on the structure of attitudes, beliefs and values in order to explain pro-environmental behaviour. This paper compares two approaches of pro-environmental behaviour prediction. One of them corresponds to the Schwartz’s norm activation theory (1977, 1992). The other was developed by Stern et al. (1995). The approaches predict pro-environmental behaviour through either personal norms or behavioural intention. In this study, general and specific attitudes and beliefs, as well as values, were used as predictors. The results of the present study support Stern’s approach and confirms that it one which can be helpful as an explanatory devise.
R Mira, García, J. R. Martínez, and J. E. Real Deus. "Predicting Environmental Concern and Behavior." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The line of investigation on the environmental attitudes has been able to count on an ample tradition of environmental psychology. In this work, the research adopts a particular way, since the state organisations and industry, be they pollutant or not, seek to analyse the pro-environmental attitudes of the workers, whose results facilitate information which serves as a basis for the preparation of intervention and allows for the planning of the most appropriate actions, such as making conjectures as to the aspects of the proposed model upon which the formative action, which forms part of our programme, should be constructed.We will try to throw some light on the questions of what motivates a pro-environmental behaviour or which are the determiners of responsible ecological behaviour.
Benne, M, J Wineman, and M. Truelove. "Predicting Visitor Distribution in a Naturalistic Zoological Park." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. This study tested three possible predictors of visitor spatial distribution in a naturalistic zoological park. The unit of analysis was the axial line; a measure derived from Space Syntax theory. Each axial line within the zoo was assigned three values as potential predictors: a spatial integration value, an activity popularity value and an animal popularity value. The study was conducted twice under different seasonal and spatial conditions with the same result. Animal popularity was the only significant predictor of visitor distribution. This suggests that the design of zoo environments could use the popularity of animals as magnets to most effectively draw people through all the spaces of the zoo.
Bordas-Astudillo, F., A. Moch, and D. Hermand. "Predictions of Feeling of Crowding and Crampedness." In People, Places, and Sustainability: Proceedings of the 16th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. Paris, France: Hogrefe & Huber, 2002. Urban concentration which implies multifamily housing is one of the solutions planned to carry out a sustainable development. In this context, it was interesting to study the way in which human density is lived in large residential buildings. Furthermore, few studies have been done in France about psychological reactions to density. 162 inhabitants of three large residential buildings located in the 13rd district of Paris were questioned. The social relationships with inhabitants and the satisfaction with spatial comfort in housing are determinant in the comprehension of subjective density in the building (feelings of crowding and crampedness). The implications of these findings for the sustainable development are discussed.
Meijnders, A. L., Y. A. W. Slang De Kort, and L. A. J. Dinnissen. "Privacy and Identity in Non - Territorial Office Environments." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. We will present a study on the regulation of privacy in non-territorial offices. In this study we examined how employees regulate their privacy and how this affects their satisfaction. The results showed that employees in traditional and non-territorial offices are equally satisfied, but the way this satisfaction is maintained seems to differ. Compared with employees in traditional offices, employees in non-territorial offices put less emphasis on their personal identity but comparable emphasis on their group identity, in addition they make more use of contact regulation options to regulate their privacy.
Koca, Guler. "Problems of City Planning in Turkey and Recommendations for Solutions." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. This paper presents the results of a survey conducted for the evaluation of city planning problems in turkey. The survey investigates problems occurring both in planning and implementation processes of the city plans in the country. The study shows the necessity of a dynamic and flexible planning in order to catch up with the requirements of fast-growing cities in the country and recommends some regulations in the planning and implementation of city development plans as well as at various organizational levels involving in planning.
Abella, C. M., R García-Mira, and J. E. Real. "Proenvironmental Behavior: the Role of Values and Constraints." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. This paper aims to examine the role that values and constraints play in the performance of environmental behavior and in the commitment to behave. Schwartz's values theory and Stern and collaborators studies provide the theoretical basis for this work. Data were obtained from a 520 undergraduated students sample. Regression analyses revealed the expected differences among motivational types of values in predicting several environmental behaviors and behavioral commitments.
Thompson, Catharine Ward. "Projective Approaches to Landscape Perception and Landscape Design for Children." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. This paper explores the development of projective techniques which use the concepts of personal and phenomenological space to articulate approaches to landscape design. It focuses particularly on the school playground environment in cities and urban areas. It presents methods and results of original research with children (as well as their teachers). Results of work to date confirm the importance for children of activity-based behavior settings and point to a desire for natural elements as the integrating core of their play environment. The value of such methods for landscape designers and their clients is discussed.
Wiesenfeld, Esther, and Fernando Giuliani. "Promoting Sustainable Communities: Theory, Research and Practice." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. In this paper we deal with the topic of environmental sustainability in the context of poor urban communities. FoR this purpose we first present an approach which integrates the environmental dimension and the community perspective. Based on this approach, we then present and analyze the results of an experience undertaken in a popular neighborhood in Caracas, in which we carried out a project oriented towards promoting environmental and community sustainability
Wiesenfeld, Esther, and Fernando Giuliani. Promoting Sustainable Communities: Theory, Research and Practice In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Ce travail traite sur le thème du développement durable à partir du scénario des communautés. A cette fin nous proposons une approche que incorpore la dimension psychosociale suggérée par Valera et Pol (1996) en plus de la dimension communautaire. A l'appui de cette proposition on présente et analyse ici les résultats d'une expérience réalisée dans un bidonville à Caracas.
Day, Kristen. "Proving Masculinity and Men's Perceptions of Women's Fear in Public Space." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. "Fear in public spaces is a major concern for women in the USA and elsewhere. Men are unlikely to renounce women's fear in public space, because women's fear plays an instrumental role in sustaining men's masculine gender identities. This paper examines men's perception of women's fear in public space based on findings from interviews with 82 men students in Irvine, California, USA. Findings explore how men's need to "prove masculinity" in public spaces reinforces men's perception of women as fearful and in need of "protection." Conclusions suggest directions for new research and for reinterpretation of existing research findings on women and fear in public space."
Fried, Marc. "Psychological Aspects of Identity." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Much of the conceptualization of Environment and Behavior studies has been divorced from broader psycho-social knowledge and theory. Propose to integrate concepts of attachment theory and general identity theory in psychoanalysis and social sciences with ideas of spatial or place attachment and identity. Important to recognize that neither attachment nor identity are unitary and entirely cohesive concepts. There are many different forms and degrees of attachment to places (often a function of attachment to people) - e.g. work-place, homeplace, vacation places, place of origin, place of fantasy, etc. And their dynamics modulate over time in conjunction with lifespan experiences and inner developments. Place attachment thus becomes a rich and variable tapestry which reflects core features of an individual's life. Part of that dynamic invests place attachments as a function of cultural commitments, social organization as well as intimate and other meaningful relationships.
Moch, Annie. "Psychological Dimensions of Environmental Pollution." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The purpose of this symposium is to emphasize the individual, social and cultural factors which mediate the environmental perception and evaluation especially regarding the negative aspects. We will also discuss the impact of environmental nuisances (noise, crowding, varied pollution) on motivation, attitudes, behaviors and physical and mental health.
Unutmaz, Hakan. "Public Housing Strategy in Metropolitan Developing Areas - Case Study in Istanbul." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. In these study, the effect of public housing applications for the last 15 years on Istanbul, how physical environment has been affected, development of public housing on both side of Bosphorus ( Asian Side and European Side) which is a natural wonder of the world has been analysed. In these applications in Istanbul urban areas, some factors which affects physical environment negatively have been identified and proper solutions have been suggested.
Uraz, Türkan Ulusu, and Recai Volkan Sailar. "Public Life in the Metropolis and Istanbul as an Example." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. When public life and public spaces are concerned, it is essential that inter-cultural differences can not be ignored. Today, the metropolis is generally defined in Western terms, regardless of its location. However, the metropolis is also expected to gain more importance in terms of its local and cultural characteristics in the re-construction of public spaces. Thus an Eastern world metropolis like Istanbul is considered worth working on since it displays Byzantine, Ottoman and Turkish Republic traces because of its geographical and cultural locations. In the line of appearance of the public life and public spaces within the diversity of urban pattern will be exemplified and through these, ways of inducing new designs will be discussed.
Sayar, Yasemin. "Question of Cultural and Architectural Identity in Periphery: Case of Turkey." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. It is pointed out in this paper that; reconstructing a new cultural and architectural identity has been the mutual problem of all Peripheral Countries that have experienced economic and industrial development not as a process spread through time but as a necessity of development through Westernization during a later period. In this context this study will be composed of three sections:1-examining of the architectural identity debates/concepts in the Republican Turkey; 2-historical analysis of the architectural products related with these concepts; 3-a critical examplification through the evaluation of Regionalism which has gained its importance in the context of architectural identity debates since 80's.
Symes, Martin. "Rebuilding Hulme: are We Making the Same Mistakes Again?" In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. "The Hulme estate in Manchester has been rebuilt twice in the space of thirty years. A dense area of nineteenth century workers housing, near the central canals, railways and warehouses of Britain's first Industrial City, was demolished in the period just before and after the Second World War. When funds became available to rebuild in the 1960s and 70s, the architects designed a version of the Radiant City: system built high rise social housing with deck access and complete vehicle-pedestrian segregation. But this rapidly became as much a slum as its predecessor, and it was also dangerous because of the rising drug traffic. In the 1990s, this utopia was replaced by an example of the New Urbanism: low rise, mixed tenure, mixed use and with "old-fashioned" streets where cars and people could mingle. But this is still a uniform approach. It might prove just as bad as the previous versions. This paper will try to work out how we can find out. "
Weisman, Gerald D., and Lyn Dally Geboy. "Reconsidering Personality of Place." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. "For more than a century, "personality of place" has been an intuitive yet elusive concept. Given recent interest in "place" and "place experience," it seems appropriate to reconsider the concept of place personality for its potential in the study of people and their physical settings. Place personality is defined as the collection of characteristics and attributes associated with a given place that are relatively stable over time and perceived as unique to a place or common across place types. The concept of place personality reflects the interaction of organizational, social, and psychological systems with the surrounding physical setting."
zbilen, Ali Ö., and Ç. Kurdo_Lu. "Recreational Functions of National Parks (Hatila Valley Sample)." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. National Parks are one of the most important protected area status for both recreation and protection. National Parks attract the people for tourism and recreational activities. That is why to prepare the natural resources management and recreational demand plans are very important in managing the N.P. There is always a conflict between conservation and demand. But the important instrument is to sustain the equilibrium between nature conservation and recreational demand.Hatila Valley which is 16900 hectares is in Eastern Black Sea Region and represents all features of Colchic Flora. Totally 550 plant taxa some mediterranien and Old Growth Forests occur the area. In this study, two questionnaires were carried out in urban and rural areas respectively. In the result of study, Potential of variation of recreational activities and current situation of land benefits were determined.
Günay, Cana Bilsel Bay. "Redesigning Gölyaka: a Search for Alternative Approaches to the Post - Disaster Resettlement Problem." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Settlements in earthquake regions live a paradox of location, because, in case they are relocated, then the inhabitants are separated from their habitat. Hence they have to learn, and be taught to build earthquake resistant cities and buildings, while maintaining their identity.
Li, B, K Funahashi, T Suzuki, and M. Kita. "Relation Between Residential Territorial Recognition and Urban Space Structure." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The purpose of this study is to clarify the relation between residential territorial recognition and urban space structure of Lilong and the new residential quarter in Shanghai. By the method of interview and questionnaire, the neighborhood relationship and the residents' conscious places in daily life were investigated. Though the territorial recognition is different between 2 residential quarters, it clearly shows simultaneously that there is a kind of identical relation between the residential territorial recognition and the urban space structure of residential quarter.
Mira, Ricardo García, and José Eulogio Re Deus. "Relations Between Values and Environmental Behaviour in the School Context." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. We would like underline the importance of studying values related to pro-environmental attitudes generated both in the school and in the community. The best way to explore it is discovering the roots or causes of the problem, by means of the study of the attitudes, as well as the relations that the mankind established and currently establishes with the environment. We try to place the environmental ethic within the framework of education in values. In sum, the principle which lies behind this research is to promote in the individual values and attitudes favourable to the conservation and improvement of the environment, as a way of contributing to the solution of environmental problems, to improve decision-making and to orientate actions.
Purcell, Terry, Erminielda Peron, and Rita Berto. "Relationships Between Perceived Restorative Value and Preference for Different Environmental Categories." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The differences between the preferences for different environmental categories have been difficult to understand and have not received enough scientific attention. In the three experiments that will be presented it is attempted to understand differences in preference ratings from the perspective of psychological restoration. Some environments appear to be more restorative than others, and this quality may explain differences in preference for different environmental categories.
Schenk, Anita. "Relevant Factors for the Acceptance of Nature Conservation Measures - an Investigation Based on the Case Study Approach." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. In Switzerland nature and landscape conservation issues have a high priority since an intact visual and physical landscape is considered as an important resource for tourism. It plays also an important role for the well-being of the population. Legislation about nature and landscape protection is fairly advanced. In the last years however it appeared that these goals couldn't be reached and different conflicts arise. It turned out that just to have laws is not enough, that other factors are essential as well. One of these factors seems to be the public acceptance of nature conservation measures. This project took up this point. It was hypothesised that increased public acceptance of conservation issues increases the chance that conservation issues are successfully implemented in the long run. Thus, it was investigated which conditions and factors influence the formation of acceptance in a positive or a negative way. Therefore people who are directly affected by nature-conservation measures were interviewed using qualitative interview techniques. It could be shown that very different and not only one single factor influence the development of acceptance. The following factors have to be considered: -Perception: The farmers' perception often differs from the politicians' perception. In consequence the farmers sometimes cannot understand why they should change their cultivation. That means they do not judge a piece of land as something specially while the experts judge the same piece of land as something to be protected. In this situation conflicts can hardly be avoided. -Communication: Good communication is important to avoid conflicts as well as to create acceptance of conservation measures. -Participation: If those directly affected have the possibility to participate in the planning of these measures and to bring their knowledge in the discussion they more likely support the measures. The implementation of the findings should allow to improve the acceptance of nature conservation and to avoid the development of conflicts.
Roberts, Marion, and Ian Smith. "Renegotiating Identity Through Cultural Regeneration: Opportunities and Dilemma." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Cultural developments have become the favoured motor of economicregeneration in the disused industrial quarters of cities. This paper addresses the issue of the potential conflict between the re-branding of the area around the new Tate Gallery in Bankside, London to attract inward investment and the residents' perceptions of change .The study highlights the fragility of residents' sense of inclusion in the area and the problems of professional response within a dynamic market system. The study suggests that the re-creation of areas of the city as sites for consumption and leisure need not necessarily represent a global set of signs, but that there remains the possibility for the re-negotiation of a locally based sense of place.
Vischer, Jacqueline C.. "Renovating Office Space to Change Organizational Culture." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. A medium-sized office building occupied by some U.S.-based groups of a large international organization had not been renovated for nearly 10 years. A building performance study was carried out and BIU Assessment data were collected from users using the BIU survey questionnaire. Senior managers agreed that the building renovation offered an opportunity to correct long-standing problems in the interior environment, and also to create a new and different work space for employees. The BIU survey results were used to set priorities on building change, and to engage users in a limited participatory design process. Senior managers were surprised by the enthusiasm staff showed for changing the company’s traditional hierarchical values. The process of redesigning their work environment was successful in taking advantage of the new work space opportunity, and demonstrated the value of surveying and involving users.
Kallipoliti, Lydia. "Representation of Architecture as an Autonomous Artifact, Deriving from Metropolitan Image Making." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Image making has sevely influenced the context of contemporary architectural practice, while always redefining the established boarders of the discipline. Representation of the design process is recently being developped as an autonomous artifact, consisting material for publication. At the same time, contemporary urbanity is becoming overwhelmed by its rapidly changing «image». The question arising would be whether it is architecture and its evolving «context» that aim to form the «image» of the metropolis or the «image» of the metropolis that stands as a cause, generating new means and devices for the production of architecture.
Marchand, Dorothée. "Representation of the City - Centre and Appropriation of a City in News and Historicals Towns, the Case of Two Towns: Rennes and Le Havre." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. With the morphological evolution of the city, urban-centre has become the objet of new stakes ; cities tend to have several centres. The configuration of the new towns change the internalised sketch map of traditional cities, organised round an historical core. Our study ask the question of an hypothetical link between the image the city dwellers have of their town, city-centre, neighbourhood and the global urban centrality. Our hypothesis is that centrality is a psychological component with witch individual construct a legible representation of city and appropriate it.
Marchand, D.. "Representation of the City and Image of the Centre in Two Different Urban Structures: a Modern and a Traditional Town." In People, Places, and Sustainability: Proceedings of the 16th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. Paris, France: Hogrefe & Huber, 2002. The physiognomy of the city has greatly changed in recent decades. The new urban model differs from the traditional one which was organized around a historical centre. Our study poses the question of a hypothetical link between the spatial representation the city dwellers have of the city centre and their expectations from urban centrality. Our hypothesis is that centrality is a psychological component with which the individual constructs a legible representation of the city. The study focuses on the influence of the urban structure on the way the inhabitant builds his/her spatial representation of the city according to their place of residence and on the link between their conceptual image of the city centre of the town they live with their expectations from urban centrality.
Després, Louis St- Pierre. "Requalifier La Banlieue: La Simulation Informatique Comme Outil De Consultation." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Cette communication traite, dans un premier temps, de la question de la requalification ou de la mise à jour incontournable des banlieues pavillonnaires édifiées durant le boom économique qui a suivi la deuxième guerre mondiale à Québec. Dans un deuxième temps, la nécessité de mettre au point des outils de consultation permettant de vérifier la pertinence des hypothèses urbaines et architecturales mises en avant auprès de la population résidante est discutée et un exemple de simulation informatique d'un secteur de banlieue re-qualifié est présenté.
Rooijers, Ton. "Restorative Effects of Environments in Relation to Seasonal Period." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. In the past differential restorative effects of environmental categories have been found, specifically of the urban and the natural environment. What has not been examined are the differences in restorative potential of an environment in different seasons. An experiment will be presented in which the restorative potential of the beach, the dunes and the forest is examined, in each the four seasons of the year.
Staats, Henk, Arenda Kieviet, and Terry Hartig. "Restorative Effects of Outdoor Environments." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The attitude towards the performance of a certain behavior in an environment may be influenced by the perception of possibilities to restore while performing that behavior in an environment. Mental state, prior to visiting this environment, may moderate the attitude. An experiment will be presented in which antecedent mental state and environmental categorie are manipulated and the attitude towards walking in an environment, and the different belief dimensions underlying the attitude, are the dependent variables.
Wells, N. M., and G. W. Evans. "Restorativeness of the Home: Effects of Greenness on the Well - Being of Rural Children." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The natural environment plays an important role in the well-being of children. This study examines the influence of the nearby restorative environment on the well-being of low- and moderate-income rural children. The restorativeness or naturalness of each home was assessed by an independent rater using a restoration scale. Independent of family income level, the restorativeness of the residential environment was found to be predictive of a remarkably wide variety of indicators of children's well-being - including stress hormone levels and measures of mental health. These findings suggest that green opportunities for restoration may be critical to children's well-being. The implications of this study may be particularly critical with respect to the design of urban residential areas for children.
Andreadou, Atiana. "Revival of a Disused Waterfront Near Thessaloniki in Northern Greece." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. This paper is about a case study referring to a piece of waterfront in the area of Litohoro in Northern Greece. The area that in the past had prospered by tourism coming from Yugoslavia, has recently gone through a gradual degradation. The project, which is the result of a funded research, proposes a series of incidental interventions, which are aiming at enhancing the ecological resources and character of the place and opening new fields to the already existing tourist businesses of the area.
Tardin, Raquel. "Rio De Janeiro City Center - Image, Form, Urban Redevelopment." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. This paper aims to contribute to a discussion about the transformations of the values of urban form as a movement of the collective imaginary. That becomes recognisable in the city form and creates the image of a city as something that is not substantial, palpable or that may be deciphered. It has a case study: Rio Branco Avenue, in the centre of Rio de Janeiro. This is the principal axis of the urban structure of the city centre. I intend to analyse two urban interventions on this area in two moments: at the beginning, and in the last decade of the twentieth century, in the sense of recovering the importance of the avenue as a monument, as an urban structure, and as a space for the citizens act in public life.
Moore, Jeanne, and Ricardo García Mira. "Risk from an Interactive Perspective." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. This study encouraged by the Catalan Ombudsman about the evaluation of the Public Play areas, with the idea to promote the need to activate the promulgation of the law, it has permitted us to elaborate a tool who brings reflection elements about the quality of the play areas in a general sense and also it has permitted us to make a pattern to evaluate the different aspects who make up this space as whole. The study also has made possible, to create a CDRom as an interactive tool, in order to be used by town planners, architects, designers, local communities etc, as far it is concerned to the social-physical context of the urban situation, as far it is concerned to any other described characteristics of the play areas.
Marans, Robert W., and Christine A. Vogt. "Role of Nature in Decisions to Buy and Build Housing." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The dynamics of residential choise and the role of natural resources in decisions to buy and built housing are examined. Working within two rapidly urbanizing counties in the Detroit region. Interviews with residential developers, government officials, and environmentalists ; questionnaires and focus group interxiews with recent homebuyers are used to answer several questions including : what factors guide developers in the purchase and development of land for new housing ? have these factors changed over time ? Do homebuyers in outlying areas seek natural environments and other poen space when looking for a place to live ? What are the perceived social, environnmental and economic benefits that homebuyers derive from nature ? and what do home owners see as changes in the natural resources around them in the near and distant future , Findings contribute to our understanding of processes used by various actors in creating livable and sustainable communities.
Depeau, Sandrine. "Safety to the Test: Representations of Danger Across Three Urban Contexts." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The Convention on the Rights of the Child attempts to control and regulate the conditions of children's lives in order to facilitate the whole development of the child. One of the critical aspects of development that is often neglected is autonomy, and one of the areas of life that a child needs to be able to control is the quality of the environment. Through a case study approach conducted in three different urban locations and through interviews with children from 10 through 12 years of age, this presentation discusses the congruence between qualities of the environment and the environment's ability to provide for safety without at the same time limiting the child's need for the autonomy that is so essential for development.
Cevik, S, A Besgen, and O. Cordan. "Searching for Green in Urban Life." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. conference:IAPS:16
Sikicakar, Ayse, and Dilek Yildiz. "Self - Sustainability and Continuity of Livelinessan Example: the Covered Bazaar." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The Covered Bazaar has been special for Istanbul due not only to the variety of items sold in it but also its special location and unusual harmonious relationship with the city. With a regular cell-structured plan schema it creates a focus point and fits perfectly in the surrounding areas of production, distribution and consumption, which usually have an irregular layout. It does not only contribute to the activities around but also orientates them. Possessing an architectural layout that freely adapts itself to the changing requirements of trade it adds an interesting liveliness to the cityscape by inverting and diverting chaotic movements. This provides a unique, harmonious relationship between a huge building>complex and an ancient city, both are resisting the effects of time.
Ersoy, Z, and H. Gökmen. "Self / Society Dialectics of Urban Residential Environments." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. One of the tools for understanding the nature of home is to study its social and spatial dialectics. Self / society dialectics is one of the essential characteristics of homes. Concurrently urban environments are confronted by like oppositions of anonymity and individualization. The ways that urban residential environments are affected by the two opposing contemporary movements and their causes and effects on the essential nature of homes, in terms of self /society dialectics are studied. The empirical part of the research is made among certain residential environments of Izmir. The social structure , human behavior and their reflections to domestic space use and organization are analyzed.
Diafat, Abderrahmane, and Said Madani. "Semi - Collective Housing in Setif - Algeria. a Sustainable Environment Alternative." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. conference:IAPS:16
Davidovitch-Marton, R, I Cohen, and R. Amoyal. "Senior Citizens - from a Receiving Group to a Development and Empowerment Challenge." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. This article will present the process of preparing a master plan for the Upper Galilee senior citizen population as a trial plan from which to derive several issues concerning the planning and development approaches, the methodology of empowerment planning and innovative planning directions. The economic aspects entailed in the planning and development for the senior citizen population require thinking in combined concepts of private, public and the third sectors. This sectoral combination enables the development of innovative and competitive models.
Madani, Said. "Small Metropolises and Sustainability in Algeria: Case of Setif." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. conference:IAPS:16
Nenci, A-M, de Rosa, G. Carrus, and G. Testa. "Social and Architectural Legibility of the City." In People, Places, and Sustainability: Proceedings of the 16th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. Paris, France: Hogrefe & Huber, 2002. This study investigated inhabitants' representations of the urban environment in three neighbourhoods of Rome. They differed for location, time of settlement, degree of stratification and consolidation, use type, lifestyle and characteristic of urban spaces. Participants (N = 173) filled in a questionnaire. It consisted of 1) verbal reports and maps about the significant places in their neighbourhood of residence, 2) evaluations of their neighbourhood of residence, of their ideal neighbourhood and of the entire city of Rome, 3) recognition of the neighbourhood boundaries and of the habitual paths in the neighbourhood. Results of multidimensional analyses and comparative tests showed the existence of systematic differences in the identification of the city, related to the different neighbourhood considered and to variables such as sex, age and length of residence.
Nenci, A. M., A. M. De Rosa, G Testa, and G. Carrus. "Social and Architectural Legibility of the City." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. conference:IAPS:16
Reis, Antônio. "Social Housing Transformations: Residents´ Evaluation and Use of Private Spaces." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. This paper investigates how far social housing transformations have a point of stabilization, whether it affects and how, the use of internal and external private spaces, and residents evaluation concerning the present spatial configuration. Analysis of original plans and of data obtained from two samples of detached houses in IAPI housing estate, and from one sample of detached houses in Vila Farrapos estate, in Porto Alegre, Brazil, was carried out. Data collection was made by means of physical measurements, questionnaires and informal interviews. Social housing transformations might stabilize at a certain point to be considered during its design process.
Kocher, Sara, and Daniel Levi. "Social Impact Assessment of Avila Beach Clean - Up." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Avila Beach is a small coastal town in California whith an oil spill under the downtown and beach. An Environmental Impact Report (EIR) on the cleanup examined two approaches excavation and biosparging. This project used research to develop a social impact assessment of cleanup alternatives, examined resident responses to the EIR, and evaluated the effectiveness of mitigations. The social impact assessment used environnemental stress as an organizing theme to examine the effects of the alternatives. The public attitude survey showed substancial community conflict. An evaluation of the social effects identified issues related to environmental, community, and compensation issues.
Legendre, A.. "Social Sustainability and Changes in Environments Designed for Young Children: the Case of the French Day - Care Centers." In People, Places, and Sustainability: Proceedings of the 16th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. Paris, France: Hogrefe & Huber, 2002. The well-being, activities and social integration of young children closely depend on the social and physical characteristics of their immediate environment. In the course of the twentieth century, the representation of the early childhood has evolved in a striking way, and this evolution has entailed important changes in the environments designed for young children. We first show, in Section 1, how a restricted medical vision of childhood promoted a model of day-care centers protecting children's health but providing them with a poor developmental context (1950-1970). A second section presents the results of two empirical studies carried out in French day care centers at a ten-year interval (1985-1995). These studies revealed that friendly interactions among toddlers were reduced by half to the profit of parallel uses of play material. As regards social sustainability, our results raise questions with respect to the design of environments in which the social relationships of the generations to come develop.
Turgut, Hülya, and Peter Herrle. Social, Cultural, and Spatial Diversity and Complexity in Urban Environments In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. conference:IAPS:16
Hiiro, Maho. "Space Block and Event Icon: Method of Scene Making." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. We invent the method of designing the scenes about daily lives by combination of the space blocks and the event pictograms. Space blocks are notations of void spaces, which are surrounded by objects such as walls, and are therefore, recognized as a whole entity in the built environment. By imagining that the surrounding objects have been removed, we treat the void of the space as a kind of playing block. Event pictograms are notations of events that include actions performed by people and typical happenings that occur by chance.To verify this met hod, we held three workshop designing the interior of the rooms, housing, and small parks for architectural and non architectural students.
Dovey, Kim, and John Fitzgerald. "Spaces of 'becoming'." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. This paper investigates the importance of unframed spaces as places of 'becoming', utilizing Deleuze and Guattari's (1987) distinction between 'striated' and 'smooth' space. Spaces of 'becoming' often have a labyrinthine quality of dis-orientation — an edge condition where one loses the controlling gaze of spatial order and enters a world of escape, mystery, danger and desire. The contradictory and two-fold nature of such spaces will be explored through two lenses
Teklenburg, Jan. "Spatial Configuration and Pedestrian Flows in Retail Environments: a Literature Review." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. This paper focuses on the relationship between spatial configuration and pedestrian flows in retail environments. After the importance of predicting pedestrian flows is pointed out, the paper distinguishes two major groups of research: behaviour oriented and configuration oriented. The paper concludes with an attempt to position both types of research towards the types of planning problems associated with retail environments.
Gulersoy, Nuran Zeren, and Ahsen Ozsoy. "Spatial Expansion of the Squatter Settlements in Istanbull'expansion Spatiale Des Bidonvilles a Istanbul." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Squatter settlements are the most important urbanisation problem of developing countries. In Turkey after the 2nd World War, squatter problem gained great importance with rapid and continuous migration from rural areas to urban centres. Squatter areas began to appear in the vicinity of industrial developments in the big cities. Today the number of dwellings described as squatter in Turkey is 2.000.000, and a significant percentage of these dwellings is in the Istanbul Metropolitan Area. In spite of the various legal arrangements, the rapid increase of squatter dwellings could not be prevented. The first comprehensive legal precaution was the Squatter Act No. 775 dated 1966, which suggested improving the conditions of existing squatters, to demolish the poor quality squatters, and to construct the squatter prevention areas. In the 1970's, squatter owners began to construct additional storeys with speculative reasons. The squatter areas consist of multi-storey houses had been legalised by various laws by making the improvement and development plans in the 1980's. The aim of the paper is to examine the spatial distribution of squatter settlements in Istanbul having different physical, social and legal characteristics, and to discuss the results of legal approaches adopted in various periods of time.
Rippeault, Marie. "Stage of Life and Determinants of Place Attachment: Physical Or Social Factors?" In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Our research is interested in the emotional component of place attachment. We studied two populations of Parisian students (undergraduates and graduates) and asked them about the factors that might determine this attachment according to the person's background, residential mobility and personal characteristics (age, level of studies...). The results showed that the age of the person has an effect on the nature of this attachment: undergraduates mentioned mainly social factors to explain their place attachment rather than environmental factors. For the graduate students, this tendency is reversed to a certain extent: they continue to be attached to the people present at this appreciated place, but the environmental surroundings play a major role too.
Tedjo, Baskoro. "Strolling Culture, in Kampongs of Bandung, Indonesia." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. This study investigates recreational behavior as voluntarily done by residents in their own neighborhood area. In contrast with modern leisure facilities, the constraint of time and budget still force people to consume their nearby areas for leisure. Strolling is one form, which is an explorative activity of moving around the surrounding areas in free time to seek for self-enjoyment. Behavioral tracking and interview are applied to obtain data on intensity of strolling, characteristics of strollers, unstructured occurrences which represent local habits, and places visited. Findings show types of stolling: diverse strolling, specific strolling and accompanying strolling; with the diverse is done the most and specifc one is the least. In addition, space syntax analysis is also used to explain strolling behavior.
Luka, Nik. "Structures Without Space, Cities Without Urbanisation: Suburbia Revisited." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The term 'suburbia' is often tentatively applied to the ambiguous spatial forms and communities of the post-war era in North America and Europe, but it is arguable that the paucity of precise terminology (in German and in French, as well as in English) reflects a lack of understanding of these urban forms. This presentation reports on a master's thesis in architecture, currently underway, that pits concepts culled from a review of the contemporary literature on 'city' and 'suburb' against the findings of a set of interviews with residents of Québec suburbs dating from the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. The professional and intellectual discourse is compared and contrasted with the image, perceptions, and representations of these residents of 'suburbia revisited' using the concept of settlement-identity
Honda, T, T Chimori, T Oku, and Kei Adachi. "Study of Environmental Transformation of Fisherman Village on a Sloping Setting Near Central City of Wakayama in Japan." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Our research focuses on the change of the houses between 1971 and 1999. This will clarifies the characteristics of present living environment and the cause of transformation of Saikazaki village situated on a sloping setting. In the sixties, wooden and slanting-roofed houses were dominant. But for the following two decades, flat roofed houses which indicate reinforced concrete or steel structure, started to increase by means of replacing the piched roof. But many old houses still exist in the middle of the village and small renovations on them caused or resulted the transformation of their way of life and living environment.
Mitrany, Michal. "Subjective Density: a Transactional Approach." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The current research is focused on the concept of subjective density. Subjective density is defined as the positive or negative evaluation that people make of a given situation, in relation to the density, the perceived density and various other factors. The purpose of this study is to understand the meaning of residential density for the individuals experiencing it. More specifically, the objective is to understand the evaluation of the density as part of the holistic context (mainly the physical and cultural) of the residential environment, and to identify the most important variables in this context. This means, to answer the question: under what conditions do people evaluate a particular density level as positive or negative.
Teymur, Necdet. "Survey of Environment/behavior Research Curricula in Architectural Programs in Turkey." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The study examined environment/behavior coursework taught in architectural programs at universities in Turkey. Department Chairs were asked to indicate if environment/behavior research was studied as part of the curriculum. Also, the method of teaching (lecture, studio) and which texts were used for the course(s). Data is in the process of being collected at the time of this writing.
Pierre, Louise St.. "Survey of Environment/behavior Research Curricula in Industrial Design Programs in the United States and Canada." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The study examined environment/behavior coursework taught in Industrial design programs at universities in the United States and Canada. Department Chairs of Industrial design programs were asked to indicate if environment/behavior research was studied as part of the curriculum. Also, the method of teaching (lecture, studio) and which texts were used for the course(s). Data is in the process of being collected at the time of this writing.
Witt, Tom, and Janetta McCoy. "Survey of Environment/behavior Research Curricula in Interior Design Programs in the United States." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. This study examined environment/behavior course work taught in FIDER accredited program at post-secondary colleges and universities in the United States. One hundred thirty six program directors were asked to indicate if environment/behavior research was a part of the interior design curriculum. Additionally, they were asked to indicate at what level environment/behavior research was taught, what was the method of teaching and what texts were employed. The research assumptions are that behavior/environments studies in interior design are widespread, unfocused with varied and desperate theoretical positions espoused. The survey instruments are just being returned at the time of this writing. We are expecting a high rate of return with the high interest in environment/behavior research in interior design programs.
Potthoff, Joy K.. "Survey of Environment/behavior Research Curricula in United States Architectural Programs." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The study examined environment/behavior coursework taught in accredited architectural program at universities in the United States. One hundred Department Chairs were asked to indicate if environment/behavior research was studied as part of the curriculum. Also, the method of teaching (lecture, studio) and which texts were used for the course(s). Twenty-five percent of the educators responded indicating that overall environment/behavior research was being addressed, however, at various levels of expertise. Also, the texts listed were varied with no dominant theoretical base.
Salama, Ashraf M. A.. "Sustainability and Ebs: a Crucial Issue in Architectural Education." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Sustainability is envisioned as a concept that would entail human and social components on hand and environment and ecological components on the other. In parallelism, EBS is the study of the socio/cultural and socio/behavioral aspects and their relationships to the physical environment. The question that this presentation raises is whether or not educators have endeavored to incorporate these concepts in curricula design. To answer, a number of architectural curricula are investigated to examine to what extent sustainability and EBS have been perceived in these curricula. In doing so, emphasis is placed upon reviewing curricula of African schools of architecture supplemented with a number of schools in the Middle East.
Fowlow, Loraine Dearstyne. "Sustainability and the New Urbanism: a Case Study." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Proponents of the New Urbanism include within their objectives alternatives to the alienating American suburbs which involve an architecture of community and forms of housing and urban settings which are meant to deliver meaningful alternatives to the typical suburbs. The physical manifestations of these objectives, real suburbs developed along the lines of the New Urbanism, are now sufficiently established to enable analysis. This paper examines the physical results and implications of one of these suburbs with the intent of providing a framework for discussion about where these developments may be leading
Kita, M, T Suzuki, and K. Funahashi. "Sustainability of Existing Village in Area Excluded from New - Town Planning." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. conference:IAPS:16
Moser, G.. "Sustainability, People and Places, an Agenda for Iaps." In People, Places, and Sustainability: Proceedings of the 16th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. Paris, France: Hogrefe & Huber, 2002. Defining sustainable development as a development capable of satisfying the needs of the present generation without compromising the possibility of future generations satisfying their own needs, opens the way to concerns related to quality of life. The reference to needs allows for the inclusion of not only the necessity that development be harmonious towards and respectful to the environment, but equally for recognition of the individual's own well-being. Furthermore, at the edge of the 21st century, globalisation and its corollary, global trade and communications, creates pressure towards cultural life-style uniformity and brings along fear of a the standardisation of values and a increased anonymity. Researchers and practitioners from the different disciplines involved in IAPS are able to furnish explanations and information capable of identifying the conditions of well-being and thereby help formulate decisions in environmental matters.
Van Dorst, Machiel. "Sustainable Building and Building for Liveability." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Sustainability is a broad concept which can be interpreted in various ways when applied to sustainable building. Liveability is sometimes part of the scope of sustainable building and sometimes it is left out. This paper examines the relation between sustainable building and building for liveability and makes a proposal for 'sustainable building for liveability'.
Sánchez, Euclides. "Sustainable Communities Through Sustainable Participation: a Convenient Combination." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. conference:IAPS:16
Pawlikowska-Piechotka, Anna. "Sustainable Development of Urban Brownfields in the Central European Cities (Poland)." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. "The results of political changes in the past decade have brought the need for new approaches to urban planning, land use and spatial policy in the Central European cities. One of the important problems is a question of rehabilitation and founding new functions for the former industrial landscape. These areas (founded in the years 1945-1990 often in the centrally located parts of the towns) must be changed, due to the present deep economy evolution and the bankruptcy of the many "heavy", government owned, industrial branches. Nowadays instead of factory plants there is a need for other urban spatial functions created by demand of: housing, commerce, offices, and other public buildings (as schools, cultural institutions)."
Shehayeb, Dina K.. "Sustainable Housing Rehabilitation: Utilizing E - B Studies in a Historic Conservation Project." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. "The paper demonstrates how environment and behavior studies have been employed in a conservation project in the historic part of Cairo, Egypt. I conducted a "lifestyle assessment" inquiry to uncover the area's perceived values. Design intervention would then be geared towards maximizing and preserving the perceived positive aspects and minimizing the negative ones. This integrative inquiry would also guide the formulation of strategies of implementation that are compatible with the residents' priorities and affordability."
Lay, Dias, and Maria Cristina. "Sustainable Housing: Appropriation and Management of Communal Open Spaces." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The study investigates the differences on appropriation of communal open spaces in housing schemes in Southern Brazil, and its effects on community formation. The two schemes selected present mixed dwelling types, with communal open spaces shared and maintained by residents. Results indicate that communal open spaces are perceived, evaluated and used differently by residents, according to the type of dwelling they live in, influenced by management factors and pattern of location of communal spaces.
Eid, Y. Y.. "Sustainable Urban Communities: History Defying Cultural Conflict." In People, Places, and Sustainability: Proceedings of the 16th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. Paris, France: Hogrefe & Huber, 2002. The intent of this paper is to address the issue of sustainability within a larger prospectus, that will encompass the built environment. The paper departs from the widely held concepts of natural sustainability to encompass the socio-cultural context as indispensable parts of the urban. The paper will argue that within the bi-folds of the sustained milieu lies urbo-systems: societies, buildings, cultures; that include lessons of sustainability and survival worth of investigation. Within its complex structure, the built environment nourishes communities and together they constitute the complex divine totality, the image of place, the legacy of tradition that transcend space and time. The paper will investigate these urbo-systems, the reasons for their continuity, heritage, the reproduction of patterns and socio-cultural sustainability
Eid, Youhansen Y.. "Sustainable Urban Communities: History Defying Cultural Conflict." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The intent of this paper is to address the issue of sustainability within a larger prospectus, that will encompass the built environment. The paper departs from the widely held concepts of natural sustainability to encompass the socio-cultural context as indispensable parts of the urban. The paper will argue that within the bi-folds of the sustained milieu lie urbo-systems: societies, buildings, cultures; that include lessons of sustainability and survival worth of investigation. Within its complex structure, the built environment nourishes communities and together they constitute the complex divine totality, the image of place, the legacy of tradition that transcend space and time. The paper will investigate these urbo-systems, the reasons for their continuity, heritage, the reproduction of patterns and socio-cultural sustainability.
Elsheshtawy, Yasser, and Mohsen Abul Nagga. "Sustainable Urban Development in an Age of Globalization:towards a Co - Existence Model in Dubai, Uae." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The study argues that third world cities specifically those which have witnessed rapid growth within the lastt two decades are moving towards a « co-existence » model which takes into account forces of modernizarion and change (globalization) while at the same time responding to the preservation of traditional elements within the society. Initially coined by Ricoeur as a « paradox » facing those attempting to « join the universal civilization » while responding to local conditions the study notes that this « paradox » is resolved in the city of Dubai through an examination of two traditional areas Bastakiy'ya and Abrah located in close proximity to each other. Both in their development and current status reflect the extent to wich this paradox could be resolved through the development of an open air-museum and catening to traditional elements thus maintening (or sustaining) vital socio-economic networks.
Witt, Tom. "Sustaining Creativity in Design Education." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. conference:IAPS:16
Witt, Tom, and Julia Williams Robinson. "Sustaining Environment/behavior Research in Design Educationin the Twenty - First Century." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Members of the Education Network of IAPS at Eindhoven, 1998, discussed their concerns about the waning status of environment/behavior research in design education around the world. At that time we agreed to return to our home regions and survey architecture and interior design programs with the following four queries: Is environment/behavior research part of your curriculum? If yes, at what level? In what mode is it taught? What texts are required or suggested? This symposium will present the results of the survey compiled by each participating member and invite discussion regarding the status of and strategies for sustaining environment/behavior research in design education.
Luten, Ita, and Yvonne Slangen. "Sustaining Environment/behavior Studies in the Netherlands." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. In 1998 members of the Education Network of IAPS discussed their concerns about the waning status of environment/behavior research in design education around the world. At that time we agreed to return to our home regions and survey architecture and interior design programs. We studied which educational programs had included EB courses and/or had engaged in research activities in this domain. In our presentation we will discuss the results of this survey of Dutch educational programs.
Horne, Sandra Christine. "Teachers Attitudes Towards the Use of the Classroom Environment." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. This paper explores teachers' perceptions of the use of their classroom settings and how they react towards their physical space. It examines whether teachers feel empowered or defeated by their environments and how different perceptions demonstrate different attitudes towards the space. This paper is focused on the interview data that is used to support observations made in the classroom with the purpose to probe deeper beneath trend relationships established earlier. The qualitative interview data therefore enables examining more closely the meaning behind the constructs that resulted from analysis of the quantitative data. Striking differences on attitudes were identified.
Gumpert, Gary. "Technopolis: the Social Life of Wired Cities." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The infrastructure of the city is now converging with the information infrastructure. IT cities offering residential housing, leisure, entertainment facilities, schools, hospitals and transportation are being built in diverse parts of the world from the United States and Europe to Asia, in both developed and developing nations. Cybercities combine electronic space with physical space. These cities make explicit the connection between urban design and communication, between public space and media technology. Spaces are being modified and expropriated by developments in communication technology. Technologically assisted or mediated communication has altered concepts of work and home, public and private, urbanity and community. This symposia will explore the theoretical analysis of such developments through case studies of environments ranging from London to Celebration, Florida to Cyberjaya in Malaysia and the new-urbanist type development in the city of Helmond, The Netherlands.
Santos, Vieira Dos, Ana Lucia, and Cristiane Rose Duarte. "The Absent House." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. "This article presents an analysis of the spatial relations established by the homeless population that lives literally in the streets of Rio de Janeiro, based on the observation of symbolic mechanisms of transformation of the urban space, on the bias of social practices. By classifying models of territorial occupation and demarcation, we identified spatial subdivisions ("bedrooms", "kitchens", bathrooms", "living rooms") symbolically suggested either by the use of urban equipment, or by extemporaneous barriers, or even by usage and social behaviour. We also show that this urban environment acquires symbolic value, recognised and legitimated by the rest of the city's population."
Clark, Charlotte, and David Uzzell. "The Affordances of the Neighbourhood and Town Centre for Adolescents." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Gibson's theory of affordances was used to identify adolescents' perceptions of the affordances of the town centre and neighbourhood. Over 400 adolescents, aged 11-15 years completed an extensive questionnaire. The neighbourhood and town centre provided different affordances for adolescents whether they were by themselves or in a group. There were no gender differences in perceptions for the town centre or neighbourhood. There were, however, significant age differences in perceptions, with fifteen year olds perceiving significantly fewer affordances in the neighbourhood than the 11, 12, 13, and 14 year olds.
Sener, Sinan Mert, and Elmira Sener. "The Change of a Typology: Recent Mosques in Turkey." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The mosques in the Ottoman Empire territories have a unique character and important differences to the other mosque types such as Arab mosques. Their monumental shape and spatial organization affect the typology of mosque even today. Although a few modern and unique samples exist in Turkey, nearly all of the new examples, which was built in the last two decades and disregard the legal procedures, contain many proportional, dimensional, and spatial distortions. This paper aims at examining the social effects on the mosque typology.
Gumpert, Gary. "The Changing Shape of Cities, Suburbs and Immigrant Communities." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The immigrant experience changes, reflects and reveals significant lessons with regard to public social environments. The traditional pattern for many immigrants generally begins with their arrival into a transitionary geographical area functioning as a reception and processing center. In the United States the path from urban ghetto to suburbs represents a repeatable pattern in which an immigrant group establishes itself in an enclave close to labor markets, followed by an exodus to an intermediary, but nearby site. With economic success they ultimately move into the suburbs. In other countries, the relationship of immigrant community to city is quite different, as is the case of Paris. This symposia will explore the changing nature of the relationship between immigrants and cities from diverse disciplinary perspectives including environmental psychology, sociology and communication studies.
Gökmen, Hikmet, and Zehra Ersoy. "The Concept of Home in Children." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Homes, the family and neighborhood are the basic media for child's primary experience of social life. Thus, home environments in have significant effectes on the physical, emotional, social and cognitive development. The sociocultural and socioeconomical transformations as a consequence of rapid urbanization process have effects on the urban physical structures. The important fact is that the children are one of the most effected and influenced group experiencing the social and spatial changes. An empirical study will be made in various urban residential areas in order to analyze the 'concept of home' in children.
Cetin, F. D., and N. Dalkiliç. "The Contradiction of Sustainable Development Concept and Traditional Areas in a Case Study." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. In the manner of development and sustainability the important problems, which the cities encounter, have eliminated the environmental susceptibility completly. In order to decree and provide sustainable palnning activities, these solution proposals were introduced and scrutinized in a unique construction scale for the groups and communities of people who deserve to live in a healthly neighborhood. The typical plans of the houses, which have hiscorical and traditional values, were drawx and used for emphasizing the concept of sustainable development and determining the reasons of deterioration.
Strumse, Einar. "The Cultural Landscape as a Factor in Well - Being." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The project focuses on perceptions in local populations about values related to agrarian landscapes, in particular perceptions about the potential of the agricultural sector as a provider of aesthetical, cultural and recreative benefits and experiences. The study focuses on two specific geographical areas: the area surrounding the city of Hamar in Hedmark county in eastern Norway, and Grindsdalen in Leikanger, Sogn og Fjordane county in Western Norway.
Tsoukala, Kyriaki, and Dimitris Germanos. "The Design of Environments for Children and Youth: the Example of Thermi in Greece." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. conference:IAPS:16
Brower, Sydney. "The Design of New Communities." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. A discussion of preplanned towns, conceived as complete settlements and intended to function as real communities, about which one can ask questions such as: Was anything done with the intention of creating a spirit of community among residents, and if so what? Do we know whether a feeling of community did, in fact, develop? If it did, was it the result of the design? Was the physical setting a contributing factor, and if so how? To what extent was community spirit simply tied to the experience of being a pioneer, and did it change as the settlement aged?
Sener, Hasan. "The Development of Kosuyolu Housing in Istanbul from 1954 Until Today." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. In order to be able to meet the demand for housing by the city's rapidly growing population after the Second World War, some important state supported mass housing projects were realized in Istanbul between 1945-55. Built in form of semi-detached and row houses, Kosuyolu neighborhood is one of the pioneers of the western style mass housing settlements of this period. In today's metropolitan Istanbul, the settlement has changed considerably. The aim of our paper is to examine the changing process of Kosuyolu district with some analysis ranging from architectural to urban scales. The results of this process both at housing types and the settlement are evaluated with the reasons, which caused these changes.
Dogge, Ir. P. J. C.. "The Development of Product - Service - Systems a Challenge for Dutch Housing Associations." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The Dutch market for rental housing is shrinking and therefore competition for the Dutch housing associations has intensified. This paper focuses on the shift from housing associations from a 'product focus' to a 'service-added focus' in an effort to create competitive advantages. In this paper empirical analyses show that adding service to the core product will raise the satisfaction of tenants regarding the product of the housing association. The paper also shows that high quality service cannot compensate poor quality of the core-product (dwellings).
Acar, C, and S. Gülez. "The Ecological and Visual Structure of the Coastal Highway Between Trabzon and Rize, in Turkey." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. conference:IAPS:16
Soczka, Angela Vila- Real, Maria D. Brito, and Ceu M. Corado. "The Ecological Conditions of Daily Life of Urban Pre - Adolescents." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The present work is part of a larger research project on the ecological risks of development in urban settings and the impact of socialisation contexts ( both formal and informal) on the styles of social and emotional relationships with parents and peers in pre-adolescents (11-14 years). The part of the project hereby presented is based on a study of daily time occupation of nearly 300 pre-adolescents in Lisbon,, their conditions of life. and patterns of daily social interactions.
Soczka, L, A Vila-Real, M. D. Brito, and M. C. Corado. "The Ecological Conditions of Daily Life of Urban Pre - Adolescents." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. "The present work is part of a larger research project on the ecological risks of development in urban settings and the impact of socialisation contexts ( both formal and informal) on the styles of social and emotional relationships with parents and peers in pre-adolescents (11-14 years). The part of the project hereby presented is based on a study of daily time occupation of nearly 300 pre-adolescents in Lisbon,, their conditions of life. and patterns of daily social interactions. We found in a previous study of slum living children in Lisbon (Soczka, 1995) that a failure of early emotional attachment with adults (the vertical attachment system) could greatly reinforce the ties in the horizontal (peer-peer) attachment system, leading to a collapse of the learning response in the school settings. The early failureof the vertical system was greatly dependent of the particular settings of socialisation, not only psychological, but also physical, economic and demographic. In the current urban life conditions, most families have dual-working parents, and a serious problem arises concerning the conditions of daily occupation of time in children and adolescents. When they are not in the school settings: where are they, with whom, how long? How those conditions impact their psychosocial and emotional development? Are where facing a generalised condition of urban "home alone" kids? Together with the inquiry on daily schedules (interviews) and family and physical living settings, we used a set of psychological tools in order to study parent and peers attachments ( IPPA), family and parenting styles (EOMEIS), family relationship perceptions (FRT) and personal and social identities development interviews based on Erik Erikon´s identity development theory."
F. Halicioglu, Hilal, and Dokuz Eylül. "The Effect of Pollution to the Building Health." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The pollution ocouring at the environment effects the building health importantly just like it effects the human health. The damages at the reinforced concrete buildings, especially carbonation and corrosion, shortens the buildings' service lives as it damages the cities' esthetical appearance. Embedded steel in reinforced concrete members is protected from corrosion by alkaline composition of the concrete which is provided mainly by the dissolution in the pore water of the Ca(OH)2. However this positive property of the concrete may be lost in time due to carbonation of hydrated components of cement especially, Ca(OH)2 which is converted to CaCO3 with diffusion of CO2 from the environment into the concrete pore system during carbonation process. This phenomenon is accepted one of the main factors determining the service life of the reinforced concrete members. In order to prevent the damage at the building appearance, the negative effects of pollution should be considered. By this way, the damage of the city appearance can be prevented.
Voss, Jesse. "The Environmental Dimensions of Altruism and Pro - Social Behavior: Towards a Transactional Understanding." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Largely overlooked in environment-behavior research, which generally focuses upon the environmental dimensions associated with negative behaviors, are the environmental dimensions of altruistic and pro-social behavior. A literature review of conceptual models of altruism and pro-social behavior found in the environment-behavior, philosophy, sociobiology, social psychology, theology, socio-economics, and education, illuminates the deep structure surrounding the motivational factors which generate helping behavior in general. «Complex Adaptive Systems» (CAS) modeling (Holland 1995, 1998; Epstein & Axtel, 1996) is suggested as the best avenue under which to engage in further inquiry.
Altin, Müjde. "The Escape of the People in the City Towards the Nature." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. People began to escape towards the nature from the city. Maybe the reason for this escape is that they cannot find the natural environment which they are looking for in the city environment. They are giving their message by getting away from the city they live in at the weekends or at summer; and by trying to create the environment they are looking for by themselves. At this situation, we -the architects, the city planners and the administrators of the city- must find a solution to this problem and stop this movement.
Mazumdar, Sanjoy, and Shampa Mazumdar. "The Establishment and Sustenance of Community Identity: the Ethnic Enclave of Little Saigon." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. conference:IAPS:16
Shehayeb, Dina K.. "The Experiential Dimension of Pedestrian Streets: the Application of Potential Functional Opportunities to Evaluate Pedestrian Streets." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Most of the research in urban streets in genaral and pedestrian zones in particular are interested in architectural details of the street, or in the behaviour of people in the street. This paper presents the idea of « functional opportunities » in order to analyse those aspects of streets in a more comprehensive way. The results of a secondary analysis of former research show five functional opportunities that explain the street.
Gür, S. Ö.. "The Failure of Man - Environment Studies in Influencing Design Decisions." In People, Places, and Sustainability: Proceedings of the 16th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. Paris, France: Hogrefe & Huber, 2002. Environment and behaviour studies had almost no impact on the evolution of cities and towns in the twentieth century, despite growing knowledge. This study analyses the traditional houses and the new houses of Diyarbakir, a south eastern city in Turkey, by Gamma analysis. Traditional houses of Diyarbakir rank high at the RRA (Real Relative Asymmetry) dimension and RD (Relative Distribution) dimension. Privacy precautions, territorialisation, individualisation and in-family interactions are high. They are flexible and have strong identity. On the other side the RRA and RD values of the new housing are low; flexibility is impossible. A «maximum impact model» is proposed for environment/behaviour studies.
Benveniste, Annie. "The French Immigrant in Suburbia: Spaces from Rituals." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Ma communication se propose d’étudier certaines formes de recomposition religieuse - renouveau juif et musulman - parmi les descendants d’immigrés d’Afrique du Nord installés en périphérie parisienne. Ces nouvelles formes du religieux réactivant la référence à une mémoire commune se déploient dans l’espace, en constituant des territoires ethno-religieux qui sont discontinus, et aux frontières mouvantes. Elles réactivent des rituels traditionnels permettant le rassemblement du groupe et l'expression de pratiques individuelles, pratiques de remémoration qui sont fédératrices de valeurs collectives et témoignent d'une animation de l'espace social.
Monteiro, Circe M. G.. "The Gender Coding of Space: Time and Spatial Experience in Middle Class Dwellings in Recife, Brazil." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. conference:IAPS:16
Cerón, Víctor. "The Human Rights and the Environmental Education." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Two communities (San Miguel Tzinacapan, Puebla State and Puerto Ayacucho, Amazonas State) of two countries : Mexico and Venezuala, under the four vision directing : two indigenes (M. Luis Felix of the commission Takachiaualis, A.C., and M. Guillermo Guevara of the Regional Organisarion of Indigenous Peoples) and two officials (M Louis Ferro of the State Defense Commission Of the Human Laws and M. Luis Jesus Bello of the Human Laws Office Vicariousness). Through interviews, they offer their point of view, their preoccupations and their activities.
Tsoukala, Kyriaki. "The Image of the City in Children: the Case of Thessaloniki." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The intention of the present study is to propose an approach that will implicate space more actively in the process of child development. The point of departure is a case study of Thessaloniki and its representation by children. The analysis of mental maps leads to proposals for a more human architecture of the city.
Soedarsono, Woerjantari. "The Influences of Hospital Visitors' Behaviors in Indonesian General Hospital Design." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. In Indonesia Hospital design and management, the hospital visitors have not had their behavioral needs explicitly considered. Indonesian family had a culture with strong relationship between the member of the family, not only nucleus family but also between extended family. That characteristic influences the number of Indonesian hospital visitors and their behaviors in the hospitals.Indonesian hospital visitors in Indonesian big city general hospital behave different way with visitor in western theory of hospital, it is influent configuration of space in ward and need different facility.
Afifi, Eman H.. "The Lost World an Evaluation Study of Children's Spaces in Public Housing Case Study Cairo, Egypt." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The environment children interact with affects their growth and activities. Theorists and researchers Theories like those of Piaget and Montessori have shown that the most critical period of child development occurs in children under the age of five. An environment rich in resources that a child can investigate, test, examine, and learn from has the most effective outcome on the child's learning capacity, behavior, and attitudes. It is assumed then in this approach that certain developmental, psychological, and environmental data can be identified in terms of spatially related activity patterns. Once activity patterns have been identified, they can be related to physical conditions.
Kutlusan, Cemile Tiftik, Elmira Sener, and Sinan Mert Sener. "The Marmara Earthquake in Turkey and Its Effects on Children's Home Environment." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. In this paper, the relationship between home environment and children’s developmental needs will be discussed. Because we argue that spatial characteristics of child’s home environment can enhance his/her development potential. Our case study which was carried out especially for the Kocaeli region examines the effects of a huge-scale natural disaster of August 1999, the Marmara Earthquake. The results of this case study support the argument mentioned above and will provide vital data for the researchers in future.
Castrechini, T, and A. Angela. "The Media Coverage of Environmental Issues in Barcelona." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000.

"This paper reports some preliminary findings on the ongoing doctoral research project "Social representations of environmental issues. The role of social mass media". A major assumption of the paper is that mass media communication play an important role in the genesis of social representations. In particular, this study examines how the press in Spain, represents and spreads environmental issues. The environmental coverage of two spanish major newspapers: "El País" and "La Vanguardia" is explored and compared. A sample of 60 newspaper articles published during the period of a week (April 23rd to 29th of 1999) were analyzed through three parallel systems of categories: thematic, cognitive and emotional dimensions. A quantitative analysis was performed with the SPSS software. The results are presented in terms of descriptive measurements. It is concluded that there is evidence that the influence of the mass media does not only have an intermediary role between the scientific body and the rest of society, but also delivers its own representation based on a particular ideology."

Rivlin, Leanne G.. "The Nature of Found Spaces." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Found spaces are loose spaces used in ways that depart from their intended functions. Their overlapping, defining qualities include: serving users' needs; freedom from restrictions; appropriation by users for varying lengths of time; openmindedness, that leads to diverse uses; convenient locations, often at crossroads; challenging; offering people freedom to do and freedom from intrusion and safety.
Lee, Y, S Lee, J Park, and H. Byun. "The Need for Planned Housing Environment of the Korean Elderly." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. conference:IAPS:16
van der Voordt, Theo J. M., Vos P. Jm, and M. Beunder. "The New Workplace: Objectives and Practical Experiences." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. This presentation will give an overview of trends in office environments such as satellite offices, hotel-offices, combi-offices, activity-related workplaces and no territorial workplaces. Besides we will discuss the main motives to apply these concepts and its effects on communication and interaction, privacy user's satisfaction and costs. Finally we will summarise our findings during the process of implementation and discuss determinants of success or failure.
Eleishe, Azza. "The Oasis as a Restorative Setting: a Visual Analysis of the Traditional Open Spaces of the Uae." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. "Historically, the city of Al Ain was one of the major settlements of the UAE comprising seven plantation villages. Today, it is a modern green city where the old oasis still covers a large proportion of its urban area. The internal environment of these groves is in sharp contrast to their surrounding urban settings. The hypothesis of this research is that an analysis of the traditional oasis' design concept and features should qualify it as a "restorative environment", offering the city's inhabitants and visitors a unique, distinctive and therapeutic environmental experience."
Kurdoglu, Oguz, and Ercan Oktan. "The Old Growth Forests of North East Turkey." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Old growth forests represents one of the most important and threatened habitats in North-east of Turkey. Such forests are of exceptional biodiversity and aesthetic value, as well as being important for erosion control, tourism etc. The mountains of North-east Turkey are among the most important for nature conservation in Turkey. A combination of varied geology, great altitudinal range and distinctive climate has resulted in a vegetation that is of exceptional importance to nature conservation. The fauna is also of outstanding importance. Large mammals, birds and reptiles are well represented. The aim of this study is to: -identify the approximative extent of old growth forests remaining on the northern flanks of the north-eastern Turkish Black Sea Mountains -identify, where possible, the level of loss of old growth forest cover -make recommendation for the conservation of the best remaining areas of old growth forest. It is clear that of the total forest cover over 913,000 hectares (excluding protected areas), only 108,571 hectares is of an age that can be regarded as old growth forest just 12% of the total forest.
Mårtensson, Fredrika. "The Outdoor Play of Pre - School Children." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Outdoor play is regarded as an important part of younger childrens´ daily life in Sweden. A multidisciplinary study on childrens´ play, health and motor development is comparing children in pre-schools with different quality on the outdoor environment and different policies for outdoor activities. Presented are some characteristics of childrens´ outdoor play as explored through interviews and videotaped play sequences
Shon, Seung-Kwang, and Sung Hoo Kim. "The Perspective on Housing Policy of Korea; a Transition from Housing Supply to Stock Housing Management." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The sudden start of IMF program in Korea made the rapid growth strategy in effective, causing the structural adjustment of construction industry. This paper assumes an overall structural adjustment of the construction industry which implies more emphasis on stock Housing management rather than housing supply due to the change in the paradigm of the Korean economy, that is, a low growth model. Based on the assumption, this paper proposes the following measures a moderate change, a change from a massive production and supply of housing to sustainable one, a change from a large-scaled development to a small one, and diversification of the construction industry in the field of construction.
Brower, Sidney. "The Pioneer Effect." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Popular wisdom holds that a new development can become a community if its design incorporates certain features (such as limited size, an identifiable center, agreed-upon boundaries, and shared facilities). But research shows that new developments that lack these features may also become communities. The paper suggests that the experience of being pioneers together – of accommodating to a strange environment, and forming a collective social identity -- may lead to social bonding and overshadow any effect of the design features. This leaves opens the question as to the role of design in the creation of community.
Ozturk, Kutsal, and Asu Besgen. "The Place and the Role of Aesthetics as a Factor for Sustainable Development in Physical Surroundings." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. "In the beginning of the new millennium some dialectic pairs are told to be exist in creating physical surroundings. these pairs, which can shortly be named as "globalisation/localisation", "international/national", "generalisation/specialisation", "flexibility/sustainability", are also the important movements to give a shape to self, social and place identities, besides city and urban identities. in addition to this, some basic features such as philosophy, culture, religion and aesthetics take part, in and over these holistic approaches. In this paper, the concept of aesthetics, which has complete, extensive and continuous meanings for years, will be mentioned as a fact, in taking a great role in sustainable development. moreover, the place of aesthetics in sustainable development will be put forward, and the importance of aesthetics in regaining the quality of life will be emphasised. the process of the existence of aesthetics in forming physical surroundings will be held in the view of "place identity" concept; so some slide samples will be used to put forward the requirement of aesthetics in forming identified and sustainable places."
Yildirim, Aysel, and Nilgün Kuloglu. "The Planning Criterias of Decreasing of Vandalism in Urban Open Space." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. To make a city livable in and permanent is possible only in the situations where the relationship between the city and its dwellers is established correctly and continued well. Urban open area plans within the whole urban design are planned, considering the natural and environmental factors. In addition this, the society is studied from its socio-economic, socio-cultural and demographic perspectives. Negligence one or some of the factors studied throughout this process or their improper study leads to a great amount of financial damage and unpleasant appearances from the esthetic point of view. Paying attention to the existence of vandalism in the urban open areas, its causality is taken into consideration while doing the planning. It is aimed to prevent any postapplication troubles with the precautions to be taken while planning, and minimize the loss of material, time, productive power as well as finance.
Day, K, and U. Cohen. "The Potential Role of Cultural Heritage in Environments for Older People." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. conference:IAPS:16
Ziv, I, J Kfir, and Sacko O. Munemoto. "The Quality of the Residential Environment on Man - Made Island the Importance of the View from the Dwelling Unite." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The living environment on the MMIs in Osaka Bay is changing gradually with new emerging MMIs' projects, which include different types of residential environments. The main goal of this study is to understand if the residential environment on MMI is suits the residents' expectation and needs. Specifically, this paper examined the importance of the view from the dwelling unite and its influence on residents' satisfaction with the living environment. Satisfaction is considered to be a key criterion for the post occupancy evaluation of the residential environment. By means of written questionnaire, on site residents from three MMIs, asked to evaluate their present residential situation on various attributes of their residential environment.
Oktay, Derya. "The Quest for Sustainable Social Patterns in Housing Environments: Northern Cyprus." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The changes that the world has undergone over the past two decades have created a dramatically altered global order which requires a new understanding of the role of traditional settlements in the reconstruction of history. This is a more critical issue in cities of traditional societies where transformations in the urban level are more visible. Since the vernacular examples embody a great deal of experience, wisdom, and cleverness, it is worth studying the layout and basic design of older settlements and buildings in some detail for valuable clues and ideas. Acknowledging these, this paper focuses on the local social patterns of settlements in Northern Cyprus, and highlights the key principles to promote sustainable community developments.
Shon, Seung-Kwang. "The Remaking, Old Fashion and Deteriorated Envelope to New One of the Apartment Housing in Korea." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The apartment house in Korea are built over 70% as a new housing project every year, and the type are stocked 45 percent over in the urban area. Many of them missed living qualities, amenity, and have no verities and personality of dwelling units and building shape. So many people don't like live in the apartment house, because its environment is monotonous lifestyle, shape and style. This is big a motive people are to move another settlements, instead of actively manage their house, and lifecycle of a apartment housing becoming a half to a thirds. In this article, it is suggested that old apartment, which is not designed in identical character, should be remake in a new style by addition, remove, overlays, and iconography aspect in a building facade. And this trial of remaking can be adapted in a incentive policy to manage of the stock apartment housing.
Smeets, Jos J. A. M.. "The Residential Situation as a Multi - Dimensional Product. a Chance for Housing Managers for Competitive Advantage." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. This paper deals with the complexity of a residential situation and the way housing managers can differentiate residential areas. For the tenant the dwelling situation has several functions: shelter, activity centre, part of a neighbourhood, point of departure and means of expression and identification. From the viewpoint of the manager the situation can be considered as a product with a physical, functional as well as a psychological level. To reach a competitive advantage the real estate manager can try to differentiate in regard to these levels.
van Wagenberg, Andreas, Niels Wiersma, and Angelo Jongenelen. "The Rijnland Case Study." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The Rijnland organization is in the process of building a new “intelligent office” in Leiden, the Netherlands. In order to be able to make a comparison between the current situation and the new building, the current offices (several buildings) were evaluated using the NL version of the IBPE Toolkit. This toolkit consists of a questionnaire, spot measurements, a building observation checklist, and, several group interviews with the building users. The tools used for the evaluation will be presented, the conclusions of the case study will be reported, and then the different tools in the toolkit will be evaluated in relation to the conclusions. In addition, an overview of the cultural and geographical differences that exist between the Netherlands and the other IBPE member countries will be given, along with the implications for the IBPE toolkit.
Cordan, Ozge. "The Role of Historical and Cultural Environments on Place - Identity." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. As we are entering the 21st century, large cities together with sustainable developments and increasing concentration of people are formed with effects like globalism, massiveness etc. on the other hand, and confronted with conflicts on keeping characteristics like identity-seeking, locality etc. on the other. In countries like Turkey, swift changes due to urbanisation causes deprivation, destruction gradual extinction of environments with historical and cultural values. Within this rapid process place-identity, self-, and social-identity are differentiating. In this context the aim of the paper is emphasise the importance of historical and cultural environment's role in forming place-identity under the light of concepts like self-, social-, and place-identity, examine the subject in the scope of Trabzon, the metropolis of the future, and discuss how the cities in the future will or should be.
Maxwell, Lorraine E.. "The Role of Play Equipment Design on Preschool Children's Play Behavior in an Outdoor Setting." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The purpose of the present study is to one, identify the special features of outdoor play equipment that encourage particular play behaviors, and two, develop preliminary design principles for outdoor play equipment for preschoolers. Twenty-eight children in a lab preschool were observed for 10 months on a large multi-station outdoor play structure. The majority of the observed play was functional. Design features that seem to encourage fantasy play are enclosed spaces with visibility to other areas of the playground, nodes and connector spaces, and stage-type spaces.
Haq, Saif-Ul. "The Role of Relations: Environmental Properties in Environment and Behavior." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Whereas research in architecture have traditionally dealt with discrete variables, there is now a growing awareness about relational properties, i.e. those that are derived from studying the relationships between spaces. This becomes important when we realize that man is a mobile organism and spatial understanding is a function of movement. Unfortunately there has been a dearth of appropriate techniques to deal with relational variables. This paper undertakes a survey of environmental cognition and wayfinding literature to discover the various ways in which the environment has been operationalized in research. Finally it suggests some relational properties and methods for quantification. It ends by describing an ongoing experiment that uses non-discrete relational variables as predictors of behavior.
Yamacli, Rusen. "The Role of Virtualisation and Globalisation in Multi - Cultural Cities for a Sustainable Future." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. This paper traces the evolution of sustainable cities as a means to virtualisation and globalisation that limit the creation of multicultural and more socially places for next millennium. In multicultural cities, people identify other people on the basis of their appearance, their social role or other singular characteristics. The resulting vision is one of an architecture of fluctuating relationships, interdependencies, and interactions. Built architecture will be transformed in the context of an expanded conception of design process of cities.
Nevarez, Julia. "The Safe and Beautiful Post - Modern Polis: Revitalized, Gentrified." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The purpose of this paper is to develop a theoretical framework from which to understand the connections between public space, public sfaety, revitalization and gentrification of urban areas. This analysis is based on identifying the connections between global economic processes that have prompted the restructuring of urban environments. The uneven manner in which urban landscapes are being developing point at the unequal distribution of resources and to areas to be differentiated in terms of perceptions of safety. Consideration will be placed to initiatives that include community participation in the re-design and beautification of public spaces in Harlem, near Central Park in New York City.
Brierly, E. S.. "The Significance of the Memory of Urban Spaces." In People, Places, and Sustainability: Proceedings of the 16th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. Paris, France: Hogrefe & Huber, 2002. The memory we have of urban places is formed to varying extents by the way individuals form ideas on the identity of places, the way individuals and groups understand the notion of territory, and the way in which people and society formulate an understanding of the qualities of places in urban locations. The memory of urban space is influenced by varying factors included those of the relation between the private and public realm and the transformations which occur produce a sustainable urban environment.
Brierley, E. S.. "The Significance of the Memory of Urban Spaces." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The memory we have of urban places is formed to varying extents by the way individuals form ideas on the identity of places, the way individuals and groups understand the notion of territory, and the way in which people and society formulate an understanding of the qualities of places in urban locations. The memory of urban space is influenced by varying factors included those of the relation between the private and public realm and the transformations which occur produce a sustainable urban environment.
Craig, Anthony. "The Social Acceptability of Prefabrication and Standartisation." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. conference:IAPS:16
Sirry, Azza. "The Social Dimension of the Urban Management Crisis, Isolated Citizens a Comparative Study of Cairo and Sao Paulo." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. conference:IAPS:16
Kurono, Hiroyasu, and Shigetomo Kikuchi. "The Spatial Composition of the Villages in the Tonami Plain." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. "For this study we took the villages of Tonami Plain as typical of Japan's "dispersed villages," analyzed them both separately and as a group, and attempted to make clear their spatial composition. Even within the villages of the Tonami Plain described as "dispersed villages," there actually exist village forms which are different. Taking the dispersed village of Tenshou and the row shaped village of Higashi-Kaihoutsu as the focus, we conducted an analysis of village spatial compositions. From this we came to understand that the arrangement of the buildings and ponds and trees within the homesteads were different on each village. For both villages the direction in which water flowed was a primary regulating factor relating to things from a building to the homestead and village composition."
Saoutkina, Elena. "The Urban Environmental Factors of Offence Occurrences." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. This study focuses on the role of urban environmental conditions, social and physical, as well as those of the moment, in the occurrence of certain offences. More specifically, the place where an offence occurs is perceived as a system of relationships between the environmental conditions and the behavioural characteristics of both, the victim and the offender. Our hypothesis claims that specific places at specific moments are more likely to become the theatre of crime than other places. Furthermore, we consider that particular characteristics of the place favour the occurrence of particular offences.
Persson, Gunnar. "The Villages in the City - Vital Development Or Insidious Dispersion?" In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The study examines the neighbourhood unit as a planning phenomenum, historically, nowadays and in the future. By studying the relations between private and public life and privat and public space and the relations between social interaction and spatial and physical design it tries to give more understanding about the prerequisites of people`s ways to live.
Hsia, Chu-Joe. "Theorizing Urban Symbolic for Metropolis 21St Century." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. conference:IAPS:16
Gür, Sengül Öymen, and Ayhan Bekleyen. "Think Big - Design Small." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Environment and behaviour studies had almost no impact on the evolution of cities and towns in the twentieth century, despite growing knowledge. This study analyses the traditional houses and the new houses of Diyarbakir, a south eastern city in Turkey, by Gamma analysis. Traditional houses of Diyarbakir rank high at the RRA (Real Relative Asymmetry) dimension and RD (Relative Distribution) dimension. Privacy precautions, territorialisation, individualisation and in-family interactions are high. They are flexible and have strong identity. On the other side the RRA and RD values of the new housing are low; flexibility is impossible. A «maximum impact model» is proposed for environment/behaviour studies.
Bilsel, Cana. "Three Residential Settlements in Ankara: What Strategies for an Environment Sensitive Sustainable Urbanization?" In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. In Turkey, the urban extension that has gained new dimensions takes place in the form of a centrifugial development. The immediate consequences of this development are spatial fragmentation, social segregation and transfiguration of natural environment. In this perspective, three new residential settlements of Ankara -Batikent, Eryaman and Bilkent, created in different contexts and for diverse social groups- are studied with regard to the quality of environment and the question of residential identities. Underlying processes of the production of built environment call into question quality and sustainability of these newly created urban spaces.
Colbeau-Justin, Ludvina. "To Remain Or Not to Remain: that is One Choice - the Study of Evacuation and Resettlement in Montserrat." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. This research identified the dynamics explaining the resistance to evacuation of people at volcanic risk. The choice of remaining in an dangerous zone stems from a threat evaluation weighed by environmental factors i.e. volcanic hazards, life in shelters, social factor i.e. safety and education of children, continuity of social structures, and economical means of subsistence. The choice of staying in the exclusion zone corresponds to an individual logic, such as evacuating to the safe zone of the island or to another country. The public authorities did not take into account these elements and the management of the crisis has been affected.
Legendre, Alain. "Toddlers' Environmental Needs and Children's Rights." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The well being, activities and social integration of young children are closely dependent on the social and physical characteristics of their immediate environment. The Convention on the Rights of the Child stipulates a number of principles in response to children's needs. The relevance and limits of these principles are examined in the case of the design and layout of group settings, such as day care centers, which accommodate children under three years of age. This presentation reflects particularly on the child's right to freely express opinions on all matters that affect the child, and on his or her right to benefit from conditions conducive to the fullest possible social integration.
Sunmi, Lee, and Lee Yeunsook. "Toward User Sensitive Housing Development." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Korea is a rapidly industrialized country. During its transformation, a very uniform housing culture has been disseminated. This has been especially apparent in big cities. The purpose of this study was to scrutinize the characteristics of preferred housing and to suggest useful concepts in housing development through peoples' expressive floorplans for the ideal apartment. To achieve this goal, content analysis technique was used. The research used an existing data set provided by a housing construction company that had collected ideal apartment floorplans from housewives through an annual nationwide competition. Out of 3,012 floorplans, 1,232 were selected using the Proportional Stratified Random Sampling Method. The conclusions are as follow; 1) Respondents wanted more rooms. Most preferred a house that faced the south, bedrooms to be located at both sides of, or scattered around the central public space, and also preferred gardens in the interior space. 2) Future housing projects will require more advanced features, such as additional rooms, more kitchen and bathroom space and various other ways to achieve a sense of spaciousness, effective use of space, and tradition.
Gospodini, Aspa. "Towards the Renewal of Old Harbour Sites in Greek Cities: Selling Advanced Design as Opposed to Disneyfication for Urban Tourism Development." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. conference:IAPS:16
Süer, Dürrin. "Towns - Squares – Lives." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. conference:IAPS:16
Mitropoulos, Mit. "Tradition and Innovation: Cultural Survival Beyond the Built Environment." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Isolated human settlements, specifically islands, have been able to safeguard their traditional ways because of distance and other reasons making access difficult. Their vernacular architecture expresses the wish to communicate within their community, and their maritime past had them communicate with the world at large. One way to safeguard traditions, whilst being part of the on-going inevitable change, is to make choices for electronic interconnections, simultaneously with setting limits to physical access.
Turgut, Hülya, and Arzu Ispalar Ç. Ahantimur. "Tradition, Change and Continuity: a Dialectical Analysis of Social and Spatial Patterns in Home Environments." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Urbanization is still emerging problem in Turkey as a developing country related with the changing socio-economic and cultural conditions. Changes concerning home environment shows a dramatic transition procedure from past to future; tradition to contemporary. The paper aims to explore the changes and the continuity in housing patterns focusing on mezzo scale comparing traditional and changed traditional environments. In this context, the spatial and social structure of house and its near environment are studied. The paper is mainly based on the research projects carried out by the authors that had aimed to identify the effects of socio-cultural and psychological settings on the spatial formation in home environment
Turgut, H., and A. I. Ç. Ahantimur. "Tradition, Change and Continuity : a Dialectical Analysis of Social and Spatial Patterns in Home Environments." In People, Places, and Sustainability: Proceedings of the 16th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. Paris, France: Hogrefe & Huber, 2002. Urbanization is still emerging problem in Turkey as a developing country related with the changing socio-economic and cultural conditions. Changes concerning home environment shows a dramatic transition procedure from past to future; tradition to contemporary. The paper aims to explore the changes and the continuity in housing patterns focusing on mezzo scale comparing traditional and changed traditional environments. In this context, the spatial and social structure of house and its near environment are studied. The paper is mainly based on the research projects carried out by the authors that had aimed to identify the effects of socio-cultural and psychological settings on the spatial formation in home environment
Sime, Jonathan, and Mirilia Bonnes. "Transdisciplinarity in People - Environment Studies." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. This symposium considers how people-environment theory might be grounded insocial science, ecological and design transdisciplinarity, thereby advancing corresponding research, education, policy and practice. Transdisciplinarity is compared with bounded territories of uni- and sub-disciplinarity, and clusters of multi-, pluri- or inter-disciplinarity in which separate aspects of a whole phenomenon are addressed. The symposium explores core (uni- and sub-disciplinary), contextual (multidisciplinary) and core-contextual (transdisciplinary) relationships between people and the physical environment, in keeping with the expressed aims of IAPS.
Pol, Enric. "Transdisciplinarity, Sustainability and Professional Development: Keys to a Research Agenda." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The tradition of environmental psychology shows us how the knowledge constructed by psychologists and architects has been more 'inter' than 'trans' in its relationship, evolving as it has in the direction of sustainability. An environmental psychologist has to learn how toconstruct knowledge and solutions with other professionals such as lawyers, engineers, ecologists, policy makers, etc, in addition to architects and urban planners. He should be present in companies and in areas of environmental management, making substantive contributions in terms of their implications for human and social behaviour.
Lawrence, Roderick J.. "Transdisciplinary Research and Its Implementation: Example of Housing." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Transdisciplinary contributions are not meant to advance disciplinary concepts and methods but to help promote knowledge. Transdisciplinarity is not (as it is often claimed) achieved simply by the addition of knowledge from different disciplines. Instead, it is the combination of concepts and methods from several disciplines such that by cross-fertilization new concepts and theories are generated. The example of housing will be considered in this presentation.
Erkut, Gülden. "Transformation in the Socio - Spatial Structure of Istanbul." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Istanbul, a metropolitan city with extraordinary geography and history is a place where the impact of different cultures exist. This paper is concerned with the existence of sustainable community in _stanbul. Socially sustainable development is development that maintains the cohesion of a society and its ability to help its members work together to achieve common goals. Livability of urban environment is an important component for sustainable development. Liveability can be defined as the ability of a place to provide and sustain a quality of life for all of its inhabitants. An alternative paradigme for sustainability proposed as a world where urban environments and science are shaped locally rather than externally and where development is more informed and disciplined by ecological, social and cultural values . The aim of this paper is to present findings of a research carried out in various districts of _stanbul, that are different in physical form and socio-economic characteristics of their inhabitants. The major objective is to investigate the extent to which different residential characteristics and socio-economic status of inhabitants had an impact on the social life and livability in the neighborhood and the city.
Heath, Yuko. "Transportation Mode Choice of University Students: Influence of Psychological Factors." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. A modified version of the theory of planned behavior was used in order to explain and predict students' transportation mode choices. This study employed a longitudinal design to examine changes in students' transportation mode choices occurred after the U-pass program implementation at the University of Victoria. A total of 387questionnaires were collected in Phase 1 (before the U-pass implementation), and 175 in Phase 2 (two months after the implementation). In both phases, hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that students' transportation mode choices were moderately well predicted by the theory of planned behavior, and that some variables added to the original theory explained variance over and above the original constructs in the theory. Moreover, both changes in transportation mode choices and changes in psychological variables were observed between Phase 1 and 2. Implications of these results to other intervention programs are discussed.
Papageorgiou-Sefertzi, Rena. "Two Models of Life in a Traditional Neighborhood: Collective and Individualistic Social Identities." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The field observation of old and new households in a traditional area op Thessaloniki revealed two models of life and two different ways of evaluating and appropriating the home and neighborhood environment.The social identity of the old inhabitants is based in their experience of the collective history of their neighborhood which bounds them to the place. On the contrary, the social identity of the new comers is centered around their individuals. They express a personal emotional investment to the aesthetic characteristics of their home and the area.
Gedikli, R, and N. Ay. "Types of Trees Utilized for the Design of Parks and their Physiological Effects on Users: the Case of Trabzon." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. It is generally accepted that green areas and their dominant parts-trees,have major contribution on physiological and physical needs of individuals living in an urban environment surrounded with materials dusty concrete, steel and glass. In particular, parks are main sites for recreation for the relaxation of urban people. In these sites, users mostly prefer the most favor places having trees. In this study, the physiological effects of trees utilized for parks on users will be analyzed, and selection of trees in the establishment of various places will be investigated in a case study and, finally suggestions will be presented.
Kirsan, Ciler. "Typological Analysis of Traditional Dwellings and Settlement Pattern of Lefke: a Small Cypriot Town." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. In this paper, the traditional dwellings and settlement pattern of Lefke which is a small Cypriot town have been investigated. Lefke has a dwelling and urban pattern which have preserved their original densities and physical boundaries with identifiable changes. These have been analysed in terms of functional, formal, and spatial characteristics and settlement principles. The investigation has shown that Lefke has an urban form and place identity which is directly related with local physical and socio-cultural factors and its historical development. The spatial and formal principles of the physical structure at urban and dwelling scale have been detected through a typological study and interpreted in terms of socio-cultural, historical and physical factors. It is found that urban pattern and dwellings of Lefke are mainly the product of Ottoman traditions but present an original synthesis due to the local environmental factors and pluralistic cultural and historical background.
Turgut, Hülya. "Unexpected Developments and Changing Lifestyles and Values After the Earthquake." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. After disasters, in post-earthquake situations, a very important and serious problem is to make appropriate living environments for the people who have had to be rehoused and relocated. Changing demographics - age, family composition, lifestyles - and economic conditions are also having a profound impact on how we house ourselves. However, little has been undertaken on the success of housing from the point of view of the inhabitants. After earthquakes in Turkey, especially after the Kocaeli earthquake in 1999, we, as researchers and academicians, have had a new and specific post-earthquake context to concentrate on cultural issues related to housing. These issues will be considered in the light of the affected people's responses and their reactions with regard to the cultural factors which influenced them. In the light of this, the meaning of key terms including lifestyles, values, meaning and home will be considered.
Francescato, G.. "Unity Or Fragmentation: is There a Center in Person - Environment Studies?" In People, Places, and Sustainability: Proceedings of the 16th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. Paris, France: Hogrefe & Huber, 2002. In this paper the following questions are addressed: Is there a consensus about the nature, purpose, and methods of the field? Is the consensus robust enough to be seen as a center likely to hold? What form do the impulses that swirl around this consensus take? Do these impulses tend toward unity or toward fragmentation? Can we assess the implications of such tendencies for the field’s vitality and future prospects? The author reviews tendencies toward convergence and divergence and address the need to fashion a better defined center for the field on foundations of integrated interdisciplinary conceptual and operational frameworks.
Francescato, Guido. "Unity Or Fragmentation: is There a Center in Person - Environment Studies?" In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. From its very beginning, the field of person-environment studies has exhibited both centripetal and centrifugal impulses. To some extent, these impulses may be inevitable in a domain that has existed for only a few decades and that is necessarily multidisciplinary, but I suspect that their leading cause is the general reluctance we have had to address fundamental conceptual issues, in particular those involving values and presuppositions underlying research and practice. In this presentation, I address these questions: - Is there a consensus about the nature, purpose, and methods of the field? - Is the consensus robust enough to be seen as a center likely to hold? - What form do the impulses that swirl around this consensus take? - Do these impulses tend toward unity or toward fragmentation? - Can we assess the implications of such tendencies for the field's vitality and future prospects?
Kose, Satoshi. "Universal Design: Guiding Concepts for the Ageing Society." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. conference:IAPS:16
Bonaiuto, M, H Martorella, and M. Bonnes. "Urban and Rural Resident's Attitudes Towards Protected Natural Areas." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Environmental attitudes and social identity processes are investigated in two italian protected natural areas. Different groups of people were considered (urban and rural residents) with the aim of investigating whether they are characterised by differences in 1) attitudes toward protected natural areas in general 2) attitudes toward specific protected natural areas, 3) local identity and 4) place attachment. Results point out a polarised pattern between the groups considered, with rural inhabitants exhibiting more negative attitudes toward protected natural areas (in general and specific), higher regional identity and higher place attachment than urban inhabitants.
Samuels, Robert. "Urban Climate Experience." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Environmental design, urban climate and user experience are mutually interdependent. This paper understands the urban heat-island phenomenon as the core notion, and both quality of life and environment are implicated. Urban geometry and fabric appear to be climate-interactive - from grid form and building massing to thermal mass; so too are thermal sinks, and lifestyle sources...hot cars and roads, eg. >From the experiential point of view, warmer urban climates have discernible impacts: avoidance behaviour of inclement places depresses street-life dynamic, and sense of security; while heat-stress adaptation is a major health risk, and temperature influences photochemical smog intensity. Cities interact with their climates, citizens with their city.
Kruse, Lenelis, and Carl F. Graumann. "Urban History, Ideology, and Research." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. This symposium explicates the relationship between the city, mainly the metropolis, as an historically grown and continually changing ensemble of meaningful objects, places, and relations, on the one hand, and the ways its inhabitants accept or ignore, maintain and change, interpret and live urban values and meanings. Hence, urban research has to account for the spiritual and ideological aspects of the urban experience which task, methodologically, suggests a phenomenological, transactional, or constructivist approach.
Sherif, Nagwa. "Urban Identity Lost, the Case of New Towns in Egypt." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. conference:IAPS:16
Godard, Francis. "Urban Research in France." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. La recherche urbaine a été fortement favorisé en France par une longue tradition d'initiatives de l'Etat. Aujourd'hui de nombreux ministères ou organismes publiques ont engagé des programmes de recherche. Les collectivités locales manifestent leurs besoins de connaissances nouvelles. L'Union Européenne a inscrit les question de la ville à l'agenda de ses politiques de recherche. Au cours de ces dernières années le regard sur la ville a changé mais la volonté de mieux réguler la croissance urbaine réapparaît fortement avec la question de la gouvernance urbaine, alors que les grands modèles ont disparu. De nouveaux enjeux urbains surgissent autour des problèmes de la mobilité et de ceux du renouvellement du tissu urbain existant ; l'exigence d'une pensée plus globale se fait sentir avec le thème de l'environnement ; la nécessité de penser notre modernité apparaît sous les préoccupations concernant les nouveaux territoires et les nouvelles temporalités des citadins et le développement des technologies d'information et de communication ; le débat en cours sur les risques d'une « sécession urbaine » exprime la préoccupation permanente des chercheurs devant les processus de ségrégation urbaine.
Costa, Lucia Maria. "Urban Rivers and Invisible Landscapes." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. This study looks at urban rivers and their different connections with the city fabric, having as a case study the Rio Carioca, in Rio de Janeiro. It is almost totally hidden under the urban fabric, despite its natural, historical and cultural importance. This river is an example of how natural process are set aside in planning and design process. This paper discusses the main design guidelines which have lead to its current condition, as well as the values which were at the basis of these guidelines. It concludes arguing that environmental degradation is above all a cultural process.
Valera, Sergi, and Joan Guardia. Urban Sustainability and Social Identity: Barcelona's Olympic Village In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. One of the most recent fields of investigation in Environmental Psychology focuses on the relationship between behaviour and management of environmental resources, aspects related to what is known today as “sustainable human development”. The attitude theories applied to the psychoenvironmental concern offer a frame of reference for the study of these subjects, but many of the phenomena detected require different, probably complementary approaches. The working hypothesis of the present study, carried out in the Olympic Village of Barcelona, assumes that, in many cases, proenvironmental behaviour is linked to the relation that people establish with particular environments, specifically, to the processes of socioenvironmental identity that modulate the person-environment relationship (Valera and Pol, 1994; Valera, 1997; Pol, Valera et al, 1998). First, the study analysed the urban social identity of residents, focusing on three main factors: 1) identification-satisfaction, 2) image of the neighbourhood and 3) perceived social homogeneity. Then, these three factors was analysed in relation to a series of items in the initial questionnaire referring to proenvironmental behaviour, representation of particular natural resources, and environmental attitudes. We assume that the answers to these questions will differ significantly according to the degree of identification of residents with their neighbourhood.
Chen, An-Chi, and Yung-Jaan Lee. "Urban Sustainability of Taichung: Using Ecological Footprint Analysis." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. conference:IAPS:16
Remesar, Antoni. "Urbanscapes of Glocalization." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. We have tendency to consider the globalization processes and the localization processes like two separate realities. We even oppose the possibilities of transformation of the reality in the context of the local thing, to the heavy slab that supposes the global universe of the flows and of the fragmentation. Certainly the subsidiarity principle, one of the emblems for the policy on the EU, talks us repeatedly of the necessity and importance of bringing near the processes of change to the immediate reality of the citizens. In this lecture stays that this focus, is an ideological one that answers to a logic of production of the space, of production of the city comparable to the logic that produced the industrial city and that it seeks to hide that the metropolitan configuration is linked directly to the general globalization processes.
Zimring, C, S Khan, D Craig, S Haq, and M. Guzdial. "Using Computer Tools to Introduce Stakeholder Concerns into the Architectural Design Studio." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. "This paper discusses the Collaborative Online Studio for Architecture-CoOL Studio-where graduate architecture students posted their studio projects to a website using special easy-to-use software and received critiques from experts around the country. The intention was to "open up the discursive space of the design studio:" to provide students access to viewpoints from a range of stakeholders, provide them access to online cases and research materials, allow them to collaborate and encourage them to be articulate about their designs. Compared to other online studios, CoOL Studio is intentionally low-tech, asynchronous and has low bandwidth. However, it was well received by both students and remote critics. We discuss the technical, pedagogical and theoretical implications of using simple web-based, graphic, asynchronous tools such as CoOL Studio for integrating stakeholder issues into design."
Vestbro, Dick Urban. "Utopianism in Collective Housing Experiments." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Current co-housing developments in the USA and collective housing projects in Scandinavian countries have as major goals either rational life styles or the spirit of community, or both. In either case these housing experiments portray strong features of utopianism in the sense that they are combined with far-reaching ambitions to reform human beings. The roots of present-day collective housing projects can be traced back to 19th century communitarian socialism, to early 20th century feminist models for cooperative housekeeping, to modernist housing models of industrial society, and to postmodern ecovillage ideals - all of which are characterised by utopian visions. In this paper the utopian features of the various collective housing models are compared to each other and to paternalist social engineering aspects of the mainstream Swedish housing model.
Laing, Richard Alexander, and Anne-Marie Davies. "Valuing Streetscapes Using the Choice Experimentation Methodology." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. This paper describes how choice experimentation will be used to value attributes in the urban environment. The proposed methodology will challenge existing choice experimentation models by incorporating a large number of attributes in the experiments and by attempting to analyse the effects of the context in which they appear.
Brindley, T.. "Village and Community as Models for the Sustainable City." In People, Places, and Sustainability: Proceedings of the 16th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. Paris, France: Hogrefe & Huber, 2002. The terms “ village ” and “ community ” are widely used to promote and market contemporary urban developments. In sociological theory, however, these terms refer principally to rural settlements of the past. This discrepancy between theory and representation is examined to determine the significance and relevance of the “ urban village ” for sustainable urban development. Some current examples of so called urban villages are studied, together with related marketing literature and policy statements. It is concluded that references to “ village ” and “ community ” are obscuring the reality of contemporary urban lifestyles, to detriment of sustainable development models.
Brindley, Tim. "Village and Community as Models for the Sustainable City." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. "The terms " village " and " community " are widely used to promote and market contempory urban developments. In sociological theory, however, these terms refer principally to rural settlements of the past. This discrepancy between theory and represantation is examined to determine the significance and relevance of the " urban village " for sustainable urban development. Some current examples of socalled urban villages are studied, together with related marketing literature and policy statements. It is concluded that references to " village " and " community " are obscuring the reality of contempory urban lifestyles, to detriment of sustainable development models."
Romice, Ombretta. "Visual Literacy and Environmental Assessement to Improve Communities' Participation in Design." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Involving community groups in the design process concerning their city or neighbourhood, can play a role in creating responsive environments and achieving a high level of satisfaction for communities. Interaction between clients and professionals is essential to encourage the resolution of disputes at the design stage rather than once actions have been taken, since their different roles and expertise could enrich the process of interaction. This study supports the idea of a form of participation based on research in environmental experience. Visual literacy is trained, and a combinaison of environmental assessment techniques and informative activities are linked to encourage community groups and professionals to work together on the generation and development of observational and analytical skills. The aim is to generate a structure for the involvement of local communities in urban renewalactions as an informed, organised ans effective activity and then, to apply this approach in praxis.
Weiss, K, L Colbeau-Justin, and B. De Vanssay. "Water in Four Environmental Contrasted Urban Settings: Cognitive Determinants and Behavioural Implications." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. An international research has focused on the problem of urban water through the representations and the behaviours of the population. It also provides information about the perception by the population of urban water mastering and its integration in urban planning. This presentation will outline the results concerning four environmental contrasted cities. The findings from all the cities support the view that the availability of water and the environmental awareness are both important in the construction of water representation and the arousal of an individual responsibility. The consumption and protective behaviours are also related to the main conception of water in each site.
Afifi, Eman H.. "Way - Finding in Children's Environments: a Case - Study of Pre - Schools in Cairo, Egypt." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. conference:IAPS:16
Akagi, Tetsuya. "Wayfinding Process of Persons with Dementia and Developmental Disability in Hallway." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. conference:IAPS:16
Franck, Karen A.. "When are Spaces Loose?" In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Tight spaces fix expected activities and meanings in very precise ways through physical design, rules and practices as in the case of prisons or contemporary planned and gated communities with restrictive covenants. This paper focusses on the other end of the spectrum by exploring the occurrence and value of loose spaces including: leftover, un-named spaces; places with specific names and purposes that allow for unexpected uses; and places whose purposes are intentionally left ambiguous.
Sime, Jonathan D.. "Where is the Environment in Environmental Psychology? Transdisciplinary Considerations." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The physical environment has received little attention in psychology and environmental psychology. This paper discusses ways in which environmental psychology theory, research and applications should be grounded in contexts and disciplines which consider not only the social, but the physical environment to be an essential feature of human existence. The paper considers the degree to which 'occupancy', as a psycho-socio-spatial-temporal concept, integrates psychology, architecture and engineering in a transdisciplinary fashion.
St Pierre, Louise, and Ann Thorpe. "Whole Product Design to Integrate Ecology, Form and Function." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. conference:IAPS:16
Davidovich, Ronit, and Marton et Léah S. Shenan. "Women and Business Enterprise." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Small businesses have in the last few years been the focus of development plans by governmental and other institutions. Micro-enterprise as a means of creating employment, realizing professional potential and creating economic growth in the local, regional and national arenas, has recently received even academic and applied attention. The point in favor of women entrepreneurs include relative advantages in three major areas: relationships between people and environment, patterns of management, modes of thinking and problem solving. On the basis of these three areas the paper proposes a plan of action, based on the ”half-full glass” of women´s skills and attitudes.
Horelli, Liisa. "Women´s Visions for Planning and Development." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. Women have had several new opportunities in the 90s to participate in local and regional development, especially on the arenas supported and financed by the European Union structural funds. Women have, however, been thirsty for methodology of local development. The EuroFEM Toolkit with some 50 techniques for different phases of the development cycle has been created for this purpose. One of the most important exercises deals with dreaming and envisioning the future of the project or programme. “Dreams about future, when shared and discussed, become visions. Visions for the future become goals for the community. Goals for the community become action for the people.” My personal visionary model will be shared and discussed.
Kellett, P., and W. Bishop. "Work and Home: Spatial Implications of Income Generation in the Domestic Setting." In People, Places, and Sustainability: Proceedings of the 16th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. Paris, France: Hogrefe & Huber, 2002. In many parts of the world the dwelling is a place of production in as well as a place of shelter and a key setting for social reproduction. This paper examines the conceptual and physical boundaries between income generation and domestic activities through the use of empirical data from an informal settlement (Kampung) in Surabaya, Indonesia. Household case studies illustrate how individuals conceptualise their working and living spheres, how boundaries are created and marked, and how changes in activity are accommodated. Linguistic knowledge is used to explore how such conceptions are articulated and expressed. Finally we examine the spatial and social implications and discuss how analysis of the integration of non-domestic activities can inform our understanding of the production, use and meaning of domestic space.
Kellett, Peter. "Work and Home: Spatial Implications of Income Generation in the Domestic Setting." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. The dwelling is a place of shelter for the household, a unit of accommodation and a key setting for social reproduction. It can also be a place of production: household members may be involved in income generating activities, ranging from small-scale part-time tasks with few specific spatial demands, to manufacturing activities which dominate the dwelling environment. The presence of such activities within the domestic setting raises issues central to our understanding of the social nature of domestic space and how its meanings are constructed and negotiated through time. This paper will examine the conceptual and physical boundaries between income generation and domestic activities through the use of empirical data collected during residence with a family in a kampung (informal settlement) in the city of Surabaya, Indonesia. This research forms part of an international research project examining home-based enterprises in four developing world cities. Household case studies, augmented by linguistic knowledge, will be used to illustrate a range of issues including: how individuals conceptualise their working and living spheres, how boundaries are created and marked, and how changes in activity are accommodated. The analysis will demonstrate the intimate interrelationships between spaces and activities and show how domestic space is not a world apart but is continuously negotiated and re-negotiated in relation to the wider social and economic context. Such insights into the integration of non-domestic activities can inform and broaden our understanding of the production, use and meaning of domestic space.
Remesar, A., and E. Pol. "Workshops of Participatory Intervention (Tip):designing a Social and Ecological Regeneration of a River in Sant Adrià De Besós, Barcelona." In Metropolis 2000 - Which Perspectives? Cities, Social Life and Sustainable Development: IAPS 16 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom. IAPS. Paris, France, 2000. conference:IAPS:16