Keywords Abstract
Rivlin, Leanne G.. "(Untitled)." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 807. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "In light of the tremendous threats facing people in contemporary society, especially in cities, efforts must be directed toward developing safe niches that enable comfortable public life. Terrorism can have a chilling impact on public activity, discouraging use of public spaces. Two possible directions are offered by found spaces and by peace parks. Found spaces are places located by people to undertake a variety of activities in sites that were not intended for these uses. They include the steps of public buildings, corners and storefronts in neighborhoods where local people can linger, places in cities located by vendors to sell their wares and the empty lots and interstitial areas that are transformed into play spaces by children and youths. Research has identified some of the reasons why people use these places and major ones are their convenience and safety. Peace parks can be viewed as a form of found spaces. They are appropriated, neutral territories that enable safe use and open discussion. They also can support ecological stability and potential biodiversity. Serving as buffers between contesting spaces, they not only can enable vegetation to survive and flourish, as neutral areas they offer contesting parties a green, "restorative" site for conflict resolution, or at least molification of some of the differences. These two dirctions are not magic solutions to the complex angers and threats that exist. However, they offer grounds for hope and directions that can support and strengthen public life."
Kowaltowski, Doris C. C. K., A. Silvia, Mikami G. Pina, Lucila C. Labaki, and Francisco Borges Filho. "A Basic Teaching Instrument for Awareness of Environmental Comfort." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 649-650. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. This paper presents the development of teaching material for the primary school level, which introduces basic concepts of environmental comfort. The booklets were developed following an extensive post occupancy study of state schools in the city of Campinas, São Paulo Brazil. The goals of this material are to orient children and teachers on basic comfort concepts, create environmental awareness, stimulate user participation in attaining comfort conditions and introduce interest in architecture and building construction. The booklets were tested and approved.
Sixsmith, Judith, Sue Lewis, Janet Smithson, and Cath Sullivan. "A Cross National Analysis of Home and Community Participation Inteleworking Households." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 699-700. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Prior to the information and communication technology revolution, homeworking was largely marginalized, feminised, and often exploitative, manual labour. However, technology has driven dramatic increases in the number of people worldwide who are now working at home, in a range of skilled and professional occupations, either full time (especially the self employed and consultants) or for a proportion of the working week, the remainder taking place at a central workplace or other location. For example, in the UK and in Sweden, around one quarter of the workforce works at home for some period of the week (Felstead, Jewson, Phizacklea and Walters, 2000; Wikstrom et al, 1998). This growth is reflected in a change of terminology, from home workers to teleworkers, telecommuters, distributed workers (Wikstrom et al, 1998) or location independent workers. Although there is some debate about the definition of each of these terms (Sullivan, 1997), the term teleworker in this paper, refers to those who work from home using Information and Communication Technologies (ICT's) for at least part of the week. Thus the family home also becomes a workplace.
Fitnat, C, and Alper Ünlü Eri Edgü. "A Cultural Comparative Analysis of Two Villages in Storm Valley, Rize." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 499-500. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. This paper aims to explore the relationship between concepts such as culture, ecology, life style, built environment and resource utilization within the context of two villages located on the Black Sea region of northern Turkey. These two villages called as Konaklar and Muratköy with populations of nearly 600 and 400 respectively, share the same ecological milieu of the research area Storm Valley, Rize. Being a natural site itself, Storm Valley hosts a number of villages descending from two different cultures of Hemsin and Laz. Due to these cultural differences, the villages reflect distinct physical and social choices along with different utilization of the natural resources. In this research it is emphasized that regardless of its scale, the physical environment is independent from neither the socio-cultural group of behaviors and choices nor the ecological milieu of the habitat. In this sense, the selected two villages of our research have affected the physical alteration of the environment. Having migrated from Caucasus during the 11th century, most of the Hemsin settlements have quit speaking their language and lost many of their traditions, simply by adjustments. However, the case is different for the Laz culture; their settlement in the area traces back to the 5th century B.C. It would not be wrong to say that Laz culture clings to the original language and traditional values of its ethnic background. Hence, this research shows that the two different cultures living in the Storm Valley, present two different identities, life-styles, habits, choices, behavioral modes and different ecological adaptation strategies. Spatial organizations are also differentiated in semantic, syntactic and pragmatic ways and the expression are mainly derived from their sociocultural structures.
Fitnat, C, E Edgu, and A. Ü. nlü. "A Cultural Comparative Analysis of Two Villages in Storm Valley, Rize." In Culture, Environmental Action, and Sustainability: Proceedings of the 17th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain: Hogrefe & Huber, 2003. This paper aims to explore the relationship between concepts such as culture, ecology, life style, built environment and resource utilization. The research area of the paper concentrates on the context of two villages located in Storm Valley of the Black Sea region of northern Turkey. Due to cultural differences, the villages reflect distinctive physical and social choices along with different utilization of the available natural resources. In this research, it is emphasized that regardless of its scale, the physical environment is independent from neither the socio-cultural group of behaviours and choices nor the ecological milieu of the habitat. In this sense, the inhabitants of the two villages of our research have altered the physical settlement of the environment. Hence, this research shows that the two different cultures living in the Storm Valley, present different identities, life-styles, habits, choices and ecological adaptation strategies. Spatial organizations of the villages are also differentiated in semantic, syntactic and pragmatic ways.
Tezel, Elçin. "A Des¯gn Model for the Space Plann¯ng of Ch¯ld Care Centers." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 519-520. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. The importance of early years in the life of a child is widely accepted through the social value systems of globilizing world. The idea of enhancing young children's development through child care centers and making the early childhood education as a compulsory part of education system has been widely accepted by many countries. A growing body of knowledge has indicated that the physical environment is influential on the educational outcomes (Dudek, 1996; Moore and Lackney, 1993; David and Weinstein, 1987). Collective findings assign more responsibilities to the architects to collaborate with the educators for the design of educational buildings, since the physical setting works as a tool to implement various education programs. Early chidhood education programs have been justified and used by different cultures because they enhance the development in various fields of early childhood (Clarke Steward and Friedman, 1987; Eliason and Jenkins, 1994). Hence, different physical settings are arranged as the reflection of these programs. Early chidhood education is characterized with the consideration of various relations between the education and the administrative policies, the care givers and children, the curriculum applications and physical environment in pursuit of developmental outcomes. New face of the global world provided the rapid exchange of information which contributes to the quality of physical settings of child care centers. More cross-cultural education programs and diverse physical arrangements are proposed for the child care centers as a result of this information flow.
Bomfim, Zulmira Aurea Cruz, and Enric Pol Urrútia. "A Dimensão Afetiva Nos Mapas Cognitivos De Barcelona E São Paulo." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 323-324. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. O tema que desenvolvemos, como parte do curso de doutorado segue uma linha de investigação que envolve dimensões interdisciplinares. Buscamos avaliar sentimentos e emoções associados ao espaço (território), tomando como referência os desenhos e discurso sobre a cidade. Comparamos cidades de desenvolvimento e dimensões diferenciados (compacto e diverso), como Barcelona e São Paulo, avaliando a afetividade como um espaço de construção da cidadania. Sentimentos e emoções carregam ideologias, que podem engendrar processos de apropriação, que levam ou não à ações de participação cidadã. Na teoria dos mapas cognitivos desenvolvidos por Lynch (1998), se reconhece que uma cidade pode ser ou não legível. Ele a define como uma imagem ambiental ou representação generalizada do mundo físico exterior que tem um individuo, levando a sensações imediatas e recordações de experiências anteriores. Um meio ambiente legível realça a profundidade e intensidade dos potenciais da experiência humana.
Pérez, Ransés, and Manuel Soto. "A Educación Ambiental En Galiza: Evolución E Futuro De Acción Das Ong De Protección Ambiental." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 629-630. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. As I Xornadas Galegas de Educación Ambiental, organizadas pola Asociación para a Defensa Ecolóxica de Galiza no ano 1985, puñan de manifesto a falla de apoio institucional ás actividades de EA naquel entón. A pesar das recomendacións de Tbilisi (1977), do cumio da Terra de Rio de Janeiro (1992), e da reforma educativa de finais dos oitenta e noventa, o apoio institucional continuaría a ser moi limitado, e as actividades puramente voluntaristas continuarían a dominar o panorama da educación ambiental. Ensinantes sensibilizados e colectivos ecoloxistas serian os impulsores das poucas actividades realizadas, e tamén dos primeiros intentos de formación dos propios educadores e educadoras.
Rathouse, Kathryn. "A Review of Methods for Assessing Neighbourhood Quality." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 450-451. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. In England there is currently considerable policy interest in neighbourhood quality. For instance, there is concern about low demand neighbourhoods which have adequate housing but are unpopular places to live. When researching these types of issues, what methods should be used for assessing neighbourhood quality? This paper will describe several existing methods, discuss how they differ, suggest further research to explore them, and recommend that standard methods should be developed. The variety of methods used to assess neighbourhood quality is enormous. In the environmental psychology literature, methods range from flexible post occupancy evaluations by residents of their own neighbourhoods (e.g. Churchman and Ginosar, 1999) to trained observers' judgements of several neighbourhoods on standard scales (e.g. Skjaeveland and Garling, 1997).
Yanagisawa, Kaname. "A Study of Playroom of Children's Healthcare Facilities in the Us - Studies on Healthcare Environment and Its Effects - ." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 524-525. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Background and Purpose: The study aims to clarify the effects of physical environment on children's feeling and behavior for improving healthcare environment. Under the circumstances of poorly designed Japanese children's hospital, we investigated a couple of innovative American children's hospital recently built. The study focused on children's play environment especially on hospital playroom in this time. Within this decade, new unique children's hospitals have been built in the US, which focus more on children's sensitivity, behavior, and scale. These hospitals look different from other hospitals. This might be partly result from several researches in psychology and sociology field, to claim that children's healthcare environment should have own feature and be different from adult's one.
Kita, Ayako. A Study on Effective Method for Crime Prevention in Public Park In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. This study attempts to find out relevant planning methods for crime prevention in parks. In these days, parks in urban area have two aspects in Japan. Those are not only places of recreation and relaxation for citizen but also hotbeds of vices and crimes. On the other hand, it is not frequent to plan newly-made parks because of land shortage in urban area. Therefore, re-planning existing parks is also one of the significant steps for preventing crimes in parks. Parks in Suita City and Asahi word in Osaka City were surveyed regarding site planning and surroundings. Suita city and Asahi word, both are typical satellite areas of central Osaka city, which is second large city in Japan, and land use of both areas are similar to each other. Most of those are residential area and commercial area with little industrial area. There are eighty-six parks in Suita city and thirty-five in Asahi word which are classified into Block parks, Neighborhood parks, or District parks. In this study, Block parks represent parks, as the number of Block parks accounts for more than eighty percent of total numbers of parks in Suita city, and ninety percent in Asahi word.
Okada, Rika, and Naoyuki Oi. "A Study on Psychological Effects of Lighting at Shopping Area/case Study of Big City Fukuoka in Japan." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 481-482. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "We are surrounded many kind of light. In his classic paper, Waldram explores the mechanism of interior lighting and in a flow chart defines three aspects of interior lighting: Adaptation, Revealing of Form and Texture, and Emphasis (1). In this diagram he considers three detail luminance patterns: texture pattern, shadow pattern and modeling pattern. Cuttle has subsequently extended the modeling concept and introduces a term "preferred appearance" related to the flow of light (2). I notice that the environment of light in the city night is very artificial at night. Especially, at shopping area, the light is so complicated. There are not only lights from street but also lights from show windows, cars, shops. Is light giving person's mood about atmosphere of that place any influences? Could the direction and the amount of the light be the factor of these influences? I decided to pick up Tenjin-district as a study area. Tenjin-district consists of many shops of clothes and restaurants, night clubs, jewelry shops and banks. Many people are walking at night. I think this district is one of the typical shopping area in a big city of Japan."
Morita, Mai, and Kaname Yanagisawa. "A Study on Space for Children's Interaction and Communication Ineducational Facilities in European Countries." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 521-523. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. This study aims at finding spaces for promoting children's communication and interaction in educational facilities. Besides learning activities in regular classes, interaction and communication among children seems to be very important for children's social development and adaptation in educational facilities. Physical environment in educational facilities has a big influence on them. For improving the environment of educational facility from the view point of children's life, we researched on several educational facilities in European countries, which seem to have innovative and unique spaces and settings for children's life, for comparing to ones in Japanese educational facilities we've already known. We collected many ideas in designing and planning various spaces for children's interaction and communication, for designing and planning ideal educational facilities in our country.
Vana, Tentokali, and Manitsidou Lydia. "A Theatrical Reading of the Hidden Urban Void." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 218. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "Within the context of the urban structure, the urban void is not considered as the opposite notion of the urban built , but rather as the "absence" of the urban built. Pursuing a more or less Derridean approach, the proposed paper discusses the urban void in accordance with the identification of the urban built. Introducing the word "differance", Derrida argues that "in a (traditional) binary opposition,that wich differs is not that wich is other, but that wich is the same word". As a consequent, in the (traditional) bipolarity of the urban built and void, the "differance" of the word void from the word built is not located outside of these words, but within the word built. Or vice versa , the " differance" of the word built from t void is not located outside of these words, but within the word void. Thus in order to explore the notion of the urban void in structural terms we have to explore the notion of the urban buil."
Teklenburg, Jan A. F.. "A Tool for the Assessment of the Visual Quality of Nearlyhomogeneous Neighbourhoods." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 707-708. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. A major challenge in urban planning and design for the next decades lies in the renewal and revitalisation of city-neighbourhoods. In the Dutch context especially post World War II districts have deteriorated over the last twenty or so years and because of the poor quality of housing and recreational facilities they have become unattractive for a large part of city-residents. The location of these (mostly residential) zones, however, makes them extremely attractive for residential uses from a sustainable point of view. In the revitalisation process the assessment of visual quality is an important topic. Especially for current residents that want to keep on living in their neighbourhood it is important that the physical (and visual) features that they appreciate are kept intact as much as possible. These features are very likely to make up a large part of the 'image of the neighbourhood' and may be seen as the physical appearance of its history.
Bassani, Marlise A... "A Training, Intervention and Prevention Proposal of Bettering Quality of Life and Stress Management in the City of Sao Paulo, Brazil." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 671-672. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Environmental factors as noise, pollution (atmospheric and visual), traffic, crowding, no privacy, violence, insecurity, house restrictions etc, are some of the factors responsible for problems in people's health. We can find this subjects in the Latin-American researchers objectives in Environmental Psychology (Wiesenfeld, 2001). This work is part of a project of training, research and acting in Environmental Psychology in Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo (PUC-SP), started in 1997, after the XXVI Congress of the Inter-American Psychology Society. This project of development comprehends three formation levels: Graduation in Psychology, Specialization and Extension, Post-Graduation. (Bassani, 2000).
Araújo, Rosineide G., and José Q. Pinheiro. Accessibility to Urban Spaces: a Psychological Dimension In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil The discussion about accessibility should go beyond the physical aspects normally touched upon by the technical knowledge of engineers and architects. The term "accessibility" relates to the physical environment, it is the property of the environment that allows people to move through it with autonomy and safety. There are certain people who present deficiencies (temporary or permanent) to reach and use urban spaces. The elderly are part of the group of city users that may have such difficulties, fact that have special importance when one considers the information that this segment of human population is increasing in several countries and in an accelerated rhythm in Brazil."
Watson, Chris, and C Watson. "Achieving Delight by Seeing Museums Through Visitors' Eyes." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 492-493. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. For a decade, the Powerhouse Museum has fascinated visitors with its technology and applied art exhibitions and since opening Te Papa has overwhelmed New Zealanders and received critical acclaim from the international museum community. Post Occupancy Evaluation was an important tool used by both museums to identify problem areas and generate appropriate, actionable solutions. Post Occupancy Evaluation complimented exhibition evaluation, standard visitor studies and research because it provided an open-ended window into visitors' experiences, enhancing museums' abilities to understand them. Post Occupancy Evaluation was applied at various times in the museums' life cycles, to various parts of the museums and with various stakeholder groups. The three Te Papa evaluations and one Powerhouse Museum evaluation identified a myriad of perceived strengths and weaknesses of each building. Diverse user experiences were documented to identify opportunities and limitations, and thereby guide improvements to achieve delight by seeing thru visitors' eyes.
Otero, M. D. Losada, and García R. Mira. "Action Competence in Environmental Education." In Culture, Environmental Action, and Sustainability: Proceedings of the 17th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain: Hogrefe & Huber, 2003. Action competence is a social process which refers to the ability to assess and look for solutions to current environmental problems and carry them out in practice, within a democratic system of cooperation and participation (Uzzell, 1997). Environmental action competence has several components: skills at a general level, knowledge of and insight into environmental problems and possibilities for solving them, environmental commitment, visions about our future lives, and environmental action experiences (Jensen et al., 1997). The objective of this paper focuses on the analysis of the school context, where we try to explore the adequacy of a Responsible Ecological Behaviour Model towards domestic waste, based on the Environmental Action Competence Model. We also attempt to improve our previous study about the relationship between attitudes towards the environment and the appearance of Responsible Ecological Behaviours (Losada & GarcÌa-Mira, 2001), incorporating Action Competence within the general framework of The Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1985, 1991), as well as comparing the effect of Action Competence on both Behavioural Intention and Environmental Behaviour.
Panisse, Adela Figueroa, Celsa Sanchez Vazquez, and Emilia Seoane Perez. Actividades De Educaciòn Ambiental: Educaciòn Ambiental Para Todos, Frente À Globalizaciòn In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002.

Ao longo destes ùltimos anos vimos desenvolvendo diferentes cursos de Educaciòn Ambiental, dirixidos a persoal de variada orixe e formaciòn.Estes cursos desenvolvèronse , preferentemente en colaboraciòn cò Colexio Oficial de Biòlogos de Galiza, ainda que tamèn se teñen feito en colaboraciòn con outras entidades como CEFOCOPs(hoxe CEFORE), Escolas de Verao, Actividades de Inverno,e outras. A filosofia xeral destes cursos sustentòuse sempre en dous Paradigmas fundamentais, : O Paradigma Ambientalista e o Paradigma da Complexidade. O traballo desenvolveùse no marco da Teoria Xeral de Sistemas, dentro tamen dunha ètica Biocèntrica, de educaciòn en Valores que procuran o estabelecimento dun còdigo de conductas que definan unha ètica laica. Valores como a solidadriedade , a interculturaliedade, unha cultura da paz, a coeducaciòn non sexista, etc , son dificilmente separables , porque pertencen a un concepto educativo, xeral e permanente, e foron os que impregnaron os contidos conceptuais dos nosos cursos.

Araújo, Mônica De Queiroz. "Adolescent's Bedroom, a Silent Dialogue." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 490. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. This present article has as main idea the use of adolescent's bedroom as an instrument in the dialogue verified between different generations and in the comprehension of the adult personality built in consequence. The goal is to reflect about the use of this room by human being in this close dialogue. To reduce the extension of this subject, we choose the woman adolescent's bedroom. The existent symbols perceivable as language in this silent dialectic are interpreted through poetic images meanwhile the elements of the room act as milestone. So, the planed space of adolescent's bedroom function as a translator of conflicting ideologies.
Albino, Vinícius P., and José Q. Pinheiro. Adolescents in Mãe Luiza: a Seed of Participation In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "We discuss the opportunities of participation of adolescents living in peripheral districts in terms of planning and management of urban spaces. Our concern in studying the urban space is related to the fact that 80% of the world population lives in cities (Pol, 2000), what is causing a series of critical social and environmental problems, which are a spatial materialisation of the predatory model of development typical of the modern industrial societies. The sustainability of urban centres is threatened by the physical interference of human occupation and by the scale of the social-environmental impact caused by these human agglomerations. The spatial scale is also important for the construction of a place identity, because a physical and affective distance between person and environment compromises the process of appropriation of that space. Thus, the district, the "local community", seems to offer the best opportunities for the development of experiences of popular participation (Pinto, 1989)."
Lee, Yung-Jaan. "Adopting the Urban Indicators Programme to Assess Taipei'ssustainable Development." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 99-101. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Not only economic, urban systems are also ecological and social in nature. Correspondingly, sustainability is a circumstantial and complex concept. Measuring urban sustainability must therefore include people's attitudes and opinions towards a city. Consequently, an appropriate mechanism must be developed to specify the basic needs of residents and the limitations of the environment. Such a mechanism provides a monitoring function and displays complete information. Local governments are responsible for only a fraction of urban generation, accounting for their ability to fully grasp its context. Providing residents and governmental authorities with necessary information, through dialogue, is essential with respect to sustainability. Among various measurement tools, the Urban Indicators Programme (UIP) of UNCHS is appropriate for assessing development. This article examines the feasibility of applying UIP to evaluate the sustainability of Taipei City. The UIP includes key indicators and local indicators. Based on principles of sustainability, this work finally selects 49 indicators for use in Taipei's UIP (Table 1). A ten-year data set (1989-1998) is also collected to assess Taipei's sustainability. Analysis results indicate that Taipei City performs well in the categories of background information, local government, and housing. Additionally, only four to five years of data are available concerning infrastructure and environmental management. Moreover, no data are available for thirteen indicators. No complete perspective of the sustainability of Taipei City can presently be taken.
Ahrentzen, Sherry, and Brian Schermer. "Advocacy - Research - Design Within the University - Community Context." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 775-776. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. This case study represents a form of advocacy research to effect change in a university policy context. The research effort was undertaken as part of an architectural design studio course that explored campus cohousing options for a student population environmentally and programmatically neglected by university policies, namely single parents. This project enabled a university-community partnership to explore and advocate ways in which the campus environment could be made more responsive in student advancement and recruitment by rethinking the role and nature of university housing to support special populations of students and their families.
Galindo, José Antonio Co. "Aesthetics, Affect and Cognition: is a Multifaceted Approach to Landscape Preference Possible? Some Empirical Evidence." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 819-820. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. In the context of research into environmental aesthetics, the response to landscape preference has been considered as an intermediate variable, a conceptual link between the processes of environmental perception and the affective experience of the landscape (Kaplan,1987). As a consequence of this, the analysis of this variable has been configured as a thematic space of great interest for research into the cognition-affect relationship. There has long been contention between the authors who argue that the preference for stimuli may develop (although not always) in the absence of any cognitive processing of these stimuli (Zajonc, 1980) and those that argue that the affective responses are primarily post-cognitive phenomenon (Lazarus 1982). The theoretical models that have been presented in the area of landscape preference research have tended to group around these positions. There are in fact two main explicatory frameworks that have enabled the development of clearly differentiated testable hypotheses, based on conceptual proposals that have traditionally been considered divergent: (i) the informational model of environmental preference by Kaplan and Kaplan (Kaplan 1987; Kaplan and Kaplan, 1989), which is closer to the thesis of Zajonc (1980); (ii) the proposals known as the preference-for-prototype (Whitfield, 1983) and preference-for-differences models (Purcell et al., 1998), conceptually linked, explicitly or implicitly, to the most traditional cognitive approaches to affect.
Aközer, Emel. "Aesthetization and Greening of Politics and Philosophy:return of the Spatial Practices and Ethos of Tribal Society." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 93-94. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "Department of Architecture The affinities between aesthetization and greening of politics and philosophy, and the dreams of restoring the spatial practices and ethos of "closed societies" was extensively studied by Karl R. Popper in Open Society and Its Enemies already in 1943.1 For Popper, the romantic yearning for the innocence and bliss of the closed society characterizes the periods of crisis when the "burden of civilization" is most deeply felt. These are periods of "culture clash," of communication and trade that jeopardize traditional institutions and values, and undermine tribal taboos. Popper reminds that it was such a crisis in the ancient Greek society that once paved the way for the passage from magic to science and philosophy, and initiated a process of enlightenment. The "crisis of civilization" has been the source of both the waves of enlightenment and those of counter-enlightenment. Albert Speer's Spandau: Secret Diaries (1975) attests that aesthetization and greening of politics in the Third Reich was an outcome of the same romantic spirit that Popper disclosed in Plato's work.2 Though Speer outlived all the devastation brought by the pursuit of an ideal society in perfect harmony with nature, he still tries to justify his "romantic protest against civilization" and "that disturbing metropolitan world."3 "The ruthlessness and inhumanity of the regime," says Speer, "went hand in hand with a remarkable feeling for beauty, for the virginal and the unspoiled, although that feeling quite often degenerated into the sentimentality of a postcard idyll . . . Of course the regime's craving for beauty also had to do with Hitler's personal taste, with his hatred for the modern world, his fear of the future. But there was also an unselfish social impulse at work, an effort to reconcile the unavoidable ugliness of the technological world with familiar aesthetic forms, with beauty."
C. Sanz, Ferreiro, and Ferreiro R. García. Alternativas Energéticas Ante El Impacto Social Causado Por La Degradación Medioambiental In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. El comportamiento socio-económico de la humanidad está sujeto a la dependencia energética de tal manera que la energía desempeña un rol fundamental en las sociedades del mundo industrializado. La carencia de energía o consecuentemente su coste económico son responsables de desequilibrios económicos a escala mundial. El consumo actual de energía está en torno a 10.000 millones de toneladas equivalentes de petróleo (tep) por año (Naredo y Valero 1999). Este orden de magnitud es comparable al de la energía procedente del Sol en la banda visible para sostener la masa vegetal mediante fotosíntesis.
Rodriguez, Gabriel E.. "Ambience for Sale: Decoding Real - Estate Ads in Order to Understand Residential Ambience." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 456-457. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. In France, 53% of dwellers live in single-family detached houses. This type of dwelling is considered the ideal home by almost 90% of the population, even though many of its dwellers express deception in regard to the interior space. This deception goes far beyond the pragmatic concern of m2 per person; it refers to other concepts and consideration as comfort, spatial qualities, lifestyle and social image. Ambience or ambient-environment can be defied as the interaction between the built space (architectural or urban), the natural phenomena (sunlighting, solar loads, air flow, heat transfer, humidity, noise transmission, etc) and the users. The research studies dweller's and real-estate agent's discourse about the detached house as means to understand the importance and conceptions of residential ambience.
Altinoluk, Ulku, and Harun Batirbaygil. "An Autocriticism of a Premature (Modern) Architecture Medium Or the Shanty ''environmental Design'' Praxis." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 119. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002.

Globalization in its own right, continues to distort the main discourse on how our new lives should be; even in strive of producing a globalize opposition platform which seemingly sounds good for all. This in general, turns out to be folding perversive, tending to seek solutions for well established, centuries' old practices of countries in the thresholds of modernistic deterioration defined-to-be with its mass production, working classes, wild technology, (uneven and unquestionable) exploitation of resources, cultural homogeneity, moral decline etc. Additionally, as is well known, having further phenomena and consequences on other parts of the world as cultural erosion, poverty, starvation, shelter problems etc. Purist environmental discourses when such circumstances are taken into consideration turn obsolete for masses in need of realistic solutions on concrete problems, for some who are even unaware of, and for most even illicitly opposing of. Such a case is the medium of environmental practice in post-war Turkey, especially after sixties.

Aragonés, Juan Ignacio, and Oscar Moros-Ruano. "An Empirical Study of Place Attachment to Malls." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 288-289. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Big malls with multiple commercial and entertainment activities, concentrated in one place, originated in North American cities, rapidly expanding to the rest of the world. These kinds of spaces, typical of the metropolis, concentrate in a single space a wide diversity of facilities, which would otherwise be spread throughout the city. Malls have not been left outside people-environment studies. Therefore we can find research on wayfinding, orientation and architectural legibility (Ufuk & Feyzan, 2000; Yoo, 1992), among others. The malls offer multiple activities concentrated into a limited time frame, in order to motivate frequent visits promoting habitual patterns of mall attendance. Thus, malls become new reference places for users in the same way that residential and dwelling places and neighborhoods as well as working places, are reference places. This view of the mall raises the need for the studying of these places, approaching psychological processes such as appropriation of space, place identity and place attachment, in order to know the variables and their possible relationships in each one of them. Such studies could facilitate architectural conception and design of the malls. As Hidalgo (1998) has indicated, there are few places apart from communal ones in which studies have been made about attachment, besides those mentioned by Altman & Low (1992). Services that traditionally were offered in the neighborhood (Amérigo, 2000) have been transferred to the mall, even though the neighborhood keeps on being where place attachment generally happens. Malls generate an artificial environment which offers the possibility of new social relationships and for this reason these sociophysical spaces may become objects of place attachment.
Kuo, Chin-Chin, and A. T. Purcell. "An Empirical Values About Nature in Traitional Chinese Culture." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 814-815. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Human behavior has been widely considered as playing a central role in the deterioration of our living environment (Gardner and Stern, 1996). If destructive behavior is to change it is necessary that what influences such behavior be understood. A considerable amount of research has attempted to address this question by looking for relationships between environmental behavior and variables such as attitudes towards and knowledge of environmental issues. These variables have been shown not to be good predictors of environmental behavior. The best predictor of environmental behavior has been found to be environmental values (for example, Schwartz, 1992; Karp, 1996; Schultz & Zelezney, 1998).
B. zmen-Mayer, Beril Ö.. "An Urban Formula: Being Socially Self - Sufficient? Power of Locality Besides Globality." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 269-270. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. In our times, bringing global conditions to any of human settlements have paradoxal relationship to the agenda, where positive and negative effects to be addressed through to their environments. On one hand, consumer psychology in the society creates new demands to the global market; This pulls people to larger settlements such as urban and metropolitan areas to have more possible realization of their life expectations. On the other hand, people need their cultural roots, values, traditions, societal norms and their own specific home environments, quarters, towns and cities. However, this affects the local system that is losing its identities.
Romay, José Antonio No, and Ricardo Garcia-Mira. "Análisis De Las Diferentes Actitudes Y Comportamientos De Afectados Y Agentes Políticos En La Creación Y Gestión Del Parque Natural De Corrubedo Y Lagoas De Carregal Y Vixán." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 187. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Se intenta presentar la dialéctica explícita e implícita presente en las diferentes fases de creación e implantación de este Parque natural tratando de poner en evidencia los elementos básicos subyacentes que configuran actitudes y comportamientos diferentes de los afectados y de los agentes políticos. Con este objetivo centramos nuestro análisis en aquellos elementos que se refieren a la diferente dinámica de las autoridades y agentes políticos y de los afectados y usuarios concretada en expectativas e intereses divergentes. El análisis del discurso de los diferentes niveles de lectura de dichas dinámicas a través del estudio de documentos oficiales, reuniones y entrevistas de todos los agentes implicados: autoridades, afectados, usuarios y técnicos, contrastado entre las declaraciones y las realizaciones nos permitirá realizar este cometido.
Blanc, Bernadette, Marie Howar, and Rosa A. Flores Fernandez. ANÁLISIS DE LAS PRÁCTICAS DEL ESPACIO Y DE LA VIDA COTIDIANA a LA ESCALA DE LAS UNIDADES VECINALES DEL CENTRO-URBANO DE PUERTO-PRÍNCIPE In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. En una publicación reciente sobre los problemas ambientales de Puerto-Príncipe (Holly, 1999), los ejecutivos y profesionales haitianos hacen un severo balance de la situación de la capital haitaina : « Los hechos estan allá, el desastre que caracterisa la situación de la zona metropolitana es el resultado de un método de gobernar: el dejar-hacer generalizado. Con frecuencia, los reglamentos administrativos, las leyes y otras disposiciones legales son violadas e irrespetadas con total impunidad, contando siempre con la bendición de los dirigentes políticos de las diferentes tendencias» (Holly, p. 2). Este documento parece una contradicción en el sentido que, en un contexto de inestabilidad política y de crisis económica y social generalizada, un grupo de hombres (y de mujeres, apesar que sus nombres no aparecen en el texto), han logrado publicar este diagnóstico tan crítico. Esto refleja bien la realidad haitiana, donde, en la ausencia de instituciones estables y de un cuadro legal respetable, son las personas finalmente las que cuentan (reagrupadas en asociaciones, en grupos de trabajo gobernamentales o no, o bien en las múltiples micro-redes sociales).
Lee, Yung-Jaan. "Applying Urban Indicators to Clarify the Urban Development of Taipei." In Culture, Environmental Action, and Sustainability: Proceedings of the 17th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain: Hogrefe & Huber, 2003. A dialogue must be established comparing cities from different perspectives and in different areas. The Urban Indicators Programme (UIP) of the United Nations Center for Human Settlements (UNCHS) provides an excellent basis for comparing urban development in different cities. The UIP of UNCHS not only performs data collection, but also integrates policy assessment and strategy development. Additionally, the UIP focuses on providing national and local governments with the ability to select indicators and employ them for integrating national and local policies on urban development. Consequently, this work adopts the UIP of UNCHS as a framework to explore the sustainable development of Taipei and compare the urban development of Taipei with 237 cities included in the UIP of UNCHS. Furthermore, this work applies the Human Development Index (HDI) to compare Taipei with other cities. This paper is organized as follows. First, Section One contains an introduction outlining objectives and contents. Section Two then investigates the implications of globalization and global urban development. Next, Section Three considers the context, content, and policy implications of the UIP, as well as its relations with other cities around the world. Subsequently, Section Four adopts the UIP of UNCHS to explore the urban indicators program applied in Taipei, with needed justifications. Finally, Section Five employs the UIP of UNCHS as a framework for examining the urban development of Taipei, and compares analytical results with those for other global cities from the UIP of UNCHS, using the HDI concept. Conclusions and suggestions for future research are finally made in Section Six.
Bontempo, Juan-Fernando. "Architectural and Cultural Analysis of a Traditional Type of Dwelling: the English Almshouse." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 547-548. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. The topic of this paper is the historical and cultural analysis of the English almshouses, a type of dwelling to shelter the elderly poor. England has a fine heritage of traditional buildings but few have kept their original function, as is the case of almshouses. English almshouses represent a good example of conservation of a specific type of ancient domestic architecture. It is assumed that conservation in architecture should involve not only the protection of buildings from deleterious change, and their repair with the original materials and techniques, when possible, but also the conservation of their original use.
Boudiaf, Bouzid. "Architecture and Identity." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 131. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "Natural beauty and cultural identity are the main features leading to a regionalist or a local architecture. The paradox is that all the efforts undertook for developing a national architecture put in exergue the interaction between man and environment. These interactions are ineluctably conditioned by our knowledge and understanding of the essential qualities. In the name of the " International style ", the architecture whose essences whose deeply felt through adaptatbility to different culture has been qualified as unsuitable and was destroyed ."
Barbeyemer, Gilles. "Are Mindscapes Relevant Phenomenological Concepts?" In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 372-373. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "This paper is a follow-up of earlier conversations of the author with the late environmental psychologist Jonathan Sime (deceased Jan. 2001) who developed a personal and autobiographical sensibility for environmental perception and cognition. In this particular perspective mindscapes can be interpreted as actual or virtual landscapes of the mind. They consist in a wide range of values and meanings. "Mindscapes are related to memory,experience and imagination. They are a psychological resource. Mindscapes can also be identified in dreams, novels, time and space..." (J.S. Sept. 2000 ). In a previous paper dealing with "The Tree on the Path from the Wood to the Graveyard " J.S. was wondering "in what sense do people revisit places vicariously in the mind and / or in reality and why. (eg. aplace in which one is, would like to be, revisits to reconnect to the past and provide continuity with the present and possible future, seeks yet may not find" 1) . In 1985, J.S. was already commenting the nature of "Place Affiliation" 2). It seems that mindscapes can be viewed as a transactional model of people-environment relations."
López, Miguel Martínez. "Armonizar Los Cinco Sentidos: Problemas Teóricos, Metodológicosy Prácticos Del Uso Del Conocimiento Sociológico En Laplanificación Urbana." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 588. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. En este trabajo se pretende resumir de una forma crítica el uso que tiene habitualmente la sociología en la elaboración de planes de ordenación urbana. A partir de las experiencias propias del autor y del análisis de otra casuística estudiada, se exponen primero las hipótesis relativas a las dificultades que encuentran las perspectivas teóricas globales, las metodologías cualitativas y participativas, para superar los condicionamientos técnicos de tipo interdisciplinar y los políticos con los que interactúan los equipos de investigación social participantes en el urbanismo. En segundo lugar, se sugieren algunas vías de solución de esos obstáculos en función de algunos casos que han desarrollado alternativas y han ayudado a transformaciones urbanas y sociales con mayor justicia territorial.
Craig, Anthony, Leanne Abbott, Richard Laing, and Martin Edge. "Assessing the Acceptability of Alternative Cladding Materials Inhousing: Theoretical and Methodological Challenges." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 401-402. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "This paper presents the results of a large-scale survey conducted as part of a wider research project entitled "Overcoming Client and Market Resistance to Prefabrication and Standardisation in Housing". Whilst there is a recognition of the importance of innovation in house construction, there is reluctance within the UK house-building industry to take risks in introducing new technologies, processes, or radical new designs. The insistence on the part of the house builders and planners that any innovations should not affect the visual appearance of the 'standard' speculative house type is now serving to stifle design innovation. The introduction of more flexible, lifetime homes, for example, as well as any attempts at architectural honesty, are being adversely affected. Resistance to change on the part of the builders is typically justified by reference to an assumed resistance amongst the house buying public."
Ellin, Nan. "At Home Everywhere and Nowhere: Making Place in the Global Village." In Culture, Environmental Action, and Sustainability: Proceedings of the 17th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain: Hogrefe & Huber, 2003. "A "quiet" revolution in architecture and urban planning has been taking place over the last decade, aiming to heal de wounds inflicted upon the landscape during the modern era. It is quiet because its practitioners are not united under a single banner and because their sensitivity to people and the environment often translates into desing that does not call attention to itself. Nonetheless, its impact can not be overstated. Surfacing from all corners of the globe, this transnational revolution is dramatically reshaping our physical environment, the social life that occurs in it, and the practice of urban desing. In this essay, Professor Nan Ellin describes this transformation focussing on five principle qualities - hybridity, connectivity, porosity, authenticity, and vulnerability. She also examines the larger social changes in which these qualities are emerging featuring a shift towards slowness, simplicity, sincerity, spirituality, and sustainability. "
Portillo, Margaret, and Sheila Danko. "At the Intersection of Creativity and Leadership: Strategic Stories of Design." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 483-484. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "Strategic stories of people-environment relations lie at the intersection between creativity and leadership in corporate and entertainment industry cases. These narratives examine tensions imbued in environmental attitudes, behaviors, and values of end users, clients, and designers that enhance corporate competitiveness. The narratives reported in this paper hinge on the integration and resolution of competing creative tensions. Leading corporate practices appears to maintain an openness to natural tensions inherent to creativity. By purposefully bringing unlike and diverse ideas and individuals together in a corporate setting, creative abrasion occurs, resulting in innovation (Leonard & Straus, 1999). The narratives reported in this paper are drawn from two studies: "Strategic Stories: Shaping Interior Design for the 21st Century," sponsored by the Foundation for Interior Design Education and Research and "Stories of Leadership by Design" sponsored by the Robert and Edna Shelley Gates Fund for Leadership through Design. The co-authors will present the data from the following design projects: DuPont Antron Resource Center in the Chicago Merchandise Mart, Boston Financial Headquarters, BrainStore Idea Factory in Biel, Switzerland and DreamWorks Animation campus in California."
Bonnefoy, Barbara, S Frere, I Maramotti, A. Moch, and I Roussel. "Atmospheric Pollution: Objective Measurement, Perceived Effects and Coping Behaviors." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 354-355. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002.

In the field of environmental psycholgy, numerous are the researches focused on sensitive surroundings and the relations between objective measurements and subjective evaluation (Moch, Maramotti, 1995, Moch, Moser, 1997).They generally show how big is the gap between physical and chimical aspects of the word into we live in and his perception by the people. It is what been f found in the studies concerning crowdy (Moch, Hermand, Bordas, 1995), noise and vibrations ( Rozec1999, Maramotti, 1997) or olfactory environment (Moch, Bonnefoy, 1997).It was also shown in those studies concerning atmospheric pollution which have also emphasized the importance of individuals and contextuals factors (Cohen, Evans, Stokols, Krantz, 1996, Guermond, Demczuck, 1996, Zagury, Momas, Le Moullec, Festy, 1998, Dab, Roussel, 2001).

Bauer, N, and M. Buchecker. Attitudes Towards Nature and Wilderness. Investigating the Psychological Background of the Wilderness Debate In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. In recent years wilderness has become a designated land use and is getting more and more important in Switzerland. The decisions in favor of wilderness lead to conflicts between nature conservationists, wilderness users as well as inhabitants of these regions. A new social science research project located at WSL's Section Landscape and Society is focussing on the populations attitudes towards nature and wilderness and their influence on the acceptance of different types of wildlands and on wildland management. The poster will present the most important research questions, the methods used to answer these questions and the first results of the study.
Lindström, Marianne. "Attitudes Towards Sustainable Development Issues in Four Swedish Municipalities." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 247-248. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Sustainable development was defined by the Bruntland Comission as a 'development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs' (WCED1 , 1987, p. 8). In the report 'Our Common Future' the Bruntland Commission proposed policies for a 'World Programme for Change' (WCED, 1987). At the UNCED2 , conference in Rio 1992, proposals were discussed and the action programme Agenda 21 was accepted by about 180 Heads of Governments from all over the world. In Sweden the local authorities have taken on the task to run the processes of Agenda 21 (UNGASS3 , 1997). The present research project is an interdisciplinary project starting with natural resources management in 1995 and extended with environmental psychology in 1996 (Lindström and Adolfsson Jörby, 2000). In this paper parts of the environmental psychology study are presented. The aim with this study was to analyse attitudes towards sustainable development issues among different groups in four municipalities in the south of Sweden. Sustainable development issues are global and can be apprehended as diffuse. For a better understanding of these issues in society it would be an advantage if people would prioritise the same issues. In the present investigation, we wanted to find out the opinions of different groups in four municipalities. Are the same issues important to politicians, officials, environmental representatives and to the public? Is an issue that is experienced as important to the individual also important to the municipality and to the world? We also wanted to know if the same issues were important in all four municipalities (Lindström, 2001).
Dyçer, Özgür. "Axiality in the Process of Space Organization in Architecture." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 214-215. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. The scope of this paper, tries to explain the definition of the architectural axis and its influences in the process of space organization with all due aspects to the strong relationships between geometry and architecture. In doing this, the roles of the architectural axis in the spatial evolution of the architectural history are also explained in accordance with its various characteristics in different eras. The paper tries to reveal the direct and primarily effects of the architectural axis in development of the architectural form in parallel with the spatial evolution throughout all the history of architecture. So, the study tries to reveal the evolution and the similarities of forms between the local and global in architecture. Some invariable concepts are explained by means of the geometrical characteristics of the axis to make these effects more obvious to understand.
Motta-Moss, Ana. Brazilian Immigrants: the Role of Place in Developing a Sense of Well - Being In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of place, as the intersection of psychological, social, and contextual factors, among Brazilian immigrants in New York. Due to deteriorating economic conditions, emigration from Brazil increased dramatically in late 1980s. It is estimated that between 1986-1990, about 1.4 million people left Brazil for Europe and North America, and emigration from Brazil has not stopped since then (Brazilian Consulate, 2000). Even though thousands of Brazilians live in the New York City/Newark metropolitan areas, this immigrant community is almost invisible. As 'newcomers,' Brazilians struggle to create networks similar to those already established by other immigrant groups. Since Brazilians lack an established residential neighborhood, small business conglomerates in specific geographic locations, such as the ones in 'Little Brazil' in Manhattan, NY, function as points of insertion (Lefebvre, 1991) of Brazilians in the American society. By focusing on a specific location where Brazilians congregate, this study seeks to identify and explain the dynamic processes occurring in socio-culturally constituted places, as well as examine similarities and differences in these dynamic processes according to the physical (e.g., urban design elements, material and symbolic artifacts and signs) and social characteristics of place.
Goldsmith, Mirele B.. "Building a Grass - Roots Coalition to Protect New York City's Water Supply." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 80-81. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Since 1986 New York City has been under pressure from the Environmental Protection Agency to initiate filtration of the City's water supply. Although the City has pursued opportunities to avoid filtration of water supplied from the Catskill-Delaware system, it has moved forward on plans to filter water from the smaller Croton system. Efforts to select a site for a filtration plant have aroused intense opposition from local communities. Activists from urban, low income and minority neighborhoods have joined forces with suburban citizen groups and environmental organizations concerned with New York City's water supply to advocate for alternatives to filtration. In 1997 the Croton Watershed Clean Water Council (CWCWC) was formed to bring together all of the organizations opposed to filtration to insure the sustainability of New York's water supply. The CWCWC currently includes over 45 organizations, ranging from national environmental organizations to ad-hoc neighborhood groups fighting local development projects.
Szigeti, Francoise, and Gerald Davis. "Building Performance Evaluation (Bpe): Using the Astm/ansi Standards for Whole Building Functionality and Serviceability for Major Portfolio Decisions." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 704. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. This presentation will report on the use of the ASTM/ANSI Standards for Whole Building Functionality and Serviceability to prepare a profile of functional requirements for a major organization and its five main groups, a rating profile of the Serviceability of the building they are currently occupying, and to assess the fit between the profiles. The building is on a long term lease managed by the US General Services Administration GSA). GSA used the results from these profiles and comparison in deciding whether to buy the building or move out. ASTM/ANSI Standards for Whole Building Functionality and Serviceability provides the tools to capture actionable, customer defined needs, and match them to indicators of capability expressed as ranges of performance on different topics. The standards can also be used to compare the capabilities of several facilities, or the functional requirements of several groups. There is a lot to be learned from doing Building Evaluations. But to be useful, Building Evaluations need to be linked to Customer Functional Needs on one hand and Customer Satisfaction on the other, as part of a comprehensive system of measurements. Actionable, customer defined needs have to be captured and matched to indicators of capability.
Portomeñe, José Vázquez. "Burnout Syndrome in Workplace." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 810. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Esta comunicación quere facer especial fincapé sobre a importancia da prevención de riscos laborais, tanto na síndrome de Burnout, como en calquera outros prexuízos que poidan derivarse do noso traballo. As accións preventivas son a opción de futuro para esta síndrome que se define moi ben coa frase «cando querer non é poder» e para outras patoloxías afíns que teñen a súa orixe no traballo. Se damos cumprimento, cada un desde a súa responsabilidade, ás obrigas preventivas, encontraremos que os mellores instrumentos son a información, a formación e a inclusión deste risco na avaliación sistemática. É necesario evitar ou minimiza-lo máis posible os riscos que poden desencadea-la sintomatoloxía propia da síndrome, mediante unha adecuada xestión dos recursos humanos, primando a motivación e a valoración do traballo. Se se actúa de xeito eficaz neste estadio previo evitaríanse, a través da prevención, as negativas consecuencias que o traballador padecería nos ámbitos persoal, familiar, social e laboral. Nada é tan importante como a vida e a saúde das persoas, de aí a necesidade de atalla-los posibles perigos para tan preciados bens mediante a prevención de riscos laborais.
Adham, Khaled Nezar. "Cairo's Urban Déjà Vu: Globalization and Authenticity Fromheliopolis to Dreamland." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 574-575. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002.

This paper is an effort to examine, through a back and forth excursion in space and time, a particular form of spatial expansion, landed capital, with the goal of enhancing our understanding of its most recent episodes in the production of Cairo's urban spaces. Building on the assumption that there is a relationship between the movement of capitalism and the city forming processes, I shall investigate how the incorporation of the Egyptian economy into the world capitalist, global economy affected the production of the spaces of two selected real estate developments. These two developments, namely, Heliopolis and Dreamland, represent two different epochs in the 20th century, or two different stages in the history of space-commodification in the city. While the former was one of the landed capital's earliest fruits in Cairo, the latter is one of its latest fads. Moreover, by extending the insights of some selected social theorists I shall to interpret the notion of authenticity as it is expressed in the architecture of both developments.

Azurmendi, Maria-José, and Itsaso Olaizola. "Calidad De Vida Humana Sostenible: Cultur - Diversidad, Derechoambiental Y Construcción De Ciudadanía. En El Que: Teórico - Empírico:." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 77-79. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "La importancia social concedida actualmente al "medio ambiente", en relación a la "calidad de vida humana sostenible", ha posibilitado su estudio como una problemática compleja global, en la que la "cultur-diversidad", tema central de esta comunicación, puede considerarse como parte de la "biodiversidad" a proteger y a estudiar, necesariamente, desde perspectivas pluri- e interdisciplinares. Esta comunicación, que se incluye en la "Session P2A: Urban Ecology and Sustainability (I)" de este Congreso dedicado a la "Cultura, la Calidad de Vida y la Globalización", se inscribe en un marco macroteórico integrador que tiene en cuenta las perspectivas disciplinarias de: 1) la Ecología, 2) el Derecho, 3) la Psicología Social."
Valitutti, Antonella. Calidad Residencial Y De Barrio In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Las dinámicas socio-económicas contemporáneas, y en particular los procesos de globalización, semejan solicitar una profunda reexaminación del sentido de patrimonio cultural y calidad de la vida dentro del actual escenario de cambio. En términos generales, el patrimonio cultural a menudo es identificado como un tema central para coger la actual y problemática relación entre local y global, entre mantenimiento de la identidad y la memoria y homologación y superación de las diferencias.
M. Hidalgo, Carmen, and Bernardo Hernandez. "Capacidad Restauradora De La Vegetación Urbana." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 816-817. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. En el marco general de los estudios sobre preferencia ambiental, el objetivo de este trabajo ha sido analizar la capacidad restauradora de los ambientes urbanos en relación con la presencia o ausencia de vegetación. Los resultados obtenidos muestran un mayor grado de restauración de los ambientes urbanos con escenas naturales frente a aquellos otros que carecen de elementos naturales. Los beneficios psicológicos de los ambientes naturales han sido puestos de manifiesto en numerosas investigaciones. Permanecer durante un breve periodo en un entorno natural permite restablecer capacidades cognitivas relacionadas con el procesamiento humano de la información, especialmente la capacidad de atención y concentración y la propiedad de reducir la fatiga de la atención dirigida (Kaplan y Kaplan, 1989; Kaplan, 1995).
Kita, Michihiro, Kunio Funahashi, Takeshi Suzuki, Bin Li, Jie Zhang, Manabu Kano, and Tmoaki Wakuda. "Changes in Outdoor Activity in Row House Districts a Comparison of Behaviors Observed in 1973, 1985 and 2000, and an Analysis of the Environmental Conditions Influencing Them." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 429-430. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. The areas of Nigiwai-machi, Ohji-cho, and Hannan-cho in Osaka city, Japan are residential areas composed of wooden rowhouses, which were spared from air raids in World War II. Recently, these areas have been losing their distinct social and physical character, due to their replacement by new detached houses and apartment buildings. Especially, outdoor activities have greatly decreased. These are not only traditional characteristics of these areas, but also opportunities to form communities. It is necessary to discuss methods to renew or maintain these areas by clarifying changes in outdoor activities and environmental conditions influencing these activities. This study consists of two parts; one is a quantitative analysis on changes in outdoor activities by comparing the behavior mappings conducted in 1973, 1985 and 2000. The other is a qualitative analysis of the environmental conditions having an effect on outdoor activities by thorough investigations of the streets where many outdoor activities can still be observed in 2000.
Ayataç, Hatice. "Changing Concepts in Design of Urban Space; the Case of Istanbul." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 501-503. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "The economic, political and demographic changes lived in the history of cities are explained by some basic concepts that are also determinant at the physical and spatial level. "Westernization" that took the European model as a basis and developed according to a geographical term and "Modernization" that becomes united with it as a concept define the processes of change that were effective in the 18th and 19th centuries (Batur, 1996). The meanings of both of the concepts are summarized as curiosity and interest for the "other". One other concept that took its place in the literature in parallel with the generalization of traditions and trends imported from Europe (Hobsbawm, 1983; Çelik, 1986) is "globalization". The use of this concept became widespread after 1980. The brief meaning of globalization is the world becoming a single, united Market. In other words, it is "becoming uniform" in the world (Sklair, 1996; Hacy•saliho•lu, 2000). At this point reached conceptually, it is understood that all the definitions in fact are significant and have priority in certain time spans. The paper aims an evaluating the effects of these concepts on the urban and spatial transformations for Turkey and the city of Istanbul."
Erkip, Feyzan. "Changing Meanings of Place - Identity in the Global Era: the Case Ofbilkent Shopping Center, Ankara." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 142-143. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "Place-identity is one of the key concepts in space/place dichotomy and related debate, which accelerated after global impacts on various localities. There are different standpoints in the debate depending on the place-identity components some of which can be global or local, or both. Harvey (1989) and Giddens (1990) find local components more essential for place-identity formation whereas Massey (1994) analyzes placeidentity as a relative concept defined by the interaction of global and the local. According to Massey, different identities in the same locality have always been together and place-identity itself goes far beyond the local space. Globalization made this voyage more extensive and sometimes even imaginary. Urry (1995) evaluates the tourist experience as a part of the identity processes and claims that everyday life has increasingly turned out to be a tourist experience with the possibilities provided by postmodern spaces designed for "the global citizen" under the global influences. Apparently, the "global spaces" have a varying influence upon Turkish urban citizens with different socio-economic, demographic backgrounds and aspirations. Their exposure to global spaces and the level of experience are also expected to differ. However, one needs to test these differences in the local context."
Porter, Gina, and Kathrin Blaufuss. "Children and Intermediate Means of Transport in Rural Ghana." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 759. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. This paper examines the impact on children of a small IMT action research project currently ongoing in off-road villages in southern Ghana. The project has involved providing IMTs on credit to rural women and evaluating their impact. Monitoring of the project intervention to date suggests that the availability of child labour has been a significant factor influencing women's decisions on IMT acquisition, particularly in female-headed households and that it is children who are undertaking much of the work operating the pushcarts and other IMTs introduced through the scheme. We examine children's perspectives on the IMTs and the work associated with operating them and consider the broader implications of the project findings for transport interventions in low income economies.
Nordström, Maria. "Children's Access to Space – an Important Piece of the Swedishenvironmental Heritage." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 715. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Children's access to space has been part of most Swedish children's upbringing, because Sweden is a sparsely populated country with close access to nature for most people. Today Stockholm, the capital, is growing rapidly and people will choose to live in central parts of the city, seeing urbanity as a new modern lifestyle of great value to them. Young families will choose to remain in the city centre also when they have children and also when they realize that open spaces for their children to play in are not found near-by. This development will have consequences for how children are brought up and what competences they develop. In my presentation I will draw on different studies comparing how inner city children and children living less centrally in Stockholm use and value their near environment as well as how countryside children of different social groups use their environment. I will discuss conceptual differences of place when seen from the perspective of nature and from the perspective of a social arena.
Maxwell, Lorraine E.. "Children's Development of Self - Identity: the Role of the Physicalenvironment." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 531-532. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "This paper examines the role of the physical environment in children's development of self-identity. Previous work related to this topic will be reviewed in order to develop a framework for thinking about the role of place in children's self identity. Research in the fields of both environmental and developmental psychology will be reviewed. The concept of self-identity has been linked to the concept of place identity. Place identity is defined as the "substructure of the person's self-identity that is comprised of cognitions about the physical environment that also serve to define who the person is" (Proshansky & Fabian, 1987). Self-identity is not confined to an understanding of how one relates to other people and the boundaries between self and others but also to an understanding of how one relates to one's physical surroundings. In this paper the concepts of self-identity and place identity will be examined with a focus on children."
M. Kyttä, Marketta. "Children's Independent Mobility and the Affordances of the Environment." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 719. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Children's freedom to move around in the environment and independent mobility may be connected to children's ability to perceive, use and shape affordances. The latter refer to the functionally (and socially) significant properties of the environment that are perceived through the active and direct detection of information. Children with few mobility restrictions may find more affordances in the environment than those children who are restricted to move around. On the other hand, a rich set of affordances may motivate children to explore their environments more extensively. The aim of the paper is to present a synthesis of several studies on the relationship of children´s mobility and the availability of affordances. Research methods include questionnaires on affordance availability as well as interviews with both children (241 children) and their parents in Finland and in Belarus.
Prezza, Miretta. "Children´s Independent Mobility in Italy: a Synthesis of Research." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 720-721. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. The interest of psychologists in the consistent decrease of children's autonomy of movement and play in the urban context is fairly recent in Italy. The aim of this paper is to present a synthesis of Italian research to outline a picture of this phenomenon in this country. This will include how it manifests itself, which factors favour autonomy of movement and which correlate with the scarcity of autonomy. The level of autonomy of movement in Italian children is discouraging. For example, only 20 and 30% of 10 year olds go to school alone or with peers. At this age, in central Italy, 44 - 48% of children have never gone on errands alone (Prezza et al;, 2000; Alparone et al., 2001). Even the possibility of playing outside without strict supervision of adults is extremely limited.
Zacharias, John. "Choosing Sustainability: the Persistence of Non - Motorized Transport in Chinese Cities." In Culture, Environmental Action, and Sustainability: Proceedings of the 17th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain: Hogrefe & Huber, 2003. Non-motorized transport expanded rapidly in most Chinese cities following market liberalization in 1978. The bicycle and pedestrian share of intra-city trips continued to grow until the mid-1990s while incomes continued to rise and cities invested in new highways and public transportation. The affection for the bicycle in particular is closely related to extensive urban infrastructure and the predominance of bicycles on many urban thoroughfares. The commercial and service structure of cities has developed around non-motorized modes, further reinforcing these forms of transportation. In spite of central government policies to promote the use of motorized modes and the automobile industry in particular, street culture remains closely allied with non-motorized modes. Personal characteristics, income and household composition have relatively little to do with the persistence of sustainable transport in China. While the future of non-motorized modes is unclear, the use of bicycle, tricycle and pedestrian modes remain a significant advantage for Chinese cities facing substantial challenges to a viable and sustainable transport future.
Toker, Zeynep, Umut Toker, and Fatih A. Rifki. "Citizen Participation Through Charrette as a Design Strategy for Promoting Sustainable Development in a Small Town: Case of Mebane, North Carolina, U.s.a." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 91-92. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. The goal of this project is to generate appropriate design guidelines and implementation strategies for development in key locations of downtown Mebane, North Carolina. One of the main objectives of the project is to enhance community participation in this process. The appropriate goal setting technique in this regard is chosen as charrette process, i.e., the rapid pace at which the design is finalized with a guiding principle: consensus (Sanoff, 2000). The charrette process is planned in three phases. In the first phase, objectives and strategies were determined based on the identified problems. The second phase elaborates on design implications of these strategies. Finally, in the third phase the appropriate design guidelines will be generated for the development of downtown Mebane. Following the first phase of the process, which was presented in the ARCC spring 2001 conference, second phase is prepared, illuminating the third phase.
Moser, G, A Legendre, and E. Ratiu. "City - Dwellers Relationship Networks†: Patterns of Adjustment to Urban Constraints." In Culture, Environmental Action, and Sustainability: Proceedings of the 17th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain: Hogrefe & Huber, 2003. Urban life has been repeatedly described as being constraining. What is the impact of living in a metropolis on interpersonal relationships? Data on the extend of the relationship network and the way of relating of Parisians, suburbians and inhabitants of a minor town were collected by standardized interviews. 302 heads of family, half of them having the possibility to escape for week-ends (second home, family house), described their relationship network, the origin of each relation and the modalities of frequentation. Results show that urban constraints, and specifically the short free-time left to people living in Paris and its suburbs, results in adjusting relational behaviour. Difficulties to interact frequently with the traditional friendship network is compensated by an increase in local sociability. The number of relations originated in neighborhood associations and workplace is much higher for the parisians and suburbians than for the inhabitants of the small town. Furthermore, urbanites meet their friends less spontaneously, even when they keep as many relationships as people living in smaller towns. Only those who have the opportunity to escape have a mean number of relations similar to the small town inhabitants, and they meet their friends prefencially on week-ends out of town.
Mura, Marina. City and Sustainability of Tourism In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. The paper deals with the psychological aspects involved in the process of knowledge of a city. At a general level we argued that constructs elaborated within environmental psychological literature, such as place identity, social legibility and social representations of the environment, could be useful in the study of tourism behaviour and tourism experience, in particular if we assume an approach which focuses on the problems of cultural and ecological sustainability of tourism behaviour.
Iglesias, Alicia N., Adriana N. Martínez, and Marta I. Kollmann. "Claves Ambientales Y Territoriales De La Política Regional De La República Argentina (Mercosur)." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 107-108. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Departamento de Geografía de la Facultad de Filosofía y Letras de la Universidad de Buenos Aires. Argentina. Objetivo: Evaluar el significado de la dimensión regional de las problemáticas ambientales para una política de desarrollo sostenible en Argentina, en el contexto de las modificaciones suscitadas por el proceso de integración regional del MERCOSUR y el fenómeno de la globalización. Metodología: La estrategia metodológica descansa en la consideración del juego entre variables significativas para la dilucidación de tal perspectiva; entre otras, se analizan: - Los conflictos sociales derivados del proceso cultural, histórico y geográfico del modelo socioespacial de concentración de la población y de las actividades económicas y del poder que caracteriza a Argentina y, desde el cual, ésta busca su articulación al escenario de integración del MERCOSUR impulsado por la globalización. - El significado de la regionalización de Argentina, dada su condición histórica de vinculación con la construcción de su forma federal de gobierno asumida como sistema de organización política de las diferencias regionales (entre provincias).
Ramadier, Thierry. "Cognitive Map and Social Group: a Technique for Comparison." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 709. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Laboratoire Image et Ville Université Louis Pasteur Strasbourg-France The aim of this communication is to compare data recorded by sketch maps with those recorded by materials that people dispose in a display unit. Each time the researcher investigates cognitive maps of an urban area, he or she only access to a representation of this cognitive image of space rather than it expression. Then, the ability of the respondents to communicate their cognitive image to the researcher is always a problem when comparisons concern social or cultural analysis. Furthermore, in the context of globalisation and high mobility, most of the questions in urban planning are to detect social or cultural differences for spatial representation on a same urban area. Therefore, the wide investigation of cognitive maps by sketch map, since the sixties, reveal that this technique is not efficient in this perspective: motor skill, creation of symbolic representation of physical elements, familiarity with paper and pencil format, etc., are strongly dependent to the social groups. Generally, these factors do not interest researchers and they try to minimize them. In this perspective, we propose to use symbolic but expressive standardised materials that respondents manipulate to communicate their spatial image of an urban area in order to compare social and cultural groups. Conclusions relate to differences observed between standardised materials and the sketch map technique
Polic, Marko, Grega Repov, Karel Natek, Marijan Klemenèiè, Drago Kos, Mirjana Ule, Ivan Marus•Iè, and Ana Kuèan. "Cognitive Map of Slovenia: Perception of Regions." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 311-322. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "Cognitive maps, as we know them nowadays, are of great theoretical and practical importance for understanding human transactions with their environment. They contain subjective knowledge of the environment, and could give us insight into peoples' orientation in the environment and the use of it. Anne Whyte (1977) for instance emphasized importance of environmental perception research, because individual and collective understanding of the environment could be seen as a major force in shaping that environment through the action of human's choices and behavior. It should be the main starting-point of any human-environment relationship analysis. The aim of such research projects is to recognize the view from "the inside", which should complement the view from the outside. Taking into account this inside view, could importantly contribute to the planning process, helping in adjusting it to the human needs. But this does not literally mean mapping it into the plan. Namely planning should also represents a process of negotiating the common image of the environment between planners, users and other groups. Here we are reporting a part of the extensive research on the cognitive map of Slovenia covering different aspects of inhabitants' mental image of the country, namely part devoted to the perception of region."
Burton, Christina M.. "Color Implications and Interactions Between the Professions: Aninternational Collaboration on a Color Research Survey." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 651-652. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "Color and light are important elements of design and are used by divers professionals, such as educators, designers, scientists, artists, and psychologists. Among these different professions, the interaction between people and their environments or products is dramatically impacted by color. The use of color reveals problems that impact the views of people-environment research. This paper is a work in progress of an international collaboration involving the use of color and research. A review of the literature reveals several types of information available about color: trends, forecasting, anecdotal information, and color studies that may or may not be based on scientific research. In healthcare environments, color can play a role in healing according to Marberry in The Power of Color: Creating Healthy Interior Spaces, though she agrees that most of the research on color is out-of-date. "A Challenge for a Potential Global Color Research Agenda in 2000" was presented in Budapest, Hungary at the Seventh Congress of The International Colour Association (Association Internationale de la Couleur, AIC). The results showed that the existing color research is not applicable (30.6%), not appropriate (16.7%) or not available (13.9%)."
Urland, Andrea. "Colour in the Urban Environment." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 790-791. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002.

This contribution examines the role of colour in the built environment, namely in the architectural exteriors and urban spaces with regard to the current restructuring and transformation processes. It attempts to summarize the main characteristics of the changing manifestations of colour in the urban environment, the impact on its functioning and aesthetical acceptance, the changes in the attitudes of people to colour that have been accompanying the transformation processes in the society over the past more than 10 years. Colour has for decades been underestimated in its importance and impact in the built environment. Time pressure in which the actors of the planning and design process find themselves, the lack of relevant training as well as economically conditioned priorities put environmental colour design often into a marginal position in the whole design process.

Vlek, Charles. "Common Dilemmas, Cultural Development and Quality of Life. What Can We Do, What do We Want, What Shall We Achieve?" In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Starting from major environmental and social concerns, an extended commons-dilemma paradigm will be reviewed as a source of critical questions for research and policy making about sustainable development. Apart from classical cooperativeness factors such as problem awareness, incentives and trust, ‘Quality of Life’ (QoL) will be empirically summarised as a multidimensional goal concept suitable for understanding as well as changing human behaviour patterns. We will see which QoL factors people find most important, and how QoL effects of behaviour change may be charted. We will further consider basic questions about ‘sustainable’ (mostly: low-energy) consumer lifestyles. How liveable are such lifestyles? What could be done to clarify and support them, by scientists, governments and business corporations? Specific implications for the IAPS community will be discussed.
Kurono, Hiroyasu, and Shigetomo Kikuchi. "Common Principles in Tonami Plains Underlying Three Different Types of Villages." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 63-64. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. This study attempts to establish which principles are common to all villages in Tonami plains in Japan through a comparative study including three different types of villages. A «dispersed village,» a «row-shaped village,» and a «street village.» These three types of villages have been formed in the same epoch (17th century) and in the same geographical conditions. Thus, the different forms of these villages can be explained from a dwelling system viewpoint. A dwelling system is defined as the systematic relationship among a house plan, a homestead, and a village. It also includes an initial planning as well as a physical setting arranged by the inhabitants. A dwelling system is important to reevaluate Japanese traditional houses, and landscapes in provincial areas. Although a dwelling system has brought each village its own shape in Japan, this system has been neglected while performing environmentalimprovement policies since the Second World War. An analysis of village spatial composition, and land ownership before and after readjustment of arable land was conducted. From this analysis, three common principles were discovered:
Martorella, H.. "Commons Dilemmas and Natural Resources Management: a Review." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 183-184. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "A Social Dilemma is a situation in which the immediate individual interest may lead to a disaster for the collective (Messick & Brewer, 1983; Dawes & Messick, 2000). The Social Dilemmas paradigm was born and developed by economical and mathematical sciences and, in the last two decades, has become a very broad theoretical approach, flexible enough to be used in various disciplines to analyse different kinds of cooperative choices. Social Dilemmas are redefined as "commons dilemmas" (Hardin, 1968; Dawes, 1980; Brewer & Schneider, 1999); the first author that used this term was Dawes in 1980, inspired by the work of Hardin (1968) "The tragedy of the Commons". There are two kinds of Commons Dilemmas, Public Goods Dilemmas and Resources Dilemmas. They both are referred to a conflict between individual and collective interest, but in Public goods dilemmas, individuals must decide whether to cooperate or not; anyway, they have free access to common resources, whatever the level of the contribution (Dawes & Messick, 2000; van Dijk & Vilke, 2000). Some examples of Public Goods Dilemmas, are taxes or recycling. In Resource Dilemmas, the main problem is whether to take from a common resource for the individual interest or not. Every individual has got an immediate personal benefit from using the resource, but if all individuals act in such a way, the resource may be depleted and the collective will be worse than they restrainded themselves (Dawes & Messick, 2000; Van Vugt, 2000). Examples of Resources Dilemmas, in real world settings are the problems of natural resources management."
Abuorf, Hazem, and Martin Symes. "Communication Across Boundaries of Conflict a Planning Study of Divided Nicosia." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 295-296. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Many have raised questions about the issue of divided cities, such as Chicago, where much discussion is framed in the evolving context of a dynamic quantitative ecology (see Byrne, 1995; Byrne, 1984; Morenoff & Tienda, 1997). They argue that cities are becoming polarised spaces in which the divided social pattern is understood as a process carried out over time. Seen in this way, some cities have exhibited a detailed pattern of differentiation, defined by ethnicity and race (Madanipour et al., 1998; Hamnett, 1996). Accordingly, these differences are central to the dividing lines in social-spatial structures, giving rise to the way by which culture and kinship actually develops. This paper concentrates on cases of partitioned cities that are overwhelmed by political and military factors, giving rise to the particular shape and character of their landscape. Examples are drawn from the east Mediterranean area: the cities of Jerusalem, Beirut and Nicosia. These cities demonstrate the structural instability of fragmented institutional cultures in dramatic political instability.
Pasalar, Celen, Dilek Yildiz, and Henry Sanoff. "Community Participation in Riverfront Development." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 271-272. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Waterfront planning and development has become a field in its own right, not unlike historic preservation. The transformation of urban waterfronts often plays a major role in ongoing efforts to restore town and city centers to economic and social health (Breen & Rigby, 1994). Effective town restoration using a waterfront is a form of community building, an approach dedicated to the idea that citizens must take control of their destiny and that of their communities. Community building grows from a vision of how communities function, where community members create institutions that help to achieve their aspirations as well as strengthen community fabric. Many case experiences suggest that citizen-driven initiatives have a greater chance of success because citizens are more aware of the realities of their own community than outside professionals (Sanoff, 2000).
Sixsmith, Judith, and Margaret Boneham. "Community Space, Masculinities and Health." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 611-612. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "This paper will present some of the findings from a project funded by the Health Development Agency in the UK on the relationship between social capital, health and gender. This project featured a qualitatively based case study analysis of a socially deprived community in the North West of England (see Sixsmith, Boneham and Goldring, 2001). Putnam's notion of social capital underpinned the research where social capital was loosely defined as "...features of social life - networks, norms and trust- that enable participants to act together more effectively to pursue shared objectives." (Putnam, 1996, p56). Putnam argues that participation in community groups and activities increases the development of social capital (Putnam, 2000) which Campbell et al (1999) suggests has implication for the health and well-being of community members. Moreover, people's relationships with space and place are highly gendered (Spain, 1992). Thus, an understanding of the social construction of health and apparent health inequalities experienced by diverse social groups (Acheson, 1998) needs to take into account the gendered community spaces which contextualise their everyday life."
Vázquez, Rebeca Contreras. "Comparación De Representaciones, De Practicas Sociales De Relaciones De Convivencia Y De La Identidad Social De Dos Ciudades De México." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 171-172. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Esta investigación tiene como propósito general conocer la relación que existe entre representaciones sociales prácticas sociales e identidad social urbana comparando dos ciudades de México. Nos interesa investigar de que manera la dinámica de relación conocida entre representaciones sociales y prácticas sociales puede incidir en la identidad social urbana. Dentro de este marco consideramos que la representación social como sistema de interpretación, tiene la función de regir las prácticas del sujeto dentro de su ambiente. Partimos del postulado de que las diferencias entre la manera en que los habitantes de una ciudad y en particular de una colonia se representan las relaciones de convivencia y sus prácticas sociales dentro de las condiciones reales de su vivir cotidiano, puede influir en la construcción socio simbólica de los espacios urbanos y de la identidad social.
Aksoylu, Sevin. "Comparing the Qualitative Characteristics of Planned and Unplanned Housing Environment in Esky••ehy•r - Turkey." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 409-410. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Realization of the right to live in a healty and balanced environment depends on everyone's having a shelter in which he can live his life in physical, social, economic and psychological well-being. The city should bring a wide variety of social facilities such as nurseries, hospitals, social service agencies etc. It also concentrates on employment opportunities which is one of its great attractions. More generally, the city represents choice of social relations, education, services and work. ( Commission of the European Communities, 1990) But because of land speculation , lack of financial resources of the municipalities to expropriate the land for basic services and political pressures, the master plan can not be implemented and depending on this, both planned and unplanned housing areas can not assure the physical,social ana psychological well-being. Whereas, economic, social and environmental issues of housing areas are taken into consideration; measures are taken to develop the capacity to sustain their productivity, improve the living conditions of the inhabitants and manage natural resources (such as agricultural land) in a sustainable way. Because improvement in housing and community facilities is not only valuable by itself but is also a means for raising standards of health, education and productivity as well as for eliminating the most glaring inequities.
Cahantimur, Arzu. "Comparision of Residential Areas in Traditional Environments Andsuburbia in Terms of Environmental Quality and Residentialsatisfaction Case Study: Turkey - Bursa." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 454-455. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. World has changed in technological, social, economical and political terms within the end of the 20th century and the effects of this change are also being reflected to the 21st century. Transition from the industrial society to the information society as well as the globalization process led to changes in space and spatial organizations; thus, most of the cities around the different regions of the world have been subject to important social and cultural alterations. As a result of this urban transformation process around the world, different physical and social structures emerged in different regions and cities.
Munakata, Jun, and Takaya Kojima. "Comparison Between the Aged and the Youth of their Attitudetoward Old People's Hearing Disability." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 557-558. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Japanese society is aging rapidly. In 2025, the ratio of old people who are over 65 years old will be 27% of whole population. It is important to make good living and social environment for various generations. The difference of hearing ability can obstruct and influence good communication between the youth and the aged. In some case, this may be not only because of the difference of hearing ability itself, but because of their difference of the attitude toward the old people's hearing disability and inconvenience of daily life. In this study, an attitude survey about old people's hearing disability was conducted with young and old people, and the result was compared with their age and the experience of living with old family.
González, Angel Fernández. "Complexity in the Mental Representation of the City: Experts Indesign Vs Non Experts." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 327-328. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "The research presented here proposes to examine the complexity of the mental representation of the city by means of the evaluation made by two different professional groups (one of experts in urban design, the other of non experts) of a series of significent city landmarks. We start from the assumption that the specialists in urban design will posess a different degree of complexity in their urban representation. To examine that differing complexity of representation, we have resource to a technique which, for all its difficulties in terms of implementation, offers a series of interesting possibilties, such as the "repertory grid" (Caputy and Keynes, 2001): it is a technique which does not impose limits of any kind when applied at an individual level and it is the subjects who are the objects of the research that freely provide us with the elements and constructs with which we are able to then work in a standard format applicable to all the subjects and allowing a comparison between them."
Hunziker, Marcel, and Matthias Buchecker. CONFLICTING EXPECTATIONS AND OBJECTIVES REGARDING LANDSCAPEDEVELOPMENT IN THE ALPS In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "Due to the high value of the landscape as an important resource of the Alpine region, in particular regarding tourism, society is called upon to consciously steer the future development of this landscape. However, the objectives and expectations of the general public are not yet sufficiently well known as to serve as a reliable basis for concrete landscape management strategies. Thus, a first main goal of the study is to investigate the objectives of different parts of the (Swiss) population regarding the Alpine landscape and its development. To this end, selected representatives of the population will be asked to judge concrete scenarios of possible future landscape development in the Alps. If such judgements are to be valid indicators of general and group-specific objectives and thus a reliable basis for steering the future landscape development, one must be able to explain the judgements and their variance by underlying driving factors. The following driving factors found in the literature will play an important role: basic "psychological" needs (e.g. Appleton 1975/1995; Hartig et al. 1997; Kaplan & Kaplan 1989), cultural values and social norms (e.g. Appleyard 1979; Weichhardt 1990), group-specific or personal interests (e.g. van den Berg 1998; Hunziker 1995) and personal identification resp. attachment and familiarity (e.g. Korpela et al. 2001; Purcell et al. 2001; Twigger-Ross & Uzzell 1996) regarding the affected places."
Filiz, Hatice Günseli. "Constructing the Enclosed Garden in Urban Context: Jeannouvel's Fondation Cartier." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 219-220. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "In today's conditions, with the decline of architectural quality and the environmental destruction in the city scale, there is the urban chaos causing the fragmentation between the building, the urban tissue and the green. In the fragmented urban space, skipping the in-between is an inevitable result. In the search of a middleway, the enclosed garden as an architectural production in which the natural peculiarities are not neglected could now serve as a solution. When such defined polarities such as inside-outside, introverted-extraverted, centralizeddecentralized are forced to define new modes of spatial conceptions, the fragments of the contemporary urban landscape could completely disappear. For Aben and de Wit, "the landscape today is no longer the natural or rural counter form of the city, moreover diffusing into the city and being absorbed in a diffuse urban landscape."1 Therefore, a new set of relations between the city and its natural surrounding as expressed in the enclosed garden is now imminent. In this study, the enclosed garden as a spatial tool also empowers the author to critically analyze the Fondation Cartier, the Contemporary Art Center, which is an important Parisian element spatially and culturally. Jean Nouvel builds this significant building in 1994 on Raspail Boulevard 261, Paris."
Sánchez, Euclides, and Esther Wiesenfeld. "Construction of Theory in Environmental Psychology:a View from the Socioconstructionist Perspective." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 733-734. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Criticism of the positivist approach, the dominant paradigm for conducting science for many years, has intensified in the social sciences during the last two decades and there has been growing debate on alternative approaches that promise to overcome its weaknesses. This debate is of particular interest in the field of psychology. The questioning of positivism focuses on: the paradigm's ontological foundations, i.e., its conception of reality; its epistemological foundations, or its conception of the relationship between the researcher and the research subject; and its methodological foundations, or the metatheoretical framework which guides research. The new proposals that have emerged, such as the social constructionism and critical theory paradigms, as well as new perspectives such as that of feminism, have introduced conceptions radically different from those of positivism in each of those three dimensions. In particular, a different way of doing research known as qualitative research, which has a certain tradition in anthropology and sociology, has begun to take root as a legitimate alternative for the production of systematic knowledge in the rest of the social sciences.
Paxson, Lynn. "Contested Stories: Marginalized Groups and their Spatial Narratives." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 758. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Public space can be a place for re-imagining who we are, who we have been and who we might become. It offers opportunities to present narratives that renew a sense of self and allow for a communal response from the rest of society. Since we are beginning not only to acknowledge that multiple narratives exist but also that they have a right to exist and be shared, differences between stories often result in contestations over public space. These contestations are often about establishing a public identity for contested users, or questioning who is in control or of the use, the story or the contest. Such contestation has the potential to provide a stage or platform for the previously marginalized, invisible, and voiceless to gain a voice, for alternate histories to be performed. In this way rather than seeking to resolve the contested issues support can be provided for the contestation. The motivation to create unity and harmony, or alternatively the motivation to appreciate difference and uncertainty, generate very different approaches to the design, use, and management of public open space. If contestations between differing opinions and desires are critical to visions of the future of both the culture and public space, then looking at contestation across the process of defining and creating a space is as important as looking at it during use.
Papapetrou, Maria. "Creating a Learning Environment for Young People - Anexperimental Use of Paricipatory Design Methods in the 1St Technical High School of Neapolis." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 474-475. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "School environment is an especially sensitive part of the whole built environment, because of its multiple influence on developing individual's everyday life, in terms of biological, cognitive, psychological and social aspects. Its influence is connected with the quality of student's daily life, with remarkable consequences in his personal and social development, determining his values and future attitudes. In fact, the learning environment, both material and psychological, as an assimilation of the wider real world, is affecting student's intellectual and emotional evolution, fundamentally contributing to the teaching process success. So there is a big emphasis on the kind and the quality of school physical environment, from where students obtain their immediate experiences of learning, under the general meaning of the term. The Greek school building today, is designed and produced by the State's " School Building Organisation ", which has produced some standard types of school buildings, that are in use today, all over Greece. This centralizing type of school design related with the big number of changes, the educational system has been through, the last decade, leaded to a wide range of problems, such as qualitative and quantitative. Inadequacies and deficiencies of learning environment, negatively affecting the whole teaching and educational process today."
Leigh, Katharine E., and Mary Beth Robinson. "Creativity and Concept - Based Design: a System for Learning." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 638-640. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002.

"Creativity is a process of recognizing the problem, understanding the situation, finding relationships, visualizing solutions, and testing the consequences. (Kurtich and Eakin, 1993) "[A] concept is the main idea influencing the steps taken and the decisions made during a project's design phase. Thus it affects the selection and manipulation of basic design elements and organizational principles to be used in solving a specific design problem. (Malnar and Vodvarka, 1992)"

Grimshaw, Rw. "Creativity, Globalisation and the Physical Environment of Work." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 580-581. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Globalisation is forcing a fundamental review of how large organisations need to be structured in order to compete in a rapidly changing world. The arguments put forward by leading management thinkers are well known (Drucker, Senge, Handy, Argyris, Bartlett & Ghosal)) and can be distilled into the propositions that competitive advantage can only be maintained by creating and applying new knowledge; that the most flexible organisational form is the extended network organization held together by a flow of knowledge; that autocratic top down management styles are less and less appropriate; and that people are an organisation's chief asset.
Manav, Banu, and Elçin Tezel. "Crossing Boundaries of Color - Culture and Influences on Environmental Perception." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 345-346. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Color, is not only the property of the surrounding objects or surfaces, it is the sensation that is recognized by the eye and is interpreted by the brain (1). Color is created by light that affects body function as it influences mind and emotions. Collective findings have shown that color physiologically affects brain waves, functions of automatic nervous system, hormonal activity and arouses emotional and aesthetic impressions (1,2). Psychological response to color is related to subjective and objective impressions such as the perception of volume, temperature, noise and estimation of time (1,3,4). In other words, our response to color is both pyhsiological and psychological. Different hues of color with varying degrees of value and saturation arouse different feelings and associate with different moods. Studies on color connotations showed that, some colors are associated with several moods and some moods are associated with more than one color. For instance, red, symbolically known as a dominant and a dynamic color, has an exciting and stimulating hue effect . It has both positive and negative impressions such as; active, strong, passionate, warm, but on the other hand aggressive, bloody, raging and intense. Green, on the other hand, has a retiring and relaxing hue effect. It also has both positive and negative impressions such as; refreshing, quiet, natural, but also, tiresome and guilty (1,3).
Hou, Jeffrey. "Cultural Identities in Shifting Landscapes: Cultural Landscapeconservation in the Face of Global Change." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 509-510. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "Cultural landscapes are expressions of local and regional identities. Ingerson (2000a) argued that virtually all landscapes have cultural associations because all landscapes have been affected in some way by human action or perception. In 1992, the World Heritage Convention (WHC) became the first international legal instrument to recognize and protect cultural landscape. According to WHC (2001), "the term 'cultural landscape' embraces a diversity of manifestations of the interaction between humankind and its natural environment...They are illustrative of the evolution of human society and settlement over time, under the influence of the physical constraints and/or opportunities presented by their natural environment and of successive social, economic and cultural forces, both external and internal." In the 1990s, the study of cultural landscape shifted from a focus on vernacular landscape to the emphasis on the multiple and often conflicting meanings of land (Ingerson, 2000b). According to Groth (1997: 6), the contrast of diversity and uniformity frame essential and continuing debates within cultural landscape interpretations."
El-Gowhary, Hatem. "Culture, Behavior and Urban Open Space: a Study of Environmental Behavior in Residential Areas, with Special Reference to Alexandria, Egypt." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 245-246. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. This paper will describe the initial findings of a doctoral research project. The project is concerned with the use of urban spaces between buildings in Egyptian residential areas, with special reference to Alexandria city. These residential spaces provide the major part of the public open space in the city. Alexandria city has differing traditional urban patterns and the typology of open space in residential areas varies from one part of the city to another. In the western districts near the seaport, the area is mainly a grid of straight streets, with low-rise buildings. The streets are of considerable width to cater for heavy goods traffic. To the south, a typical space consists of straight streets, which are often long and form a rigid layout. The buildings occupy all the blocks and are of an almost uniform typology, predominately apartment blocks built on small subdivisions of land, and building heights vary between two to ten stories. Except for the streets and a few squares, little open space is available for public use.
Tyrrell, Roger. "Culture, Climate, Place. a Cultural Perspective of Sustainable Architecture." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 497-498. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "Much of the body of analysis and synthesis within the realm of Sustainable Architecture has primarily focussed upon the physicality of the built environment, leaving the complex relationship between culture, climate and place largely undisturbed. The hypothesis of this paper is that for an architectural proposition to represent a truly sustainable design solution, reference to the cultural domain must be implicit. Examination of many ancient cultures has shown that this complex matrix has been fully accounted for in determining an appropriate synthesis in the formation of "place". Indeed, climatic and cultural dimensions were traditionally central in informing that which we now call Architecture."
R Mira, García, J. M. Sabucedo Cameselle, and Romay J. Martínez. "Culture, Quality of Life and Globalisation." In Culture, Environmental Action, and Sustainability: Proceedings of the 17th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain: Hogrefe & Huber, 2003. This chapter analyses the dimensions of culture, quality of life and globalisation, placing them in their broadest psychosocial context and analysing the tensions generated by a global culture in the smaller-sized spheres of local cultures, whilst at the same time calling for a space for reflection in which the complexity of social organisation in a changing world and the transformation that this works on our lifestyles can be analysed. The study also looks at the role of psychology in interpreting the way in which culture itself constructs the framework for interpreting reality, and puts forward the need to make the existence of a global framework of interaction between cultures compatible with the necessary recognition of the idiosyncratic specificity of each culture.
Zacharias, John. "Cycling as a Way of Life in Chinese Cities." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 714. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. The bicycle has dominated Chinese urban transportation for 20 years. Travel by bicycle has contributed greatly to the shaping of the cultural and economic landscape. For example, in Tianjin (population 4.5 m) 55% of all trips of more than a half-kilometer were by bicycle in 2000. While draconian policies to reduce bicycle use have had major effect in certain cities, mostly in the Pearl River Delta, elsewhere attempts are being made to accommodate both rising motorization and public affection for the bicycle. On the other hand, local leaders generally regard the bicycle as a symbol of the lean socialist years, problematic for traffic management and a visual pollutant. The widespread use of the car as a reward to valued employees is a major contributor to the growth in automobiles and is also shaping popular perceptions of status and the value of technology. A window of opportunity of just 10-15 years remains for the inclusion of the bicycle in long-term plans for Chinese cities. The recent explosion in the number of pedestrian malls offers a hopeful sign for the bicycle. The demand for better environmental conditions, supplied in the form of pedestrianized districts, is resulting in a quickening demand for environmental improvements elsewhere. A global motor culture must be accommodated along with a redesigned non-motorized transportation system. This presentation covers the major factors in the present, evolving traffic situation with examples drawn from several cities in China.
Lacombe, Cecile. "Daycare Centers for Young Children: Spatial Structure, Use Ofspace, and Caregiver Control of Everyday Activity Patterns." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 517-518. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Ecological approaches to young children's environment focus on the complex interrelations between children and their physical environment, especially in institutions (Legendre, 1999; Smith & Connolly, 1980; Campos-de-Carvalho, 1996). However, when researchers try to understand the interrelations between children and their physical environment in daycare centers, the playroom is often the central focus of the research, even in ecological approaches. This focus on the playroom overlooks the spatial organization of the building and its role in children's daily experiences. The playroom is not the only important area in the life of children in daycare centers. During the course of a day, they have many experiences in different parts of the building. Contextual approaches in developmental psychology suggest that, each day, a succession of zones of action affect children's development (Valsiner, 1987). Valsiner shows that, for young children, the ways in which space and physical resources are used are very important for development. Influenced by their own culture and experiences, but also by the building's spatial structure, caregivers create these zones of action. Each of them is defined by the physical space, physical resources, regulations (i. e., physical or psychological boundaries), and activities that are encouraged according to the developmental level of the child. In this way, caregivers create a spatio-temporal context for the development of children. The research to be presented analyzes these patterns and zones of action in five daycare centers in Quebec. These settings each have a very strong spatial and temporal structure. The study of these daycare centers aims at understanding the ways in which caregivers regulate the use of space for children in relation to the spatial structure of the building, but also according to their own values, experiences and interpretations of government rules and programs. It also aims at understanding the actual experiential opportunities for children in the building, considering not only its physical structure, but also the structure of the regulations in the building.
Casal, Aimée, and Cintia Okamura. "Declared Environmental Priorities and Reactions to Olfactoryannoyance: a Comparative Analysis on Waste Purification Plants in Sao Paulo and Paris." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 193-194. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "The awareness of environmental problems and the necessity to act in favor of the interests of future generations does not always come along with consequent individual behavior. The concept of sustainability (Rio, 1992) implies a long-term projective concern which often is in contradiction with on the spot individual interests. In this respect, annoyances linked to waste purification plants questions the dilemma between collective benefit and local individual interest on one hand, and the NIMBY effect ("Not in My Back Yard"), on the other hand. The NIMBY phenomenon is frequently observed in the surroundings of industrial sites implanted in residential areas. Inhabitants exposed to industrial nuisances tend to disregard advantages, and consequently also the benefits of certain industrial installations for one's environment and to point only at the inconveniences that they experience in everyday life."
Benitez, Lymari. "Deconstructing Hegemony in the Process of Redevelopment Ofbrownfields." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 273-274. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. This work discusses the concept of hegemony looking at its evolution in the theories of Antonio Gramsci and Paulo Freire. To illustrate the hegemony progression, I present an overview of each of the theories discussed and how they used this concept. Also, I present how these theories made an impact in the field of environmental psychology and my applied work. The way these theories conceptualized hegemony is very useful to the practice of environmental psychology and my applied work. Environmental psychology deals with relations between human beings and their environments. These relations are affected by the dominant view of the world, which has an impact on how people define and conceive their environment. It is very important to identify this hegemonic view, because it dictates the relations between the dominant and oppressed groups and the environment. Gramsci and Freire's theory provide the frame to:...
Kenzari, Bechir. "Defying Dislocation." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 65-66. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "In 1960's the Government of Tunisia started the implementation of a comprehensive countryside development programme, thus making the first step towards a socialist economic policy at the national level. In an effort to improve the living conditions of thousands of peasants, an agricultural campaign, known as the "Cooperatives" was launched and a territory planning agenda was set. Numerous rural communities, especially those living in the Tell Mountains, were forced to move to new, more accessible locations. Situated in the plains, generally few miles down from the ancient villages, the new settlements were designed to be easily accessed. Public services and rural housing facilities were accordingly built to secure this ambitious territory programme."
Medvedovski, Nirce Saffer. "Desarrollo De Directrices Especiales Para La Regularización Fundiaria De Conjuntos Habitacionales Populares." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 116-118. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. El proyecto «Desarrollo de Directrices Especiales para la Regularización Urbanística, Técnica y Fundiaria de Conjuntos Habitacionales Populares» tiene como objetivo desarrollar una metodología de regularización aplicada a los conjuntos habitacionales populares y que contemple no solamente los habituales aspectos de la regularización jurídica y urbanística, sino también la regularización de los aspectos técnicos y de gestión de la infraestructura y servicios urbanos. En esta propuesta serán enfocados los servicios de saneamiento básico de agua y alcantarilla. La regularización fundiaria (ALFONSIM,1997) es el proceso de intervención pública que busca legalizar y viabilizar técnicamente la permanencia de poblaciones residentes en áreas urbanas que han sido ocupadas en desconformidad con las leyes y padrones técnicos y urbanísticos para fines de habitación. La regularización Urbanística se ocupa de la conformidad de las áreas habitacionales con relación a padrones constructivos y de inserción urbana de la unidad habitacional (normas edilicias y de uso y parcelamiento del suelo). La regularización Jurídica busca preservar la pose de los habitantes en el propio sitio donde fijaron residencia, con excepción de los casos de riesgo. La regularización Técnica busca la instalación y la cualificación de la infraestructura urbana, posibilitando la optimización de las condiciones de saneamiento ambiental y de salud de las poblaciones residentes.
Rothschild, Joan. "Design and Noise: an Issue for Public Space." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 203-204. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. The effects of noise on human beings have been well documented. Environmental psychologists, as well as researchers in other fields, have shown the degrees to which unwanted sounds in the built environment have compromised the health and well-being of city dwellers and suburbanites, of children and the elderly, of workers and stay-at-homes. Cultural, class, and generational differences are reflected in this research, as one person's music becomes another's noise. Design solutions vary not only according to perception, but also, and more importantly, according to where the sounds occur and to whom. A critical factor for understanding the role of design in relationship to both noise and sound lies in the division between public and private as sources.
M. Argilaga, Teresa, Carlos Santoyo Velasco, and Celia Espinosa M. Arámburu. "Detección De La Intensidad De Conexiones En Redes Sociales En Uncontexto Escolar Mediante Diseños Observacionales Deseguimiento / Nomotético / Multidimensional." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 617-618. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Existe ya una línea consolidada de investigación que pretende analizar cómo se estructuran las relaciones sociales dentro de un grupo, evidenciadas mediante los procesos de elección social intragrupo que se realizan de forma continuada, y desde una perspectiva conceptual nos situamos en un marco de referencia socioconductual (Santoyo y Espinosa, 1988; Santoyo, 1994; Santoyo, 1996). El planteamiento metodológico desarrollado hasta el momento se ha diversificado, contándose con el bagaje proporcionado por un sistema de observación conductual de interacciones sociales (Santoyo y Espinosa, 1987; Santoyo, Espinosa y Bachá, 1994), un análisis ponderado de las diferentes decisiones metodológicas (Santoyo y Espinosa, 1991), que tienen en cuenta la dirección, contenidos, calidad y agentes sociales implicados en el intercambio social (Santoyo, Espinosa y Bachá, 1994), y los resultados obtenidos en diversas investigaciones (Paredes y Santoyo, 1998; Pulido, Fabián y Santoyo, 1998).
M. Calero, Dolores, and Elena Navarro. "Determinantes Ambientales Y De Estilo De Vida Que Se Relacionancon El Deterioro Cognitivo Leve En El Anciano." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 542. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "La frontera entre envejecimiento normal o típico y el envejecimiento patológico está recibiendo cada vez más atención por parte de la investigación psicológica. Recientemente se ha propuesto en la literatura científica lo que se denomina "el continuo cognitivo" (Petersen y cols., 1997) el cual serviría para hacer un seguimiento de la evolución cognitiva de cada persona. En concreto, Bermejo (1998) señala que entre el 50 y el 75% de personas con deterioro cognitivo evolucionan a demencia en cinco años; mientras que Joanette (2000) acorta este periodo de evolución a los tres años. Estos datos, junto al hecho de que el 17% de las personas mayores de 65 años presentan deterioro cognitivo leve, ponen de manifiesto la importancia del estudio de la entidad clínica del deterioro cognitivo. Diversas investigaciones establecen la relación de algunas variables ambientales y de estilos de vida con el deterioro cognitivo asociado al envejecimiento, planteándose a partir de ese análisis, intervenciones preventivas del a demencia."
Kaaja, Mirkka. "Developing Internet Applications to Support Interactive Planningand Design Internet - Assisted Design Game of Pihlajisto Adventureforest." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 297-298. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. The new building law in Finland puts a strong emphasis on communicativeness in planning and design. However, the system is hierarchical, and especially in large municipalities and cities, quite sectoral. It is not always easy for ordinary people to follow on which stage and sector projects move, which may make participation complicated and time-consuming. The Internet gives many possibilities to enhance interactive communication, but requires new applications and tools. There has been a few such pilot projects in Finland: a digital neighbourhood forum of Pihlajisto suburb in Helsinki, Finland (Staffans, A., Rantanen, H., (1998) http://www.kaupunginosat.net/kotikatu/abstract.htm), an interactive design process of the green area plan in Pihlajisto, Helsinki, where a virtual version of walk through neighbourhood evaluation method was implemented (Staffans, A. , Rantanen, H. 1999 http://www.kaupunginosat.net/Kotiluonto/sivut/kierros.htm) and the internet-assisted adventure forest design game of Pihlajisto (http://www.kaupunginosat.net/seikkailu/)
Oudry, Amélie, and Daniè le Hermand. "Development of a New Instrument for Measuring Quality of Urban Life." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 445-446. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. The purpose of this research consists in developing a new tool for measuring quality of urban life. Theoretical purposes of this instrument are based on city dwellers representations and concerns about quality of life. Quality of life has become a commonly used notion (Türksever & Atalik, 2001). However, its lack of definition and consensus make it very complex (Pol, 1994; Kovac, 1996). Most of researchers state that Quality of life is often mistaken for well-being, life satisfaction, happiness. Moreover, measuring Quality of life directly involve working out and choosing indicators (Lever, 2000). Several studies about quality of life are focused on measuring residential satisfaction (Evans, Burns, Robinson & Garrett, 1985; Hughey & Bardo, 1987; Churchman, 1991; Jeffres & Dobos, 1994). These studies show the importance of several indicators, but few researches (Cicerchia, 1998; Vlek, Skolnik & gatersleben, 1998; Türksever & Atalik, 2001) deal with developing tools measuring quality of urban life. In an other part, Cicerchia (1998) and Türksever & Atalik (2001) emphasize the importance of the territorial dimension for it measurement. Studies on Quality of life should have geographical referent. Indicators have to be related to the type of setting.
Laike, Thorbjörn, and Rikard Küller. "Development of a Test for Assessing Discomfort in Workenvironments with Varying Characteristics." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 619-620. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Numerous investigations have shown that large fractions of the population experience reduced health, comfort and productivity (a bad quality of life) when working in certain office buildings (Bullinger et al., 1999; Engelhart et al.). Both building related exposures (described by indoor climate and functional and aesthetic design) and psychological stress-factors related to load and organisation of the work of occupants may contribute to the problems. There is a need for an assessment method for office buildings that includes measures of all the factors, which may have an impact on the occupant's health, comfort and productivity. and is sensitive, reliable and valid. Furthermore, the instrument must fulfil certain demands, such as being easy to administrate, time economic, and easy to understand for the subjects, criteria which few existing forms meet. The present instrument, a discomfort form for use in work environments, was developed with the aim that it may be used in ordinary office work places, covering various aspects of complaints related to the indoor environment.
Al-Hosany, N., and H. Elkadi. "Development of Environmental Conscious Design of Prison Buildings." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 476-477. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Recently, environmental conscious design is a term that has been widely used (Fordham, 1999). The term refers to variety of approaches in architecture design that covers technical, behavioural, and functional aspects (Goulding et al., 1992). These approaches usually include contradictory measures to achieve environmentally responsive architecture (Sykes, 1995; Norton, 1999). The contradiction is magnified and clearly explained when attempts are made to create an environmentally conscious design (Hui, 1996). Incarceration architecture is very specific type of buildings (McConville, 2000). Prison buildings represent the split between the society requirements and the needs for the users, in this case the prisoners, to have comfortable environment.
Velasquez, Juan. "Dialog in the Multicultural House – Local and Global Culture, Housing and Neighbourhood Quality." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 413-414. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. I am going to start an empirical study on dialog between neighbours in a six-storeyed multifamily house. The house was build in the 1970's with inspiration from modernistic architecture and has been run in public housing from the beginning. Today a municipal company administers it and in recent years the company had complained that the house is difficult to administer. In the house dwell people from several continents that had migrated to Sweden because of war of economic transformations in their respective countries during the late decades. There is an ongoing discussion of the implications of high concentrations of migrants and refugees in Swedish public housing. This specific housing segregation had led to the consolidation of so called ethnoplaces in which special contours of globalisation take place at the everyday life both of the inhabitants as well as of the professionals from municipal authorities and entrepreneurs.
Oi, Naoyuki. "Difference Between Perceived Visual Objects of Townscape in Daytime and in Nighttime." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 341-342. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Impressions from townscape in daytime and in nighttime are usually quite different even if they are of the same place. This paper explores the environmental factors that affect to these impressions in order to find the knowledge for designing or controlling townscapes. In the previous research, the author proposed the three factors contributing to visual comfort in the environment(1). As an well known example, Waldram explores, in his classic paper, the mechanism of interior lighting and in a flow chart defines three aspects of interior lighting: Adaptation, Revealing of Form and Texture, and Emphasis(2). However, the factors contributing to visual comfort in the environment are thought to be more extensive. In order to construct a comprehensive explanation for visual comfort, three factors contributing to visual comfort are proposed by the author. The first factor is the physiological and psychological condition of the visual system. This includes not only adaptation state but also visual stress, visual fatigue, concentration or mood, etc. which are correlated with the other two factors below. The second factor is the visibility for object discrimination related to the nature of the visual task, safety issues and security issues (feeling secure).
Pinheiro, José Q., Thomas F. Saarinen, and Charles L. Maccabe. "Differential Views of the World: Shared and Parochial Worldimages 1." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 325-326. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Researchers on people-environment relationships are investigating what effect processes such as place appropriation and identification have on the environmental sustainability of spaces. A basic component of this complex relationship is the mental representation of environments, which may vary strikingly with the environmental scale involved. Such variation is crucial for the understanding of tensions that exist between local and global levels of human-environment interactions. The context of micro and macro environmental representation has some fundamental differences. At the micro-environmental level, mental representation analysis is usually accompanied, among other aspects, by a present time perspective and cognition of functional elements of the environment. On the other hand, the psychological representations of macro-environments are characterised by longer time periods and by mental coding of symbolic, cultural and ideological components of the environment. This inconsistency of elements and processes of the representations of environments scales is a major issue for the interdisciplinary nature of people-environment studies because it is directly related to differences in professional vocabularies and distinctions in methodological traditions of the disciplines involved in the field.
Martens, Bob, and Alexander Guenter Keul. "Digital Iaps Publications as a Means of Knowledge Dissemination." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 798. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. People-environment studies offer a large body of knowledge so it is useful and necessary to document this potential, especially the bi-annual IAPS Conferences which started with IAPS 7 in 1982. Theoretical and empirical findings presented and discussed by IAPS, if disseminated to interested people and new members, can further develop people-environment research. With the new political situation in Eastern European countries, a new cross-fertilization of research is possible. Digital IAPS Proceedings, i.e. electronic publishing, would be a vehicle to disseminate expertise to eastern scientists at reasonable costs. The internet will take a more important position in people-environment sciences, so downloadable materials are of value and interest, also for IAPS public relations purposes.
Mancilla, Alma Escobar, and Luz Ma. Flores Herrera. "Docente De Nivel Preescolar En Escenarios Con Alta Densidad." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 529-530. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. La Psicología Ambiental es un área de la psicología que tiene como principal interés el estudio científico de las relaciones entre el hombre, específicamente la conducta humana y su ambiente sociofísico (Lee, 1981; Heimstra y McFarling 1979; Gifford, 1987). Entre sus principales áreas de interés de estudio se encuentran las relacionadas con el ambiente natural esto es, escenarios tales como ambientes laborales y ambientes escolares en los que su estudio esta asociado con efectos del medio ambiente sobre las personas. Tal es el caso de variables como la temperatura, la luz, el sonido,el color, y el espacio. Cabe destacar que el ambiente escolar representa una importante área de investigación para la Psicología Ambiental. Gump (1991) menciona que el desarrollo de vida social y académica de los niños y la formación del personal que labora en los centros educativos, esta determinada, en buena medida, por la calidad de vida que se ofrece dentro de los mismos. De modo que cuando se permite la creación de un ambiente idóneo para profesores y alumnos se presenta una optimización del proceso de enseñanza aprendizaje.
Moser, Gabriel. "Doing Environmental Psychology: an Agenda for Training, Research and Intervention." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 673-674. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Environmental Psychology deals with the relation between people and their physical and social settings. It gives a prominent place to environmental perceptions, attitudes, evaluations and representations and accompanying behaviour, in order to address the logic of these interrelations in terms of interaction or transaction. Notions of space and place occupy a central position in environmental psychology. Classically the spatial dimension leads to address the relation to the environment referring to the people and communities within, at different levels from the private space level to the level of global environment: (1) Private Spaces (individual level): personal and private space, dwelling, housing, workplace, office; (2) Public/Private Environments (neighbourhood-community level): semi-public spaces, blocks of flats, the neighbourhood, parks, green spaces; (3) Public Environments (individual / community level, inhabitants) : involving both built spaces (villages, towns, cities) as well as the natural environment (the countryside, landscape, etc.), and (4) The Global Environment (societal level) : the environment in its totality, both the built and the natural environment, natural resources. At each of theses four levels cultural and temporal dimensions intervene in different manners, and environmental psychology is challenged by specific pluridisciplinary approaches.
Dominguez, Bernardo Jimenez. "Duality, Globalization and Urban Culture." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 788. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "Between globalization and localization there is a contradictory logic that somehow implies the almost complete integration of the metropolis into globalized capitalism. Behind this facade, however, is the real city, the shadow side of this dual urbanity. This duality is conformed by a net o relationships in both urban spaces: those globally homogenized and hose other spaces that are increasingly invisible: the informal urban economy. Growing spatial heterogeneity and polarization shapes the urban duality prompted by globalization. The "global" is then translated into practices that transform physical, social and cultural spaces in ways where the local and global dichotomy. Even though interrelated, these practices are also differentiated. Globalization can then be understood as a geography where social, cultural and psychosocial factors develop unevenly. The time-space compression, reflexive modernization, intertwined landscapes, a society of risks and fears, are all conceptual tools devised by a diverse group of scholars in their attempt at framing the effects of globalization. However, in the interstices of this global-local logic or glocalities, countercurrents of particular militant and unexpected practices spur. A multiplicity of objectives set forth by urban movements and identities are evidence of a globalization from below, demonstrated by people who locate themselves outside the global logic or who are simply excluded from the global and local contradictions. In the specific case of the city of Guadalajara the contradictions are clearly visible in the emergence of an electronic industry that by being linked to globalization simulates its own local model of silicon valley. Public spaces are substituted by gigantic shopping malls of transnational hypermarkets and neighborhoods are developed into gated communities that atomize urban space even more. Simultaneous to this process, diverse urban movements proliferate, street markets with copy goods appropriate the global and mock it in a hybridized translation."
Castiñeira, Manuel Soto. "Educación Ambiental Para Unha Nova Cultura Da Auga." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 641-642. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. O salmón é o mellor indicativo da perda das poboacións de peixes nos rios galegos. Nos anos corenta do século XX ainda se capturaban 10.000 salmóns nos rios galegos, que xa só serian 1000 arredor de 1980 e caerian ate só un centenar a finais do século. O mesmo que pasou co salmón galego, pasou co salmón e con outros peixes en Europa e Norteamérica, un declive que hoxe se extende a outras muitas especies en todo o planeta. De feito, as especies de auga doce están entre as mais ameazadas, incluso mais que as aves e os grandes mamíferos. Muitos peixes de auga doce, anfíbios e invertebrados atópanse en perigo, en porcentaxes que van desde o 40% até o 80% das espécies en Norteamérica. As presas en primeiro lugar, as canalizacións, as detraccións de auga, a contaminación, e a desecación de zonas húmidas (brañas, lagoas e zonas de inundación) son algúns dos factores que provocan a artificialización dos ecosistemas acuáticos e a sua perda de biodiversidade.
Yaacob, Naziaty Mohd. "Educating University Students on the Concepts of 'barrier - Freebuilt Environment' in the Malaysian Context." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 556. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. This paper will share the experience from Malaysia on the education of university students who will become professionals responsible in implementing the country's legislation relating to the safety, accessibility and usability of the built environment, principles that are essential for the creation of a barrierfree or non-handicapping environment. It will further discuss issues on how to create awareness and understanding of the needs of the disabled and elderly users, and how this aspect of 'creating empathy' is incorporated in the course program. It is important to be aware of the problems encountered by everyone concerned, the implementers of the legislation such as the local authorities, the related professions, the developers, and especially the disabled and elderly persons in a country such as Malaysia, which is perceived as a rapidly growing developing nation.
Okamura, Cintia. "Educational Intervention and Urban Development in São Paulo City." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 627-628. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. CETESB - Environmental Sanitation Company, President- Director of the Expanded Center Environmental Educational Nucleus of São Paulo City The urbanization of São Paulo City (Brazil) is denoted by an unbalanced occupation of the urban area without a planning policy which led to an unstructured growth where speculative behaviors prevail over social function and urban soil. The intensity and characteristics of this urbanization gave rise to two major problems in the end of the last century and the beginning of this one such as urban and environmental issues. The accelerated and disorganized urbanization, population concentration and economical activities within the area and technological standards of industrial production have reinforced a highly degraded environmental picture.
Correa, Nieves, Juan Rodríguez, and Luisa Batista. Efectos Del Contexto Observador - Participante En El Perspectivismo Conceptual Y La Capacidad De Argumentar Sobre Creencias Medioambientales En Niños - as De 10 a 16 Años In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Una de las dimensiones educativas de la globalización implica la creación de contextos de aprendizaje donde la interpretación de la realidad se lleve a cabo desde diferentes puntos de vista. Las situaciones de argumentación son idóneas para ejercitar el perspectivismo dado que en el discurso argumental se pretende cambiar la posición de alguien respecto a un tema polémico. Lo que implica exponer y defender el propio punto de vista teniendo en cuenta las posiciones contrarias. Los niños muestran una enorme dificultad en la competencia argumentativa, tanto en su dimensión estructural (elaboración de una secuencia lógica) como dialógica (tener en cuenta las opiniones de la audiencia). A los 10-12 años, son capaces de hacer una propuesta y justificarla, pero no de desarrollar una secuencia argumentativa compleja en la que se incluyan y discutan las ideas contrarias (Golder y Coirier, 1994; Knudson, 1992). Esta dificultad se debe en gran parte a la incapacidad para adoptar otros puntos de vista y razonar a partir de éstos (Golder y Coirier, 1996; Correa, Ceballos y Rodrigo, en prensa).
Rifki, Umut Toker Fati, and Zeynep Toker. "Effective Architectural Programming of Workplaces Throughresearch - Based Decision - Making: Case of Pamlico County Government Offices, North Carolina, U.s.a." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 469. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. This paper is a report on an architectural programming case study. Pamlico County government offices, which are scattered throughout the Town of Bayboro, North Carolina, U.S.A., the county seat, are the subject of this case study. The project has a three-phase framework. In the first phase, existing office spaces and their locations were evaluated in terms of interdepartmental interactions, workplace satisfaction and environmental comfort of the staff. In the second phase, data to determine future workplace needs were collected. The third phase involved decision-making in light of the conclusions attained in the previous two phases.
Bonaiuto, Marino, Mirilia Bonnes, and Ferdinando Fornara. "Effects of Architectural Humanization of Paediatric Hospital on Users." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 593-594. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "This paper concerns the positive effects of environmental "humanization" in paediatric hospital on their users. The target of "humanizing hospital spaces" (Shumaker and Pequegnat, 1989), or "more humane hospital environments" (Nagasawa, 2000), refers to spatial, physical and functional design requirements that health care environments should possess for both (i) reducing the stress level which can be very high for both patients and staff, given their daily contact with disease, pain and (in some cases) death, and (ii) promoting and increasing the well-being and the quality of life of patients and staff. As regards the first point, it seems demonstrated that a poor interior design could generate a stressing environment which frustrates rather than facilitates goal-achievement for all the social actors involved (Stokols, 1979). On the contrary, design elements which elicit perceptual consistence, control over space, clear affordance, and restorativeness (Evans and McCoy, 1998) are capable to both moderate the stress level and produce an healing effect (e.g., see Ulrich, 1984)."
Mizuta, Kazutaka, and Naoyuki Oi. "Effects of Environmental Elements on Indoor Spaciousness an Experiment Study on Spaciousness in Full Scale Space." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 387-388. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "A space dimension often feels different from the actual volume when a person perceives the space. This can be considered because a person is estimating the extent of a space not only from the dimension of a space simply but also from other factors composing it synthetically. This is defined as Spaciousness. Originally Spaciousness is translated the Japanese word "Kaihokan", which means something between the 'feeling of liberation' and the 'sensation of being open'. Much discussion led to the conclusion that 'spaciousness' was the single English word closest in meaning. At first, Prof. Inui introduced Spaciousness in 1970s[1]. The equation for Spaciousness was given from the result of evaluation experiments with scale models. The variables finally adopted to equations were sky luminance, interior illuminance, room size?a ratio of width and depth, and window width. Though there are some studies for Spaciousness since then, it is difficult to apply findings of those to the small space because most of those were about the large space like an open office."
Atilgan, Durnev. "Effects of Globalization in the City Centers and an Adventure of a City, Izmir in Transformation." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 140-141. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002.

Together with the 19th century Industrial revolution, cities of today with their meanings in functional and physical terms emerged, becoming places of attraction in many sences, enlarged physicaly and formed the metropolitan cities in the course of urbanisation all over the world. Izmir in Turkey, exhibited similiar developments in the construction of the physical environment, in sociocultural and socio-economic contexts. Being located around the biggest natural gulf of Turkey in the coast of Eagean Sea, Izmir has been one of the most important export/import trade center of Turkey in a period when the economic relations with the Western countries increased. This third biggest city of a developing country, has been living a rapid urbanisation in the last 50 years, and as a metropolitan city, on the west coast of Turkey is subject to many urban issues. The role Izmir tries to get in Egean, and in the national and international arena, brings together some other pressures on the city.

Velloso, Márcia Motta Pime, and Fabiana Rodrigues Leta. "El Cambio De Los Colores En Un País." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 364. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. En el año de 2001 Brasil pasó por un proceso de racionamiento de energía. La estructura de energía del país está basada en la energía hidroeléctrica, y por un motivo climático el nivel de los depósitos bajó a un estado crítico. Para mantener el abastecimiento de energía, la solución propuesta por el gobierno fue la reducción de un 30% del consumo medio de energía eléctrica por parte de toda la población. Así pues, tuvo lugar una muy intensa campaña educativa en los medios de comunicación, pidiéndose la cooperación de la población para evitar el riesgo inminente de corte de luz. Para alcanzar la propuesta de la meta de reducción de consumo de energía, uno de los enfoques abordados , fue el de la substitución de lámparas incandescentes por las lámparas fluorescentes compactas. Estas lámparas consumen prácticamente una cuarta parte de energía que sus equivalentes. Fue observado que la población no estaba satisfecha con este cambio, debido al hecho de que los fabricantes sólo pusieran a disposición del público lámparas con la temperatura de color alto, mayor que 4000 Kw. Esta franja de temperatura alteró considerablemente la percepción de color de productos por parte de la población. Los alimentos, las vestimentas, los ambientes, los mobiliarios, entre otros tenían sus colores alterados por causa del cambio en el tipo de iluminación al que fueron sometidos. En este artículo se presenta una discusión sobre las consecuencias de la crisis de energía en el cambio de la percepción de colores de los productos. Para evaluar este impacto se realizo una investigación en la cual productos acabados eran sometidos a los tipos diferentes de iluminación. La iluminación seleccionada consistió en las lámparas usadas antes y después de la crisis de energía. La necesidad de reducir el consumo de luz alteró las relaciones de comercio y principalmente el humor de la población. Estos cambios motivaron la realización de experimentos en los cuales se analizó como los diferentes grupos de la población perciben los colores de los objetos.
Vidal, Tomeu. "El Fenómeno De La Apropiación Del Espacio En Un Barrio De Barcelona." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 578-579. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Este trabajo pretende exponer como se llevó a cabo la contrastación de un modelo teórico de la apropiación del espacio (Korosec-Serfaty, 1976; Pol, 1996, 1998; Wiesenfeld, 1997) en el barrio de la Trinitat Nova de la ciudad de Barcelona. Su finalidad es la de intentar comprender a través de que mecanismos se articulan los vínculos que las personas establecen con su barrio y de que manera las personas viven su barrio como un espacio propio y no ajeno. Para ello se parte principalmente de propuestas teóricas elaboradas por Pol (1996) teniendo en cuenta otros desarrollos teóricos cercanos (Altman y Low, 1992; Twigger-Ross y Uzzell, 1996; Devine-Wright i Lyons, 1997) y las consecuencias que de esta forma pueden derivarse con respecto a la gestión del espacio urbano, su sostenibilidad y la participación.
Hernández, Juan Ignacio Ar. El Grupo Determina La Relación Del Hombre Con El Medio In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Las diferentes disciplinas que abordan la problemática ambiental reclaman en la población un cambio en su actitud hacia el medio; entendiendo por actitud una predisposición a responder a alguna clase de estímulo, (en este caso el medio), con ciertas clases de respuestas, que se especifican como respuestas afectivas, cognitivas y cognitivo-conductuales; ya que la mayoría de la población manifiesta una gran preocupación por el medio pero, contradictoriamente, los problemas ambientales que se derivan de la conducta humana siguen existiendo. Thompson y Barton (1994) se basaron en dos valores diferentes para clasificar la preocupación por el medio; el antropocentrismo y el ecocentrismo. Ambos valores manifiestan cierta preocupación por el medio pero mientras el primero lo valora por los beneficios materiales que nos proporciona, el segundo refleja una preocupación por la sostenibilidad del medio en si mismo, siendo este último al que se le relaciona con conductas proambientales. Por lo tanto cuando hablamos de cambio actitudinal nos referimos al paso de la actitud antropocentrista que impera en nuestra sociedad a una actitud más ecocentrista.
Andeane, Patricia Ortega, Serafín Mercado Doménech, and Cesáreo Estrada Rodríguez. "El Impacto Del Ambiente Físico Hospitalario En La Generación De Estrés." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 597-598. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Bajo el marco de la Psicología Ambiental diversos autores han resaltado el papel del ambiente físico en el funcionamiento de hospitales, al servir como mediador en la promoción y facilitación de los servicios de atención a los pacientes, y como contexto para una estancia segura y confortable para sus diversos usuarios. En México, existe un creciente interés por conocer el impacto de las características físicas y sociales del ambiente sobre el estrés ambiental en hospitales especialmente en los de carácter público, ya que no se cuenta con el conocimiento suficiente que permita el sustento empírico del impacto de tales aspectos y del papel que juega el tiempo de espera de la atención médica en los pacientes. Tales consideraciones revisten una gran importancia, en virtud de que se pueden adoptar medidas correctivas o mejor aún preventivas que probablemente no impliquen grandes costos económicos y si en cambio, ofrezcan beneficios a mediano y largo plazo para las instituciones públicas de salud, al identificar fuentes de estrés ambiental que puedan eliminarse o mejor aún prevenirse antes de que puedan generar nuevos y/o mayores problemas en la salud de los pacientes.
Fadón, Leopoldo Llaneza. "El Lavrador En La Ciudad: Évora Del Siglo Xix Al Xx." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 71-72. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "En el siglo XIX se gesta un proyecto económico en Portugal que pretende introducir al país en la era de la industrialización. Para ello se venden en subasta pública los bienes ligados a ordenes religiosas y en especial los derechos sobre tierras, señoríos y monasterios. Évora es la capital de una región -el Alentejodonde se concentraron las mayores extensiones de tierra bajo la jurisdicción de diferentes ordenes religiosas. Las ordenes militares - muy activas durante la guerra contra los musulmanes por la ocupación del territoriotambién tenían grandes extensiones de tierra. En el traspaso de los derechos sobre las explotaciones agrícolas junto a la venta en subasta publica de estas supuso la irrupción en esta región portuguesa de grandes propietarios que rápidamente se colocaron en la cima de la estructura social y que son conocidos - incluso en nuestros días - con el nombre de "lavradores abastados" ."
López, Miguel Martínez. "El Movimiento De Centros Sociales Okupados Y Autogestionados En Ciudades Españolas." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 146. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Se presenta aquí el resultado de una larga investigación sobre el movimiento de CSOA que ha tenido lugar en numerosas ciudades españolas durante las dos últimas décadas y con el protagonismo de una parte de la población juvenil que ha intervenido de forma contracultural en los problemas urbanos globales y en los de la falta de alojamiento en particular. Desde el punto de vista metodológico se expondrán dos aportaciones básicas. Primero: entender la complejidad significa aquí entender qué dimensiones del contexto social e histórico incidieron más directamente en el surgimiento del movimiento okupa; qué dimensiones sobresalieron en el movimiento expresando sus alternativas políticas y sus formas de organización, de crear afinidades y de resistirse a la dominación estatal y capitalista; y cómo se relacionaban esas dimensiones uniendo diversos movimientos sociales y practicando la autogestión cotidiana. Segundo: las técnicas de investigación sociológica respetuosas con la cultura del movimiento invitan a descubrir pautas de desarrollo y de conflicto urbano protagonizadas por el movimiento, a partir de sus medios propios de autoconocimiento y de comunicación.
Ruiz, Vicente Lázaro, and Alfonso Gil López. "Elderly People's Activities in Children and Youngster' Education Oftheir Familily Environments." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 533. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. These results describe the activities of the elderly with special attention to those carried out in the educational environment of children and youngsters of different ages. 179 elderly people have beer interviewed between 60 and 80 years old which were divided in 4 groups: less than 65, between 65 and 69, between 70 and 74 and above 75 years old. The educational tasks of the elderly concentrate primarily on the children and youngsters of their immediate family in many circumstances involving frequent contact and many hours. Moreover, they don't interference in the educational guidance that parents offer their children and, in general, they believe to that significant changes have occurred in education contexts both past and present. Key words: Old age, educational environments, education contexts, immediate family, intergenerations relationships.
Windsor, Ahuva. "Employee Participation in Workspace Design and Evaluation: are We Really There?" In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 706. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "Over the past few years, employee participation in workspace design and evaluation became a fast growing tendency among Israeli organizations, in the public and private sectors alike. The variety of selected methodologies may indicate diversity of meanings for the terms "employee" and "participation", held by decision makers in organizations. Contextual parameters, both organization- and culture-specific, probably impact how employee participation is practiced. The presentation will include a discussion of such parameters and the ensuing applications of employee participation endeavors, as illustrated in two case studies. The two are distinguished by organizational characteristics and nature of participatory activities in their respective design and evaluation processes."
Leach, Rachel, and David Uzzell. "Engineering Quiet Lanes in the Surrey Hills, Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty: Predicting Drivers' Speed." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 257-258. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "The UK Quiet Lanes Initiative, promoted by the Department of Transport, Local Government and the Regions through the Countryside Agency, considers how the character of country lanes can be preserved and made more attractive for non-motorised users whilst maintaining vehicle access for local residents. Motorised traffic in the countryside is rising quickly in the UK (Macafee, 2000). British attitude studies found that 73% of respondents agreed that "the amount of traffic on the roads is one of the most serious problems for Britain" (Stratford and Christie, 2000; p183). Public consultation in the research area (The Surrey Hills AONB, approximately 35 kms south from London) supported this finding, with residents expressing concern about driving speeds and the volume of traffic. In an area of special character such as this, it is important that traffic calming measures should not only be effective but also be in keeping with the rural surroundings in which they are to be engineered. Often, traffic engineering solutions are implemented in the expectation and hope that they will work, without trial beyond safety audits. Therefore, it is desirable to test the effectiveness of innovative engineering measures of this type before implementation, investigating which would most affect driver behaviour (especially speed) and which might alter use of the road away from primarily motorised traffic. This paper reports on a research study undertaken in the Surrey Hills, SE England, to predict the effectiveness of potential engineering measures used for traffic calming."
Galindo, Paz, Alicia Breva, and Francesc Palmero. "Entornos Restauradores En La Ciudad: ¿puede El Ambiente Urbanofacilitar La Recuperación Del Estrés?" In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 383-384. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "En el contexto de los estudios desarrollados con el propósito general de analizar las influencias que la percepción de determinadas características del medio físico pueden desempeñar en la salud humana, diferentes trabajos han analizado la influencia positiva que los entornos naturales ejercen sobre la recuperación del estrés (Ulrich, 1983, 1991; Parsons, et al., 1998; Parsons y Hartig, 2000). Pocos esfuerzos se han desarrollado, sin embargo, para analizar el papel que la percepción de escenarios urbanos con alto contenido de vegetación puede desempeñar en el bienestar emocional general así como en los procesos de recuperación psicofisiológica de niveles de estrés moderados. En línea con lo anterior, en la presente investigación se ha perseguido estudiar los efectos que el contacto visual con paisajes urbanos con y sin vegetación puede ejercer sobre la fase de recuperación de una situación de estrés. Asimismo, hemos pretendido delimitar la existencia de algunas características de personalidad, tales como la predisposición al arousal y la percepción de control, que pueden "mediatizar" dichos efectos."
Cohen, Regina, and Cristiane Rose Duarte. "Environment, Sustainable Development and Accessibility of Peoplewith Mobility Difficulty." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 549-550. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "Considering the relation between the speech of "development" and the "seduction it exerts" (Rist, 1996) and the people with mobility difficulty (people depending on wheelchairs or crutches, suffering from temporary or permanent deficiency diseases, old people, pregnant women, obese people, people of low stature and so forth), concepts of accessibility, environment and sustainability are analysed in this essay, topics that have taken a place of highlight and concern in this era of globalization. With the aim of proposing a reflection on the new approaches for the space planning in our cities, the present article starts from the idea the environment matter cannot be dissociated from the social matter. The relation between environment and sustainable development presupposes the integration of economical development and social development. In this context, the article focuses People with Mobility Difficulty (PMD), generally excluded from the spaces in the cities; exclusion that evolves itself by the lack of accessibility to certain resources, among what the urban space itself is the most important one."
Cross, Lisa Tucker. "Environmental Atmosphere in Residential Areas." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 415-416. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Since the 1960's problems have increased within multifamily residential environments. (Duncan, 1996). Some of these problems include: buildings that are too large, little consideration for the human factor, lack of green areas, lack of natural elements, and lack of play areas for the children. It is essential that we improve these areas for the health, safety, and welfare of residents and find ways to avoid problems in the future. Previous research has shown that when an environment is aesthetically pleasing, an individual will experience higher levels of satisfaction within their environment. (Amérigo and Aragonés, 1997). It is also noted that the presence of greenery within environments can have a positive as well as restorative effect on individuals and that people prefer trees in their environment. (Kaplan and Kaplan, 1989) Additionally, when individuals are provided with their own outdoor garden plot or outdoor area, they will have a much higher attachment to their outdoor environment and their satisfaction will increase if they are provided with sufficient personal space. The goal of this research is to help bridge the gap of opinion between residents and building professionals by providing a tool for creating pleasant, stress free outdoor environments. It has been shown through our research that by using an expert evaluation tool, it is possible to predict certain aspects of the residents' overall attachment to their outdoor environment in multifamily housing areas.
Ilin, Corina. "Environmental Belief Systems - Romania." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 792-793. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "The present study is analyzing responses to New Environmental Paradigm (NEP) Scale which was applied to 320 students from Romania. This instrument typically measured the separation from nature (Human Exception Paradigm) from the NEP as a dichotomy. The Human Exception Paradigm (HEP) and the New Environmental Paradigm (NEP), known as HEP-NEP for short, is the most extensively used instrument to measure environmental belief systems. Dunlap and Van Liere (1978) first presented this scale more than 20 years ago. The meaning of the HEP is a basic belief that human beings are above nature and therefore they do not necessarily need to be careful with the way they use the resources. The NEP, by contrast, is the belief that human beings are part of nature and therefore they have to show sensitivity towards the use of nature's resources. The two views represent a polarity when assessing beliefs about the environment. Stern, Dietz and Guagnano (1995) claim NEP is a belief system or "a paradigm or worldview / a set of generalized beliefs about humanenvironment relations"."
Kowaltowski, Doris C. C. K., A. Silvia, Mikami G. Pina, Lucila C. Labaki, Regina C. Ruschel, and R. Stelamaris. "Environmental Comfort and School Buildings: the Case of Campinas, Sp, Brazil." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 347-348. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002.

"This paper presents the results of a research project (Projeto Fapesp Programa Ensino Público, processo 97/02563-8, "Melhoria do Conforto Ambiental em Edificações Escolares Estaduais de Campinas/SP") conducted in the city of Campinas, Brazil. Many international and local studies exist which have evaluated the learning environment with different goals in mind. This study was undertaken to analyze comfort conditions of schools and develop ideas and simple solutions to common problems. Many studies exist showing a relationship between the physical comfort conditions in schools and how they affect the learning capacity of students (GIFFORD, 1997 and YANNAS, 1995). Comfort conditions can affect attention span of students, speech comprehension and legibility of information presented. Spatial configuration and dimensions can inhibit the development of activities deemed to be positive for learning. All environmental conditions therefore play a role in the learning environment and should be optimized as to the quality of comfort they provide."

Kowaltowski, Doris C. C. K.(. "Environmental Comfort and School Buildings: the Case of Campinas, Sp, Brazil." In Culture, Environmental Action, and Sustainability: Proceedings of the 17th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain: Hogrefe & Huber, 2003. This paper presents the results of an extensive Post Occupancy Study of 15 schools in the city of Campinas, SP, Brazil. The learning environments were analyzes as to environmental comfort conditions and possible simple solutions to improve the quality of the learning environment. Classrooms and recreation areas were observed and critical comfort conditions were measured with equipment. School directors, teachers, employees and students were questioned as to their perception and evaluation of the comfort conditions and given the opportunity to express their satisfaction and desires about their learning spaces.
Bernardi, Núbia, and Doris C. C. K. Kowaltowski. "Environmental Comfort in School Buildings: Awareness and Participation of Users." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 365-367. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. The physical configuration of the school environment and the adaptation of the student to this environment exercise great predominance in the evolution of the learning. The space of the school, although subject to norms, should offer safety, accessibility and comfort to users. Such comfort conditions in the environment affect the users directly as much in the physiologic aspect as psychological and consequently the performance of the activities. Comfort problems should be considered those related to the functionality, thermal environment, illumination and acoustics. Unfavorable conditions of comfort in schools, such as high temperatures, excessive noise, inadequate illumination, excessive density in the classroom, inadequate equipments in relation to age groups can have negative influence in the students' school performance, causing disturbances of health (KOWALTOWSKI et al, 1997).
Berenguer, Jaime, José A. Corraliza, Rocío Martín, and Marta Moreno. "Environmental Concern and Perceived Seriousness in Urban and Rural Settings." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 261. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Greater awareness of between-group variation in environmental attitudes and seriousness perception will improve the understanding of the human-environment relationships and the quality of environmental interventions and decisions. Different previous studies proved the importance of the social context in which the environmental concern is developed (Olli, Grendstad and Wollebaek, 2001; Dietz, Stern, and Guagnano, 1998), the specialization of environmental attitudes and behaviors depending of environmental issues (Corraliza and Berenguer, 1998) and the different perception between general and specific concern (Gooch, 1995; Wall, 1995). Environmental characteristics differences between rural and urban residents were examinated, using questionnaire survey date from a sample of rural-rural, rural-urban and urban-urban areas. Measures about general concern, perceived seriousness about different environmental issues, auto-reported environmental behaviors, personal norms, context characteristics and socio-demographic variables were evaluated in two hundred residents. Results from attitude questionnaire indicated that both rural and urban respondents expressed a high positive attitude toward environment. However, the findings demonstrated that the two populations responded in different ways about the kind and seriousness of different environmental issues. Theoretical and aplicate conclusions are discussed.
Moreno, Marta, Rocío Martín, José A. Corraliza, and Jaime Berenguer. "Environmental Concern in the City of Madrid: the Environmentalawareness Scale." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 262. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Many of the environmental responsible behavior determinants shape environmental awareness (Corraliza, 2001). With the aim of asses environmental concern of Madrid population, it is presented a new scale: the Environmental Awareness Scale. The scale structure is grounded on the cross between five psychosocial constructs and ten environmental issues. The psychological constructs are information level, valuation, facilitation / inhibition, moral obligation and social norm. These constructs were selected because they had proved to be effective in previuos stydies measuring environmental awareness (Taylor and Todd, 1995; Tanner, 1999; Corraliza and Berenguer, 2000; Berenguer, Corraliza, Martín and Oceja, 2001). The environmental issues are pollution, chemical pollutants, cars, noise, waste, recycling, water, energy, natural areas and biodiversity. These issues were selected because of their relevance for the environmental sostenibility. With the support of the City Council of Madrid, the Environmental Awareness Scale was applied to a sample of 1433 individuals. The results show a map of the environmental awareness of Madrid population with a hierarchy of the ten environmental issues for each five psychosocial constructs. To set an example, noise is perceived as one of the more salient and serious environmental problems; however people don't know ways of action oriented to diminish level of noise. One of the main conclussions is that the Environmental Awareness Scale is very useful for environmental management.
Romeo, Marina. "Environmental Education and the Mass Media." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 635. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. In the last fifty years school curricula have undergone a profound transformation, especially in the field of environmental attitudes and behaviour. (Pujol y Villanueva, 1999). However, the role of the mass media remains to be defined. The consideration of the mass media as an educational tool has given rise to a range of educational proposals, which can broadly be divided into two fields. On the one hand, an emphasis on the need to defend children who watch TV has led to the development of media awareness training, in order to develop the critical capacity in their viewing. On the other hand, an attempt has been made to increase the efficiency of schooling by using TV. In the latter case, the TV is considered a source of new, complementary information that stimulates educational development. The present paper is based on the second assumption. We analyse the educational curriculum of one of the most successful examples of educational television - Sesame Street (Barrio Sésamo/Barri Sèsam in Spain). We pay particular attention to the objectives relating to environmental education.
Mercado-Domenech, Cesáreo Estrada Se. "Environmental Evaluation and Burnout in Stressfull Situations1Patricia Ortega - Andeane, Anne Reid." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 604-606. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. The Burnout Syndrome has been widely studied among healthcare personnel in several industrialized countries; however, if we transfer these findings and the solutions from developed nations to a country in the process of development, we will find them probably inadequate, as they are surely context specific, mainly due to the idiosyncrasy of society, culture and environmental factors.
Amer, El Sayed. "Environmental Settlements in Egypt." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 126. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. In most of the developing countries, the planning policy has been concentrating on the development of capital cities. Desert regions are given a very little attention indeed (Hamdi, 1994). This policy resulted in many problems in both capital cities and those communities of desert areas. Capitals are suffering from the overloaded density of population, transportation, lack of housing for those creeping over the city (from surrounding rural communities) looking for job opportunities and better services. On the other hand, desert communities do not practice the part they should play in the national development scale.
Kuo, Chin-Chin(Gina), and A. T. Purcell. "Environmental Values and Behaviors in Traditional Chinese Culture." In Culture, Environmental Action, and Sustainability: Proceedings of the 17th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain: Hogrefe & Huber, 2003. Environmental values have been found to be good predictors of environmental behavior in the West by Western scholars. However, it is not clear whether values predict behaviors in other cultures. It is also not clear whether there are values and behaviors that are important to environment in other cultures but are not part of Western cultures. The initial stage of this research was to study Chinese values and behaviors. In the research, we first identified twenty-seven environmental beliefs, values and norms about nature and thirty-three environmental behaviors from ancient Chinese texts, scholarly works and anecdotal materials such as newspapers in Taiwan. Experts in Chinese/Taiwanese culture, ecology, environmental design and educators were then surveyed to establish whether they considered these beliefs, values and behaviors do reflect traditional values and behavior in Chinese and Taiwanese culture. The survey data showed a high to medium level of agreement between the experts about the existence of environmental beliefs, values and behaviors in ancient Chinese culture, from which five factors of values and six factors of behaviors were derived. The research to be reported represents the first step in a research program aimed at assessing the value and behavior relationship in a different cultural and geographic context: Chinese culture and different social groups located in Taiwan.
Trifiró, Mónica Cortellezz, and Nesrin Karake. "Environmental, Socio - Cultural and Residential Differences Inan Intermediate City, from De Point of View of Its Inhabitants. Thecase of Great Mendoza (Mendoza, Argentina)." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 313-314. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. The geographical location of Great Mendoza (Mendoza, Argentina), marked off by apparent isolation from the decisions-center in the country (Buenos Aires), is characterized by relational elements that have conferred it a crossroads-position with respect to the Buenos Aires-Santiago de Chile axis. Its location in the northern oasis of the province is of great significance. On one hand, it boasts the largest population concentration in the arid fringe in western Argentina. On the other hand, it is situated along one of the most important commercial corridors in Latin-America, namely, the Mercosur, and builds a communication nexus between the Mercosur member countries and the Pacific.
Nordström, Maria. "Establishing Environmental Relationships in Childhood Andreconsidering Them at Puberty. Early Phases of a Lifelong Process." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 243-244. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "Comparing spatial conceptualisation in young school children living in the countryside and in the city, the author has found that children living in the countryside seem firmly anchored in the places where they live, while children living centrally in big cities show an abstract attitude towards the environment displaying an interest in distant places (Nordström 2000a & b). These differences can be characterised from a developmental psychology perspective as a difference in mental orientation to on the one hand a place dependent concrete way of relating and on the other a spatial and abstract way of relating to the environment. The differences might have to do both with the norms and behaviour of the cultural/social group, to which the child belongs, and with the physical environment as reality with differences in accessibility. The social/cultural norms and behaviour of their parents can be seen as preparing the children for an environmental attitude that might serve them well as they later will choose a way of living. Having adopted an abstract attitude early in life towards the physical environment might make it easier for the child to lead a modern mobile life. At the same time an early, "precocious", development of an abstract attitude might put a strain on the individual child and hold back a more full development of a concrete environmental attitude, making the child less sensitive to tangible environmental qualities. Young children living in the countryside can be characterised as place dependent as they don't seem to be aware of the mental separation between themselves and the environment early in life. Their sense of place seems to have developed in close association with the physical place where they live as well as with the people in that place. For them to move away to and settle in new places might be difficult as they neither are prepared for the separation itself and the breaking away from their environment, nor are in the habit of applying cognitive skills to analysing environment, recognising different ways of getting attached to it. Taking places "for granted" does not profit the moving around that they might have to do later in life. Their social competence might also be weaker than that of city children as they have not had to be aware of differences between people, knowing most of the people that they meet. Striking differences in children's ways of establishing environmental relationships early in life, then, might mean that children are differently prepared for and predisposed to establish and re-establish environmental relationships later in life during different stages (Hay 1998)."
De Castro, Ricardo. "Estamos Dispuestos a Proteger Nuestro Ambiente? Intención De Conducta Y Comportamiento Proambiental." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 259-260. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Como se ha reiterado en diversas ocasiones uno de los principales problemas que presenta la investigación sobre el comportamiento proambiental es la deficiencia en las metodologías de recogida de información o la complejidad de las mismas, cuestiones que ha menudo llevan a una toma de decisiones arriesgada en cuanto a los modelos explicativos de la acción de las personas a favor del entorno. Puede entenderse por comportamiento proambiental aquella acción que realiza una persona, ya sea de forma individual o en un escenario colectivo, en favor de la conservación de los recursos naturales y dirigida a obtener una mejor calidad del medio ambiente (Castro, 2001). Según Suárez (2000) pueden referirse diversos métodos para el estudio de este tipo de conductas: el análisis de registros oficiales, la observación directa y los autoinformes de conducta. Presentando las diversas estrategias destacadas deficiencias para un uso contrastado de los datos, como el importante déficit de información individualizada y la amplísima variación de los datos aportados, en el caso de los registros o la dificultad y los amplios costes para la extensión de estudios de observación. Por otro lado, las estrategias de autoinforme, que son aquellas usadas con más profusión, basadas en la identificación mediante entrevistas o cuestionarios de aquellas acciones proambientales realizadas, plantean el problema de la alta deseabilidad de los comportamientos evaluados lo cual incrementa sobremanera las tasas de respuesta. Además de las serias inconsistencias entre datos objetivos y conductas declaradas.
I. Siregar, Laksmi Gondokusum. "Ethical and Ecological Realization Facing the Globalizationcontribution from the Vernacular Architecture." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 87-88. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "Artificial environment make up a dominant environment where human beings live in the widely extended world. The above environmental transformation within the industrial and consumerism path has created a future gap, a social injustice, the loss of community, the loss of place identity and the loss of spiritual dimension towards life. Globalization from the economy and human experience carry along environmental issues which is build at the new dimension where ethical perspective still plays a very a very important role. This is caused by the difference of race and environment, which was a product of what is called globalization. While since the ancient time man were born differently cultural as well as local circumstances, which cause human vary subject to the place they were born and brought up. The first parts as a human product from the environment are their "domicile" in various scale, starting from a house and plantation up to rural and urban, both of them being a "stripe" connecting those dwellings, as well as other elements transforming the world in to a "cultural landscape"."
Zengel, Rengin, and YLkim Kaya. "Ethnic Cultures on Defining the Socio - Cultural Identity Ofmetropolitan Settlements / a Case Study of a Slum - Housingarea from Izmir City." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 169-170. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Turkey as a developing country still continues the urbanization process in most of y•ts metropolitan cities and settlements due to the incompleted transition period from rural to urban life. Unfortunately this urbanization process which normally had to be the extension of modernization in the 20th century, definitely has based on migration in relation with the rapid social and economic change in Turkey. Today this migration still continues from eastern to the western regions of the country and it is inevitable to determine the population movement which form the major element of this rapid change in Turkey. Consequently this migration process which develops in heterogeneous patterns destruct and effect the homogenity of the built environments in metropolitan settlements.
Vivas, Fabiola. "Evaluacion Ambiental De Un Espacio Educativo Innovador. Caso Deestudio: Las Unidades De Proyectos De Diseño (Upd) De La Carrera Dearquitectura De La Unet." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 349-350. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "La Carrera de Arquitectura de la Universidad Nacional Experimental del Táchira (UNET), Venezuela, se creó en 1983. La condición experimental de esta institución permitió a los diseñadores curriculares elaborar un proyecto educativo innovador. Este programa tuvo tres subproyectos: 1) el Plan de Estudios, 2) el Plan de Formación Docente, y 3) el Plan de Instalaciones Físicas. Al interior de éste último subproyecto se propuso "la Unidad de Proyectos de Diseño para 30 estudiantes (UPD-30)", como la unidad físico-espacial principal y básica de la carrera (llamado «taller» en otras universidades). El Plan de Estudios de la Carrera de Arquitectura-UNET presentó un enfoque innovador, cuya "columna vertebral" estaba representada por los cursos de "Proyectos", razón por la cual diseñadores curriculares, así como estudiantes y profesores, hacen énfasis en la importancia del taller. Los componentes de ese eje exigieron un escenario físico diferente a la usual planta 'abierta' empleada en los talleres de diseño. Por ello, las UPD-30 se concibieron y fueron diseñadas para lograr una práctica de aprendizaje exigente (UNET, Consejo de Planificación, 1982)."
Junyent, Rosa, and Míriam Villares. "Evaluación De Impactos Sociales En Autopistas Urbanas. Aplicación Al Caso De Las Rondas De Barcelona." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 623-624. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. de Camins Canals i Ports de Barcelona. Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya. En la construcción de las Rondas de Barcelona (1.992) el gobierno de la Generalitat de Catalunya decidió adecuar la integración del Proyecto constructivo en las políticas de transporte y medio ambiente, con la inclusión de un Estudio de Impacto Social en el EIA. Ello ha tenido una muy significativa importancia por la accesibilidad y por las condiciones medioambientales en espacios construidos.
Mosconi, P.. "Evaluación Posocupacional De Viviendas De Interés Social: Análisis De Caso." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 423-424. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002.

La urbanización es la transformación social más importante de nuestra época, que tiene una forma particularmente explosiva en los países de América Latina. El modelo imperante en la Argentina en el último quinquenio, de globalización económica y cultural, ha llevado a los grupos sociales más frágiles a una marginalidad social que se traduce en una migración interna hacia los conglomerados urbanos más industrializados. El problema de la población carenciada no se agota en la falta del bien vivienda sino que implica una cuestión más compleja que hace referencia al funcionamiento del sistema social. Los problemas ambientales se muestran con distinto nivel de urgencia: van desde la subsistencia cotidiana de los habitantes marginales hasta la degradación del ambiente. Dado que la vivienda y su entorno próximo suponen uno de los espacios donde las personas pasan la mayor parte de su tiempo, o al menos donde transcurren sus experiencias más vitales, tratar de analizar las relaciones entre ese espacio y el comportamiento humano con el fin de conocerlas y mejorarlas, es tratar de mejorar la calidad de vida de los individuos.

Argilaga, M. T., Santoyo Velasco, and M. S. amd Cel Armburu. "Evaluating Links Intensity in Social Networks in a School Context Through Observational Designs." In Culture, Environmental Action, and Sustainability: Proceedings of the 17th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain: Hogrefe & Huber, 2003. Children spend several hours daily at school and a range of interactive processes take place in this setting. Systematic study of social interaction in situ is important for developmental psychology and for the scientific understanding of social processes. Assessment strategies need to be designed to identify behavioral mechanisms involved in the regulation of social interactions and social preferences. The methodological contribution of this work is strategically directed to the empirical study of social networks based on a behavioral perspective through the observational design, and our design is diachronic / nomothetic / multidimensional (D/N/M). The uses of polar coordinates analysis allows us to identify the intensity of social connections in a social network. This analysis allows the reduction of data from the value Zsum, introduced by Cochran (1954) and applied by Sackett (1980). Polar coordinates analysis allows the combination of diachronic and synchronic perspectives, through the representation of the values obtained as vector modules and angles (polar coordinates). The nature of the interactive relationship, depending on the quadrant in which it is located is represented by the angle, while the degree of significance depends on the vector module. Data are discussed from the point of view of the flexibility and precision deriving from an adequate observational design and its possibilities for behavioral sociometry.
Peiró, José María. "Evaluation and Prevention of Psychosocial Work Risks." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 809. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. En el presente trabajo se pretende analizar el ambiente organizacional y social de las empresas como fuente de riesgo psicsococial. Para ello se ofrece un modelo teórico sobre las organizaciones (Modelo AMIGO) que permite el análisis de los riesgos psicosociales que se pueden presentar en situaciones de trabajo. Además se ofrece una conceptualización de los riesgos desde los modelos teóricos de estrés individuales y colectivos. Se presenta también una metodología para la evaluación de los riesgos psicosociales y se plantean orientaciones y propuestas de intervención.
Apak, Suat, Gökhan Ü. lken, and Alper Ü. nlü. "Evaluation of Feeling of Security in a New Mass Housing Compound in Istanbul." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 421-422. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "Human beings survive and live in their settings and act to preserve their existence. So, modern urban people need to preserve their own properties against dangers. These dangers are not only physical factors but they are related to psychological factors especially in the consideration of life quality parameters among users. The feeling of security is not directly considered in the occurrence of the notion of crime; it is an indicator of the life quality that is linked to the anxiety or possibility of the crime vulnerability. The anxiety in terms of "the fear of crime" is a preliminary phenomenon to obtain the feeling of security before the occurrence of crime in the setting. This notion is an environmental issue is mainly emerged in heterogeneous social structures of urban areas such as reflecting sociocultural discrepancies. The environmental stress can be observed in different social groups that the urban patterns reflect different income groups and life styles. So, the level of security is a crucial planning and design parameter influencing the life quality in the planned home environments."
Beygo, Cem. "Evaluation of Risks and Potentials for Istanbul Metropolitanarea in Global Ranking Competition the Effects of Globalisation on World Economics." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 301-303. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002.

"In the last two decades, the developments in transportation, communications and production technologies speeded up the internationalization process. Several changes have occurred in the international economy. "Finance has become less dependent on national regulatory systems. Changes in communications and information technologies have meant that financial and other information is available world-wide, day and night" (Newman and Thornley, 1996, p.9). As a result of the developments in transportation technologies, it became possible to overcome the most distant locations on the world within a few hours. The spatial results of this have appeared as the closer proximity of the important cities/centers on the world which had not been so for some 30-40 years ago (Urry, 1995). This was also supported by the developments in communication technologies connecting the distant locations on the globe via fiber optic cables, telephone lines, satellites, etc. The advanced communication technologies led to the spatial separation of production and control units from each other (Diren, 1993)."

Nenci, Anna Maria, and Giuseppe Carrus. "Evaluations of a Urban Park: Relations Between Pro - Environmental Attitudes, Place Attachment and Perceived Restorativeness." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 281-282. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Factors influencing people evaluations of the environment can be grouped into three different categories (Peron & Falchero, 1994): 1) Individual factors, such as age, personality traits, social structural variables, familiarity with a place and expectancies with regard to a place; 2) Physical factors, mainly related to the natural vs. built distinction. Both the presence of natural features within a built environment and the presence of human-made features within a natural environment seem to increase people's positive evaluations (Hartig & Evans, 1993; Bonnes, et al., 2001); 3) Factors involving people-environment relations: among these we can identify the degree to which a place is capable to serve its goals, the degree with which it is functional in supporting individual's scopes.
Numan, Ibrahim. "Everyone Has a Castle in His Heart (Thenorth Cyprus Case of Homebuilding Considerations)." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 216. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "Home sweet home, the peace, the love, the shared values etc. are not the only criteria that makes a house home. Neighter are the additional confort and space requirements provided. Each baby grows up by stories and lullebies and dreams. The dreams of life, the dreams of love, the dreams of family and of course the dreams of a house to be considered home. The expectations and the dreams in making the interior and the exterior of a home makes it the "castle" of the owner. However it is the same desire that destroys the castles of the others while building ones own. What should be the role of an architect in providing this dream castle for his client. Who is to blame for the environmental and specially the visual pollution ? Is it the architect who satisfies every requirement of his/her client ignoring the responsibility towards his profession ? or is it the municipal and professional bodies and authorities who are reluctant in bringing measures ? or is it the neighbours and community in accepting or even admiring the situation ? or the educational system , or traditions and so on . The aim of the paper is to discuss the matters on visual pollution that grows along with the home building process which seriously treatens the built environment of North Cyprus."
Voss, Jesse. "Evolutionary and Socio - Spatial Grounding of Altruism." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 713. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "This paper argues that altruism plays a central role in formation of human cultures, and that altruism plays a central role in all life. It will be argued that "human intelligence" arises from interactions among individuals and their environment - and that "culture" and "symbolic meanings in the environment" that we use to interact with others (artifacts, built and natural environment, language, etc.) - represent more than a system of shared meanings - but constrain our lives and our development to as great an extent as our genes. To facilitate thinking about these ideas a framework for thinking about altruism, humans, and behavior is presented with three components: a component that defines life in terms of a fundamental altruistic force, a genetic information component, and a cultural information component. Living things are at their most basic level definable as: "systems of matter and energy that tend toward order, aided by genetic information coding."
Hatuka, Tali. "Extreme Urban Events: the Everyday and the Imaginable." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 806. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Following the attack on the New York Twin Towers on September 11, 2001, terror is now discussed in many contexts (e.g. social, psychological, economic, architectural contexts, etc.). A great part of these discussions focuses on the implications of the event for everyday life and on the future construction of the city in general. The present paper deals with the relationship between terror attacks and urban representation, through an analysis of this relationship in the case of Tel Aviv. Over the past few decades, the understanding of urban representation has changed dramatically, blurring the boundaries between the representation of reality and reality itself. In post-structural terms, this process has led to 'The real city, the discursive city (and) the disappearing city' (Donald, 1997). Accordingly, urban representation is no longer taken for granted to be neutral. Instead, the discussion now revolves around subjective points of view that structure the perception of the city and the power relations therein. It is worthwhile to examine extreme events such as terror attacks within this approach.
Kelay, Tanika, David Uzzell, and Birgitta Gatersleben. "Factors Influencing Perceptions of Air Pollution and Intentionsto Participate in Environmental and Civic Action." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 360-361. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Local authorities are keen to involve the general public in local air pollution assessment strategies. However, in terms of empirical research there have been few attempts to investigate perceptions of traffic-related air pollution. Most of the research on general perceptions of air pollution has focused on a peripheral, descriptive overview, in many ways neglecting the processes that are rooted in perception formation. A common theme in previous research on perceptions of air pollution is that individuals have varying degrees of awareness and concerns about issues. The factors that guide the formation of these perceptions have not yet been determined, however. Thus, despite increasing concerns about the effects of air pollution on the environment and on public health, the psychological sciences have struggled to gain a comprehensive understanding as to how and why people perceive the air they breathe as they do.
Raun, Riina. "Fear of Crime and Its Environmental Aspects." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 389-390. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Fear of crime is a major urban stressor. For many urban residents the fear of crime has become one of the main facts of everyday life. It is limiting people's movement and daily activities, certain areas are avoided, people are afraid to go out at night, etc. Fear may have many subjective and social causes, but one potential source of fear may also arise from the design and features of the physical environment. Certain areas evoke higher levels of fear than others. The current study gives a theoretical overview of the multidimensional nature of fear of crime and of the uneven temporal and spatial distribution of fear of crime, examines the factors affecting fear of crime and also the models of perceiving and appraising the features of the physical environment. The empirical part of this study explores the relationships between cognitive-perceptual properties of environments and affective-emotional appraisals of them. This study tries to replicate an experiment conducted by Kazunori Hanyu (1997) in USA, at the Ohio State University.
Davies, Anne-Marie. "Final Results from the Streetscapes Study." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 61-62. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. This paper presents the results from the 'Streetscapes' study. The study investigated innovative ways of increasing participation in urban design, namely through the use of the choice experiment methodology. The research combined economic valuation with urban design and computer visualisation. The Castlegate area of Aberdeen, Scotland was used as the case study area. Choice experiments allow the values which people place on individual attributes, as well as the quality and quantity of those attributes, to be estimated. Furthermore, values can be placed on different packages of attributes, such as the locations of trees and furniture within the case study area, and street lights with or without hanging plant baskets. In this study, the use of choice experiments to value streetscapes was original in two respects. First, the choice sets presented to respondents were image rather than text based, and second, the study was conducted via the Internet.
Studd, Kate. "Fitness for Purpose: the Role of Participation in Developing Anddelivering Nature Conservation Targets." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 739-740. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Participatory processes are being heralded as an innovative way to increase the effectiveness, efficiency and legitimacy of policy processes and outcomes. As such they are seen as a mechanism to increase the legitimacy and effectiveness of public institutions to represent and act in the public interest. As a Government-funded agency with responsibility to deliver England's international requirements for biodiversity conservation, English Nature are increasingly aware that to meet their objectives they need to engage stakeholders more closely in the development and delivery of policy.
Edge, Martin, Robert Gordon, Richard Laing, Tony Craig, Leanne Abbott, Antônio Reis Ritsu Ozaki, Bob Martens, Alexander Keul, and Chris Leishman. Fitting Local Traditions and Cultures into New International Housing Solutions In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Around the world there is, arguably, an increasing 'commodification' of housing, which is tending to treat the new home in the same way as any manufactured consumer good, rather than as an integral part of an environment that supports a community. Construction industries around the world are recognising that they are less efficient at manufacturing their product than other industries. They are encouraged in this by governments with an eye to meeting large demands for new housing at minimum cost. They are therefore trying to change the way they build houses. They are centralising production, cutting down on traditional labour skills and increasing prefabrication and standardisation. This 'commodification' has the potential to create difficulties in the communities in which such housing is built.
Heijs, Wim J. M.. "Founding Houses for the Elderly: on Dwelling Needs Or Housingneeds?" In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 553-555. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. The prolonged stay of elderly in their own homes is a focal point in housing policy in the Netherlands and also the wish of many elderly (Timmermans et al., 1997). Although initiatives to promote this (based on safety, usability, accessibility and adaptability) have brought distinct improvements, the basis of these initiatives is arguable. Generally it is assumed that residential needs of the elderly are sufficiently known from quantitative research of the housing market and a number of smaller qualitative studies (i.e. Rongen and de Heij, 1993; Houben, 1985; Scherpenisse, Folgerts and Kalle, 1993; Raaijmaker, van der Beek and Rohde, 1996). Thus, most insights originate from the supply side: we know what elderly want in relation to the possibilities offered. This is acceptable if the management of housing portfolios is prominent. If, however, prolonged independent living is the goal, requirements should be derived from the demand side: the physiological, psychological and social aspects of the dwelling process. In other words: present research is mainly offering housing needs whereas insight in dwelling needs is needed.
Heijs, Wim J. M.. "Founding Houses for the Elderly: on Housing Needs Or Dwelling Needs?" In Culture, Environmental Action, and Sustainability: Proceedings of the 17th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain: Hogrefe & Huber, 2003. "Present research for housing policy, as well as a number of social scientific studies on housing, concentrate on housing needs, preferences, wants and demands of the elderly. These perspectives are somewhat hazardous, because they may produce results that are based on a limited choice of alternatives, inadequate knowledge of the possibilities or the apparent inescapability of "homes" for the elderly. To prolong independence in one's own house, it is essential to have an understanding of the dwelling needs of elderly, i.e. needs on the user side that follow from the process of dwelling, and of the changes in those needs during the dwelling and ageing processes. Having an overview of these needs might prevent the taking of decisions in moving or design that promote certain needs while obstructing others, thereby possibly inducing an unnecessary future house move. Some studies in the social sciences do assess dwelling needs, primarily by using qualitative methods. These methods are suitable and valid in the circumstances in which they are used. However, for reasons discussed below, a quantitative method is preferred in the present case. This method takes person-environment fit theory as a starting point. Using functional problems that people experience if needs or abilities are not in line with resources or demands from the environment, statistical procedures can be applied to uncover dwelling needs. Tangible problems with these resources and demands will reveal related dwelling features and possibilities to promote independence. The method was tested in a study among tenants of a housing association in Eindhoven, the Netherlands. Although the procedure was somewhat hindered by the sample size, the results indicate that the method has potential. Dwelling needs of three age groups were established and compared. The relevant dwelling features of single family houses were classified and, on those grounds, recommendations were formulated."
Viganò, Paola. "Fragments of Social Space: New Territories for an Urban Project." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 782. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. The contribution will focus on different situations in Italy and in France. Their theme though different in the each case is the form of contemporary society and the form of a project that has to do with it and with its transformations. How urbanism and architecture can deal with questions such as contemporary collective imaginary and myths, social space, integration/diversity? The case studies try to afford these dimensions using the project as a device to describe, to give an interpretation of the contemporary society: the project is intended as a producer of knowledge and as a producer of interactions among the different actors.
Depeau, Sandrine. "From Accident Reality to the Perception of Risk." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 725-726. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. The present communication focuses on traffic environments and children. Many globalisation effect as regard to children's environment are due to global value granted to the speed in every city day-to-day life : communication speed, execution speed, moving speed... This strong value provides a whole dialectical in which children are very often trapped or prisoner and often on the same side: static vs dynamic; passant by vs drivers; reduced mobility vs hyper-mobile, attached to a territory vs decentrated.
Crunelle, Marc. "Future of Architecture." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 232-234. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "All the signs show that in the future, architecture will move toward an increasingly significant technical sophistication to the search of material comfort: automatic heating, energy saving, house automation (i.e. computerized management of consumption ), equipment integrated into walls, glass containing liquid crystals that modify the transparency when an electrical current passes through it , vocal commands for lighting, "intelligent" entrance doors (containing information such as voice recognition, etc...), etc..."
Mosler, Hans-Joachim. "Gaining 1000 Persons for Environmental Action." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 267-268. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. As a rule, in order to achieve noticeable effects to the benefit of the environment, many persons have to change their behavior. To this end - besides the well-known classical control and command instruments and economic instruments - there are so-called intervention and diffusion instruments available. Intervention instruments work through a mechanism that changes psychological processes and aim to achieve behavior changes in the individual. Diffusion instruments, through their distribution mechanism, aim towards widespread penetration of the social system. The present paper reports on the conducting and evaluating of an environmental campaign that in a combined approach used intervention and diffusion instruments with the aim to induce behavior change in many people in a municipality. The object of the campaign was reduction of average driving speeds in a Swiss municipality. The campaign progressed through four phases: preparatory, diffusion, behavior change, and post phases.
Blandy, Sarah, and David Parsons. "Gated Communities and Urban Planning: Globalisation Or National Policy." In Culture, Environmental Action, and Sustainability: Proceedings of the 17th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain: Hogrefe & Huber, 2003. This paper investigates the tension between the implementation of urban policy in the UK and global trends in culture and lifestyle as represented by the development of gated communities. The huge growth of gated communities in America has been well-documented, as have the concerns that their development represents a retreat by the affluent into privatised security, at the expense of society as a whole (Blakely and Snyder, 1999). In the US this process has sidestepped conventional forms of governance, both in terms of planning control and in the provision of services once the development is completed (McKenzie, 1994). Gated communities are being built in England, although not on the same scale. It is clear that developers here are seriously interested in this type of housing scheme, given their phenomenal success in the States (Webster, 2001) and that gated communities are spreading throughout the world (Ritzer, 1998). This paper uses a case study of a gated community currently being built in a city in the north of England, to investigate the extent to which decisions about the development and management of such schemes conform to government urban policy. We conclude that this form of housing is at odds with several key themes of stated policy. The paper goes on to look at why such schemes are built considering the impact of globalisation and by exploring the driving forces from the supply side through interviews with the developer and from the demand side through interviews with the residents. Finally we suggest that urban policy should consciously address the issues raised by this form of development, otherwise the market forces driving the trend will lead to a more divided, privatised and exclusive way of life without the repercussions being considered.
Blandy, Sarah, and David Parsons. "Gated Communities and Urban Planning: Globalisation Or National Policy." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 120-121. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. This paper investigates the tension between the implementation of urban policy in the UK and global trends in culture and lifestyle as represented by the development of gated communities. It concludes that gated communities represent globalised trends in consumer aspirations which contradict stated urban policy. This raises important questions about the role of planning authorities. Government urban policy in Britain currently focuses on three key themes; social exclusion, partnership and balanced communities of mixed tenure. Concern has shifted from poor people to poor places (Watt and Jacobs, 1999) as poverty and deprivation have become increasingly concentrated in specific areas. The problem of social exclusion is to be addressed through partnership working and the creation of mixed communities (SEU, 1998). Nothing less than an urban renaissance is needed, to revive city centres through high density, mixed tenure 'urban villages' (DETR, 1999). The ideal of social balance is a dominant feature of government policy documents.
Vlek, Charles. "Globalisation, Commons Dilemmas and Sustainable Quality of Life: What do We Need, What Can We Do, What May We Achieve?" In Culture, Environmental Action, and Sustainability: Proceedings of the 17th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain: Hogrefe & Huber, 2003. A behavioural science view is unfolded on sustainable development of society from a European perspective. Free-market expansion implies significant pressures on environmental and social qualities in many countries. An extended commons dilemma (ExCD) model is presented to capture the tension between individual and collective interests. A variety of people-environment studies can be well aligned with the successive ExCD steps. The model is applied to the expanding domain of motorised transport. Here, market-stimulated individual freedom is insufficiently checked by government policies aimed at securing vital collective goods. Current (Dutch and EU) policy principles are criticised and a set of guidelines for sustainable transportation is advanced. In view of these and on the basis of Dutch survey research, we may question economic growth, work and income as overriding factors of future human well-being. Conclusions are drawn about comprehensive sustainability research, the structuring of people-environment studies, and the issue of ëpracticing theory versus theorising practiceí.
Fadón, Leopoldo Llaneza. "Globalización, Transnacionalización: Estrategias Urbanas En Elescenario Simbólico. El Caso De Évora ( Portugal)." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 69-70. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "Évora es una ciudad "patrimonio de la humanidad". Mediante diferentes estrategias tato rural como urbanas -revalorización de escenarios urbanos, estimulo de prácticas económicas diferenciadas en su centro histórico, revitalización de las relaciones en el continuum rural-urbano, alteración de las funciones sociales y económicas de los barrios periféricos, etc- la ciudad elabora un plan director que envuelve al Concelho que preside para competir en el escenario económico -ciudad monumental-; político - implementación de políticas diferenciadas frente a otras regiones portuguesas; simbólico - con la recreación de nuevos espacios identitarios que compiten en el escenario portugués e internacional. Así el Alentejo y su paisaje - que se contrapone morfológicamente al Norte Portugués- adquiere connotaciones insospechadas y se convierte en objeto de deseo, búsqueda y síntoma de "buen gusto" - en el sentido de distinción explicitado por Bourdieu - para ciudadanos urbanitas de la cercana metrópoli lisboeta. Évora desempeña -desde hace tiempo- la función de capital regional del Alentejo, región caracterizada por su escasa industrialización, sus grandes latifundios y la importancia de la producción agrícola - especialmente cerealífera para el mercado interno y alcornoques (corcho) para la exportación-. Da la impresión, sin embargo, que estas actividades económicas han perdido la enorme influencia que ejercieron en la vida de la región. Durante los años 30 hasta los 70 del siglo XX , Évora fue el sitio de encuentro y principal plaza de comercio agrícola de la región. Allí adquirió enorme importancia - llegó a ser la plaza más importante de Portugal- el mercado porcino y a la sombra de las antiguos conventos - reconvertidos en casas solariegas- protagonizaba el "lavrador" su aventura comercial. Hoy, mucho de este pasado cercano es escenificado como una parte histórica del entramado urbano, amortiguando en el presente las profundas desigualdades sociales que existieron en el pasado."
Mahgoub, Yasser. "Globalization and Architecture: the Case of Kuwait." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 227-228. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. In his keynote speech to the IAPS 16th meeting at Paris, Antonio Remesar proclaimed that, «We have tendency to consider the globalization processes and localization processes like two separate realities.» (Remesar, 2000) In addition, we have another tendency to consider the two processes as new phenomena. Cultures are always in a process of change and invention. (Gilman, 1985) This paper argues that architectural globalization was active in the countries of the Gulf area since the middle of the 20th century onward. During the short history of the countries of the Gulf region, the rapid development and change permitted the co-existence of globalization/localization processes to be more evident and magnified than in other parts of the world. The forces of globalization were most evident in the case of Kuwait during the Second Gulf War when the country continued to exist as a virtual country with economic and political entities outside its physical borders due to global interest. This paper discusses the impact of globalization on architecture and the tension between the forces of globalization and localization as exemplified in the case of Kuwait. It focuses on their impact on architecture identity and sense of place.
Eldemery, Ibrahim Mostafa. "Globalization and Challenges of Place Identity." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 144-145. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. The term Globalization is thus often used as a code word that stands for a tremendous diversity of issues and problems that serves as a front for a variety of theoretical and political positions. For some theorist, globalization is seen as a process of standardization in which a globalized media and consumer culture circulates the globe creating sameness and homogeneity everywhere, thus bringing to light the bland and boring universality and massification in the modern projects. Grounded in historical vision, critical theory stresses the continuities and discontinuities between past, present, future and the possibility of constructive political action and individual and group practice grounded in positive potentials in the current constellation of forces and possibilities. Conservatives see globalization as a threat to national and local cultures and the sanctity of tradition, while some theorists are claiming that globalization is replacing concepts like modernity and post modernity as the central thematic of contemporary theorizing.
Kerkman, David Stea. Denn. "Globalization and Its Discontents: Spatial Cognition and Social Distancing in North America." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 309-311. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Globalization has been proceeding along various dimensions for a number of years, largely in the absence of intercultural understanding. Never has this been more evident than in the last few months of 2001, with U.S. and British military action against the purported cradles of terrorism revealing the West's abysmal ignorance of the cultural contexts of those who supposedly harbor such terrorists, or of the terrorists themselves. The crisis precipitated by the events of 11 September, 2001, revealed parallel areas of spatial and geographic ignorance among Americans, few of whom knew even where Afghanistan was. Such ignorance may hamper friendly as well as bellicose interactions, such as those in the economic realm.
Chen, Hung-Chih Shih Kuan-. "Globalization and Urban Competitiveness - a Case Study Oftaiwan's Cities." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 153-154. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "In view of the economic globalization, the economic interdependence of each country has become more deepened. Under the worldwide economic system, those cities with well-organized facilities or more superior competence, so called "Global City" or "World City", will dominate the world's economic development and lead the global industry development. Therefore, the trend of "City Globalization" has become a major striving goal for cities around the world confronting global competition in the 21st century."
Floyd, Alan. "Globalized Media: Broadcasting Or Narrowcasting?" In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 299-300. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "Media outlets have catered for a variety of audiences, and that fact that media messages are a marketable commodity has always meant that they reached out to as many people as possible. The competition between media companies, at least as far as newspaper and television stations was concerned, was therefore to capture a wide and numerous audience. The print media (newspaper, magazines and books) made more money for writers and organizations alike by selling many copies of their work, although even here the enormous importance of advertising (providing up to seventy per cent of revenue) has meant that the crucial factor for success is not so much how many readers but their social position. Thus, the "quality" of the media audience has always counted as much as its "quantity". Therefore, the media have aimed at particular, often the more affluent sectors of society."
Tonucci, Francesco. "Going Alone to School: a Proposal for Autonomy." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 724. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "As one of the objectives of the Children´s city programme in Italy is the enhancement of children´s autonomus mobility, the research group of the CNR has begun to experiment with new methods that might allow to overcome some of the barriers in children´s patterns of free movement. The aim of the presentation is to discuss the method developed as part of a proposal called "Going alone to school". The method comprises a collaboration with several local actors, children included, who are willing to analyse the environmental and social context in which children journey from home to school, to plan for its improvements, and to change the conditions so that children can go alone to school when they are 7 years old. Recent examples from two Italian towns indicate that it is possible to brake the resistance coming from families and to let children journey alone to school."
Nilsson, Dick-Urban Vestbro Su, and Örjan Svane. "Greening of Residential Areas, a Technical Matter Or a Theme for Cooperation? Developing Environmental Strategies for Small Neighbourhoods in Sweden." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 82-83. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "Greening of housing areas in Sweden is often associated with the construction of new residential areas, such as eco-villages or urban districts with peak technology. If however, the environmental impacts of the whole sector is to be reduced, specific "greening strategies" for the existing built environment have to be developed (Svane, 1999). In Swedish eco-villages is co-operation among the residents necessary for the management of technical systems, e.g. heating or sewage. Co-operation is a part of the greening strategy and it is both a necessity and a goal which creates relations in the village that reminds of the sociologist Tönnies' concept "Gemeinschaft" (see e.g. Asplund, 1991). In two urban districts now under construction, "Hammarby Sjöstad" in Stockholm and "Bo01" in southern Sweden, the strategy is different. There, the ambition is to create green housing where Tönnies' idea of "Gesellschaft" relations between residents will suffice. Technical systems managed by professionals, for instance solar cells and local heating plants, will reduce environmental impacts without demanding co-operation among the residents. What, then could a greening strategy for existing multi-family housing look like? Is it a theme for co-operation among residents and with the manager, or is it rather a technical matter? The main purpose of my research project, "Environmental Practice and Robustness in the Small Neighbourhood", is to develop strategies that gradually decrease the environmental impact from existing Swedish housing. Several different kinds of measures could be include in such a strategy."
Weiss, Karine. "Groups Adaptation in Specific Workplaces: the Case of Polarstations." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 478-480. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. The study of winter-over polar stations has already made it possible to highlight some characteristics related to a good individual and social adaptation. It particularly appears that social aspects are determining when individuals live for a relatively long period in small isolated groups. Indeed, the constraints linked to isolation and confinement in a limited space facilitate the appearance of interpersonal or inter-group conflicts. It also appears that the presence of different professions and statutes harm the cohesion of the wintering group. In addition, the personal and professional occupations play a significant role in the well-being experimented by the wintering team: environmental and social monotony constitutes a major stress, source of personal, interpersonal and inter-group conflicts. However the physical environment, in spite of its monotony, is also a source of positive stimulations largely reported in many writings. A polar experience can thus be lived very positively. It seems that the diversity of the individual interests as well as professional ones can constitute an important element in the adaptation to such a situation. Indeed, winter-over situations constitute first of all professional experiences, and working is the principal reason of presence of the wintering teams. This is why we studied the professional interests and preferences as determinants of the adaptation.
Després, Carole. "Growing Older in Suburban Canada: Meanings and Experiences of Home." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 695-696. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. This presentation discusses the meanings and experiences of home for owners of single-family detached houses in suburban neighbourhoods built between 1950 and 1970. Canadian Postwar suburbs are indeed aging, both physically and socially. A detailed analysis of the 1996 Census reveals that, in absolute numbers, there are more older people living in suburbs than in the central neighborhoods of Quebec City metropolitan area (Morin, Fortin & Després, 2000). The situation is even more critical in suburbs built between 1950 and 1970 in which nuclear family households are now in minority (33%) with the growing presence of one-person households and empty nesters. Even children are growing older; 40 percent are 18 years old or more. An important number of citizens who bought a house in these suburbs in the 50s and 60s are now reaching or approaching the age of retirement.
Romice, Ombretta. "Handbook and Cd Rom to Strengthen the Participation of Communitygroups in Urban Renewal Projects." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 631-632. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002.

The revitalisation of communities is high on the urban agenda of many cities. This requires major changes at the physical as much as the social and political levels (Forester, 1999). Those promoting such change as well as those at the sharp end of urban change processes are increasingly requiring if not demanding the right to have a say in the urban transformation process (Sanoff, 2000). Such involvement may, it is argued, go some way to prevent the mistakes of the past, to identify, reinforce and stabilise new roles and relationships within the city such that all citizens become active partners in change (Towers, 1995). Involving community groups in the design processes concerning their city or neighbourhood should enable them to play a constructive role in creating responsive environments and, as a result, achieve a higher level of satisfaction for communities (Frey, 1999).

Devine-Wright, P.. "Having a Say in Saving the Planet: a Empirical Analysis of the Links Between Local Participation and Support for Wind Energy Development." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 195-196. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. There is an increasing scientific consensus concerning the potential effects of global warming and climate change (e.g. IPCC, 2001). In response, policy makers in most countries are proposing reductions in the emission of greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide (for example, the UK government has agreed to a 12.5% reduction in CO2 emissions by 2010; Department of the Environment Transport and the Regions, 1998). In carbon reduction strategies, renewable energy, as a replacement for fossil fuel use, has a crucial contribution to make. The UK has 40% of Europe's economically viable wind resources (Smith and Heath, 1998) and 86% of UK citizens support renewable electricity (Mori, 1996 quoted in Smith and Heath, 1998). Yet the development of on-shore wind power has been slow and marked by considerable social controversy often attributed by policy makers to the not-in-my-backyard syndrome (NIMBYism: Walker, 1995; Wolsink, 2000).
Rivlin, Leanne G.. "Home in an Era of Fear." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 691-692. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. In New York City the terrorism and destruction have left some of the businesses and housing empty and uninhabitable. Although many of the residential buildings have been declared safe, residents are reluctant if not unwilling to go back to them. Occupants of nearby office buildings also are loathe to return. Their homes and offices are tainted with the dust and the memories of the 11 September 2001 event, stripping them of the qualities that characterize safe places.
Wang, Herng-Dar Bih Ying- T.. "Homecoming: a Research on the Characteristics of the Logic of Everyday Practice and the Operation of Cultural Field Amonghome - Returning Indigenous Cultural Workers in South Taiwan." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 165-166. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "Modernization and acculturation have greatly transformed Taiwan indigenous people during recent fifty years. Facing dramatic challenges of the dissolution of the social-economical structure and the loss of traditional culture, a lot of indigenous people immigrated to urban areas in order to obtain a better education and work opportunity. Having been suffering from the stigmatized identity and uneven competition in the mainstream society, a group of indigenous cultural workers returned home to regenerate their tribal tradition and to search for alternative way of life. On the one hand, they learn traditional skills for producing handcrafts such as pottery, sculpture and beads, and then combine the skills with modern ones in the making of modern artworks. On the other hand, they play the roles of indigenous cultural representatives and mediators to struggle with those of mainstream culture. In doing so, they create a new way of life and status in their home communities. The emerging movement has been termed by scholars as "the second wave of Taiwan indigenous movement". Emphasized on the struggle of cultural domain, its focus has been shifted from the formerly political and social aspects to the cultural identity in a new conjuncture."
M Ersoy, Zehra, and Hikmet Gökmen. "Homes of Global Life." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 437-438. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. For the last few decades, one of most popular debates of environmental discourse is the redefinition and interpretation of concepts of 'house' and 'home'. The main intention that lies under such a conceptual distinction is to provide better dwelling conditions through a more humanistic approach to the existing problems of housing. From this point of view, 'house' can be determined as a physical entity that provides space for the household, where as 'home' is a complex system which defines and is defined by cultural, sociodemographic, psychological, political and economic factors. The complexity of the nature of homes and the presence of various studies from various disciplines results to an overdose of descriptions and that are mostly complementary but some inevitably contradictory. Basically, home; a complex system with provisions of spatial and temporal orientation, is a physical product, a cultural artifact, a social construct and a base for psychological resonance.
Ozaki, Ritsuko. "House Design as a Representation of Values and Lifestyles: the Meaning of Use of Domestic Space." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 685-686. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. House design has reflexive power, representing our lifestyles and associated values. This paper explores meanings attached to house design through the analysis of people's ritualised activities and use of domestic space by using the notion of 'lifestyles'. Lifestyles are 'patterns of activities' - i.e. patterns of social relations, consumption and culture (Abercrombie et al. 1984). Lifestyles are sets of shared values and practices that make sense in particular contexts, differentiating people and explaining what they do, why they do it, and what doing it means to them. (Chaney 1996). Indeed, how we lead our everyday life is a key to understanding the meaning that we attach to our living space. As Douglas (1966) puts it, rituals are an attempt to maintain a particular culture or a particular underlying assumption by performing visibly. The use of domestic space and the layout of a house, therefore, reflect our underlying values, norms and ideologies (Clark 1973; Mumford 1970; Ozaki 1999, 2001, 2002 forthcoming).
Poetzlberger, Klaus-Peter. "Housing Dreams of Vienna Residents and Innovative Dwellings at the Millenium." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 801-802. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "What will be the needs of Austrian housing residents in the year 2020? Maybe answers can be found in reactions upon innovative housing projects like low-energy buildings, car-free housing estates, or costsaving DIY (do it yourself) projects. Focusing on these aspects, our research group made a survey with residents from five innovative Vienna residential buildings. The aim was to develop experience-based criteria, recommendations for action and suggestions to be used by public housing sponsors and building companies for the implementation of innovation-orientated housing. The starting point for this is a targeted and detailed analysis with quality criteria defined by the residents. While location factors such as urbaneness, public transport access and nearby recreation facilities, as well as criteria such as price, layout and daylight, are decisive purchase arguments for an apartment, the existence and quality of spacious living areas plays an important role after moving in. The project "Housing dreams" holds the view that, independent of individual preferences, top quality criteria exist in housing as essential conditions for widespread acceptance by residents."
Kose, Satoshi. "Housing for Everybody in a Highly Aged Society: Japanese Approachtoward Universality." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 403-404. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. During these fifteen years, Japanese housing policy has changed a lot. Design to prepare for the residents' ageing has been the most crucial issue. In 1986, the forecast of Japanese population ageing indicated that Japan will have almost a quarter of persons aged 65 and over in the years to come. To prepare for the future, the government started to redefine the direction of policy to house the senior citizens (Kose & Nakaohji, 1991). In 1991, design guidelines for the public rental housing were introduced, and in 1995 the concept of guidelines was expanded to cover every dwelling with the issuance of a circular from the Director- General of the Housing Bureau of the Ministry of Construction. The fundamental ideas were subsequently adopted as the requirements for government subsidized housing mortgages in 1996. It succeeded in accelerating the change of dwelling design in Japan (Kose, 1996; Kose, 1997a; Kose, 1997b; Kose, 2001b). It is to be noted that in several countries design guidelines or requirements have been targeted to make dwellings livable for seniors and people with disabilities, but very few introduced economic incentives to realize such targets. Currently, in the UK and in some States or cities of the USA, visitability requirements are in force or under discussion.
Boyko, Christopher. "How a Tourist Hallmark Event Affects Place Meaning: Brugge 2002 and Residents' Meanings for their City Centre." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 391-392. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Research on place meaning often emphasizes private, suburban spaces and tends to neglect public, urban environments. However, public spaces convey much information about societal meanings and values through past and current associations of group members in that space (Stokols & Shumaker, 1981). Historic city centres, particularly those found in northern Europe (e.g., Belgium), are rich sources of information about meaning because people utilize the public spaces on a daily basis and, therefore, have an intimate knowledge of these centres rooted in experience, memory, and emotion. As time passes, meanings for the city centre will undoubtedly change, fluctuating with political, economic, and social changes. However, drastic alterations to a setting can significantly or even traumatically impact a place forever (Selwood & Hall, 1986). One type of event that has the capacity to influence place meaning is the tourist hallmark event (e.g., Winter Olympics). Such events are of limited duration, occurring one-time or regularly, with the goal of enhancing the awareness, appeal, and profitability of a tourism destination (Ritchie, 1984).
Potter, Rodrigo Cantarero, Winston X. Yan, Steven Larrick, Heather Keele, and Blanca E. Ramirez. "How Does Immigration Impact the Quality of Life in a Small Town?" In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 447-449. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Crete, Nebraska, (population 5,200) is on the cutting edge of a global economy in which people are migrating to places that offer jobs and a better quality of life. In the year 2001, when this study was conducted, Crete's local Farmland pork processing plant was expecting to increase its workforce from 1,200 to 1,650. In today's economy, these 450 new jobs are likely to attract workers from around the world. For example, in recent years, workers have come to Crete from Vietnam, Korea, Laos, Croatia, Serbia, Iraq, and from countries throughout Latin America. Demographic changes like these are having profound impacts on small communities like Crete. They tend to bring renewed economic vigor but they also present a complex array of physical, social, psychological, and cultural challenges. To better understand these challenges from a local perspective, a research team from the College of Architecture at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln has developed a process to allow local residents to express their perceptions of the changing quality of life in their community. This process provides an opportunity to compare and contrast perceptions of the quality of life among long-term residents (over 15 years in the community) and shortterm residents (less than five years in the community).
Gorchacov, Ricardo M. Fait, and Raquel S. L. Guzzo. "How to Overcome the Dichotomy Live/survive in Global Society:conscience About Inhabiting." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 411-412. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. La vida humana esta relacionada con la manera y calidad de vivienda presentes en los espacios urbanos, constituidas por estrechas relaciones del hombre con su ambiente más inmediato. El dilema de vivir o sobrevivir en las grandes ciudades esta colocado, cuando se depara con maneras de habitar que no se traducen en condiciones adecuadas de vida. Las pesquisas sobre el ambiente residencial demuestran que la desorganización urbana influencia el comportamiento del hombre, tanto cuanto lo contrario (Tognoli, 1987), afectando la constitución de los espacios privados y colectivos y, haciendo con que los individuos acaben por desarrollar una manera de vivir en tensión por adaptarlas a sus valores (Moser, 2001; Pol, 2001). Buscando una manera de vivir semejante a la que tuvo en el pasado y por sus expectativas en el futuro, el hombre alterna condiciones de vida y sobrevida en una dialéctica poco estudiada, tanto en su dinámica cuanto en sus consecuencias para el desarrollo humano. La manipulación ideológica mascara valores sociales e individuales con promesas de progresos, no forneciendo el apoyo necesario para organización de una nueva vida. Las Políticas Publicas no favorecen condiciones de mantener un espacio necesario a las necesidades del desarrollo humano.
Beattie, Martin. "Hybrid Identities: Courtyard Houses of Barabazaar, Kolkata." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 161-162. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Barabazaar or the 'great bazaar' is the oldest and richest bazaar in Kolkata, and existed before the East India Company arrived in 1690. The Europeans established themselves in south Kolkata at the villages of Gobindapur and Kalikata, erecting a 'white town' there. North Kolkata, including the villages of Sutanuti and Chitpur as well as Barabazaar, with its largely Indian population became known as the 'black town'. Today, comprising approximately 2.5 square kilometres, Barabazaar is a conglomerate of private markets with a weekday population of 800,000.
Snyder, Alison B.. "Hybridity and Flexibility: Learning from the Contemporaryanatolian Village." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 221-222. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. My research has revealed how Turkey's rapid modernization and economic need has become a catalyst for producing a more hybridized and less homogenous landscape in some rarely studied central Anatolian Turkish villages. (Sibel Bozdogan and Resat Kasaba, eds., 1997, Rethinking Modernity and National Identity in Turkey. Seattle, University of Washington Press) One must consider the interrelation between the villagers' architectural choices and the ongoing social and cultural customs. My project, which borrows some methodology and theory associated with the disciplines of anthropology (Carol Delaney, 1991, The Seed and the Soil, Gender and Cosmology in Turkish Village Society. Berkeley, University of California Press) and archaeology (Martin Locock, ed., 1994, Meaningful Architecture: social interpretations of buildings. Vermont, Avebury), is primarily focused on the transforming morphology of the village and with identifying the key components that contribute to the changes. It is also concerned with analyzing the different meanings and social relationships in the making of house and home in central Turkey. (Onder Kucukerman, 1991, Turkish House(Turk Evi), In Search of Spatial Identity. Istanbul, Turkish Association) Finally, it offers a framework by which to analyze the new domestic lifestyle alongside the old at this moment of broad transition and evolution. I argue that extracting the essences from a local domestic culture is essential for new place-making and should be re-adapted for universal usage in this time of global shifts in economics and demography. (Paul Stirling, ed., 1993-Culture and Economy: Changes in Turkish Villages. England, Huntingdon, Eothen)
Díaz, Mayra Lazcano Ma. "Identidad Social Urbana En Asentamientos De Extrema Pobreza. Unacomparación Exploratoria." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 680-682. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Especialista en Vivienda Social (U.de Chile). Históricamente, la mayoría de la población de los 'países en desarrollo' no elige el lugar específico en el que vivir, existiendo además un importante porcentaje de ella que a causa de su condición de extrema pobreza no tiene acceso a la compra en el mercado territorial e inmobiliario de un lugar siquiera mínimo para habitar. En Chile existe alrededor de 1347 asentamientos que albergan a población extremadamente pobre, denominados 'campamentos', y se calcula que 375 están constituidos cada uno por un rango de 10 a 19 'viviendas', agrupando un total de 5.015, mientras que habría 972 (549 urbanos y 423 rurales) de más de 20 viviendas cada uno, con 104.808 familias y 94.457 viviendas (Instituto de la Vivienda, INVI,1997).
lvarez, P Á., J García, M. J. Fernández, G Cañadas, and P. Vega. Ideología Ambiental Del Profesorado De Educación Secundariaobligatoria. Evidencias Sobre La Validez De Un Instrumento In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "En el marco de una investigación más amplia sobre la implementación de la Educación Ambiental (E A) en la Educación Secundaria Obligatoria en la Comunidad Autónoma Andaluza, hemos construido un instrumento para conocer el posicionamiento ideológico del profesorado respecto al medio ambiente - especialmente, aquellas formulaciones que se refieren a una ética ambientalista-, pues en el campo de la E A la componente ideológica es muy grande y condiciona esencialmente la orientación didáctica y los contenidos de la asignatura. En relación con ello se ha reabierto el debate acerca de la "neutralidad docente" (Trilla, 1992) y la clásica antinomia de "educación versus adoctrinamiento" (Kauchack et al., 1978)1"
Holzschuh, Rosalía, David Travieso, and Raquel García. "Illumination as Parameter of Accessibility in Low Vision." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 551-552. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "Since the 1974 Meeting in New York at the UN for "A design without barriers" and after several recommendations, resolutions and laws (Álvarez, Amengual & Benito, 1996) accessibility has been introduced as a key concept for the adaptation of public buildings for disabled people. However, only a few number of those documents (Martínez, 1994; Real Decreto 486/1997; AENOR -UNE 41500-, 2001; CIE - 123-, 1997) introduce illumination as an accessibility parameter, without considering the visually impaired. These documents recommend different illumination levels for main halls, corridors, rooms, etc., that rise with the difficulty of the visual task commonly required for using a certain space, considering visual tasks varying from passing through a hall or corridor, to tasks with a medium visual level requirement like detecting, reaching and using objects."
Rodríguez, José Domingo Gu, López Barrio Isabel, and Manuel Siguero. "Influencia Del Significado Y De Las Características Físicas Delsonido En Las Preferencias Sonoras." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 362-363. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. El hecho de que los ambientes con elevados niveles de ruido puedan incidir negativamente en la calidad de vida de la población ha motivado el desarrollo de numerosas investigaciones dirigidas a determinar la dimensión exacta de este problema ambiental (población afectada, niveles críticos de exposición ....), así como al desarrollo de estrategias de control de ruido, tanto a nivel legislativo como de actuaciones concretas en el urbanismo y en la planificación territorial (Fidell y otros 1991; Fields, 1992). Desde esta perspectiva, el ambiente sonoro se asimila a ruido, a contaminación, siendo la intensidad el elemento básico en torno al que se determina su valor y la molestia la principal respuesta analizada en relación al mismo.
Mwendwa, Suki K. K.. "Informal Settlements Home Away from Home." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 491. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Informal settlements are often seen in the context of housing. Rarely is the question asked if these settlements are homes? Conventional wisdom has dominated the thought of these dwellings, assuming them as substandard dwellings and environments, so how could they be considered home. This paper looks at the informal settlements in Kenya-Nairobi as a possible cultural landscape, which I call home2. This landscape is active, dynamic, and communicates socio-cultural values that may assist with the larger urban landscape in Africa, by considering settlement as home. Investigating from a different perspective the informal settlement phenomenon, I present some observations that question whether the approaches to resolve these settlements or housing in Kenya are lacking an important topic - home.
Gifford, Robert, and Yuko Heath. "Inside the Commons Dilemma: Seeing the Decision from the Harvester's Perspective." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 572-573. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Although the past 25 years of commons dilemma research has been very productive and generated a number of important findings (Komorita & Parks, 1994), the field would benefit from taking a step back and examining the overall process by which decisions are made, particularly in resource-oriented commons dilemmas, and what implications this has for understanding and changing behavior in this context. We believe that elements of five theoretical or framework approaches that have rarely been applied to the problem would be useful: naturalistic decision making theory (Zsambok & Klein, 1997), image theory (Beach, 1998; Beach & Mitchell, 1987), lens model theory (Brunswik, 1956), grounded theory analysis (Glaser & Strauss, 1967), and social evaluation theory (Gifford, 2000).
Zellner, Moira. "Integrated Urban - Environmental Models as Tools for Policy Design for Sustainable Development." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 97-98. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. A city is a pattern in time. The city persists, while no single constituent remains in place, or rather because it is in constant flux. Much like any living system, a city must change in order to maintain its integrity and its identity. Coherence under change is a common characteristic of complex adaptive systems (Holland, 1995). Though the activity of an individual actor in a city can be complex, the behavior of the aggregate identity of a city is more complex than the sum of these individual activities. Thus, the city's behavior depends on the interactions much more than on the actions. Complexity theory involves the study of many actors and their interactions. Large-scale effects of locally interacting agents are called 'emergent properties' of the system. Emergent properties can be deduced in some models, such as neoclassical economic models in which rational agents operate under strong assumptions about the availability of information. Although people may try to be rational, they rarely can meet the requirements of information or foresight that rational models impose. The main alternative to the assumption of rational choice is some form of adaptive behavior. The consequences of adaptive processes are often very hard to deduce when there are many interacting agents following rules that have nonlinear effects. Because the study of large numbers of actors with changing patterns of interactions often is too difficult for a mathematical solution, a primary research tool of complexity theory is computer simulation.
Nawangwe, Barnabas. "Intelligent Buildings for Modernising Countries." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 225-226. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Models in architecture and town planning emerge in history as reflections of economic, social and cultural changes. Ideally these models are tailored to suit societal needs. In practice we find a mixture of models, some of which are not well adapted to the social and cultural context. Many are unsustainable in all respects of the word (Oliver 1990; Vestbro 2001). The question is which design models are suitable to which economic, social and cultural context. Every region is characterised by its architectural heritage. It reflects the culture of the people and the way they protect themselves from hostile environments (Denyer 1978, Oliver 1997). The onslaught of, first colonialism, then globalisation, has produced contempt for local cultural heritages, however. In most parts of the world we see buildings that are not responsive to local climatic conditions and whose spatial arrangements do not respond to social needs. In the case of Uganda the most common material of house construction is burnt brick. It is estimated that 40,000 tons of wood are destroyed annually for the burning of bricks. This is likely to lead to an environmental hazard for this poor country. Therefore it is necessary to find solutions for less energy-demanding house types (Nawangwe et al 2001).
Pinheiro, José Q.. "Interdisciplinarity in the Making: the Environmental Psychology Ofbrazilian Research Groups." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 676-677. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "Architects, geographers and urban planners were the first to get involved with Environmental Psychology (EP) in Brazil. Translated books and isolated courses were the initiatives accomplished within the field during the 70's until mid 80's. The Brazilian bibliographic production that followed was limited and still expressed "intra-cluster" efforts (Pinheiro, 2001). From mid 90's throughout these days the area has been unfolding in "inter-clusters" activities, nonetheless not yet fully materialised in joint publications. Environmental psychologists, architects, geographers and other professionals engaged in the field have been meeting in national and international events, in which they have been more and more "interclusterly" oriented. The discipline and the field of study (Sommer, 2000) in Brazil have now reached a stage of development that recommends reflection and planning (Aragonés, 1994); people and institutions implicated need to know what they have/are, in order to better plan towards what they want. Therefore this study was planned to find out how Brazilian researchers perceive "environmental psychology"."
Reis, María Cristina L.. "Internal and External Aesthetics of Housing Estates." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 419-420. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Aesthetics is an important aspect in the analysis of environmental impact of design of buildings and open spaces. Design review has been implemented in most of the larger cities in the United States, as well as in other countries such as the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Sweden, Italy, the Netherlands, Japan and Spain. Adding to this, the Supreme Court of United States has mentioned the aesthetic criterion as sufficient for an adequate base for development, and in 30 states, the courts determined that aesthetics considerations are sufficient to establish regulations. Specifically, the 'National Environmental Protection Act' of 1969, which determines a carefully evaluation of the effects of major projects in the environment, requires consideration of visual impacts. Moreover, the American courts sustain that environmental beauty is of legitimate public interest and this must be based on the preferences of the general public and not on the personal tastes of government officials (Stamps, 2000; Sanoff, 1991).
Romay, Ricardo G. Mira Jo. "Key Elements of Healthy Work Environments." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 813. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Within a context of a globalized society looking for a higher standard of quality of life, the aim of our work is to analyze, preferently from a psychosocial dimension, those damaging elements for work health in the work environments, both from an external perspective of work physical environment and from an internal and organizational one. This will let us to think on work risks, accidentability, as well as some precarious and harmful conditions in the workplace, such as psychological harassment. This work try to contribute to a model which warranties healthy work environments, showing some proposals of action, and emphasizing those comprised within the dynamic of psychological contract of the companies.
Purcell, A. T.. "Knowledge and Design." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 735-736. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. A notable characteristic of the field of people and environment relations is that it is multi - disciplinary. This ensures that there is the potential for a rich mix of different types of knowledge, approaches to research and theoretical orientations. However while this potential exists it also brings with it a number of problems, and it is one of these problems and ways of addressing it that form the basis for the paper. For those who come from outside of the design disciplines there is a problem about the relationship between the knowledge they have and how it is related to the physical environment. For many of the social sciences the physical environment is not considered to be relevant to the phenomena of interest.
Siré, Elena. "La Aplicación Del Diseño Para Todos En La Renovación De Los Edificios Con Valor Cultural Teorías, Ejemplos Y Evaluación." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 201-202. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. La arquitectura que se diseña y construye es a menudo una expresión de los valores y recursos existentes en la sociedad. El tiempo no se detiene y los cambios que se producen en la sociedad a lo largo del tiempo repercuten en las formas de vida. La sociedad actual tiene una responsabilidad con respecto a las necesidades prácticas en los edificios de uso público con valor histórico. Una de las exigencias actuales es el acceso y uso de esos edificios por las personas con limitaciones de actividades (discapacitadas). Se plantean y discuten diferentes aspectos tanto teoréticos como concretos sobre el diseño del medio construído en relación a la accesibilidad, así como a los aspectos sociales, de comunicación y de vivencias personales. El diseño para todos es el concepto que reune estas ambiciones.
Paz, Elena Freire. La Artesanía Gallega: Espejo Y Etiqueta In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "Partiendo de las coordenadas teóricas del concepto antropológico de globalización, en las que se inscribe la sociedad actual, el objetivo de este trabajo es reflexionar sobre el papel que desempeña la recuperación de determinadas facetas de la cultura gallega, en concreto aquéllas que están ligadas a la recuperación de algunos oficios artesanales, en la interacción entre la cultura global y la local. En la identificación que tiende a hacerse entre el momento presente y el fenómeno globalizador, cabe precisar que éste "é un proceso multifacético que, con ritmo e sorte diversa, acompaña ó home dende que comenzou a súa andaina pola terra". Independientemente de su posible datación histórica, el proceso de globalización se caracteriza por dos rasgos de marcado interés para nuestro estudio: en primer lugar, lo que se define como un proceso fundamentalmente económico alcanza, cuando no ocupa de lleno, el plano social, puesto que, a pesar de la abstracción que parece llevar implícita la actividad económica, ésta se desarrolla en realidad sobre espacios físicos y sociales concretos; en segundo lugar, como respuesta casi inmediata al proceso globalizador, se produce "lo que algunos consideran como un resurgir de las identidades" y que ha supuesto la confrontación de dos términos no excluyentes sino complementarios: lo global y lo local. Frente a la uniformización y homogeneización que supone el triunfo de la cultural global en cualquier parte del mundo -gracias, entre otros factores, al constante fluir de información propiciado por la expansión de las nuevas tecnologías, cuyo desarrollo alcanza cotas realmente vertiginosas- se produce también un "potenciamiento das especificidades locais susceptibles de seren valorizadas"."
Cronick, Karen. "La Calle La Peta: Una Evaluación E Intervención Ambiental." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 375. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Franklin Chacón, Yurima Henriquez y Lazaro SilvaMaroa, Bierschenk, Milton Flores, Farael Galarraga, Yadilka Marquez, Victor Hugo Méndez, Sara Rosendo, Sonia Salazar, Luis Serrano, Amaia Urdanilia, Oswaldo Vernet Facultad de Humanidades y Educación, Universidad Central de Venezuela Este trabajo relata una experiencia en que varios estudiantes y una profesora participaron en un diagnóstico ambiental y una intervención psicosocial en una área urbana de Caracas, Venezuela. Se trata de una calle ciega que forma parte de las bordes de la Universidad Central de Venezuela; en las márgenes de esta calle hay dos estacionamientos, un estadio universitario, una capilla, la sede de la asociación de los profesores de la Universidad, una planta experimental para el tratamiento de aguas negras y una parada de autobuses. Es un espacio reducido cuya utilización ha sido conflictiva porque diversos sectores de la Ciudad Universitario y otros sectores urbanos lo emplean para propósitos encontrados: a) para ciertos rofesores y estudiantes es un lugar de tránsito y un espacio en que estacionan sus vehículos por periodos cortos de tiempo, b) los usuarios de la capilla, la asociación de profesores y la planta de tratamiento lo tienen como un lindero, c) algunos vendedores ambulantes lo usan como un lugar para comerciar con diversos artículos como comida, discos compactos y baratillas, d) para algunos indigentes es un lugar de residencia y e) para algunos estudiantes es un espacio en que organizan fiestas espontaneas en que bailan, tocan música y toman cerveza y otras bebidas alcohólicas. Otros grupos interesados en el uso del lugar son los vendedores locales de bebidas que surten los estudiantes con provisiones para sus fiestas y los residentes «legítimos» que deben tolerar el ruido y el desorden causados por algunas de las prácticas mencionadas. El análisis actual, que seigue la metodología de la «Evaluación de la Cuarta Generación» De Guba y Lincoln (1988) tiene que ver con: a) la identificación de los stakeholders, b) la identificación de los usos dados a la zona, c) el proceso en que se identifican las construcciones sociales de los usuarios y se intenta lograr la resolución dialéctica de éstas y c) la devolución de los resultados a los usuarios.
García-Viniegras, Carmen Regina Vic, and Vivian López González. "La Categoría Bienestar Psicológico. Su Relación Con Otrascategorías Sociales." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 609-610. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Muchas categorías psico-sociales han contribuido al creciente desarrollo de los estudios acerca del bienestar. En el campo de las ciencias de la salud, dicha categoría se hace necesaria, para abordar los factores psicológicos y sociales influyentes en el proceso salud-enfermedad. Algunos autores han considerado el bienestar subjetivo como expresión de la afectividad y otros como valoración cognitiva, mientras que Diener (1) brinda una concepción más integradora del bienestar subjetivo. Autores cubanos consideran que bienestar lleva implícito la experiencia personal y por tanto hablar de bienestar subjetivo es una redundancia. Consideran también la íntima relación de lo afectivo y lo cognitivo y por eso lo definen como la valoración subjetiva que expresa la satisfacción de las personas y su grado de complacencia con aspectos específicos o globales de su vida, donde predominan los estados de ánimo positivos (2).
Hospido, María Teresa Mor, and Gumersindo Feijoo. La Cerveza: Un Producto De Consumo Analizado Desde Una Perspectiva Medioambiental In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. La primera definición de la metodología del Análisis del Ciclo de Vida (ACV) fue propuesta en 1993 por la Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, SETAC [1]. Cuatro años más tarde, esta herramienta adquirió importancia dentro de la serie ISO 14.000 sobre Gestión Medioambiental. Dicha serie constituye un conjunto de estándares que proporcionan a la empresa un sistema para la gestión del impacto medioambiental que generan sus actividades. Aunque la aplicación de dichos estándares es voluntaria, su adopción tiene visos de ser generalizada y los imperativos del mercado llevan el camino de convertirlas en virtualmente obligatorias [2].
Otero, María Dolores Lo, and Ricardo García Mira. "La Competencia De Acción En Educación Ambiental." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 643-644. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. La solución a los problemas ambientales actuales exige identificar y analizar el conflicto de intereses existente en el uso de las fuentes naturales, tanto a nivel individual, como social (entre varios grupos y/o individuos) y de estructura social, para conocer cómo afectan a nuestro futuro (Breiting et al., 1999). La educación y más especificamente la educación escolar aparece como el medio más eficaz para que los alumnos de hoy, «líderes de opinión del mañana y administradores de la Tierra» (Uzzell, 1999, p. 397), mejoren esta relación. Para ello, es necesario que tanto los planteamientos teóricos como las prácticas educativas de los procesos de enseñanza-aprendizaje se socialicen y democraticen, de manera que favorezcan en los alumnos además de la adquisición de conocimientos, el desarrollo de habilidades, destrezas, actitudes, del pensamiento crítico y de la competencia de acción.
Luaces, Juan José Gonz. "La Ganadería Ecológica: Adaptación De Una Actividad Tradicional Ala Economía De Un Parque Natural. El Caso De a Capela(A Coruña)." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 292-293. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Las nuevas concepciones sobre el medioambiente hacen que, cada vez con mayor intensidad, se desarrolle una política proteccionista para preservar los espacios que menos se han degradado y permitir el disfrute tanto por los habitantes de la zona en armonía con el medioambiente, como de los futuros visitantes. Para los habitantes de los parques naturales, supone una serie de limitaciones a su forma de vida, ya que las únicas actividades que pueden ejercer allí son las tradicionales, tanto en la agricultura como en la ganadería.
Herrera, Luz Ma. Flores, Marcos Bustos Aguayo, and Serafín Mercado Do Ramos. "La Interacción Social Del Preescolar En El Salón De Clase: Un Estudio Observacional." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 526-527. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Si bien muchos aspectos del ambiente físico y social se relacionan con la conducta y el desarrollo infantil, el hacinamiento ha sido identificado como un contexto que tiene ciertas consecuencias en el desarrollo infantil. Actualmente, las investigaciones sobre los efectos del hacinamiento en los niños son especialmente críticas por las siguientes razones: Primera, dado que día a día se está incrementando la incorporación de las mujeres en los escenarios laborales, las madres tienen que llevar a sus pequeños a centros de desarrollo infantil para recibir cuidados y protección. Segunda, Así los centros de desarrollo cada vez reciben más solicitudes de inscripción y al incrementar el número de niños en sus grupos y salones, en muchas ocasiones rebasan el cupo para el cual fueron diseñados, originando condiciones de hacinamiento, que puede repercutir en la calidad de atención y educación ofrecida a los preescolares. Tercera, el interés por estudiar a los niños y su ambiente escolar se debe a que los niños a menudo responden más inmediatamente a las condiciones ambientales y por tanto ser objeto del impacto adverso de problemas ambientales como el hacinamiento, y requerir protección para tales condiciones. Por último, los efectos de estresores ambientales como el hacinamiento sobre el desarrollo infantil parecen tener mayor deterioro en los niños probablemente porque ellos han tenido menor oportunidad de adaptarse. En síntesis las condiciones de hacinamiento pueden constituir un factor de riesgo para el desarrollo infantil.
Quintana, María Teresa Mor, and Gumersindo Feijoo Costa. La Obtención Del Etil Ter Butil Eter Desde El Punto De Vista Del Análisis Del Ciclo De Vida In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Universidad de Santiago de Compostela El desarrollo de la actividad humana tanto urbana como productiva lleva asociado el consumo de multitud de recursos de variado origen, de entre los cuales los combustibles fósiles han sido y serán objeto de controversia. Los enormes volúmenes de gasolina consumidos en los millones de automóviles que cada día circulan por todo el mundo suponen una descarga contaminante muy importante al medio ambiente. Por ello, la búsqueda de aditivos que, manteniendo las características del producto en un rango adecuado, sean más respetuosos con el entorno constituye un campo de investigación en continua evolución.
Valera, Sergi, and Tomeu Vidal. "La Percepción Social Del Riesgo. Una Aproximación Metodológica." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 395-396. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002.

Ciertamente la literatura sobre la percepción social del riesgo es amplia, tanto desde el análisis de los procesos cognitvos, sociales y culturales que subyacen al fenómeno (Pigdeon, et.al., 1992; Puy, 1995; Puy y Cortés, 2000; Renn, 1992; Renn, Burns, et.al., 1992; Dake, 1992; Riad, Norris y Ruback, 1999; Steg y Sievers, 2000; Valera, 2001) como en relación con el riesgos específicos (Cvetkovich y Earle, 1992; Lindell y Perry, 2000; Walsh-Daneshmandi y MacLachlan, 2000) y su comunicación a la población (Slovic, 1991; Trettin y Musham, 2000; Kuhn, 2000; Sherman, Nelson y Steele, 2000). Sin embargo, difícilmente se encuentran propuestas metodológicas que aborden de forma global la percepción social del riesgo, a pesar que en nuestra sociedad actual, cada vez son más los riesgos percibidos (Beck, 1998) y cada vez más crece la alarma social ante nuevos riesgos (seguridad alimentaria, amenaza biológica, manipulación genética, etc.) (Mir, 2001).

Andeane, Patricia Ortega, Serafín Mercado Doménech, Eric O. Jiméne Rosas, and Cesáreo Estrada Rodríguez. "La Sintaxis Espacial Como Un Determinante De La Percepción Deorientación Espacial." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 319-320. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. El presente estudio muestra como la configuración espacial de un edifico es un importante determinante de la percepción de la orientación espacial de los usuarios. Para este estudio se empleó la metodología de la Sintaxis Espacial, la cuál brinda herramientas de análisis configuracional de los escenarios. También se elaboró ex profeso una escala de percepción de orientación, que mide cómo la gente ubica espacialmente un determinado espacio dentro de un edificio.
Ferradanes, Fernando Garrido. "La Teoría Del Riesgo Y La Globalización." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 568-569. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "Si hay un término en boga en las ciencias sociales que incluso se ha introducido en el lenguaje popular es el de Globalización. Los ensayos con esta voz tanto implícita como explicita en su título se han multiplicado de una forma increíble. En esta comunicación pretendemos explicar el surgimiento y triunfo de este concepto, intentando encontrar su génesis y elaborar una genealogía de su dinámica. De esta forma encontramos una relación muy íntima entre la globalización y el proceso de modernización iniciado por la sociedad occidental hace más de 500 años. Utilizamos la división en Centro y Periferia del mundo realizada por el Profesor y teórico social Wallerstein, quien encuentra el origen de el actual sistema capitalista en el proceso iniciado con el "descubrimiento" del continente americano. Nuestro argumento es que la "frontera" existente entre Occidente y Oriente, entre el centro y la periferia, el primer mundo y los dos restantes, se fue ampliando gracias a la lógica interna del sistema económico existente en el centro. De este modo, el capitalismo aspiraba y necesitaba una expansión de fronteras... necesitaba incluir al otro, absorberlo. Creemos probado que la modernización es la clave y motor de este proyecto. Así, pese a la bipolaridad latente en la sociedad internacional en el siglo XX, existía un consenso en la teoría de la modernización que era compartida por todos los actores internacionales."
Coeterier, Alterra J. F.. "Landscape and the Experience of Time." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 586-587. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Globalization is only one of the forces at work in modern society. Individualization, for instance, is another one. Now, from a psychological point of view, underlying these forces are needs, there is a need for globalization, as there is a need for individualization. As Stephen Carr already noticed in 1967, human needs often work in pairs of opposites. There is a need for freedom ànd a need for bondage, a need for privacy and for social contacts, a need to go out, to explore boundaries, to seek adventure, and a need to feel at home in a place, to be able to withdraw from the hectic of modern life. In France there is a television program called 'Roots and Wings'. Man needs both.
Frosten, Susan. "Learning from the Local: Using the Logic of an Eastern Precedent to Build Ecologically." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 582-583. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "Occurring at the turn of the century is an interesting juxtaposition: global technologies are being influenced by local techne. Rather than being solely based on technological advancements that are disconnected from the environment and culture, global technologies are gathering inspiration from technologies of local culture and the nature of the corresponding region. This local techne involves an awareness of optimizing natural processes in technological practices of the constructed environment. By intertwining technology with site, the form becomes an animated comprehension and communication of the specificities and diversity of place. In examining the word techne, the twentieth century philosopher, Heidegger, states, "techne signifies neither craft nor art...the word techne denotes rather a mode of knowing." In this way, technology becomes a mode to comprehend the site, as well as enhance the legibility of its essence.In looking to the Ancient Indian building practices of Vãstusãstra, a potential techne or process for ecological design can be deduced."
Elsheshtawy, Yasser. "Learning from the Past: Globalization in 19Th Century Cairo, Egypt." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 504-505. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "The city of Cairo at the end of the 19th century has strong similarities to the political climate present today. In this respect "colonization" has been replaced by "globalization" - other terms used signifying a similar meaning are "Postcolonialism" (Jacobs, 2001) and "Hybridity" (AlSayyad, 2001). Similar to advances in information technology and global communications occurring today, technological and artistic developments at the beginning of this century revolutionized peoples sense of space and movement which was reflected in a "new architecture" and "urbanism." This paper argues that rather than resorting to globalization's opposite, fundamentalism, i.e. a return to some imagined and romanticized past, one can uncover, through a historical discourse in which political and social underpinnings of urban design are dismantled, the positive qualities of "globalization" which is molded by city residents needs and desires. In such a discourse globalization becomes an expression of the political climate in each country, modified by local conditions, and should be understood in that context."
Castello, Lineu, and Lucas Welter. "Let Us Design Your Perception." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 159-160. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. The basic objective of this paper lies on examining the interrelations that may eventually occur between the design of new urban environments - mostly those that follow today's postmodern urbanism guidelines - and the corresponding perception people develop about them. In other words, it aims at investigating the possible links between design and perception, and, hence, the influence that environmental design may exert on environmental perception. Or, alternatively, the possibility that design may be influenced by environmental perception. In psychological terms, this implies on studying changes that may arise in the urban quality known as urbanity, that is to say, in the dynamic texture of existential experiences that are conferred to people as they use the urban environment; and, as such, an issue deserving utmost attention both in urbanism and environmental psychology matters.
Werner, Inga Britt, and Greger Sandström. "Life Style and Residential Choice Differentiated Demand of Housing." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 458-460. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "This project is an explorative empirical study on how different consumer groups make their choices among housing alternatives on the Swedish housing market. The study is now under way and will be completed during 2002. A special study of customer benefit from built-in ICT technology, "Who Will Buy Smart Homes?", is carried out by a doctoral candidate in his thesis work."
Z. Gocmen, Asligul, and Robert W. Marans. "Linking Recreation Behavior to the Built and Natural Environments: an Analysis of Park Usage in an Urban Region." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 283-284. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002.

Despite its importance to the quality of life, parks and recreation have not been a major focus of environmental designers. Nor have they been a major area of inquiry among researchers interested in people-environmental interactions. Open space and recreation resource allocation and park design are integral parts of the work of planners and landscape designers involved in master planning and park planning. A major contribution of planning researchers can be in understanding the roles played by accessibility of parks as well as community and environmental factors in influencing the recreation behavior of individuals. The need for recreational planning is inherent in the actual and perceived benefits of recreational activities and facilities to individuals as well as communities. For individuals, physical and mental health are among the most important benefits of outdoor participation (Kaplan and Kaplan, 1982, Ulrich 1991). Several studies have shown that recreation and recreational facilities have a positive impact on the satisfaction with neighborhoods and communities (Allen, 1990, Jeffres and Dobos, 1993).

Astudillo, Florence, and Danièle Hermand An Moch. Links Between Perceived Density and Feeling of Security in Large Residential Buildings In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. A lot of studies have been done on feeling of crowding. Some of them found a link between feeling of crowding and feeling of insecurity. For example, McCarthy and Saegert (1978) reported that the inhabitants of high rise buildings felt less safe in the semiprivate spaces (Hallway, elevators, ...) of their buildings than low-rise apartment tenants. This feeling of insecurity was correlated to feeling of crowding. These findings are consistent with the concept of defensible space elaborated by Newman (1972). Residential spaces which are difficult to control and which do not facilitate group development among neighbors can provide a feeling of insecurity. In the literature, this lack of control on social interactions and anonymity are also related to the feeling of crowding. The aim of the present paper is the study of the links between perceived density in large residential buildings and feeling of security. The results presented here are a part of an important research on feelings of crowding and crampedness in residential environment.
Rohracher, Harald. "Localizing Environmental Innovations: What Engineers Could Learn from Social Studies of Technology." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 800. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. The paper is built around the argument that many technological environmental innovations have to be adapted to local social and cultural conditions to have a chance of broad adoption. Especially a better understanding of the role of end-users in processes of innovation and diffusion would help to develop a broader range of policy instruments to foster the development of environmentally friendly and socially desirable technologies and products.
Nevarez, Julia. "Locating the Global: Urban Development and Culture." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 789. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. This presentation will document governmental initiatives - including Empowerment Zones Districts - that are changing the urban layout of New York City. The development of urban areas to cater to the new urban labor required by the city's insertion in the global economy as the center that coordinate financial transactions is aided by the expansion of entertainment districts for the consumption of leisure in the form of culture and entertainment. As part of the globalization puzzle neighborhoods in the city - previously neglected - are the focus of this kind of development where private capital is attracted by governmental tax breaks and development of infrastructure. Tourism and the entertainment industry are both key industries in the development of the global city infrastructure, locally privileging consumption as a national attribute of recently annexed urban territories. This presentation will compare different areas in New York City that either exemplify development initiatives already in place as well as those of areas recently integrated into this development logic characteristic of the global city. The consumer citizen and urban public space as capital's privileged facade in the form of adveritisement displays will be counterpoised to vernacular manifestations of the global-local tension.
Mikellides, Byron. Looking Back Ap, Iapc, Iaps (1969 - 2002) In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. A critical and humorous review of the evolution of AP, IAPC, and IAPS over the past 32 and 19 conferences through the eyes of the architectural cartoonist Louis Hellman and the teaching of the subject, not as an optional extra but as an integral part of all three years of an architectural BA (Hons) course.
Vázquez, Víctor Cerón. "Los Valores Del Medio Ambiente Y Su Relación Con Grupos Indígenasde San Miguel Tzinacapan, Puebla México." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 636-637. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. San Miguel Tzinacapan es una población ubicada en la Sierra Norte del Estado de Puebla, México. Es una región caracterizada por tener una vegetación de bosque encino-pino; su topografía es montañosa, clima templado húmedo y lluvias abundantes en verano, con numerosos ríos y cascadas, y altitud entre mil y 3 mil metros sobre el nivel del mar. Es un área predominantemente rural con población bilingüe y dispersa, alto índice de analfabetismo, niveles de empleo reducidos, problemas nutricionales, de salud, y habitacionales. No obstante cuentan con una radiodifusora local propia y con un Hospital comunitario que ha logrado conjuntar la medicina alópata con la medicina tradionalista.
Moore, Jeanne. "Making Home Work: the Challenge of Meaning - Making in Non - Traditional Contexts." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 683-684. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. In recent years, the literature on the concept of home has been moving towards examining home with particular theoretical, social and cultural contexts (Moore, 2000) and is more focused on meaningmaking. Horwitz and Tognoli (1982) argued nearly twenty years that home 'is a living process or a construction' (p. 339), however it is only fairly recently that the way home meanings are constructed has taken a more prominent role in home research (c.f. Despres, 1991; Massey, 1992; Somerville, 1997). As well as exploring varied contexts of home, there has been an increasing focus on the tensions within the home experience in terms of four key areas: (i) making home in non-traditional contexts (c.f. Chapman et al, 1999), (ii) within marginal sub-groups eg. young people, unemployed and homeless people and the elderly (Deem, 1986; Dupuis & Thorns, 1996; Moore, 1984; Moore et al, 1995; Sixsmith, 1992); (iii) contesting home through shared and conflicting meanings and (iv) the darker tensions within home experience (Binns & Mars, 1984; Darke, 1994).
Coolen, Henny. "Meaning Structures of Preferences for Aspects of a Dwelling: Aconceptual and Methodological Framework." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 687-688. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. The meaning of a dwelling is being studied from a variety of perspectives and with different methodological approaches. The research on this subset of environment-behavior relations is characterised, though, by a number of shortcomings. It lacks conceptual clarity and conceptual models, and the role of the physical environment is diminished (cf. Rapoport, 1985, 1995; Moore, 2000). In the paper I present a conceptual model for studying the meaning of preferences for a dwelling that takes (physical) aspects of a dwelling as its starting-point.
Lindstrom, Kari. "Measures and Instruments Against Stress at Work." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 812. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. The change towards the information society and the use of information technology has increased the psychological and social demands of work. Valid and practical methods and instruments for measuring psychosocial stressors at work, as well as methods with which to intervene and prevent their adverse effects are increasingly needed. The measurement methods can be questionnaires, interviews or joint discussion seminars. Intervening with psychosocial stressors, especially through participatory approaches, has proved to be fruitful. Examples of applied approaches are, e.g. the survey-feedback method, and the so-called conference method based on democratic dialogue. In addition, the role of the consultant is important to ensure a successful intervention process. Evaluation of the whole intervention is needed in order to find out the consequences of the intervention and to derive useful information about the feasibility of the applied intervention methods.
Marans, Robert W.. "Measuring Quality of Community Life Using Subjective and Objectiveindicators: the Detroit Area Study." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 452-453. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. In recent years, a number of cities and counties in the United States andelsewhere have developed indicator programs aimed at tracking their progress toward becoming more sustainable. At the same time, programs have been launched in several cities that aim at measuring the quality of life and more specifically, quality of community life. These programs have used either a series of objective measures to assess quality of life or resident surveys that tap the attitudes and behaviors of citizens. Seldom have both types of measures been employed. Typically the programs have been designed to inform policy decisions of local governmental, corporate, and nonprofit organizations. This paper suggests that such programs, if appropriately funded and designed, can also create rich opportunities for exploring empirically people-environment interactions, thereby advancing the field theoretically and methodologically. To illustrate this argument, the paper first describes a major program of research aimed at assessing the quality of community life in the Detroit metropolitan area. The program is viewed as a mechanism for monitoring social and environmental change in the region and involves the collection and analysis of demographic, behavioral, attitudinal and environmental data. Sources of data include sample surveys using faced-to-face interviews and mail questionnaires, the 2000 U.S. Census, aerial photos, and GIS maps.
Silva, Kapila Dharmasena. "Mental Maps, Environmental Meanings, and Spatial Analysis." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 711-712. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. This paper discusses the notion of spatial analysis within the context of environmental cognition research. It argues that mental representations of environments can be considered as the manner by which we analyze and encode the space in our minds for conducting numerous behavioral tasks. We not only analyze and cognitively represent the space in terms of topological and metric dimensions, but we mentally analyze and organize the environment into meaningful categories as well. For example, Lynch (1960) stated that mental representations of environment involve three processes; identifying the environmental cues, structuring the cues, and understanding the meanings encoded in the cues. Further, Rapoport (1977) pointed out that while the psychological approaches viewed environmental cognition as knowing about the environment, anthropological approaches viewed environmental cognition as making the world meaningful. Nevertheless, the research into the environmental cognition is primarily focused on the spatio-cognitive mapping, and the research into the cognition of environmental meanings is comparatively less common and conceptually less integrated (Silva:2001).
Zeleznik, Arao Nadja, and Marko Polic. "Meta - Analysis of Studies on Social Acceptability of Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste Repository in Slovenia." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 385-386. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Location of the radioactive waste repository, even for the waste of low and intermediate level (LILW) radioactivity, presents a great problem in almost every country that produce such a waste. Attempts to locate a disposal facility in Slovenia have proved unsuccessful. The main problem was not a technical one, but sociopsychological, namely the acceptability of this kind of repository. In general people strongly oppose to any kind of such a facility in their vicinity (NIMBY) even if they are aware of it's necessity. In this paper we try to analyse public surveys and other research on this problem, done in Slovenia during the last fifteen years.
Akers, Mary Anne Alaba. "Micro - Capitalist Behavior Manifested in Urban Space: a Localresponse to Globalization." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 339-340. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Communities engaged in the global economy are experiencing tensions as people depend on large multinational corporate systems for their livelihood. This condition is especially true for most Third World countries. Many of our global cities have a strong presence of these corporate infrastructures (e.g., huge billboards advertising McDonald's, Levi Strauss, The Gap, etc...). Their impact on the economy has given rise to a high dependency on foreign companies for employment, massive migration to urban centers, and other related problems such as traffic, pollution, and crime that make these cities unlivable habitats.
Kaiser, Hannah Scheuthle. "Morality's Role in the Prediction of Ecological Behavior: Extending the Theory of Planned Behavior." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 255-256. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "The depletion of our natural resources can only be stopped if we refrain from using amenities we dislike abandoning, amenities such as heating comfort or easy travel. Since Because most of our natural these resources are limited, each person's consumption diminishes them at the expense of other people. Hence, in the interest of the collective good "resources", one should abstain from consuming. The depletion of our natural resources can only be stopped if people abstain from consuming them. Abstinence from consumption, however, directly reduces the quality of one's a person's life. Thus, the decision to behave ecologically basically also means deciding between one's a person's immediate self-interest and the interest of others. If, however, one's self-interest and the interest of others are at odds with each otherTherefore, moral considerations become are seen by many to be most prominent in the promotion of ecological behavior. By applying an aggregated, more reliable version of the theory of planned behavior (TPB), The the present paper employs a new approach to testing the the sufficiencythe role of moral factorsrole of three moral-related factors-moral norms, two just world beliefs, and anticipated moral regrets-in predicting intentions to behave ecologically."
Aguayo, Marcos Bustos, Luz Ma, and Flores Herrera. "Motivos, Percepción De Riesgo Y Conducta Proambiental Deconservación De Agua En Viviendas De La Zona Metropolitana Dela Ciudad De México." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 241-242. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. En la ciudad de México y su área metropolitana el 43% del uso del agua corresponde al medio doméstico (Secretaría del Medio Ambiente del D. F.), se pierde el 37% del líquido por fugas en la red de distribución y al mal uso. Las evaluaciones e intervenciones psico-ambientales pueden coadyuvar a atacar este problema del uso ineficiente del agua potable, por medio del estudio y promoción de comportamientos de conservación (De Oliver, 1999). La conducta proambiental (CPA) es aquella que va dirigida a la protección del entorno ya sea que se manifieste como reducción en el consumo de recursos, evitación del deterioro, o alguna forma de manejo sustentable. La evidencia empírica encontrada en la literatura sobre el tema incluye factores disposicionales como los valores (Pierce, 1979), actitudes (Aitken, et al., 1994), conocimientos (Watson et al., 1992), responsabilidad (Gordon, 1982), motivos (Corral, 2000), percepción de riesgo (Bustos, et al., 2001), obligación moral y control percibido (Lam. 1999), entre otros. Se reporta éxito en predecir la CPA de ahorro de agua a partir de actitudes (Aitken, et al., 1994), responsabilidad (Gordon, 1982), percepción de externalidades, motivos económicos y ecológicos (Corral et al., 2001, en prensa), y de personas jóvenes (Corral, 2000). El propósito del presente estudio fue explorar la importancia relativa de los motivos, creencias, percepción de riesgo de escasez de agua, y percepción de control en la CPA de ahorro de agua en la zona metropolitana de la ciudad de México, así como su relación con variables sociodemográficas.
Wineman, Jean, John Peponis Taubman, and Ruth Conroy Dalton. "Museum Layout: Exploration and Use Patterns." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 488-489. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. It is the nature of museum learning that it is associated with movement through space. The ways in which displays are arranged in spatial sequences, the ability to simultaneously view different objects, the grouping of objects in space, the rate of change of directions, the relative distance between one display and another, all become powerful aspects of the presentation of knowledge that are far more important in the museum than they are in any other learning environment. The paper presents a research project whose aim was to identify and measure the properties of spatial layout that affect visitor's exploration and exposure to information in science museum exhibitions. The notion that exhibition layout is intrinsically linked to visitor movement and viewing patterns has long been acknowledged (Dobbs and Eisner, 1990; Love, 1997; Thomas and Caulton, 1996). Serrell (1997) provides one of the most comprehensive recent studies that addresses questions of visitor use patterns in museums. Her own research confirms a number of observed characteristics of visitor behavior that she notes in the literature that visitors favor right turns in an exhibit, and tend to follow the right-hand wall; they tend to spend more time at exhibits near the entrance than those near the exit; that few people spend time at center island exhibits; that people tend to spend more time at larger exhibitions than smaller ones; and that viewing the exit elicits a lot of exiting behavior. What is clear from this research is that there are characteristics of the layout and arrangement of an exhibition that influence visitor movement, over and above the specific contents of the exhibition.
Tanner, T M.. "Mutual Antagonism? Globalization and Conservation in Latin America." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 185-186. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Since the debt crisis of the early 1980s, most countries within Latin America have undergone major economic and political restructuring. Structural adjustment policies and opening up of markets have enabled the forces of globalisation to penetrate even the remotest parts of the continent. Encouraging their comparative advantage in natural resources, these changes have enhanced the region's export dependence on this resource base, with consequent implications for the environment (Gwynne and Silva, 1999; Reed, 1996). New econo-political conditions and social resistance to these forces however, have suggested a simultaneous process of localisation. Decentralisation, the emergence of specialised regional economies and the influence of social movements and sustainable development debates have contributed to this process (Hettne et al, 1998; Alvarez et al, 1998; Segura & Bartholomew, 1992)
Hunt, M. R. C. P. M.. "Naturally Occurring Retirement Communities and the New Urbanism: a Mutual Validation." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 770-771. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "Concentrations of older people living in settings not planned or designed for this age cohort are increasingly often referred to as "naturally occurring retirement communities" (NORCs). Settings characterized as NORCs have a variety of demographic origins and physical characteristics. Physically, NORCs can be apartment and condominium complexes, or neighborhoods and older parts of a town. NORCs can even be rural areas or small towns. The demographic origins of NORCs are varied as well and may be described as 1) aged-left-behind, 2) aging-in-place, and 3) in-migration."
Kellett, Peter. "Negotiating the Spaces of Home: Accommodating Income Generatingactivities Within the Domestic Setting." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 702. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. The home is a site of multiple overlapping and at times conflicting activities. In addition to its basic role as a place of shelter for the household and a key setting for social reproduction, in many parts of the world the dwelleing is also a place of production. This is particularly significant in low-income settlements where some or all household members may be involved in income generating activities, ranging from small-scale part-time tasks with few specific spatial demands, to manufacturing activities which may dominate the dwelling environment. The presence of such activities within the domestic setting raises a number of issues central to our understanding of the social nature of space and how its meanings are constructed and negotiated through time.
Migliorini, Laura, Lucia Venini, and Antonella Piermari. "Neighbouring, Sense of Community and Participation." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 378-379. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. City shape and urban space articulation are considered as a source of influence about people behaviour in the city, about public spaces safety and quality of social interactions. In literature some issues have been highlighted the problems related to urbanisation and its dominating urban model along with the problems concerning isolation and de-responsibility (Geis, Ross, 1998). Therefore literature needed to focus issues linked to planning, design, urban intervention on a side and, on the other side, linked to process and interactions systems further to the role of the social ties, sense of community and participation play for the individual well-being and collective life quality (Migliorini, Venini, 2001).
Migliorini, L, A Piermari, and L. Venini. "Neighbouring, Sense of Community and Participation: a Research in the City of Genoa." In Culture, Environmental Action, and Sustainability: Proceedings of the 17th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain: Hogrefe & Huber, 2003. This paper presents a study of sense of community, neighbouring ties, inhabitants participation on local activities. Sense of community is considered a central concept in the psychological theory concerning the impact that the individual must bear when living in an urban reality. The sense of community, at the empirical level, has been studied as relationships to the territory, the neighbouring and the local community. The research of Chavis and Wandersman (1990), allocated within this conceptual framework, explores an empirical model whereas sense of community can act as a catalyst for local action such as, for example, the participation in neighbouring association. Within this reference frame the ecological model of Perkins, Brown, Taylor (1996) considers the relationship between physical environment, social environment, community cognition and community behaviour: these elements are considered to be the main predictor of participation of subject to local activities. A preliminary analysis on secondary data about all the neighbourhoods of the city of Genoa has been conducted. The results of this analysis have addressed the choice of two suburbs as subjects of the second phase of this research taking into account mainly the educational level being almost the average one in order to minimise this index influence on the results. Social and spatial features of these two suburbs (such as public green areas, number of local associations, number of children) have been used as indexes within the present work. The second phase of research has been conducted on two suburbs (whole sample included 100 subjects) in order to investigate the difference on neighbouring, sense of community and participation.
Romice, Ombretta. "New Partnerships for Action: Building on the Capital of Environmental Psychology and Architecture." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 779-780. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Architecture - and design in general - are in desperate need of intellectual instruments, which can strengthen and make them less accidental. The question to ask is: where does the understanding of the principles that can put architecture at the real service of people lie and how are these principles transmitted? Architectural education very seldom relies on a history of failures to understand problems, analyse causes and effects, consider conditions and variations, or devise solutions. Looking at failures should not be mistaken for a perverse attitude. It is, instead, a sane desire to better understand and devise solutions without simply relying on accepted strengths and attitudes. When this is done (from an urban and an architectural point of view, see Lynch, 1961; Jacobs, 1961; Newman, 1972; Venturi, 1972), the potential impacts are valuable and powerful.
Greenwald, Michael J.. "New Urbanism as a Factor in Elderly Mobility." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 772-773. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Proponents of New Urbanism have made several claims about altering individual behavior patterns by manipulating elements of the surrounding physical environment; neighborhoods with higher densities, narrower streets, greater mixes of retail and residential uses, and dedications of open space are all intended to simultaneously attack societal problems such as traffic congestion, urban sprawl, shortages of affordable housing and class segregation (Calthorpe, 1993). Recent investigations into New Urbanist assertions about urban form inspiring more walking relative to driving suggest there is at least some merit to the idea (Boarnet and Greenwald, 2000; Greenwald and Boarnet, 2001). Given this inducement to walking, we now turn to the idea that New Urbanist principles might be appropriate as an instrument in creating more manageable environments for the elderly.
Greenwald, Michael J.. "New Urbanism as a Factor in Elderly Mobility." In Culture, Environmental Action, and Sustainability: Proceedings of the 17th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. Massachusetts, USA: Hogrefe & Huber, 2003. Proponents of New Urbanism have made several claims about altering individual behavior patterns by manipulating elements of the surrounding physical environment; neighborhoods with higher densities, narrower streets, greater mixes of retail and residential uses, and dedications of open space are all intended to simultaneously attack societal problems such as traffic congestion, urban sprawl, shortages of affordable housing and class segregation (Calthorpe, 1993). Recent investigations into New Urbanist claims about urban form inspiring more walking relative to driving suggest there is at least some merit to the idea (Boarnet and Greenwald, 2000; Greenwald and Boarnet, 2001; Greenwald, forthcoming). Given this inducement to walking, we turn to the idea that New Urbanist designs might be appropriate instruments in creating more manageable environments for the elderly. The first question this paper addresses is ìTo what degree is increased age associated with prevalence for living in New Urbanist style communities?î From those findings, discussion is broadened to a second issue, the impact of urban form on travel decisions made by the elderly. The datasets used in this investigation include the 1994 Household Activity and Travel Diary Survey (hereafter referred to simply as the 1994 Travel Diaries), and the Regional Land Information System (RLIS) for the Portland, Oregon region.
Mcgregor, James. "No Asylum Here: a Critique of Melbourne's Waterfront Redevelopment Within the Contemporary Australian Debate On'illegal' Refugees." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 114-115. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002.

The contemporary phenomenon of waterfront redevelopment in postindustrial cities is often viewed as a symptom of increasingly global and flexible trends in the accumulation of capital.1 While this is certainly true, such analyses can overlook other important aspects that accompany current trends in urban development and its relationship with broader spectrums in politics and popular psychology. According to this logic, waterfront developments contribute to their cities' immersion into an ever-expanding, global community. But globalisation also has an underside in many advanced countries, an underside that is reactionary, heavily nationalist and terribly exclusive and that (because of its connection with globalisation) must be included with the causes and effects of waterfront redevelopment - as innocent as those redevelopments may appear. In Australia, this dialectic of progress and exclusion stretches right through our political history: back to Federation and its incorporation of the White Australia Policy, to the racism that smeared the political gains made on the goldfields and, of course, to colonial settlement. The current period is also doing its fair share of see-sawing: shifting between more open economic relationships with advanced and developing countries, while stepping further and further back from the humanitarian problems that accompany the growth of a properly global culture. Today, Australia's continued pursuit of prosperity in the global marketplace is contradicted by its persistent refusal to think more liberally about its refugee policies. The central claim of this paper is that Melbourne Docklands, in its most recent incarnation, is by no means innocent in its participation in these ambivalent practices. As the crucial pivot in the international aspirations of 'the world's most livable city',2 Docklands operates - with great subterfuge - to fix a concept of nation, to locate undesirability and to hold it at bay. As a significant symbol of Melbourne's desire to compete on the global stage, Docklands contributes to the setting of the boundaries of exclusion and inclusion operating in that competition.

Nathan, Vini. "Nouveau Design: a Fusion Between Design Uniformity and Identity." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 147-148. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "This paper examines how globalization has affected building design and construction in India. The discussion is framed in the context of residential architecture because the house or dwelling unit is one of the most significant indicators of people's spatial interpretation of their particular socio-cultural milieu. Bachelard (1994, p.3, 4) maintains that the house is a privileged entity for study since it represents a person's "first universe, a real cosmos in every sense of the word." The Indian residential context provides a fertile ground for investigation because the commonest type of house is "a remarkable achievement, for it appears to have been designed with no regard to style whatever" Tillotson (1989; p. 145)."
Keddy, Karen. "Nursing Spaces: a Post - Structuralist Analysis of Embodied Professionalism." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 595-596. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. When studying the person-environment relationship between nurses and hospital design, architects and social scientists often maintain a utilitarian view of the nurse as a resource in the hospital system when assessing the degree of efficiency and productivity of nursing care afforded by the design. Instead of this approach I propose a conceptual framework that explores the nurses' perspective of the relationship between their bodies and the design of a hospital unit. Theorizing the body in academia is often limited to the surface of the body and lacks an exploration of the interiority of the corporeal, visceral, and literal body (Birke, 1999). The act of nursing places a stressful burden on hospital nurses' bodies by impacting their interior body. The nature of the physicality of hospital nurses' work is marginalized in nursing professionalism literature. An analysis of the time-body-space relationship of the nurse and the hospital unit calls for an in-depth qualitative investigation that illuminates the complexity of this interdependent relationship.
Carabias-Hütter, Vicente, Hannah Scheuthle, and Florian G. Kaiser. "Objective Contextual Factors Affecting Students Ecologicalperformance: a Cross - Cultural Comparison Between Spain Andswitzerland." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 251-252. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002.

Differential contextual influences facilitate some ecological behaviours and constrain others in different sites. Hence, an ecological behaviour measurement that is to be applied cross-culturally has to consider such differential behaviour difficulties across societies. Applying the concept of environmental consciousness, there has been developed an ecobarometer to measure regularly environmental attitudes and ecological behavior across different domains. The General Ecological Behaviour (GEB) scale of Kaiser (1998) acknowledges contextual influences on behaviour, uses behaviour difficulties systematically, and is therefore effective for cross-cultural applications (Kaiser & Biel, 2000; Kaiser & Wilson, 2000). The present study compares ecological behaviour in Spain and Switzerland. Questionnaire data from 330 Spanish and 330 Swiss students (divided in environmental and other sciences) are compared. Reliability, internal consistency, and discriminant validity reveal that the GEB scale can be applied to both the Spanish and Swiss as well as to different study samples.

Francescato, Guido. "Of Sexual Desire?" In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 751. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Two opposing paradigms underlie current attitudes about urban design: that of the city as home and that of the city as network. In the former, the city is viewed as an artifact different only in scale, not in kind, from the singular building. It is the Albertian notion of the city as a large home and the home as a small city. Accordingly, the city is presumed to be amenable to the application of processes of architectural design-processes that are properly dependent on a high degree of control and a finite execution time. In the latter paradigm, epitomized by Fontana's plan for Baroque Rome, to operate on the city is to establish a hierarchical framework that functions as the structure for incremental development, growth, and change. Consequently, it is the intimate connection between city shape and movement flow that is viewed as the central aspect of urban form.
Ruiz, Vicente Lazaro, and Alfonso Gil Lopez. "Older Spanish Adults' Activities Focused on Raising and Education of Children and Young Persons in their Family Environments." In Culture, Environmental Action, and Sustainability: Proceedings of the 17th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain: Hogrefe & Huber, 2003. The purpose of this study was to show older adultsí activities carried out in the educational environment of children and young persons at different ages. A total of 179 participants between 60 and 80 years of age were included in the study and divided into four age groups: under 65, 65 to 69, 70 to 74 and over 75 years of age. Questionnaire results show older adultsí active participation in educational and raising activities, which are mainly focused on children and young persons from their immediate family in various circumstances. The research also shows that the older the children are, the more they cut back on caregiving hours and it should be also noted that as older adults turn years their participation is less significant. These educational and raising activities give them a feeling of satisfaction as they aid their own children doing so. Besides, they alledge that they donít interfere with the educational guidance that parents offer their children and, in general, they think that significant changes have taken place in educational contexts from the past and present.
Lima, Maria Luisa. "On the Influence of Risk Perception on Mental Health." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 607-608. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "The concept of risk perception is often considered under suspicion by natural scientists. Both the work on the cognitive/perceptual bias of the probabilistic information processing strategies - as promoted by the so called psychometric paradigm (Fischhoff et al., 1978; Slovic, 1987; Tversky & Kahneman, 1974) - and work on the utility of different views of risk to different social groups - promoted by a more social constructionist approach (Douglas & Wildawsky, 1982; Heimer, 1978; Joffe, 1999) provided a confirmation to the basic assumption of the "misinformed public" (Cvetkovich & Earle, 1992). However, the evidence of the cognitive and socially constructed character of risk perception is, by no means, a vindication of the inconsequence of those beliefs. In this paper we develop the idea that risk perception per se can modify the quality of life of those living under suspicion of objective risk."
Fernando, Nisha. "Open - Ended Urban Spaces: the Case of Streets." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 753. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Designs of urban public spaces generally focus on accommodating future changes of use. Such accommodations, however, are often limited to changeability of physical elements in the spaces so that new uses, including different aesthetics, can be introduced. Rarely mentioned are changes in user groups, their different preferences, and the significant role of culture in such user preferences. In addition, culture change of the user groups itself and temporal aspects of such change are largely overlooked as well. This paper points out that changes in urban spaces should essentially be viewed in a broader and more general perspective in which all of the above aspects are considered. It takes a stand that the function of any physical environment is essentially linked to social and cultural aspects of its users and therefore any change to a physical element has reciprocal behavioral actions of the users.
Franck, Karen A.. "Openness and Uncertainty: Urban Assets Too Precious to Lose." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 805. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. The September 11 attack on the World Trade Center in lower Manhattan is viewed as an assault on many things: U.S. foreign policy in the Middle East, freedom and democracy, an immoral way of life. Indeed, the attack becomes a kind of projective test for identifying concerns each of us may have already held. Not surprisingly then, architects, planners and other urbanists see it as an assault on the city. That is, as an assault physically on the recent forms it takes of tall buildings, open spaces, and dense networks of mass transit and socially and psychologically on experiential qualities that are intrinsic to urban life. This presentation will describe two of those qualities, openness and uncertainty, that this author and others hold dear. It will suggest how they have been both celebrated and threatened over the last decade or so, how we need to withstand the recent assault upon them, and the difficulties and the advantages of doing so.
Uzzell, David L.. "Our Uncommon Future." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. The Bruntland Report (1987) - Our Common Future sought to set an agenda for a sustainable society. It ought to have caught the imagination of everyone. While common implies known and belonging to the community at large, there is every evidence that sustainability is neither widely accepted nor practised. Why is there such a discrepancy between expressed public concern about environmental issues and actual individual and collective behaviour? However much we look to _technological fixes_ to solve our environmental problems human perceptions, attitudes and behaviours lie at the heart of our unsustainable society. Sustainability is, of course, not just about the environment it involves understanding and acting upon all aspects of our social and economic lives. Environmental problems relate to health problems which in turn can be related to literacy levels and social exclusion. This lecture will examine how recent environmental psychology research is addressing sustainability issues at the global, national, regional and local levels, and feeding directly into government and industry policy-making and planning to achieve a more sustainable society. Issues addressed include: understanding public attitudes towards and sense of responsibility for global climate change, waste minimisation, air pollution and car use; innovative measures to change driver attitudes and reduce traffic speed in sensitive rural areas; and social exclusion and sustainability.
Uzzell, David. "Our Uncommon Future." In Culture, Environmental Action, and Sustainability: Proceedings of the 17th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain: Hogrefe & Huber, 2003. Far from being a widely accepted new cultural value the concept of sustainability is neither widely understood, endorsed, followed nor aspired to by large sections of the population. While no end of surveys suggest that people are concerned about the environment, turning that concern into action is not straightforward. Governments have placed considerable emphasis on encouraging individuals to engage in more sustainable behaviours, but the collective problems of waste generation, car use, and electricity consumption are neither caused nor can they be solved by single individuals. Any long-term environmental behaviour strategy has to be located in the relationships which exist between people in the community and the relationship between those people -individually and collectively- and their environment. This research demonstrates that sustainability cannot be considered in isolation from either its social or its place-related context.
Ewing, Suzanne. Out of Place? the Re - Enactment of Material Detail In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Architect, Sverre Fehn, writing on primitive architecture in 1992, identified qualities of simplicity, clarity and timelessness in relation to modern architecture. The 'primitive' seen to be both likened to and juxtaposed with the 'modern' firstly as an inevitable, or timeless, solution and also as a sophisticated sociotechnological project where simplicity and clarity are the progressive conclusion.
Björklid, Pia. "Parental Restrictions and Children's Independent Mobility from Theperspective of Children´s Participation." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 722-723. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Research into children and traffic has often been restricted to the risk factors relating to accidents and injuries. Safety is one aspect of children's outdoor and traffic environment, but other important aspects include the environment's significance for children's health and for their physical and social development. A holistic perspective underlines that all these factors together create and shape the developmental environment of children. That the environment should be safe and free from accident risks is of course obvious and necessary - but it is far from enough.
Björklid, Pia. "Parental Restrictions and Children's Independent Mobility from Theperspective of Traffic Environmental Stress." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 760-761. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Research into children and traffic has often been restricted to the risk factors relating to accidents and injuries. Safety is one aspect of children's outdoor and traffic environment, but other important aspects include the environment's significance for children's health and for their physical and social development. Understood from a holistic perspective, it is all these factors together which create and shape the developmental environment of children. That the environment should be safe and free from accident risks is of course obvious and necessary - but it is far from enough.
Maciel, Tania Maria De F.. "Participant Research, Globalization and Sustainable Humandevelopment." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 102-103. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "The phenomenon of globalization is on its course. Nevertheless, what has truly become universal is a certain culture - the western culture - with its intrinsic idea of development; a process that fosters education as a means to achieve integration. The concept of development, as understood by Gilbert Rist, is profoundly engraved in western culture's social imaginary. Meanwhile, through the present concept of development we might not achieve the quality of life as conceived and expected by every society. As a result, we must discuss the different meanings of "development" which so far, while relating to the psychosocial, stems from the economic. The psychosocial perspective reinforces the idea that Man should be at the center of discussions on development. As a result, the focus turns to issues concerning education, health, leisure, while considering the social bonds and the aspired quality of life. This is a concept that depends on how culture and Man's relationship to the historic and geographic environment was established, as well as the way human beings learned to relate to each other, thus building the social bonds that organize society. This takes place in the sphere of local development, where the expression of values, on which the social structure is founded, lies. These relationships are guided by ethics. That is where the practice of Participant Research emerges. Its methodology - systematic inquiry - consists of field survey of the main community issues that have to be dealt with, resulting in the development, together with the target community, of mobilization actions and the constant monitoring as well as the continuous assessment of the researched population. Based on this methodology, we have implemented several projects of local development in Brazil. Among them are: the Sinuelo Project , in South Mato Grosso, that aimed at the conservation of the Pantanal's culture and ecology, and the Sub-Project of Social Mobilization- Community Participation, part of the Guanabara Bay Depollution Project, that aimed at improving the quality of life of local populations in seven municipal districts of Rio de Janeiro. Data obtained through contact with local communities point to some problems:: a) in the urban area, a lack of basic sanitation, public transportation, housing; b) in the rural area of the Pantanal, the existence of predatory hunting and fishing, the absence of an ecological preservation program, mostly due to the scarcity of schools. The Sub-Project of Social Mobilization had the objective of identifying, educating and training local leadership."
Fareri, Paolo. "Participation and the Expert Role in Urban Policy: Fou Du Roi, Facilitator, Policy Activist." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 781. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. This paper draws on: a) a ten years experience in the use of participatory strategies in urban policies, and b) a six year experience of academic work (in particular the creation and management of the 'urban policy workshop' within the degree course in Urban and Environmental Planning at the Milan Polytechnic). Although these 'routes' are formally separated (IRS being a private, non profit, research and consultancy firm), the links between the two are very strong, because they are originated by the same group of people, and because the interchange between practice and academic work has been considered a relevant resource for the development of both.
Wiesenfeld, E, E Sanchez, and K. Cronick. "Participatory Action Research as a Participatory Approach to Addressing Environmental Issues." In Culture, Environmental Action, and Sustainability: Proceedings of the 17th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain: Hogrefe & Huber, 2003. The review of recent publications in journals specializing in the environmental psychology (EP) field, such as Environment and Behavior and Journal of Environmental Psychology, reflect the prevalence of the positivist paradigm and quantitative methodology in the study of and approach to the topics proper to the discipline. This is noteworthy in view of the formulation of alternative approaches developed from the EP standpoint in an attempt to overcome that paradigm's limitations. Considering the magnitude of the environmental problem and the existence of approaches which, from our point of view, can help overcome those problems, as well as build up theoretical knowledge relevant thereto, we argue in this study in favor of the use PAR. PAR is a perspective rarely applied in our discipline, but which we consider useful to understand and take action regarding human environmental issues. The argument in favor of this perspective reflects the conception of reality on which it rests, and hence, its conception of human-environment transactions, knowledge, social action, the relations between researchers and research subjects, and the purpose of research, among other factors. We then go on to address the definitions, characteristics, and overall guidelines for PAR and its relevance to EP. Finally, we present an example illustrating the advantages of PAR's application, not only for the solution of environmental problems but also for the construction of knowledge, the strengthening and training of the participants, and the promotion of their well-being.
Horine, Ruth Kolodny-. "Pedestrian Zones in City Centres." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 175-176. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. In the western world, a growing conflict has emerged between the city and the automobile. Inheriting their traditional structure, these cities struggle to meet the increasing demands of vehicular traffic and at the same time become aware of the de-humanisation and un-sustainability of the city that they contribute to. While ring roads have become a common solution to divert unnecessary through traffic in the city centre, pedestrian systems have in many cases been constructed to recover the central area for pedestrians. But pedestrian systems are often regarded - uni-dimensionally - only as a system to enable efficient movement. This thesis addresses this serious conflict and also highlights changes in life-style and work patterns that are transforming the city centre into a focal point for leisure activities. Consequently, the need for pedestrian zones need not only be viewed in terms of an efficient mobility system but also as a place to live, to experience, to meet and see other people.
Ruano, Miguel. "People - Environment Relations from Architecture and Urban Planning Perspective." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 657-658. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002.
Ribeiro, Teresa. People - Environment Relationships of Accident - Prone Worksettings In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. This poster aims to present some of the features of the people-environment confluence (Altman and Rogoff, 1987) that account for occupational accidents in the foundry industry, particularly in one of its most accident-prone worksetting. People working and work environment are considered as holistic entities under the Barker's (1968) concept of the behaviour setting. PCA analysis show the importance of the some aspects of the physical context of the working settings, namely the role of variables of space and lay out of the workshop, as well as of ambient conditions of the work environment in the occurrence of industrial accidents. The ecological approach of the industrial accident has consequences to accident prevention by emphasising the importance of the ecological context in accident occurrence: this confluence of people working and environmental features considered as a whole. Sustainable occupational safety policies can be then enhanced by an appropriate work environment design which takes account of appropriate dimensions of space and ambient conditions in particular settings of particular industries.
Kos, Drago, Ivan Marusic, and Marko Polic. "People - Environment Studies in Slovenia." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 794-795. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. People-environment studies in Slovenia were rather closely accompanying development in the world. They were mainly connected to the work of the researchers from the university departments and institutes, and this situation has extended up to now. Already in sixties there were some studies and publications emphasising people-environment interactions, though at the beginning they were limited to the separate sciences (e.g. architecture, sociology, urban planning/design, psychology, functioning of the local community, ...), and only to the rather narrow problems (e.g. influence of colours in the environment,....). Later on, approaches became wider and interdisciplinary. Research work was accompanied by the introduction of relevant subjects and programmes into the university curricula, either at undergraduate as well as at graduate levels. There are many regular and optional subjects within the study or architecture based on (or supported by) the findings of spatial sociology and environmental psychology.
Kumar, Tapan. "People and Environment in Bangladesh: an Analysis of Culture, Religion and Globilization Impact in Developing Countries»." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 513. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. The interaction between people and environment is continuously building the nation's economic structure as well as consumption culture of a nation. Because of poverty, the poor exploit the natural resources indiscremently. This is one of the big threat for the global environment and climate change of any region. Consumption patterns and behavioral aspects are also important for the mass population where more than 50% live below the poverty line. Religious taboo and social restrictions play important role for the protection of the environmnet and promotion of culture in a society. Bangladesh being a poor country but rich with ancient cultural herietage could attract global tourists and investment but for some social and religious restrictions this opprtunity is not yet utilized. Present globilization impact has changed the situation a little but the main importance of being global partner of the equitable development, the country needs to reform in many areas. Women are noe employed in the garment factories and in some cultural activities. This improvement of empowering poor women should be recognized and promoted by the government and other nations to share the benifit of globalization. The The criticism against globalization should also be considered. Education is one of the way that awrae the people about the enviornmet and culture of a nation. The quality of life in a healthy city or in a healthy district can only be ensured if the people participation and partnership among the private and public sector is built properly. If the proper education is imparted to the mass people of a nation, only then environment can be taken care of by the people. For economic development and growth for a poor nation like bangladesh some trade off on extracting natural resources should be done. If gas and other natural resources are not utilized, the fate of the millions poor may not be changed immediately. But it also be done in a meticoulus way. Healthy Cities concept provide a holistic view to incorporate the economic aspects, encvironmnetal considerations and peple participation to improve qulity of life in a city or rural district. Bangladesh has set a good example of healthy society development with joint collaboration of World health Organization(WHO), NGOs and local government authority. This has given an insight to promote culture of ancient time through ecotourism, people participation with religious respect and improved quliaty of life protecting enviornmental degradation as well. The paper review the case studies and evaluation of Healthy cities efforts on that background.
Duarte, Cristiane Rose, and Regina Cohen. "PEOPLE WITH MOBILITY DIFFICULTY AND THE SPACE EXPERIENCE IN THE CITIES." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Starting from the fact that a great deal of the population in major cities is composed by people with mobility difficulty (people depending on wheelchairs or crutches, suffering from temporary or permanent deficiency diseases, old people, pregnant women, obese people, people of low stature and so forth), this article proposes reflecting on everyone's necessity of the urban experience. Listed are the ways that some existent barriers in the constructed environment may block People with Mobility Difficulty" (PMD) from experiencing the city, making it difficult to grasp the meaning of the space and affecting their behaviour."
Fornara, Ferdinando, Marino Bonaiuto, Antonio Aiello, and Mirilia Bonnes. "Perceived Environmental Qualities and Neighbourhood Attachmentin Residential Urban Environments." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 443-444. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "Dipartimento di Psicologia dei Processi di Sviluppo e Socializzazione The aim of this contribution is to verify the factorial structure of two psychometric instruments tested in urban contexts, and composed respectively by a series of scales measuring the perceived quality of residential environment, and by a scale measuring neighbourhood attachment. The creation of tools for measuring lay people's perception of environmental urban qualities is particularly important if we consider the often divergent results obtained in comparing lay persons' "subjective" evaluations and experts' "objective" assessments of the environment (see Bonnes and Bonaiuto, 1995). The relationship that inhabitants have with their urban place of residence (at different levels of scale, such as home, neighbourhood and town) has been mainly examined by either specific assessments of the residential quality or global place-related patterns such as place attachment and other related constructs (such as place identity, rootedness, territoriality: see Tognoli, 1987; Giuliani, 2002)."
Burmil, Shmuel, Rony Baru-Sachs, and Arza Churchman. "Perception of Agricultural Landscapes in a Rural Region in Israel." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 352-353. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Agricultural landscapes are human controlled and impacted, dominated by vegetation, and therefore, can be placed somewhere between natural and urban landscapes. The appearance of these landscapes that play an important role in many regions and countries, is mainly an expression of technological and economic aspects. Agricultural landscapes in Israel comprise about 49% percent of the cultural/ developed landscapes. They are located mainly in the central and northern parts of the country, and play a major role in the existing open spaces, which are a limited resource. In the past, agriculture and its landscapes played a large and important role in the Israeli economy. Agricultural landscapes were also an important expression of the leading ideology that land cultivation is one of the most important activities in the newly established state. Since the middle of the 1980's, as in many other developed countries, agriculture and its landscapes are in a crisis. On the one hand, the economic role of agriculture is declining, followed by decline in demand for land and abandonment of cultivated lands. On the other hand, due to the increase in population and changes in the economy, there is an increasing demand for land for other uses, such as housing and commerce. These changes are coupled with changes in ideology, and land cultivation is no longer viewed as a noble and important activity.
Fontán, Myriam Goluboff S.. "Perception of the Urban Space from Two Experiences: Walkersand Passengers an Interruption of the Spatial Continuum of the City." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 536-537. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Car domination in cities transformed sidewalks and streets into dangerous places. Children move through cities by car or school-buses. So, children do not feel the city like a spatial continuum but like a collection of spaces which can be reached by car or bus. So the car becomes the prolongation of the house; the house stretches into the car space, making it safe and familiar, connecting the child with other spaces. In the same way the school-bus acts as a prolongation of school; school stretches up to the busstop near her/his house where s/he leaves and where s/he finds the familiar, secure, envelope of the home domain. We think that if we want to have sustainable social cities we need to have spaces comprehended by children who must have and develop spatial awareness. So, our research has to do with the spatial apprehension of the city by children who travel the city as a pedestrian or as a car passenger.
Lay, Dias, Maria Cristina, and Jussara Basso. "Performance and Appropriation of Residential Streets and Public Open Spaces." In Culture, Environmental Action, and Sustainability: Proceedings of the 17th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain: Hogrefe & Huber, 2003. The study aims the identification of compositional and contextual factors that affect appropriation of urban open spaces, in order to assess which of these factors influence more intensively type and intensity of use in the urban spaces evaluated. Performance evaluations were carried out in streets and public open spaces located in three residential areas characterised by differences in cultural and socio-economic aspects, and aspects related to physical characteristics, located in the city Campo Grande, Brazil. Methodological procedures included mental maps, interviews, physical measurements, observations of behaviour, and questionnaires, responded by residents in the sampling areas and users of the three public open spaces investigated. The analysis of relationships between individualsí characteristics, environmental attributes and level of appropriation of streets and public open spaces suggest that type and intensity of use of residential streets are more strongly affected by compositional factors, while contextual factors affect more intensively level of appropriation of public open spaces. The results contribute to the existing knowledge and outline recommendations that might support the social life dynamics of urban spaces.
Lay, Maria. Cristina, and Jussara Basso. "Performance and Appropriation of Residential Streets and Public Open Spaces." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 584-585. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Urban open spaces - streets, plazas and parks - are spaces intentionally provided in order to encourage a specific group of behaviours, giving a place in which particular activities can take place (e.g. Barker, 1968; Bechtel, 1977). The use of open spaces for performing the spectrum of activities (social, recreational and functional), according to Gehl (1987), is a critical ingredient in making spaces meaningful and attractive, and subsequently, lively environments. Besides, use or liveability (according to Appleyard, 1981), is a criterion often employed to measure success of open space, and it is also one of the prerequisites for a successful urban open space (Whyte, 1980).
Francescato, Guido. "Person - Environment Knowledge: Instrumentality, Interpretation, Promotion." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 727-728. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. At the last IAPS conference, I offered a parallel between current geopolitical conditions and the forces that simultaneously foster unity and fragmentation within the field of person-environment studies . That the same geopolitical conditions were chosen as the theme of the current conference suggests, among other things, how compelling they are in our postmodern, poststructuralist, late capitalist consciousness. However, before our field can claim making any contribution to the resolution of such conditions it must address the problem of the relevance of its work with greater attention than it has heretofore.
Ambiental, Víctor Cerón. Ma. "Perspectivas Y Realidades De Los Grupos Ambientalistas En Elestado De México." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 633-634. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. México, como uno de los países que a nivel mundial tiene una importante riqueza en cuanto a biodiversidad se refiere, no ha quedado del todo al margen de propuestas, acciones e investigaciones que sobre los problemas medioambientales se refieren. La Ciudad de Toluca de Lerdo es la capital del Estado de México que se localiza en la porción central de la República Mexicana, en la altiplanicie mexicana. La delimitación del área de ordenamiento ecológico del territorio del Estado de México se circunscribe a su límite político administrativo, el cual comprende 122 municipios en 2,249,995 hectáreas.
Craig, Anthony, Andrew Hargreaves, and Richard Laing. Physical and Social Connections Between Urban Spaces - Thematic and Methodological Issues In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "This research addresses a number of problems facing city centres generally, with particular reference to linkages between historic and commercial centres. The research programme will help in the longer-term to address a number of these issues through an innovative approach to the generation of design and other solutions. Using a historic market space in Aberdeen known as "The Green" as a case study, the research will address the following issues:"
Fávero, Marcos, Denise De Alcantara, Paulo Rheingantz, and Vicente Del Rio. "Place Performance in Mid - Rise Residential Areas – a Comparativedesign Research in Rio De Janeiro, Brazil." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 371. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002.

This article addresses two case-studies from the on-going research Urban Design and the Quality of Places, coordinated by V. del Rio at the graduate program in architecture at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. The research focuses in understanding how much of the original design of a residential area is responsible for its recognition as a special place by the users. Following a common theoretical framework of place construction and environmental cognition, this is a comparative performance evaluation where case studies are approached by a common methodology based on the British townscape tradition, on the concept of place in human geography, on urban morphology, on environmental perception, and above all on Kevin Lynch's dimensions of performance. This article will comment on the research base, and it will describe, analyse and compare the performance of two residential places that are highly regarded by both residents and users, and are most valued in the city of Rio de Janeiro -Parque Guinle and Rua General Glicerio. Results so far demonstrate the correctness of some concepts of place construction and suggest a direct relationship between urban form and original design assets, and the recognized quality of these places. Results also demonstrate the validity and applicability of the research methods being utilized, and point toward the feasibility of developing design guidelines and instruments for place construction through local codes, zoning regulations, and historical preservation.

Billig, Miriam, and Arza Churchman. "Planned Gentrification as a Means of Urban Regeneration." In Culture, Environmental Action, and Sustainability: Proceedings of the 17th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain: Hogrefe & Huber, 2003. Neighborhood change in the guise of gentrification has been widely criticized as having negative impacts of various kinds. This paper describes a different kind of gentrification, planned gentrification, and compares its implications with those of spontaneous gentrification processes. The study examined the similarities and differences existing between this planned gentrification process and the spontaneous gentrification process described in the literature, by analyzing the changes resulting from the building of six new housing developments in lower class neighborhoods in the city of Ramat Gan, Israel. The analysis is based on an ethnographic description of 240 interviews of women living in the new housing developments and in the adjacent old buildings. The results show that an advantage of the planned gentrification process is that it does not undesirably affect the original population and does not lead to their displacement. The planned gentrification process can have positive socio-physical and behavioral effects on the old neighborhood.
Billig, Miriam, and Arza Churchman. "Planned Gentrification as a Means of Urban Renewal." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 67-68. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002.

"Many cities suffer from the gradual deterioration of old neighborhoods thereby also affecting the overall urban fabric. A way of overcoming this problem is through renewal of these neighborhoods by building new modern housing developments within them for people of a higher socio-economic class. The term "Planned Gentrification" is proposed to describe this process and the resulting changes occurring in the neighborhood. This report discusses a study of six such new housing developments built in distressed neighborhoods in the city of Ramat Gan, Israel, and particularly emphasizes the changes occurring in the areas surrounding these new housing developments. It includes an ethnographic description based on 240 interviews of women, 120 of them living in the new buildings and 120 in the adjacent old buildings. The interviews consisted mainly of open-ended questions, which enabled these women to describe the changes occurring in the neighborhood as seen from their point of view, and to address issues regarded as relevant by them."

Pueyo, Hebert. "Políticas De Desarrollo Regional Sostenible Y Competitividad En Argentina. La Situación De Las Pequeñas Y Medianas Empresas (Pymes) Industriales." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 112-113. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. La presente comunicación plantea la problemática de las políticas regionales sostenibles que involucran a las Pequeñas y Medianas Empresas (PyMEs) industriales de la Argentina, frente a los desafíos derivados del proceso de internacionalización e integración económica mundial y a la creciente competitividad que demanda ese escenario mundial. El estudio se centra en la Provincia de Buenos Aires, distrito que por su peso en el conjunto de las jurisdicciones políticas argentinas, es la de mayor gravitación; definen su importancia, la fuerza locacional estratégica de su sitio y posición, la contundencia de su poderío económico, la mayor participación que adquiere en el producto nacional, sus condiciones bioclimáticas, su potencial demográfico (que supera el cuarenta por ciento de la población argentina). En el aglomerado metropolitano que rodea al distrito capitalino de la Argentina, la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, la Provincia de Buenos Aires concentra la principal actividad industrial argentina, tanto en ramas básicas como livianas, automotríz y de la construcción, así como también parte trascendente del comercio nacional e internacional.
Tsunekawa, Kazuhisa, Pieter Le Roux, and Akikazu Kato. "Post - Occupancy Evaluation of New Office in Suburban Nagoya, Japan, Linking Japanese New Office Standards to Ibpe Studies." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 703. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. The New Office Minimum Standards were developed by the New Office Promotion Association, NOPA, in 1995. Since then, they were used to implement the development of new offices in Japan, and at the same time used in the pre-qualification of Nikkei New Office Award to promote the movement. This presentation will focus on the Techno Plaza building, which is situated in a suburban office park setting. It was designed by Richard Rogers and won the Minister of International Trade and Industries Award in 1999. The building fulfills the Minimum Standards. However, the survey using IBPE methodology revealed a considerable difference in the workers' evaluation of lighting in two main offices. The presentation will discuss in detail the analysis of the lighting environment and will reveal the implications for lighting environment evaluations.
Strumse, Einar, and Leif Edvard Aarø. "Predicting Subjective Well Being. the Contributions from Placeattachment, Landscape Preferences and Social Support." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 343-344. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "It is not always safe to conclude that the environment in which an organism lives is its "preferred" habitat. Many other factors than "free choice" play an important role in the spatial distribution of organisms, including humans. Thus, it appears reasonable to assume that also subjective well being will vary significantly among residents of any given location, depending on, for example, length of residency, environmental preferences, and social network. A previous study of visual preferences for traditional and modern agrarian landscapes in Western Norway (Strumse, 1996) showed a clear dislike for modern agrarian landscapes, and an equally clear liking for traditional landscapes. Also, a number of strong predictive effects on preference of environmental attributes were found. Finally, a number of relations between landscape preferences and demographic variables, environmental concern and outdoor recreation experiences, were demonstrated. However, this study did not examine the relation between landscape related evaluations and subjective well being. Thus, the purpose of the present study is to examine the relative effect on subjective well being of (a) visual preference for local cultural landscapes, (b) place attachment and (c) the social environment measured as degree of perceived social support."
Galindo, Paz, and Carmen Hidalgo. Preferencias Estéticas Y Atribución De Significado: Los Procesos De Categorización Ambiental En La Valoración De Escenarios Urbanos In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "En el ámbito de los estudios de calidad visual del paisaje, los estudios de preferencia ambiental han perseguido determinar ésta a través de las respuestas que los individuos "no expertos" manifiestan sobre los lugares evaluados. Dichas respuestas se han utilizado, generalmente, con el objetivo de desarrollar modelos predictivos de calidad visual - desde la perspectiva de los usuarios- (modelos psicofísicos) o como un índice a partir del que desarrollar marcos conceptuales y teóricos que puedan explicar el comportamiento estético (modelos cognitivos). Dentro de este último capítulo de estudios, algunos trabajos se han interesado por utilizar los juicios estéticos como un medio para explorar los procesos de categorización (y/o de atribución de significado) que caracterizan las transacciones entre los individuos y sus entornos físicos (véase, para una revisión, Kaplan y Kaplan, 1989)."
Maxwell, Lorraine E.. Preschool Children's Competency and the Design of Childcare Spaces: a Classroom Rating Scale In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. This paper concerns research on the relationship between the physical environment and the development of self-identity. The concept of competence is part of a larger construct, self-esteem and is related to the concept of self-identity. Self-esteem includes the components of 1) self-worth and value to one's self and to others, and 2) a sense of being able to initiate and complete an action (Weinstein, 1987). Competency is the second component of self-esteem. Preschool children who accomplish a goal feel good about themselves and begin to form an identity of a competent person. Preschool children are able to make judgments about their competency in specific domains such as physical abilities, social skills, and academic-related abilities (Harter and Pike, 1984).
Zimmerman, Donna. "Preserving a Sense of Identity in a Vernacular Landscape Under the Pressure of an Ever - Increasing Global Culture: a Case Study." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 134-135. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. The forces of globalization are epitomized by the growing worldwide tourist industry. These forces are especially evident in places that are valued for their unique and provincial qualities and lifestyles. Tucked away across the United States are many small towns that have maintained a unique sense of place and identity for generations. These vernacular landscapes reflect the history and values of the immigrant groups that settled in the region and built the communities. But in the late 20th century many of these quaint communities and their quality of life have been threatened with an increasingly blatant commercial exploitation through tourism and recreation resulting, in many cases, in a loss of character and regional identity. Conspicuous and expedient commercial development is the antithesis of what most people find to be unique and attractive about these communities. It is also the built environment that holds and retains much of the historical and cultural character of the community that is most impacted. Many modern buildings in the form of condominiums, resorts, shopping centers, gas stations and fast food restaurants are being built at an ever-increasing rate in styles that are mundane, ubiquitous and lacking in character. In the process the historic integrity of the built environment is being compromised and communities are loosing their uniqueness and their sense of place. In many cases the architectural fabric has been altered to such an extent that these places look like any small town, anywhere in the world.
Ruiz, Isabel, and Manuel Soto. "Prevención Ambiental E Tecnoloxías Limpas En Galiza." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 197-198. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Durante o século vinte tivo lugar un aumento continuado na xeración de residuos e emisións contaminantes, aumentando a preocupación especialmente por aqueles de tipo tóxico e perigoso. Despois da Segunda Guerra Mundial, este incremento chegou a niveis non tolerábeis polos ecosistemas e foi causa de fortes problemas sanitarios para moitas poboacións expostas. A ciencia e a tecnoloxia, nomeadamente a Enxeñería Química, aportou axiña como solución a instalación de plantas depuradoras, sexan vertedoiros controlados, incineradoras, plantas de depuración de augas residuais ou sistemas de depuración de fumes. Algúns índices móstrannos a non sustentabilidade desta solución, que hoxe recibe o nome de tratamentos externos, de final de liña ou de final de tubo. Por unha banda, a xeración de residuos perigosos nos diferentes países do planeta aumenta mais que proporcionalmente que a respectiva renda, nun factor de aproximadamente 3 veces; é dicir, a extensión do modelo económico que lidera o desenvolvemento no planeta aos países subdesenvolvidos suporía multiplicar a renda destes por un factor de 25 e a xeración de residuos por un factor de 150, en termo medio. Diante deste panorama, podemos concluír que o modelo económico tal como veu funcionando é claramente non sustentábel desde o punto de vista ambiental, e inxusto desde o punto de vista social.
Ugur, Husnu. "Problems of the Migrant in Relation to the Built Envirnment." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 229-231. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Globalization , civil wars, ethnic movements and economical problems are the main reasons of the migration in the 20th century. Migration from one town to a city, or, from one country to another causes problems both to the migrant and to the built environment within their destination. One of the problems related to migrants is their adaptation to the built environment. The observed consequences of this problem may be related to two, more or less, different causatives. The first, migrants may have problem of decoding the built environmental codes, and the second, the migrant may affect or make changes on this built environment, [3]. This paper investigates in particular the second causative of this problem.
Wiesenfeld, Esther. "Process Through Which their House Became a Home, and the Group Became a Community." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 697-698. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002.

Residential experience is among the most significant relations between people and the environment, given the importance of housing in people's lives. This experience includes not only residents' actions and transactions with their surroundings, but also the meanings they elaborate in regard thereto, the process of turning a housing unit into a home, the development of neighborly relations, and the processes of identity construction, attachment, and appropriation, among others. In this paper we will address the expressions and interpretations of that experience, and the processes undergone by residents whose forms of access to housing and type of tenancy vary. We will make reference to four forms of access: spontaneous self-construction, directed selfconstruction, purchase,andrental.

Ferraz, José Maria Gusm. "Produción De Alimientos Y Desarrollo Sustentable." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 678-679. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "El modelo de desarrollo agrícola moderno o convencional he intensificado después de la Segunda Guerra y fue ampliado en los años setenta por la Revolución Verde, como una solución para los problemas de la hambre. Sinembargo, este modelo he fortalecido y diseminado aún más la visión reduccionista de los sistemas agrarios, distanciándosele de la visión sistémica. Así, la pesquisa y la extensión fueron direccionadas para la incorporación de "paquetes tecnológicos": tenidos como de aplicación universal, destinados a maximizar los rendimientos de los cultivos. Estos paquetes irian proporcionarles las condiciones ideales de desarrollo, en una lógica de control de las condiciones naturales, por la simplificación y máxima artificialización del ambiente: para intentar adecuar al genótipo de la cultura, de modo a obtener su máximo rendimiento (Ferraz y Missiaen, 2000)."
Rissotto, Antonella. "Projects and Policy for Childhood in Italy." In Culture, Environmental Action, and Sustainability: Proceedings of the 17th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain: Hogrefe & Huber, 2003. This contribution has two aims. First to briefly describe the cultural and legislative context produced in Italy by the ratification of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. Second to present some of the outcomes of the Childrenís city project. This project was started in 1991 and today it involves 46 cities in Italy, several in Argentina and a few in Spain. It is aimed at improving the urban environment from the perspective of children. The study of actions carried out by the Italian cities in order to promote childrenís participation and childrenís autonomous mobility highlights the positive and negative aspects of the project. The main limits of the project are connected with the following factors: project's dependence on temporary tasks of politicians; the emphasis given to the educational dimension of interventions which shifts attention away from the cityís transformation and from childrenís empowerment; the experimental character of the interventions which results in a reduced impact on the urban environment and on the child population. The main positive aspects of the project are related to changes in the perception of childhood, which motivate administrators to make innovative choices and encourages the engagement of larger components of the community.
Rissotto, Antonella. "Projects and Policy for Childhood in Italy." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 716. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. The programme on Children´s city - La Citta dei Bambini - was started in 1991. It comprises today some 40 cities in Italy, several in Argentina and a few in Spain. A group of researchers from the Italian Institute of National Research were asked to produce training material and tools for the development and monitoring of the interventions that the cities were adopting. The focus was on the improvement of children´s oppportunites to move independently in their surroundings and on children´s participation in the planning of their neighbourhoods. The Children´s city, together with other projects, such as the Learning City and the Healthy City, have contributed in marketing a new vision of childhood which has had an impact on the national legislation in Italy. The most significative institutional result is the National Plan of Action for Children and Adolescence, which was implemented for the first three-year period in 1997. Its goal is to mainstream child-friendly interventions in all sectors of the national government. The aim of this contribution is to present some of the results of the Children´s city and to assess its achievements on the improvement of the physical and social environments of cities from the perspective of children
Monteiro, Rosa Cristina. Propietario Y Caseros – Subordinación Arquitectónica Y Subjyugación Social In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "La estructura fundiaria en Brasil sufrió profundos impactos en la década del 70 del siglo XX, por cuenta de la llamada "revolución modernizante", que implantó la producción agrícola en larga escala en el país, tornando inviable la pequeña producción, a través de la cual muchos labradores se mantenían en el campo en una condición de auto-sustento. Muchas familias se dislocaron para los centros urbanos abandonando tierras o comercializandolas por valores irrisorios, aunque algunas tengan permanecido, preferiendo apostar en su identidad cultural, de lavradores y agricultores. El intenso proceso de migración de la población rural para las ciudades, aliado a la organización del entretenimiento en las sociedades altamente urbanizadas, provocó la entrada de una parte de la clase media urbana en las áreas casi abandonadas, que pasó a ser propietaria de "chacras" utilizadas como segundas residencias."
Muntañola, Josep. "Psicogenesis, Sociogenesis Y Topogenesis:hacia Una Refundacion Delas Relaciones Entre La Psicologia Ambiental Y La Arquitectura." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 561-562. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002.

Mi comunicación intentará reflexionar sobre las relaciones entre arquitectura y psicologia ambiental,a partir de las tres componentes esenciales de la arquitectura ,la generación de la forma,o PSICOGENESIS,la generación del uso,o SOCIOGENESIS,y la generación del lugar construido ,o TOPOGENESIS.Jean Piaget, Mijail Bajtin y Sigfried Giedion ,serán los tres autores que,muy brevemente serviran de referencia principal a esta reflexión,para acabar con el modelo hermenéutico de Paul Ricoeur. Como consecuencia de esta reflexión,mi comunicación intentará establecer unas articulaciones entre psicogenesis,sociogenesis y topogenesis que sean pertinentes a la vez,para los arquitectos y para los psicólogos ambientales,como son:

Bonnes, Mirilia, Marino Bonaiuto, and Terence Lee. "Psychological Theories, Environmental Psychological Processes and Environmental Issues." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 731-732. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002.

"Environmental Psychology and Policy Research Unit University of St Andrew, UK Starting from the famous Lewinian assumption that "there is nothing so practical as a good theory" (Lewin, 1951) the importance of paying more specific attention to various theories of the psychological tradition , for the present and future development of people-environment studies, is discussed. First the possibility of considering environmental psychology only as a specific domain of applied psychology is considered.Then the tendency to oppose 'basic' and 'applied' psychology is contrasted . We outline the importance of developing environmental psychology not as a simple further domain of applied psychology, but as a "psychology of interface" between on one hand the interdisciplinary domain of the people-environment studies and on the other hand the more specific theoretical interests of various areas of psychological research, traditionally focused on specific psychological processes."

Speller, Gerda M., Evanthia Lyons, and Clare Twigger-Ross. "Public Participation and the Effects of Missed Opportunities." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 747-748. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Community involvement in planning has been muted since the 1960s but it is only since the Rio Convention (1992), the signing of the Local Agenda 21 and the Blair Government that public participation has become a key feature of National and Local Authority programmes. Benefits are considered manifold and include better quality projects and programmes; greater stakeholder ownership, commitment and responsibility; increased equity, greater accountability and stronger democracy; access to additional resources; reducing conflict; legitimacy; better targeting; building skills, knowledge and capacity; developing social capital and stronger communities; and satisfying public demand (Warburton, 2001).
Twigger-Ross, Clare, and Paula Orr. "Public Participation in Environmental Regulation: Putting Theory in to Practice." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 737-738. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. This paper aims to examine the issues for public participation that have arisen through an examination of its role in the specific case of environmental regulation of industrial processes. The key question is to what extent the context of environmental regulation in England and Wales constrains or facilitates public participation and given that context what type of participation is likely to emerge. This paper begins with a brief characterisation of the Environment Agency: its responsibilities, and practices. This is followed by a brief discussion of the current position in the UK on public participation in environmental regulation: both from policy and academic perspectives. From that context emerge a number of key questions about the role of public participation in environmental regulation which will be discussed using findings from three research projects focussed on issues of public participation in environmental regulation.
Clark, Charlotte. "Public Participation in Local Environmental Decision Making: a Comparison of Methods." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 743-744. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. In recent years, encouraging sustainable behaviours within households has become a prevalent method of tackling environmental problems. Indeed under Local Agenda 21 all local authorities are expected to consult and involve the public in local environmental decision making. The aim is to allow people affected by decisions to have an input into decision making. Thus, public participation processes are having an increasingly important role in the development of environmental initiatives that require the behaviour change of individual households.
Puddu, Luisa, and Stefano Cassai. "Quality and Sustainability of Touristic Developmental Choices Within the Global Environment." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 95-96. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. The management of the environment and of its use are here analysed from a psychological perspective. The focus of this work is especially on the aspects related to tourism, seen from a socio-psychological approach. As tourists/psychologists and as psychologists/tourists, we reflect on what might be the individual-environment paradigm (Stokols, Altman, 1987) and on which are the operative coordinates and aims that govern and guide the management of tourism. The policies adopted seem in fact crucial in the development of places because they have a deep impact in the determination of the identity of the territory. For this reason, the political leadership is called upon to perform a delicate and greatly responsible task given the complexity and dynamic of the phenomenon. Tourism is a polyhedral and multidimensional phenomenon that requires an attentive consideration of all the problems concerned with economic, environmental, social, political, psychological, anthropological and cultural aspects. In order to find some indications about attitudes, opinions, and perceptions on the individual-environment relationship and also on the impact that decision-making and its features (De Kadt, 1992) have on those people who institutionally are responsible for the tourism industry, we have decided to plan an empirical investigation.
Voigt, Andreas. "Quality Management for the Built Environment." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 796-797. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "Comprehensive quality management in connection with the quality securing conception has become the major auxiliary means in configuring production and service-trade processes. Examination of its applicability and the transformation of these conceptions with regard to planning and configuration processes suggests itself. Considering area development planning as "material and procedural task" "space-related quality management" would have to refer to the quality of "production processes" and the quality of the "product" (meaning design). The "production- and service-trade processes" and the "products" to result, however, will considerably differ from conventional production processes and products of industrial manufacture. Three correlated topic complexes qualify as "action fields" in terms of quality management in space-related planning and configuration processes:"
Rosen-Kremer, Osnat, and Iris Aravot. "Re - Presenting Kfar - Saba Transformation of Urban Image Through Planning." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 163-164. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "The paper, based on an ongoing research, unfolds and analyses a unique series of endeavors to create a special urban image and place identity through planning. Our case study focuses on Kfar Saba, an outstanding example of taking a "turning point" within typical development processes of "Moshavot" (Hebrew term denoting agricultural villages of limited economic partnership, in comparison to "Moshav" or "Kibbutz") (Efrat ,1988). In the 1970's-80's, agricultural land reserves all over Israel were transformed by rapid (sub)urbanization. New plans aimed mainly at increasing building density, with little attention to changes in existing morphological and functional patterns. Kfar Saba, a border village, administratively transformed into a town only few years earlier, received a new Outline Plan which increased its density dramatically (Kolodni, 1989). Still, on 18.10.72, the Mayor and the Municipal Council decided to make a total revision of this plan. Their declared purpose was: " to keep the character of a small and green town in the Southern Sharon, with high quality of life", instead of "becoming another dense urban area without character"
Hsieh, Tsai-Shiou. Re - Thinking Recycling Behavior: Understanding People's Categorization of Solid Waste and Its Relation to the Recycling Program Implementation in an Academic Building In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Most recycling behavior studies focus on two directions: One is to find out the relationship between attitude, knowledge, and recycling behavior; the other is to use behavior intervention to promote recycling behavior. Both perspectives simplify recycling as a singular and static behavior. In fact, recycling involves many interrelated aspects. It depends on the macro economic conditions, the available physical facilities, the beliefs and customs of local residents, and of course, the policies. Moreover, recycling requires not only people's behavior (such as separating solid waste from recyclables); facilities and techniques-which are hardly controlled by individuals-, are indispensable. In Marx's words, it is another kind of alienation. On one hand, it means that people cannot decide what to recycle because they do not have those facilities and techniques, even though they know it should not be thrown as garbage. (This is why New Yorkers cannot recycle styrofoam while Germans can.) On the other hand, recyclers do not know what will happen after they take every effort to sort things out. Sometimes the suspicion of 'maybe eventually everything will be gathered together to an incinerator' indeed stops people from recycling.
Johansson, Maria. "Reasons for Driving Children by Car - a Comparison Between Parents in Sweden and England." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 762-763. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Despite deep concern for the environment, people's motivation to substitute the car with more environmentally friendly transport modes is low (Widegren, 1998; DEFRA, 2001). Car usage seems especially high among families with small children (SCB, 1999). Although parents say that they themselves sometimes choose to walk, cycle or go by public transport for environmental reasons, this does not necessarily apply for trips made with their children (Tillberg, 2001). Simultaneously children's allowance to travel on their own has decreased during the last decades (Hillman, 1993; Tranter & Pawson, 2001; Sandqvist & Kriström, 2001). This development has negative effects for the children's physical and psychological well being as well as for the environment (Armstrong, 1993; Kegerreis, 1993). Recently, it was shown that the travel habits of Swedish children, as young as six years, cause larger carbon dioxide emissions than what international agreements allow for (Lindén & Carlsson-Kanyama, 1999). Tanner (1999) suggested that in order to understand people's driving frequency, constraints for pro-environmental choice of travel modes must be taken into account. To parents, worry of their children being hurt in traffic accidents or by strangers might be one reason (Björklid, 1992).
Celano, Carmen Valéria C., and Cristiane Rose Duarte. "Reflections on National Identity in the Architecture of Rio De Janeiro." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 132-133. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "This work intends to make a reflection on the identity of the contemporary architecture production in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, through the analysis of the building patrimony which is being built in Barra da Tijuca that shows a tendency to make an imaginary reference to countries of the first world. Our discussion will be illustrated through business enterprises such as "New York City Center" where there's a 30 meters height Liberty Statue replica and the "Barra World Shopping Center" which will have copies of Tower of Pisa, Tower Bridge and Eiffel Tower in its internal squares. Here one verifies a gradual transformation of our urban landscape in an advertising support, lacking representatives of our endogenous cultural aspects. We wonder how we construct our identity through the built environment: how does architecture show who we are and who we wish to be? This study also proposes an analysis of this "internationalizing" tendency wondering, among other questions, if this phenomenon is only a global tendency reflex or it was a characteristic of our building history."
Graña1, Juan A. Caridad, Isidro López Yáñez1, and Mª Eugenia La Lema, 2. "Rehabilitación Del Patrimonio Local, De La Teoría a La Práctica. La Actuación Sobre Una Palloza En Los Ancares Gallegos." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 485-487. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "Según lo recogido por Michel Dower1 el patrimonio, en sentido moderno y entendido como recurso, es un concepto que engloba los paisajes naturales y los creados por el hombre; las ciudades, villas y aldeas con características histórico-culturales propias en forma de edificios singulares o no; obras como puentes, molinos o muros; así como todo un conjunto de elementos reagrupados bajo el término "pequeño patrimonio". A este patrimonio físico y arquitectónico se une lo que ha transmitido la historia, el idioma y las costumbres, las tradiciones musicales y artísticas, los productos artesanos, y los oficios y las antiguas técnicas. Los edificios del pasado fueron construidos para responder a las necesidades sociales, económicas y culturales de las generaciones que los levantaron, utilizando para ello las técnicas constructivas que la época ofrecía. Materializan el esfuerzo de desarrollo de las personas en el tiempo y el lugar en los que se construyeron, pero también representan un recurso permanente para los lugares donde se encuentran. Cualquier sociedad experimenta ciclos de crecimiento y crisis, cuando no de declive. Los periodos de crecimiento económico posibilitan la construcción de nuevos edificios dedicados a nuevos usos específicos. La transformación o el declive de la sociedad que los generó conlleva el cambio de uso, la infrautilización, o incluso el abandono puro y simple. Y sin embargo, pocos son los edificios históricos que lo merecen: a menudo suponen un activo que hay que valorizar dentro de una perspectiva de reactivación local y de preservación de la identidad de una sociedad concreta."
Barrio, Isabel López, and Jiménez De La Torre. "Relation Between Personality and Cognitive Variables and Psychological Response to Noise on School Children." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 351. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. The response to the noise environment is a complex one which depends not only on the intensity of the noise, but also on other non-acoustic variables (personal, attitudinal, contextual ...) which act as filters which modify the perception of the physical signal. Despite the importance of the non-acoustic variables in determining the annoyance, investigators have paid scant attention to them. The work presented is an endeavour to arrive at a comprehension of the response to this factor of the environment. To accomplish this, a study was carried out aimed at evaluating the influence of the personality and cognitive variables in the perception and evaluation of the noise environment. In the study 75 students from 4th and 5th grade primary school (8-10 years) participated, together with 15 teachers, all exposed in their school to high levels of traffic (road and rail) and industrial noise.
Rodríguez, María Del Mar Du. "Relation Between Values and Attitudes: Towards an Explainingmodel of Environmental Behaviour." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 334-336. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. The origin of ecological crisis seems to be closely linked to attitudes as intermediate processes (Corraliza et al., 1995), as well as to value scales, as key elements for predicting individual behaviour towards the environment (Olsen, 1981). So, much of the work in environmental psychology has stressed the study of personal values, environmental attitudes, and its relation with behaviour, with the aim of a better understanding of the relations amongst the variables involved in this processes (Dunlap & Vanliere, 1978; Stern, 2000; García-Mira et al., 2001). Most of the work carried out until today has informed about very reduced indexes to propose a relation between both attitudes and values, and environmental behaviour. So, therefore, the aim of this research is to increase our knowledge on the more influential values both on attitudes and environmentally responsible behaviour, trying to make clear the role of mediator variables in the sense of increasing or reducing associations between these terms, in such a way that we can find an explaining causal model of these relations,
De Azevedo, Laura Novo, and Luiz Augusto Ol King. "Requalification of Bento Gonçalves Avenue: an Experience Ofpartnership and Participative Design." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 205-206. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. In this paper we intend to present an experience of integrating research and practice in an urban requalification project that became possible because of a partnership between the City Hall Urban Design Department and the Architecture and Urbanism Course of the Catholic University of Pelotas, Brazil. The aim of this partnership was to develop a project based on the user information and participation to revitalize Bento Gonçalves Avenue. The role of the university was, through research conducted by the students, to choose participative planning methods and instruments to use in the process. It is important to emphasize that this was the first project using public participation methods in the city, conducted by the city hall.
L. Fallon, Jr, Fleming, Steven J. Fulks, and Joy Potthoff. "Residential Preferences of Present and Future Retirees." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 543-544. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. The problem of providing housing for seniors grows as populations around the world age. With changes in consumer preferences and technology, expectations related to housing also undergo change. Some housing units can be renovated to accommodate changing preferences. Limited research concerning interior environmental preferences for housing has been reported in recent years. Scott (1986) suggested studying population trends among persons of ages greater than 70. DaVanzo and Chan (1994) reported that parents wished to live separately from their children. Porter (1998) reached a similar conclusion when studying a small sample of widows. Special populations have been studied. Owen and colleagues (1996) reported that psychiatric patients preferred housing situations that made minimum demands upon residents. Homeless women reported a strong preference for normal, independent living situations (Goering et al, 1990). Due to changing environmental contents and the development of new consumer products, reports of housing preferences that are more than a decade old are likely to have minimal utility for contemporary developers.
Carrus, Giuseppe, Ferdinando Fornara, Marino Bonaiuto, and Mirilia Bonnes. "Residents' Attitudes and Behaviours Towards the Green Areas of Rome." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 239-240. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "The concept of Biosphere Reserves, as it was defined at the UNESCO-MAB Seville Conference (Unesco-Mab, 1995), provides specific tools for integrating conservation and development goals in the management of natural environments. BRs seem well suited for being applied also to highly populated contexts such as urban settlements. The institution of BRs in the proximity of large European South American cities has become more frequent in recent years. Thus what can be defined as an "Urban Biosphere Reserve Strategy" is progressively taking shape (Celecia, 2000; Douglas, 1996; Lasserre, 1997). As a first step for establishing a new Unesco-Mab Biosphere Reserve in the city of Rome, a specific research project was launched by the University of Rome "La Sapienza" with the financial support of the Rome Municipality, aimed at developing the scientific basis for establishing an "Observatory for Environmental Monitoring and Public Awareness". It involved the collaboration of different disciplinary areas: a social science research group and a natural ecology research group. The social psychological project was concerned with the study of perceptions of and behaviours toward different green areas of the city of Rome."
Scopelliti, Massimiliano. "Restorative Experiences Across the Life - Span." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 397-398. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Past research on restorativeness of places has often underlined the fact that natural environments can contribute to reducing stress and to promoting positive moods and feelings (Ulrich, 1979, 1981; Hartig, Mang & Evans, 1991). According to the model proposed by Kaplan & Kaplan (1989), the restorative quality of environments depends on the degree they possess four components: being away, extent, fascination and compatibility. Further research investigated the relationships between natural environments and favourite places, showing that both score high on the four components rating scales (Korpela, 1992; Korpela & Hartig, 1996; Korpela, Hartig, Kaiser & Fuhrer, 2001). Both natural settings and meaningful places related to personal experiences are identified as restorative environments.
Churchman, Arza, and Elisheva Sadan. "Rethinking Public Participation." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 729-730. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. The Hebrew University of Jerusalem Jerusalem Israel Public participation is considered by many to be a prerequisite for the realization of democratic values, and for the achievement of design and planning that meet the needs of different groups of people. Classical models of public participation within the design and planning fields have focused almost completely on the point of view of the professionals or decision makers who 'want' to involve the public. Even in the social work and community planning literature, that is supposedly more sensitive to the point of view of the people they work with, the same attitude is evident in the way many talk about participation. Almost everyone has adopted the ladder of participation conceived by Arnstein in the late 1960's (Arnstein, 1969). Only recently have we noticed that even a later elaboration of this ladder (Alterman, Law-Yone & Churchman, 1981), focused on the role of the persons involving others, and in many respects ignored the activities and the motivations of the participants. We have come to the conclusion that these should really be called ladders of involvement.
Hatuka, Tali. "Rethinking Time - Space: the Case of Tel Aviv's Promenade." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 754-755. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. The fact that a promenade was built in the western boundary of city, parallel to the Mediterranean, connecting Jaffa and Tel Aviv in a linear line, was more than a symbolic act. This physical and political decision opened a new leisure area to varied groups of residents who populate the city. The physical layout of the promenade along a busy route is not unique but this area in one of the busiest areas of Tel Aviv. Coffee shops and restaurants are located along the promenade and on the shore, inviting temporary events. Today, most of the groups in the city, including middle class families, youngsters, Arab citizens, foreign workers, tourists, and groups from the cities in the ring surrounding Tel Aviv enjoy the promenade on a regular basis.
Yamacli, Rusen. "Roles, Performance and Limitations of the Architects, Engineers, Planners and Educators in a Global Built Environment." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 511-512. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. The purpose of this paper is to explore the concept of change as it relates to the global built environment and dynamic in the cross-cultural urban textures. The comprehensive proposal for action described the role history can play in assisting the region to adapt to changing conditions by providing a basis for social and economic development that identifies, preserves, integrates, and interprets cultural resources. During the development of any built environment, be it of a city, changing circumstances demand a physical environment responsive to conditions that have not been, and usually can not be, expected. Changes in the life-styles, tastes, and expectations of the resident population of any project can hardly be foreseen. Since changes occurred relatively slowly, and people spent their lives within a sitting that they controlled, internal mechanisms were at work by which culturally valuable activities, stories, technology, ideals, and important practices in the lives of people were preserved. Thus, during much of human history the act of preservation was integrated with other culturally based activities. In today's complex societies, however, preservation results from a self-conscious political and organisational process (Proctor et al-1990, p:84). To provide the architects, engineers and planners with an adequate understanding of the present day global culture and its implications towards future design and construction process. The paper intends to review the development of global built-environment, while providing alternative approaches for a sustainable environment with respect to the natural and cultural heritage:
Castro, Paula. "Sameness and Difference in Beliefs About Science and the Environment." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 253-254. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Under conditions of late modernity, or reflexive modernity, the three domains of environmental concern, risk management and public understanding of science have many areas of overlap and call for a joint analysis (Beck, 1986, 1994; Giddens, 1994; Wynne, 1995). According to Beck (1994), in a risk society, we will only be able to recognize the unpredictability of the threats brought about by techno industrial development if we can carry an encompassing reflexion upon both the processes that organize social cohesion and the fundaments of rationality. According to Giddens (1994) we now live a period in which, in order to understand the three domains mentioned, both global homogenising forces and local differentiating forces have to be taken into account.
Codina, Mercè Rosich Nú, and Jose Vicente Pestana. "Satisfacción Con El Entorno, Satisfacción Vital Y Posibilidades De Diversión." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 337-338. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. En la presente investigación se estudia la relación entre la satisfacción con el entorno y la satisfacción vital en un grupo de adolescentes, y la incidencia de las actividades percibidas como divertidas. El estudio se realizó con una muestra de 1.590 alumnos (806 chicos y 784 chicas), estudiantes de 1º, 2º y 3º de ESO (centros públicos y privados) en Manresa (Barcelona); el intervalo de edad considerado fue de 12 a 14 años (con media de 13.14 y desviación estándar de 0.79). La información sobre satisfacción se obtuvo a partir de dos instrumentos: la Escala de Satisfacción Vital (SLSS, Satisfaction Life Student Scale -Huebner, 1991) y la Escala Multidimensional de Satisfacción Vital (MSLSS, Multidimensional Satisfaction Life Students Scale -Huebner, 1994); la SLSS mide la satisfacción global en la vida de los niños y adolescentes, en tanto que la MSLSS responde cuestiones relativas a la satisfacción global en la vida, con diferenciación de aspectos específicos tales como familia, escuela, entorno residencial y amistades. Ambos instrumentos fueron traducidos al castellano y al catalán, y validados por Alsinet (1999), con coeficientes de fiabilidad alfa de Cronbach de 0.88 (SLSS) y 0.92 (MSLSS).
Itoh, Shunsuke. "School Building as a Cultural Frame: Notes on the Symbolic Use Ofspace in Japanese and Danish Schools." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 471-473. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "The school is a place where children 'learn' norms, values, and meanings, and are brought up into the society and culture. This aspect of the school, often referred to as the hidden curriculum (Tsuneyoshi 1992), is a function of the whole setting. Children experience culture as represented by and embodied in the surrounding environment. The physical environment is one of the fundamental artifacts involved in children's socio-cultural development (Minoura 1990). It is a material expression of concepts and values education is based upon. It frames people's actions and relations. Space is not merely a tool for educational activities but is a part of pedagogic practice (Kirkeby 1999). Teachers sometimes actually use the expression "the building tells children..." acknowledging the symbolic role of the physical environment. The present paper discusses what and how the physical environment 'tells' children in school situations. How the building/space carries meanings, what kinds of messages they carry, and how communication via space works in cultural contexts are analyzed."
Legendre, Alain, Sarah Amador, Laura Bignami, and Alvaro Canales. "Seeking Intimacy in the Use of an Indoor Recreational Space: a Behavioral Approach of Location Choice." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 279-280. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Studies in Environmental Psychology pointed out that privacy and intimacy are highly dependant on the context (Brown, 1992). The literature also stressed that the psychological functions of privacy and intimacy are largely achieved through behavioral regulations involving interpersonal distancing (Brown, 1992; Kaplan, 1977). On the one hand, the environmental attributes of housing facilities or public places can modulate the level of privacy or of intimacy in social interactions (Demirbas & Demirkan, 2000; Hortacsu, Oral, & Yasak, 1996). On the other hand, the choice of places, areas and locations is seen as a mean for an individual to achieve a desired level of solitude, isolation or anonymity, and for a group as mean to achieve a desired level intimacy among friends (Pedersen, 1997, 1999). Although the bulk of the studies related to this topic are carried on with questionnaires and interviews, it seemed to us that observations associated with a behavioral mapping technique could usefully contribute to a better appraisal of the relationships between the attributes of the environment and the behavioral achievements of intimacy goals.
De Alba, Martha. "Semiología Urbana Y Memoria Colectiva: Representaciones Socialesde Algunos Monumentos Históricos De La Ciudad De México." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 382. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "Cuando recorremos una ciudad, la nuestra o aquélla que visitamos, nuestro interés y nuestra experiencia en ese espacio nos hacen sensibles a la presencia de los monumentos o de ciertos sitios importantes que la caracterizan y que le dan una identidad propia. Nuestro objetivo en este estudio es precisamente analizar el sentido que le damos a los espacios más significativos de una ciudad y el papel que juegan estos monumentos en la construcción de la representación espacial de la misma. Trataremos estas preguntas a partir de un estudio sobre la imágen de algunos sitios históricos de la ciudad de México. Nuestro trabajo se inscrive en el marco de una aproximación psicosociológica de la representación de la ciudad, como la que ha sido propuesta por Milgram y Jodelet a propósito de las representaciones socio-espatiales de París (Milgram et Jodelet, 1976, 1982 ; Jodelet, 1982 ; Abric et Morin, 1990). Nuestro trabajo comienza por establecer una relación entre los conceptos de semiología urbana, memoria colectiva y la importancia del patrimonio histórico para la construcción de la identidad nacional mexicana. Bajo esta prespectiva analizaremos las significaciones dadas a 10 monumentos históricos de la ciudad de México por una muestra de residentes (60) del Distrito Federal. El análisis de las significaciones dadas a las fotografías de los sitios presentados a nuestros sujetos nos indica que el mensaje histórico de los monumentos no es "leído" o interpretado de una manera simple ni directa. Los monumentos insertos en el paísaje urbano complejo de la aglomeración contemporánea sólo conservan una memoria histórica parcialmente, pues en el curso del crecimiento y la modernización de la ciudad se han agregado muchas otras significaciones a estos espacios symbólicos. La multiplicidad de significaciones atribuídas a los sitios históricos de la ciudad de México justifica probablemente su fuerte presencia en la construcción de la imágen de la ciudad."
Rao, Nandini Bhaskara, and Robert W. Marans. "Sense of Community Among Neighborhood Residents: Exploring Itsenvironmental and Behavioral Determinants." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 427-428. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Sense of community is an important construct for environmental designers and researchers concerned with individuals and families and their relationship to communities. It is a compelling theme, which raises the fundamental question of how people are connected to, and influenced by, an important social setting - the neighborhood. A review of literature indicates sense of community has two different aspects: social and psychological. These aspects are in turn influenced by the physical environment in which an individual lives and the personal characteristics (age, sex, education level, marital status, etc.) of the individual (Glynn 1986; Kingston et al 1999; McMillan & Chavis 1986).
Laura, Bignami, Maass Anne, and Legendre Alain. "Sensitivity Towards Architecture and Use of an Indoor Recreational Space." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 356-357. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Current literature in built environmental assessment dealt, on the one hand, with measures of typicality, familiarity and novelty, to assess cognitive evaluation, and on the other hand with preference and interest scales, to assess affective appraisal. Findings stressed that the environmental affective appraisal, particularly preference and typicality judgements, could be dependent on factors such as: subject characteristics: age, traits of personality, vocational training, place of residence; environmental attributes: built or natural environment, presence of water and vegetation, brightness, colour, noise level; individual-environment interaction: relationship between individual goals and environmental affordance, environmental functionality, environmental crowding.
Høyland, Karin. "Smaller Groups and More Homelike Nursing Homes Give Moresatisfied Residents and Relatives, and It is Cheaper to Run." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 470. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. The new type of nursing homes is divided up into small resident groups (6-10 residents) with their own kitchen and living room. The work some earlier went on around the central kitchen and laundry now centres on the residents. Personal are close by at all times, even when they are working with other tasks, this increases safety for the residents. Also relative's experience that it is easier to be familiar with the staff, which enhances nursing home visits. We have escamined 3 new nursing homes 2 in Bergen and 1 in Trondheim. These nursing homes were better in comparison to the old nursing homes in many ways. At the same time the residents emphasised the importance of single rooms and the possibility of increased private life. The residents felt safe being close to the staff and they can watch the activities and everyday life in the kitchen. The study also shows that to have an easily accessible outside recreation area, increase on how much the residents came out.
Hoyland, Karin. "Smaller Units and More Homelike Nursing Homes Give More Satisfied Residents and Relatives, and They are Cheaper to Run." In Culture, Environmental Action, and Sustainability: Proceedings of the 17th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain: Hogrefe & Huber, 2003. "The new type of nursing home is divided into small living units (6-10 residents), each with their own kitchen and living room. The activities that earlier took place around the central kitchen and laundry room are now centred on the residents. Staff members are close by at all times, even when they are working with other tasks, and this increases safety for the residents. Also, relative's experience that it is easier to be familiar with the staff, and this increases nursing home visits. We have evaluated 3 new nursing homes; 2 in Bergen and 1 in Trondheim. These nursing homes were better in comparison to the old nursing homes in many ways. At the same time the residents emphasised the importance of single rooms and the possibility of increased private life. The residents feel safe being close to the staff and they can watch the activities and everyday life in the kitchen. The study also shows that having an easily accessible out-door recreation area increases the amount of time spent outside by the residents. An important question to consider is if this modelling is less rational and more expensive to run than the traditional model. In comparison with figures from 14 other nursing homes, the new model is cheaper than average to operate. Despite the fact that the majority of reports from the involving parts were positive, there is room for improvement. One has to emphasise that a lot of groundwork has to be done in the units, and it has to be practical and easy to do this. Laundry rooms are too small and unpractical. The storage spaces for aids and equipment are too far away and too small. Some places are too narrow for wheelchair users. Some of the door thresholds are difficult to pass. Despite spacious bathrooms it was often crowded when a wheelchair user and assistant were present. During the night, compared to daytime when rooms were side by side, it was more difficult for the small number of staff members to observe all the residents. Therefore, the challenge is to invest in technology that can assist in observation at nighttime. There is little doubt that single rooms are a quality factor that residents relish. As one resident said: " I am very delighted to have a single room. I like to be alone, but also have the possibility to have visitors." The staff stated that smaller units and single rooms give more individual care, a fact that residents agreed with. "I think itís a grand place to live and the important thing is that everyone is allowed to be themselves." The survey includes questionnaires answered by staff, residents and relatives, in addition to interviews with the representative staffs and residents. Also operating economy and expenses for the three buildings have been analysed."
Wiesenfeld, Esther. "Social Construccionism and Iap as a Collective and Participatoryapproach for Addressing Environmental Issues." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 675. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. When reviewing some of the current publications in the main journals in environmental psychology, such as Environment and Behavior and the Journal of Environmental Psychology, we find that Participatory-Action-Research (PAR) is a methodological strategy seldom used in the field. Given this absence, in this paper we will argue in favor of increasing its use because we think that it is an appropriate approach for addressing environmental issues. According to our point of view, PAR is suitable for fulfilling environmental psychology's goals, since it deals at a collective level with the topics, processes and problems faced by communities or other groups in a participatory and systematic way. In PAR people are not only involved in research but also in knowledge-construction and problem-solving. Since environmental problems usually affect groups of people, and these people normally are not aware of their role in the production and the solution of these problems, PAR provides them with an opportunity for engaging in critical reflection on such issues and on their role as social actors in this respect.
Rozec, Valérie, and Annie Moch. "Social Relations and Urban Installations of 30 Zones." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 369-370. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002.

"The physical environment is an important variable that affects the behaviours and the well-being (Gärling & Evans, 1991). Any arranged space constitutes at the same time a sum of constraints and objective and subjective potentialities, perceived and lived by the individuals (Fischer, 1992). Perception evokes cognitive and emotional processes allowing us to establish judgements on the quality of the places. It takes various forms and results from individual and collective experiments. It is influenced by our needs as well as social and cultural affinities (Moch & Maramotti, 1995, Moser, 1992). Moreover, the installation of public space constitutes a fundamental element of our daily framework of existence (leading to behaviours supporting isolation or sociability). This installation has an influence on social relations in public places. A study by Carles and Lopez Barrio (2000) showed that the configuration of the installation of urban space influences sound perception and the perceived safety of the residents. In the same way, Snowdon (2000) underlined the impact of the vegetation on the social relations. This study proposes to explore the impact of the physical environment (installation of "30 zones") in two Parisian districts entailing new installations. We compared thereafter the perception of the "30 zone" to the perception of streets without changes in road systems. We make the assumption that within this privileged environmental framework (30 zones) the quality of social relations would be better than in the other streets. The "30 zone" is a homogeneous area of circulation where speed is limited to 30kph (20 miles/h) and whose entries and exists are announced by road signs."

Jönsson, Catharina. "Socio - Cultural Aspects of Hospital Design in a Developmentalcontext - a Case Study of Oshakati Hospital in Namibia." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 602-603. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. The last decades the biomedical hospitals has been subject to criticism in Europe and the US for not providing a physical environment promoting health and well-being for the patient (Fridell 1998). As a response to this criticism, research has been initiated with the aim to develop more humanised hospital environments. This doctoral project aims at elucidating how the patient's cultural needs can be better accommodated in the hospital in a developmental context. The study explores socio-cultural phenomena of importance during the patient's hospitalisation and their relation to the physical environment. Fieldwork has been carried out in Namibia. Hospitals in Namibia are of European origin and are only slightly adapted to the Namibian context, primarily to the climate. The Namibian society is subject to rapid socio-economic and cultural change. There are many ethnic groups in Namibia, but due to urbanisation and cultural exchange with remote locales, ethnic particularities have become blurred. The concept hybridization is used to indicate the cultural blend occurring when new habits and values are incorporated in existing patterns of life (Tomlinson 1999:141ff). Through hybridising processes, cultural aspects related to for example the patient's education and sex can be expected to have a stronger impact on future healthcare needs than ethnicity.
Raudsepp, Maaris. Some Sociodemographic and Sociopsychological Predictors of Environmentalism In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. An integrative model of environmentalism has been presented by Stern (2000) which includes not only attitudinal variables, but also personal capabilities, contextual (interpersonal) and social structural variables. It is supposed that different varieties of environmentalism (types of ecological behavior) are associated with a specific set of determinants. This approach regards environmentalism as a joint product of social structural, socialization and social psychological processes. Dietz et al (1998) have made the first effort to assess inductively the relative impact of various social structural and sociopsychological factors in shaping environmentalism, using regression analysis of the data from a representative national sample. In general, social psychological variables appeared to have greater explanatory power than social structural variables, but their effect varied for different indicators of environmentalism (self-reported behavior and environmental beliefs). Our study will follow the same logic.
Raudsepp, Maaris. "Some Sociodemographic and Sociopsychological Predictors of Environmentalism." In Culture, Environmental Action, and Sustainability: Proceedings of the 17th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain: Hogrefe & Huber, 2003. The study aims to reveal the relative impact of various sociodemographic and sociopsychological variables on empirical indicators of environmentalism (ecological behavior, environmental attitudes and beliefs). Standard multiple regression models were used for analyzing the data of a questionnaire study of a representative sample of an Estonian rural subpopulation (N=440). Among socio-demographic variables age, sex, education and subjective religiosity were significant predictors of environmentalism. Among socio-psychological variables general values, perceived control over the environment, local identity, as well as nature experiences in childhood had a significant impact on various indicators of environmentalism. The level of family income and perceived local pro-environmental norms had insignificant effects. Different measures of environmentalism were predicted by different patterns of independent variables.
García-Mira, José Eulogio Re, and José Romay. "Space and Temporal Dimensions in the Perception of Environmentalproblems1." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 331-333. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "This research explores the differential representation of environmental problems through the analysis of characteristic dimensions of the perception of problems today and after 50 years. The conceptualization of an environmental problem as global or local is a matter of special relevance, due to the need to know the way in which people make categories. In this differentiation between global and local environments we find that people are more concerned about global problems, over which they have less influence, than local problems, on which they could act. Research carried out until today shows an absence of links between global and local issues. The empirical research carried out by Uzzell et al (1994; Uzzell, 2000), for instance, demonstrates that people consider environmental problems more serious when they take place further away. This has been called "environmental hyperopia" (Uzzell, 2000). In this work we explore the hypothesis that people will discriminate between local and global frameworks with regard to the location of environmental problems, as well as that global environmental problems will be perceived as more important. Environmental hyperopia will differ depending on whether people perceive the problem as occurring today or after 50 years, because problems are priorized with regard to their remoteness from the subject, and the element of "time" makes problems appear more remote."
De Waard, Robert S.. "Space Use Forms, a New, Trans - Disciplinary Concept for Procesorientated, Comprehensive (Sub)Regional and Local Analysis Andmanagement." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 576-577. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "Planningconcepts and methods are designed to manage the spatial organisation and qualities of the real world. They are derived from implicit or explicit perceptions of "space", often limited to a specific aspect or quality. During their existence, institutionalisation and application however, their users tend to forget that their concept is only a limited model of the real world. Than the concept starts to replace the real world and its complexities and multiple qualities. This is a widespread phenomenon, that explains much of the clashes between disciplines and the environmental and other quality problems, that are related to spatial planning and management."
Ozsoy, Ahsen, and Gulcin Pulat Gokmen. "Space Use, Dwelling Layout and Housing Quality: an Example of Low - Cost Housing in Istanbul." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 462-463. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "This paper aims to discuss the problem of housing quality by examining the abstract / non-concrete aspects of space use in low-cost housing in Istanbul. As one of the most common building types in the built environment, housing is a very complex phenomenon. It has different meanings for different cultures, different groups and different individuals. Particularly in countries having a major housing problem, it is important to understand and study varying aspects of housing. The concept of "quality" has a very broad usage, encompassing a variety of meanings defined by researchers in almost all fields. In this study, the definition of "quality" has been accepted as "fitness for use". Quality for housing can be evaluated by examining user satisfaction together with the environment. Important components for the studying of user satisfaction are both physical characteristics of dwelling spaces, such as location in the city, size of dwelling, number of rooms, etc. and the subjective evaluations of users of their dwellings and environments. One of the most important characteristics that determine the quality for housing units is its layout and / or plan organization. Space use and furniture arrangements, related with the dwelling layout, are two interrelated indicators of housing quality."
Sande, Julia Regueiro. "Spatial and Social Segregation Towards Moinantes in Carballo (Acoruña)." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 315-316. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "A investigación lévase a cabo na Parroquia de San Xoán Bautista de Carballo, provincia de A Coruña, porque nela reside parte do grupo étnico denominado "Moinantes". A parroquia ten uns 13.6216 habitantes e os/as moinantes estímase que son 600, 167 familias. A poboación moinante de Carballo concéntrase, mayoritariamente, en entidades de poboación que acordoan o núcleo da vila e algúns dos barrios nos que viven carecen das mínimas condicións que lles permitan unha calidade de vida digna, tendo a súa esperanza de vida por debaixo da media. Carecen de preparación para enfrentarse ó mundo do traballo e viven maioritariamente das axudas sociais e da esmola. Algunhas familias seguen mantendo os traballos tradicionais como son a venda ambulante nas feiras e as atraccións nas festas do verán. Outros son trapeiros ou chatarreiros. Os traballos ós que teñen acceso son aqueles nos que só se require forza física e que son dos peor pagados. Nestas condicións de vida xurden cada vez máis conflictos intragrupo e fóra do grupo. Os/as Moinantes sobreviven apoiándose mutuamente nun ambiente opresivo, hostil e alienante que fai vulnerable a súa identidade social debido ós prexuizos e estereotipos negativos cos que se asocia a este grupo en toda a Comarca."
Pawlikowska-Piechotka, Anna. "Spatial Planning for Tourist Function Versus Environmentconditions (Poland)." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 188-190. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "The dynamics of development of tourism in Poland is influenced by existent tourist values. Accordingly to statistics on tourism, areas of particularly high tourism volumes include the recreation and health resorts located along Baltic Sea Coast, the Great Mazurians Lakes and mountain ranges. A relatively high number of tourists have been recorded in the close neighbourhood of the majority of large voivodship cities. A novelty has arrived on the tourist investment market, in that vast areas of natural beauty and diversified ecosystems. This trend is particularly visible in the immediate vicinity of strong economic centres with vibrant investment operations. The sustainable development of "tourist space" needs special attention, since these areas are very rich of extremely "fragile" values, which are not much resistant to the environmental threats and which should be strictly protect as a base of future economic development. In this paper, the author wants to underline the responsibility of local self-governments to promote a sustainable development of the "tourist space". To achieve the important aim of sustainable development, spatial and urban planners, regional and local authorities are required to make some strategic decisions for "integrated projects"."
Aydinli, Semra, and Ipek Akpinar. "Spatial Transitions and Life - Style in Housing Formation at Istanbul." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 441-442. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. A turning point in the changing social structure and cultural values of Istanbul has become evident during the 1950s that could be perceived as a transition period for housing formations in Istanbul. In this paper, influences on material and immaterial values of spatial transitions and reversibly their effects on housing formation have been analyzed in a traditional ethnic-religious neighborhood, Kumkapi in Istanbul. Located in the south-east of the Historical Peninsula, Kumkapi has a potential with the different relational modes such as cultural, political, economic, geographical, and both social and individual modes reflected in the housing formation. In this respect, reciprocal relations between the spatial structure and 'agency' in spatial transitions explain how life-world defines spatial character.
Stevens, Quentin. "Spectacle and Carnival: the Dialecticity of Leisure in Public Spaces." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 756. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. This paper analyses play activities in the public spaces of three global cities: Berlin, London and New York. Tourists flock to these spaces, hungry to consume their atmosphere of excitement and diversity. The paper examines major programmed leisure events and informal street performers that serve this audience. While such contrived spectacles stimulate the senses, they also tend to marginalise and passivise the majority of people, and to suppress the discordant diversity of practices which characterise urban public life. Yet the special conditions framed by these events - the creation of a time and place apart from serious life, the atmosphere of behavioral abandon, the arousal of the body and the crowding together of strangers - often give rise to unbridled forms of escapism: spontaneous, creative, unpredictable acts of play which transgress conventions and thwart the expectations of performers and audiences. Such acts are an essential component of the rich social atmosphere of the city. This paper explores the tensions that can arise between managed leisure and the complex, disorderly realities of public play, to suggest how both mediate the construction of diverse identities in public life.
Glez, Angel Fernández, and Antonio López Castedo. "Students' Representation of the City: an Approach Using the «Sketch Map»." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 312. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "The research dealt with the representation or image that a group of university students has of the city. Without such a representation the movements and orientation typically accomplished on a day to day basis would be impossible. In this case the analisis is carried out in a small city (Ourense) with around 100,000 inhabitants. The sample comprises a group of 136 university students. The technique employed in this case to "extract" or externalize the urban image is the "sketch map", which can be classified as a pseudocartographical technique originating in the pioneering works of Lynch (1960) among others. Subjects are asked to sketch on a sheet of white paper all the elements of the city that occur to them, taking into account the limitations of space, in such a way as to reflect the image that they have of it, as if they were preparing a map which could be used by tourists to find their way around. Once the drawing is finished, subjects are asked to identify all the places they can."
Keul, Alexander Guenter. "Subjective Housing Quality of Sustainable and Conventional Salzburg Housing Estates." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 803-804. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "The Austrian government project "Building of Tomorrow" supports research projects helpful for a social implementation of domestic and office energy saving concepts. Sustainable development will only work through the understanding and commitment of individual dwellers. In a post-occupancy evaluation with long field interviews, the author and his team studied opinions and self-reported behavior of 114 households in four energy-saving (E) and four conventional (C) housing estates of Salzburg City. There were only minor differences in sociodemografic variables (more children in E, higher operating costs in C)."
Després, Carole. "Suburbia Revisited: at the Crossroads of Knowledge and Action." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 777. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Since 1995, a multidisciplinary research group, Suburbia revisited, has been developing at the École d'architecture of the Université Laval in Québec City (Canada). For the last five years, we have been conducting research on the need to adapt postwar suburbs to current and forthcoming ecological, economical and social challenges, as well as on how to implement these changes to better serve the population. Our research group meets weekly and involves planners, architects and social scientists (geographer, environmental psychologist, social worker and sociologists), whom are Professors or Master's, Doctoral or Postdoctoral candidates, or else Undergraduate students. We are funded through research grant, research contracts with municipalities, government agencies or local communities, and act as partners to local community groups. Because we are trained in social sciences as well as in the design professions, constructive exchanges between theoretical knowledge about what people think, want and do in the suburbs and applied knowledge about how to adapt the suburbs are most common.
Numan, Ibrahim, and Hifsiye Pulhan. "Sündürme: the Transitional Space in the Traditional Urban House of Cyprus." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 435-436. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "The interaction between public and private, man and environment, open and close, inside and outside, part and whole are always being the important design criteria in the traditional environments. In this interaction, transitional space, which is described as the overlapping of indoor and outdoor spaces have great importance. The striking spatial hierarchy in the traditional settlements is consequently achieved by means of transitional spaces. In different cultures, the transitional space has different names like, portico, colonnades, arcades, vestibules, eiwan, hayat, etc. In Turkish Cypriot culture, it is named as "sündürme". In this study, the aim is to discuss how sündürme as a transitional space could shape and create a house form and its types under the influence of cultural and natural factors. The evidences reviewed suggest that sündürme is the basic component let to the development of certain types of the house forms. One might argue that the subject is an important determinant factor in identification of the traditional architecture of Cyprus. In other words, sündürme is a culturally and naturally forthcoming intersection point of a house between traditional and contemporary housing environments. Its cultural roots and design principles have paramount importance in creating environments with sense of place and identity."
Devine-Wright, P. D. Fleming, D. Raffan, and A. Mcgarry. "Sust'n'able?: a Report on the Use of Environmental Education Tostimulate Changes in Attitudes to Energy and Climate Changeamongst Children and Teenagers." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 653-654. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Analyses of the public understanding of global environmental change have revealed significant gaps that need to be addressed, for example bridging the gap between local and global processes and improving awareness of the effects of domestic energy consumption patterns upon the global environment. In relation to energy issues, a study carried out in 1996/7, accessing a representative sample of UK individuals, revealed that only 12% perceived a link between climate change and domestic energy consumption (DETR, 2001). In relation to local/global perceptions, Uzzell (2001) reported a noteable decrease in perceived personal responsibility for environmental problems that exist at greater spatial scales of analysis ('my country', 'Europe', 'the world' in comparison to 'my town' and 'myself').
Lobato, Geneviève Vachon Nid, and Carole Després. "Sustainable Communities: a New Perspective of Urban Planning and Architectural Design in Mexican Social Housing." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 407-408. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. In the field of social housing, practices of the residents are often badly taken into account (Faure, 2001). During the 1960s and early 1970s, in North America, the municipalities initiated a variety of programs of citizen participation (Cole, 1974). But, the typical community rarely participates in the architectural or urban design. Social alienation and inhuman environments are a common condition of urban life (King, 1989). Moreover, the quality of social housing is often concentrated on the aptness of the architectural models or prototypes. The interest on quality of the urban shape in the residential neighbourhoods is relatively recent. Indeed, although some precursor projects were born at the beginning of the eighties, it is only at the beginning of the nineties when real concerns about urban characteristics of residential neighbourhoods were born. Nowadays, the urban design could be perceived like a field of knowledge where different analyses and theoretical methods can be joint to be applied in a complementary design process. The research team refers notably to the application of the urban morphology analysis and the New Urbanism values in a sustainable development perspective. That is, the principles and techniques of true urban design may have been forgotten, but they can be relearned (Duany & al.2000). Therefore the importance of the design inspired by the typomorphology principles and the New Urbanism values, that aims to restore a convivial dimension to the urban neighbourhoods with a participatory process of design. Finally, sustainable development refers to a perspective of development that does not call for short-term corrective measures.
Gatersleben, Birgitta. "Sustainable School Travel: What is the Potential for Change?" In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 764-765. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. In 1999, 54% of the journeys to school in Surrey were made by car. This compares to 30% nationally (Surrey CC, 2001). A recent survey conducted by the University of Surrey showed that Guildford residents perceived school journeys to be the second most important cause of local transport problems such as congestion, pollution, parking problems and traffic accidents (Gatersleben and Uzzell, 2000). National statistics reveal that between 8am and 9am during term time, about one car in ten on the road in urban areas was on the school run in 1997/99. Reducing congestion, pollution and parking problems, however, are not the only reasons why car based school journeys should be reduced. Walking and cycling to school can provide an important form of physical activity that is necessary for the healthy development of children. Moreover, children who are driven to school by car miss out on other opportunities that can be important for their psychological development, for example, a chance to play with their friends, to experience the natural and urban environment and to learn how to travel independently (Hillman, 1993; Hillman, Adams and Whitelegg, 1991).
Ornetzeder, Michael. "Sustainable Technology and User Participation Assessing Ecological Housing Concepts by Focus Group Discussions." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 799. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "For the social acceptance of new technological solutions it is of decisive importance to deal with users' needs and experiences at the earliest possible stage. This paper refers to the situation of users of green buildings, to their attitudes and behaviour patterns and to the specific experiences which derive from living in such buildings. The results are based on a research project carried out as part of the "Building of Tomorrow" programme of the Austrian Federal Ministry of Transport, Innovation and Technology."
Ornetzeder, Michael. "Sustainable Technology and User Participation. Assessing Ecological Housing Concepts by Focus Group Discussions." In Culture, Environmental Action, and Sustainability: Proceedings of the 17th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain: Hogrefe & Huber, 2003. For the social acceptance of new technological solutions it is of decisive importance to deal with users' needs and experiences at the earliest possible stage. In the following article the possibilities and limitations of focus group discussions as a method of participatory assessment of technology is discussed in the light of two examples from the area of ecological housing construction. A comprehensive model for participation, comprising different methods of user participation for different phases of development, serves as the theoretical framework of the discussion. The application of this model in exemplary fashion in the form of focus group discussions demonstrates that, even during a very early phase of development, it is possible and worthwhile to let experienced users assess innovative housing concepts. Three kinds of results are differentiated: concept assessments, desired qualities and reports involving users' individual experiences.
Gatersleben, Birgitta. "Sustainable Transport: Public Participation as a Method to Deal with the Commons Dilemma." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 741-742. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Transport problems such as congestion and pollution are often described as commons dilemma problems (see Vlek, et al., 1993; Van Lange, et al., 1998). These problems are neither caused nor can they be solved by single individuals. They are typically collective problems. People therefore do not feel personally responsible for the problems and they do not feel in control over the solutions (Dawes, 1997). One way to break such a dilemma could be participation. A commons dilemma can be broken by increasing feelings of efficacy and responsibility. Active participation and communication can be a helpful instrument in achieving this. If all individuals and/or stakeholders actively participate in a decision making process they would all feel more responsible for and in control over the problems and solutions. However, this will only work if participation processes are well-designed and carried out. A well designed participation process can lead to the empowerment of individuals. Empowered people feel that they have control over their community and initiate efforts to improve the community (Zimmerman, 1999). Disempowerment can occur when authorities encourage citizens to invest energy in elaborate processes that have no real chance of influencing the outcome (Reich, 1991).
Ben Hamouche, Mustapha. "Systems of Urban Control and Built Environment Lessons from Traditional Muslim Cities." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 211-213. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Very large systems, according to Ashby (1956), are those characterised by their great number of states and/or that of their components. A very large system implies that it cannot in practical way, be observed completely, or controlled, or be predicted completely regarding its states. It is too large for an observer whose resources and techniques are definite. Inversely, variety in a large system could not be achieved without variety in the controlling system. Thus, the design of a controlling system needs, according to Ashby, to be as varied as the controlled system. The variety in the urban control system in old Muslim cities stems from two main sources, the urban dynamics and the Islamic law. With regard to the urban dynamics, residential areas were mostly characterised by their incremental process of development. Sections below will identify the three types of control that are known in modern management in the traditional Muslim cities.
Wener, Richard, Craig Zimring, and Peter Hecht. Technologies for Data Collection in Environment - Behavior Research In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Environment-Behavior Research data collection can involve tedious and time and labor intensive work - work that may be made easier or more effective with the support of computer and telecommunication systems. As just one example, behavioral mapping and tracking data involves hours of observation and recording, that requires keeping track of time, movement and behavior, and is typically followed by hours of data entry analysis and presentation. Hardware and software systems are available that can support this process and make the data collection faster and easier - and possibly more accurate - while reducing or eliminating data entry steps. New digital video technologies can also adi in e-b data collection, such as in creating time-lapse videos of events. This session will provide a forum where several available and working systems (including the results of data collected in research projects) will be presented. Data collection instruments as those mentioned above will be shown, as well as sophisticated software & audio/visual methods for studying wayfinding, and other procedures. The goal is to provide a forum for discussing available needs, technologies and solutions among the panel and interested attendees.
Villaseñor1, José Luis Losad, and Teresa M. Argilaga. "Técnicas Analíticas En Diseños Observacionales Aplicados a La Relación Ambiente - Comportamiento." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 615-616. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. En los estudios observacionales en general, y por supuesto en aquéllos relativos a algún aspecto de la relación ambiente-comportamiento, es necesario disponer de una estructura conceptual que constituye el esquema o esqueleto rector del que pende todo el proceso a seguir. La decisión sobre cuál sea el diseño adecuado es previa, por tanto, a toda operación metodológica relativa a cómo recoger, organizar y analizar los datos, y sólo se halla subordinada, claro está, a la fijación de los objetivos del estudio (Anguera, Blanco & Losada, 2001a).
Andrey, Jean, Laura Johnson, and Sue Shaw. Teleworker's Physical Activity Spaces: Implications for Work - Life Integration In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Mega-trends, such as technological innovation and economic restructuring, are affecting the ways in which people work. In Canada, national surveys and large-scale studies of employers and employees highlight the following: employment growth has been most rapid in 'knowledge-intensive' industries, there has been a rise in self employment and unpaid overtime work, time stress is on the rise and is intensified by long commutes to work, and there is a growing level of work-life conflict among employees (Johnson et al. 2001). Telework, broadly defined as employer-paid work activity conducted at a location other than the corporate office and facilitated by telecommunication technologies, has been identified as one possible solution for knowledge-sector employees experiencing work-life tensions. Indeed, the burgeoning popular literature depicts this new work form as a panacea for a wide range of problems ranging from work-family imbalance to transportation congestion. The actual implications of telework are diverse, however, and are not universally positive (Doherty et al., 2000).
De Oliveira, Beatriz Santos, and Eliane Bevilacqua. "Tension and Expression: a Case Study on Identity in Poet'slandscape Perception of Two Cities – Recife and Sevilla." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 368. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. This article is part of an ongoing research about the relationship between architecture and literature as narrative languages of ambiental perception of spaces and places. The research involves studies of representation on natural and built landscape in the literary narratives as a way to comprehend landscape perception. In the case presented by this article, we consider the tension existing between the local and the global as the engine which promotes and transforms reality into a fundamental movement, allowing the intersection and intercession between us and the world, making possible the existence of poetical languages. We seek to comprehend this phenomenon by a case study of the work of Brazilian poet João Cabral de Melo Neto, focusing on the interaction between the poet's environmental perception of two cities: Recife (Brasil) and Sevilla (Spain). We are interested in how the writer lives and experiments the object (the city), how the landscape influences the poets and its presence in poetry. We consider as theoretical reference the concepts of phenomenology, specially the studies of the French philosopher Maurice Merleau-Ponty in language and perception.
Borgogni, Antonio. "The Body Goes to the City." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 718. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "Children's access to urban spaces in Italy varies greatly from one place or locality to another. It often happens that children can play freely in small interstices between places. They are sometimes characterised by urban degradation where playing is allowed and paradoxically safe, precisely because it is inserted in a context of behaviours which envisage it. On the other hand, the increasing limitations on children´s free play in cities have started to make adults and administrators more sensitive to the needs to involve children themselves in the rehabilitation of the urban territory. Recently, various "category" approaches to town planning, which include the perspectives of children, elderly people, women and disabled persons, have contributed to the breaking of the stiff structures of the motorised town, built to suit privileged users."
Balzani, Marcello, and Antonio Borgogni. "The Body Goes to the City: Research on Safe Routes to School and Playgrounds in Ferrara." In Culture, Environmental Action, and Sustainability: Proceedings of the 17th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain: Hogrefe & Huber, 2003. The research activity presented herein is the fruit of a co-operation between an association (UISP Ferrara, ìThe Body goes to the Cityî project), a faculty (the Faculty of Architecture of the University of Ferrara) and local authorities (ìLa Citt‡ bambinaî project). The common objective ñ to return the possibility to gain autonomy as regards personal mobility to children ñ has stimulated common strategies of intervention; these latter have started from a sociological research, concerning liveability as well as safety, and have involved both the school children and the whole neighbourhood, and were further developed in workshops in schools. Finally, the data collected in the studies and the workshops was adopted by town planners for the elaboration of the final project. The particularities of this research action are the common long-term intervention methodology, which Ò also thanks to the common training of operators with different professional backgrounds Ò allows the conservation of similar educational approaches and critical viewpoints; the adoption of the body as an analyser of the quality of life; the particular attention that the planners pay to the perceptive and qualitative survey of the neighbourhood. The results of the sociological research, which has clearly revealed the childrenÌs lack of autonomy in their everyday movements, are in some ways similar to those obtained in other studies. However, they appear even more worrying considering that they have been gathered in Ferrara, a city considered one of the most liveable cities in Italy and a ÏCity for cyclistsó on the European level. The word that characterises the results of the study is Ïlimitó. We reckon that as the situation persists, it shall not only modify the autonomy of the children, who increasingly adopt their parents' models of behaviour and do not perceive the city as a place where to live and to play, but in the long run even their very desires are limited.
Gordilho-Souza, Angela. "The Building of a New Housing Policy for the Brazilian Large Cities." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 109. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Housing problems in the large urban areas in Brazil have increased, summing up quantitative issues to the qualitative ones. Nowadays, besides new houses buildings, the crucial demands that have been pointed out are centered at the improvement of better housing condition. These needs are concerned with the built environment and the insertion of the huge deficient peripheral occupation in the formal urban context. It is estimated that at least 50% of major cities population live in these areas, where families' average monthly income is below three minimum wages (US$ 200), most of them earned trough informal work.
Giménez, Eduardo L., and Ignacio J. Conde-Ruiz. "The Changing Roles of Young Single Women in Jordan. an Explanation Using the Economic Theory.*." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 534-535. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "In recent years young single women in Jordan, like those in other Middle Eastern and North African (MENA) countries with a strong Islamic tradition, have experienced important changes in their social roles. Mary Kawar (2001) has examined women's life cycle, their economic opportunities and the nature of the social contract in Jordan.\footnote{She describes the results of a 1997 survey interviewing 302 households in 14 locations across the city of Amman. The questionnaire explored family relations, income distribution and management, life and work history, social activity, and views on marriage and work. It was administered to single women between 20 and 30. These women were working, unemployed or non-working, but not enrolled in education.} She reports an ever-growing trend of young women joining the labor market, becoming an additional source of income for their families, and also getting married at a later stage and having fewer children than their antecessors. Some authors view these changes as the dawn of an Islamic women's revolution defying the social contract, like that previously witnessed in Western societies. For example, Omar (2001, p.11) suggests that "with Islam as the predominant religion, women's choice to delay marriage could be seen as a challenge to the religious status quo", given that within the Islamic tradition "marriage holds a primary place from a religious perspective"."
Hashimoto, Kuniko, and Takashi Takahashi. "The Characteristics of «Urban Dwelling» Based on the Behaviorsettings of Single Residents in Japan." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 425-426. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "INTRODUCTION Just after the Second World War, most of Japanese people lived with their plural family members. However, rapid changing of lifestyle has taken place during 40 years especially in urban areas. In particular the number of the single resident has been increasing. But most of dwellings was designed in view of old-type lifestyle and family. Those urban dwellings are not fit for the family at present. It must be considered of reviewing the plan and the method of supply for "urban dwelling" from such a situation of transition in household types. Furthermore, the urban areas are equipped with more functional facilities such as convenience stores, which are opened 24 hours. These convenient functions provide the dwellers with what they have done within their houses in former days. The main purpose of this study is to reconsider the function of "urban dwelling" for the urban resident in the future, by investigating some single residents in Tokyo."
González, Manuel González. "The City Evaluation: an Empirical Approximation Through a University Students Sample." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 374. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. En la presente investigación se hace una aproximación a la valoración afectiva que tienen de la ciudad un grupo de estudiantes universitarios. Tal valoración afectiva constituye un componente importante de la representación global que se tiene de dicha ciudad. El objeto de análisis en este estudio es una pequeña ciudad (Ourense), con una población en torno a los 100.000 habitantes. Se recurre a una muestra constituida por 136 estudiantes universitarios. La técnica utilizada es el diferencial semántico, que en este caso concreto consta de veinticinco escalas bipolares, estando distribuida al azar la dirección de la polaridad. En base a los datos obtenidos se analiza la valoración global de la ciudad, así como de manera más pormenorizada a través de las diferentes escalas que se utilizan, al tiempo que se ofrece un perfil gráfico representando dicha valoración a lo largo de las escalas utilizadas. Así mismo, también se explora la relación existente entre la valoración afectiva y diversas variables sociodemográficas que son estudiadas en la muestra empleada.
Brindley, Tim. "The City in Ruins: Postwar Reconstruction of Urban Spaces." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 167-168. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. This paper is concerned with the reconstruction of urban spaces from ruins, following their traumatic destruction in deliberate acts of war. Focusing on Europe, the past century has seen three major periods of postwar urban reconstruction: following the First World War, the Second World War, and most recently the final stages of the Cold War. The First War affected only a few cities, mainly in Belgium and northern France. The Second War saw the extensive destruction of cities by aerial bombardment, particularly in Britain, the Netherlands, Poland and Germany. The end of the Cold War has seen a new impulse for urban reconstruction, and a desire to address again some of the damage left over from the 1940s, principally in former Soviet and East European cities.
Herholdt, Albrecht. "The Coega Industrial Development Zone, Port Elizabeth, Southafrica: a Successful Mixture of Local and Global?" In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 59-60. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. The first Industrial Development Zone in South Africa, the Coega IDZ is planned for Port Elizabeth. This zone comprising 17 000ha of land and a new deepwater port will be one of the largest in the world. The IDZ is situated 20km from Port Elizabeth. The Coega Development Corporation (CDC) is a government-affiliated body and was appointed to co-ordinate it's planning, oversee its implementation and manages it. The Coega Development Corporation insisted on a mixture of global and local features in the Urban Design and anticipated character of the architecture to draw investors from around the world.
Dündar, Ebnem Gökçen. "The Competitive Games of the Globe and the Awarded Local Ones: with Particular Reference to Urban Design Frameworks." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 124-125. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "In an era of change, where all practices are to be discussed, spatial organization should as well be elaborated in context of global targets adopted. The paper aims at analyzing the practice of the world city nominees focusing on the so-called millennium projects and culture capital awards in general and tries to depict the picture of how these trends are reflected on the developing country practices, the practice of Turkey in particular. The final remarks then address to a new approach of design frameworks to be held within an upward process in favour of the local. In dealing with issues of the built environment and the quality of life "designed" in both local and global terms, the reflections of different spatial organization disciplines upon the actual practice of life on one hand, and the local conditions that make practices differ on the other, involve rather complex frameworks to be discussed. However, within a "tide" of perspective that somehow bounces between the global and local, there emerges a different piece of scene in terms of the design of urban space."
Turgut, Hülya. "The Concept of Home, from Tent to Traditional House to Squatter House." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 433-434. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Cities have experienced a fundamental social, cultural and economic transformation in recent decades. Especially, in developing countries, the ongoing migration process from rural to urban areas and the increasing concentration of people in big cities has accelerated socio-cultural and spatial differentiation and diversity. This process has also affected continuity and development trends in housing environment and quality of life. In many developing countries the most important issue is, therefore, the preservation of the balance between cultural continuity and demands coming from modernization. When the problem of contemporary Turkish Housing is approached from this perspective, the aim should be to explore the cultural content of the Traditional Turkish House, and then use this information according to a dynamic system analysis, which takes man-space interactions as a base. The solution to the architectural and urban chaos lies not in copying cultural patterns of others, but in making a dynamic analysis using the dimensions of culture, space and time and providing for a continuity of cultural content. The essence of new design should not lie in the reproduction of the well-known traditional forms but in the reinterpretation of its cultural core in order to develop more successful housing patterns. This essence is to be defined by examining the rules applied in ordering space or cultural values and relations, which are the result of a historical development, thus continuity will be achieved.
Akkurt, Humeyra Birol. "The Conjecture Between the Divergencies Versus Affinities in the Architectural Perception of Mediterranean Identity." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 138-139. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "The cultures of the societies can exist by the sustainability of their identities as well as their traditionality and authenticity in the globalization process. Not only affinities in the uppermost scale of identity, consisting of vernacular expressions but also the divergencies of vernacular characteristics exists in this context. The vernacular architecture, formed by the reflections of the identities in the built environment, have been transformed into different expressions with the result of the interrelation between different cultures in different geographic regions. In this study, the edges of Mediterrenean Architecture will be discussed as well as deconstructing both divergencies and affinities of Mediterranean culture. The architectural interrelation of Mediterranean coasts in the light of cognitive collective memory has been defined by "Instant reading" of a historical area because of the fragmentation in the modernicity besides anachronic monumental history. The different traditionalities of the societies living on the coastal line are forming the linchpins as a common expression in the palimsest Mediterrenean culture through the social and physical values."
Cortés, Beatriz, María Amérigo, Juan Ignacio Aragonés, and Verónica Sevillano. "The Construction of Environmental Problems in the Spanish Media.methodological Issues in a Qualitative Study." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 589-590. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "To assume the progressive paradigmatic change which goes from the "objectively defined problem" to the "socially constructed problem" demands taking a second look at environmental problems in order to analyze them in terms of relationships, processes and contexts. Furthermore, it demands reconsidering that underlying the definition and exploration of the same, lie social values which enter into conflict. (Álvarez, 2001) It is precisely this reflection on the hierarchy of social values which has allowed to delve deeply into the analysis of environmental concern (Stern, Dietz y Kalof, 1993; Thompson y Barton, 1994). It has also allowed to suggest the importance of directing the researchers attention to the different socializing institutions which transmit and shape value orientations, in as much as it is not possible to disconnect environmental attitudes and beliefs from their specific social, temporal and cultural contexts."
Yeoman, Andrew. "The Device in Transgression Or Strategic Altered States. Amechanism for Evolving Strategic Planning and Process Ofthought." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 110-111. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. A Pan-European office of Architects, Planners and Project Managers. This paper focuses on an issue of Urban development which identifies current trends in changing demographics and social behaviour both regionally and globally. It identifies with the tendency for Urban quarters to be popularised as economic policy allows for expansion and at the same time illustrates the inadequacy of tools for metropolitan programmes, such as the masterplan, to tackle actual metropolitan environments but remain idealistic to the same environments. This is not to dispel the role of the idea or concept in this process rather to enhance these conditions and encourage Thought to be prevalent for a longer period before deed. This comes after the past seven or eight years which has seen substantial changes to European countries and expansion to economies such as those in the Far East. These two issues are by default linked as economic presence in Kuala Lumpa can effect how development in ex- Eastern block countries is viewed. Again, as was seen with Canary Wharf in London, Urban development must anticipate an economic hyperbola as opposed cycle in which plans and long term investment have to engage.
Stevens, Quentin. "The Dialectics of Urban Play." In Culture, Environmental Action, and Sustainability: Proceedings of the 17th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain: Hogrefe & Huber, 2003. Not all aspects of urban social life are predictable and rational. Urban public space is characterised by tensions between efforts to regulate behavior and stabilise meanings, and the diversity of everyday social practices. This paper examines such tensions, by focussing on how public spaces in Melbourne, Australia frame possibilities for play. Play includes unplanned, non-instrumental interactions between strangers, and explorations of the physical and symbolic texture of the urban landscape. The paper focuses on three dimensions of urban social life where spatial design has a critical influence: performance, representation and control. These dimensions highlight how the meanings, desires, behaviors, and even the built forms of urban public spaces are shaped by a constant dialectical interplay between instrumentality, normativity and play.
Stevens, Quentin. "The Dialectics of Urban Play." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 209-210. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. In the past decade, many authors have analysed the postmodern turn in urban design, exploring such themes as urban spectacle, spaces of entertainment and leisure, and the simulation of historic and exotic places and events. The contemporary city has been described as a place of play and imagination, with Disneyland as its model. Such critiques of urbanism typically consign play to the realm of the aesthetic, with the aim of illuminating the instrumental agendas of power and profit which structure what appear to be playful urban spaces. However, everyday social life in cities is diverse, dynamic and reactive, and can never be thoroughly instrumentalised. This paper pursues a more dialectical interpretation of the complex interrelations between social behavior, perception, meanings, and the built environment, drawing upon Lefebvre's theoretical insights into urbanism, everyday life, and the production of space.
M Vural, Tülin, and Atilla Yücel. "The Dream Worlds of Shopping Malls Versus Traditional Commercial Districts." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 376-377. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. During the 20th century, remarkable reform and development had been seen in politics, economics and social life. This transformation is accelerating and beginning to characterize the new century. Transition from local cultures unique to different geographies to global culture of the world, from industrial society to consumer society caused to some changes in social life in the cities. This transformation have also affected the understandings about the concept of public life and public space. In our age, one of the most predominant forms of public space activity have become the recreational shopping, a popular family activity. For many researchers, shopping is not done merely for the acquisition of necessities; rather it is the buying of identity. The choice of selections for buying reflects decisions about self, taste, images of the body and social distinctions. So, the meaning of our lives begins to be found in what we consume, rather than in what we produce. As a result of the transition from pre-capitalist societies to capitalist societies, consumption becomes detached from simple needs and emerges as a significant aspect of human activity.
Leary, Michael B.. "The Effects of Globalization on Learned Helplessness in Southafrica." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 127-128. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. South Africa has undergone major changes in business activity in the previous ten years as a result of globalization. The need to compete in world markets has led to an almost chaotic response to remain competitive and compete with organisations that have functioned on a global scale for decades. The South African consumer while being used to a fairly large choice of products is confronted by a vast array of products from almost every corner of the world. In tight economic conditions price is often the deciding factor between two products which are very similar. For example South African wines previously had little competition but now compete with other excellent wines from a number of countries. Similarly the automobile industry in South Africa now competes with a large number of motor manufacturers from different countries. South African business has found itself competing with overseas competition often at prices which cut profits to the core.
Chang, Shenglin. "The Emerging of Trans - Pacific Home Identity: the Transformations of Home Identities for High - Tech Taiwanese Global Commuters." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 173-174. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "My research focuses on the personal and cultural identities of Taiwanese immigrants whose "globalcommuter" lifestyles enable them to fly back-and-forth across the Pacific, where they are employed within high-tech computer industries in both Silicon Valley, California and Hsinchu Science Park in Taiwan. It analyzes the relationship between the identities of Taiwanese high-tech computer engineers and the planning of the physical environments (homes, landscapes, and communities) in which they live. "Trans-Pacific home phenomenon," is a phrase that refers to a trend, that emerged in the late 1990s, in which Taiwanese high-tech computer engineers, and their families, engaged in a lifestyle in which they commuted between their American and Taiwanese homes. The economic boom of the 1990s, that led to the rapid rise of computer hardware and software companies (located on both sides of the Pacific Rim), also led to the trans-pacific home phenomenon, in which thousands of Taiwanese born high-tech engineers realized that they could greatly increase their career opportunities by establishing a life-style that allowed them, and their families, to regularly commute between two homes, one in Silicon Valley and the other in Taiwan."
Casal, Aimée, Annie Matheau-Police, and Alain Legendre. "The Environmental Attributes Put Forward in the Choice of a Sitting Location in a Cafeteria: an Approach of the Perceived Influence of the Environment." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 277-278. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. The first purpose of this study was to identify the environmental elements which the users of an indoor recreative public space put forward to explain their choice of location place. Besides the physical characteristics of the site, we think that the environment can constitute an object of individual projections. We sought to specify the nomination frequency of these environmental elements, the level of spontaneity of their nomination, but also their overall organisation in the people's discourses. The dynamic organisation of the environmental elements perceived as having an influence on the location choice was assessed with a factorial analysis.
Ramos, Beisl, and Tania Liani. "The Evolution of High - Rise Collective Housing Typology in Brazil and Portugal: the Persistence and Transformation of the Modern Housing." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 380-381. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. The paper aims to analyze the evolution of the high-rise collective housing developed in Brazil and Portugal according to the Modern Movement principles. The research studies the housing programs developed accordingly to the evolution of high-rise collective housing typology in each country, in order to evaluate the inhabitants' satisfaction. The selected projects range from the 40's up to the 80's in Lisbon and Brasilia (154 types of high-rise collective buildings were identified in this study). These projects are paradigmatic examples of high-rise collective housing history and show a large variety of standard solutions. They were large-scale integrated operations that resulted from economical and social development programs led by the governments of both countries. The inhabitants' satisfaction is analyzed through indicators that assess the current way of using the housing spaces and the social dynamics generated by the existence of complementary functions.
Dovey, Kim. "The Global Edifice Complex." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 784-785. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. This paper will explore global/local tensions through the case study of a proposal for the world's tallest building-an office, hotel and housing tower on a 13 hectare development precinct adjacent to the central city of Melbourne, Australia. The developer was Bruno Grollo-the head of a giant construction company and family dynasty with a long-standing desire to build the world's tallest building. It soon became apparent that such a quest was both difficult to define and a moveable feast. The mantle of 'world's tallest' was held for over 20 years by the Sears Tower (443 metres) before being overtaken in1996 by the Petronas Towers in Kuala Lumpur (452 metres). Stimulated by conditions of globalization and rapid growth in Asian economies, a crop of taller towers were planned for a range of Asian cities.1 The Grollo proposal began at 500 metres and grew to 680 metres before settling on 560 metres as sufficient to secure the mantle for a time.
Märtsin, Mariann, and Toomas Niit. "The Home as a Territorial System." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 701. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. The home is viewed as an unified system consisting of territorial units that have different functions in regulating openness/closeness of the family as a group and family members as individuals. The aim of the empirical study was to examine whether the home can be understood as consisting of different territorial units and what kind of units can be differentiated. The questionnaires in the study were designed taking into account Sebba & Churchman's (1983) and Omata's (1995) understanding of studying territoriality at home and Niit's (1983, 1988) conceptualization of home as a socio-physical system. The division of space between family members at home is a reflection both socio-cultural norms as well as activity-based needs. Thus, the home is a playground which regulates two types of openness/closeness - between family and the outside world, and between family members themselves.
Edge, Martin, Robert Richard Laing, and Anthony Craig. "The Home as Environment and Investment – International Pressuresfor Change in the Design of Local, Domestic Built Environments." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 439-440. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. In the UK, as elsewhere in Europe, there is an increasing awareness of how inefficient local construction industries are, in terms of both their processes and their products. This is creating a great drive to change practices and to learn from other manufacturing industries, based on mass production. In housing in particular this is creating tensions as international architectural styles replace more traditional built form. The large increase in new households and hence demand for new housing is compounding these tensions. Often the response is to dress up a mass-produced, technological product as a pastiche of a supposed traditional architecture. At the same time the commodification of housing is changing the way the home is perceived as an investment. The researchers have been funded by the UK Government in a major project to investigate resistance to the pressure for change in housing.
Brierley, Edwin S.. "The Identification of Sustainable Cultural Transformations Inurban Situations." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 89-90. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. The perception of urban places can be determined by both the characteristics of the people who live there and by the physical form of the area. The relationship between the ecology of a space and the people who use the space is changing and the transformations which occur particularly within regional centres are influenced by both global and local factors. One of the factors which governs the changing pattern of use is the migration of the people who use the space. That migration can be both global and local and in part will be affected by the absorption of cultural influences into the mainstream of tradition. Thereby possibly enriching the quality of life. The concepts of urban diversity and place identity are often a reflection of the the lifestyles of particular cultural groups and yet the identity of place will depend upon the migration of people and the memory of place. Although specific memories associated with places give an identity to the place, the transformations which occur can be a product of both culture and ethnicity and this will be reflected in the structural analysis of narrative descriptions of place. To an extent the sustainability of a place will be affected by the symbolism attached to the location as well as to the physical features of the area. This notion will be related to the perception of the area over time and in part will have influenced the migration of people both into and away from the area.
Altinoluk, Ulku. "The Identity of National Architecture; the Republican Period in Odemis, Aegean." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 136-137. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002.

The general identity of the cities is determined as a result of natural structure's general characteristics such as hill or level, architectural characteristics of the buildings built on it along the ages, and whole accumulation of landscape disciplines. The cities that have the dynamism of nature, history, architecture, and becoming urbanized culture are immortal. The formation of urban steps in the past makes the cities appropriated for history and forms their identities. This private identity is as strong as to rule any politic, social or cultural variation. The urban tissue that becomes on the natural environment, such as squares, streets and building facade that determines them is happened in a natural balance. At the same time permanency is very important at the establishment of a city. This permanency makes the architecture applications rational and sustainable. With its resistance to the time and its continuity, a city is the starting point of the architecture.

Küller, Rikard, Thorbjörn Laike, Byron Mikellides Ballal, and Graciela Tonello. "The Importance of Light for Health and Well - Being in Outdoor Andindoor Environments." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 599-601. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Variations in length of day and access to daylight may influence the chronobiological system and cause both hormonal and psychological disturbances with symptoms like insomnia, reduced ability to concentrate, extreme tiredness, and even severe depression or anxiety (Arendt, 1998; Brainard et al., 1997; Rosenthal, 1998). Although seasonal fluctuations in sadness and fatigue may afflict a large proportion of the population in countries far from the equator, people in general may not associate this with external factors. One aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of fluctuations in sadness and fatigue in an otherwise healthy working population. Another aim was to study whether there exists a systematic relationship between these symptoms on one hand, and insufficient artificial lighting at the work place on the other. An additional assumption of the study was that the individual's personality may have a moderating influence on the fluctuations in sadness and fatigue (Jang et al., 1997). Further aims were to study the possible impact of other climatic conditions.
Koca, Guler. "The Importance of the Public Participation to the City Planning Process in the Determination of Urban Identity." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 155-156. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Urbanization is not only a concentration of population but also a complex form of organization where the social relations are dominated by behaviors and communication. Today, when the development level of a city is determined, its residents' level of participation and support to social organizations, especially the voluntarily participation to civil organizations, are taken into account, as well as, their level of utilization from city services. Applicability of rules regulating social life in a society critically depends of their integration with the standards of the judgment in that society. The identity of a city is formed not only by its physical environment but also by the activities and life-style of its residents. Therefore, the including the residents to decision mechanism regarding city planning become more vital everyday. This trend makes development of a new planning approach essential. Such an approach should allow the participation of the residents to the decision phase of the planning process in order to form their own preferences in their life-environment.
Tanaç, Mine. The Interactions of the Sepharic Synagogues in ¯zmir with the Ethnic Character of the City In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "This study has been undertaken to put forward the interaction of the ethnic character city with the culture that Sepharic Jews brought from Spain during the migrations to Ottoman Empire, and to bring up the reflections of these interactions to the space by means of the synagogue buildings. The Sepharic Jews settled down on this territory during 16th century, after ¯zmir became an important trade centre among the Western Anatolia ports.1 The Romaniots, the original Jewish population of Anatolia have lived in Izmir since antiquity. During the Byzantine and early Ottoman periods the Jewish presence in this territory continued, but little is known of the community's life, and architecture except the most significant Ancient synagogue ruins that have been found in Sardis. The year 1492 under reign of the enlightened Sultan Beyazid II whose dream it was to make his empire an "umbrella of humanity" 150,000 Sephardim escaped death or conversion under the Edict of Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand of Spain, marked an important revival of Jewish life in the Ottoman Empire, as many of Spain's expelled Sepharic Jews, and later Portuguese Jews, found refuge in the cities like Salonika, Istanbul, and especially ¯zmir of the Ottoman Empire.2 Starting from that day Jewish community played a very important role on this part of landscape until the new migrations that were held from Turkey to the new settled Jewish country Israel during 1950's."
Vasconcelos1, Lia, and Idalina Baptista, 2. "The Meaning of Expanding Stakeholders Involvement." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 570-571. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Society is changing at a rapid pace. In light of this, a number of issues must be understood. Environmental issues have assumed relevancy on political agendas because civil society, now more wellversed in environmental issues, has demanded a more active role in public decision-making. Citizens now have a greater awareness of the environment and a greater sense of the earth's limited ability to support life. For instance, during the last thirty years, Portugal has radically changed from a rural society, centered around traditional values, to late industrialization and chaotic urbanization, both of which have caused dramatic concern over the environment. When Portugal joined the EU in 1986, new environmental requirements came into force, while at the same time substantial cohesion funds were pouring into the country. The dramatic changes that took place after Portugal entered the EU forced environmental interest groups towards greater intervention. On one hand, the new environmental requirements and the possibility of appealing to higher levels of decision-making (e.g., the European court) gave interest groups a new context in which to operate and more opportunities to intervene at the environmental level. On the other hand, the cohesion funds that entered the country and the large-scale development projects that ensued (e.g., bridges, highways) brought a new dimension in terms of threats to the environment.
Oswald, Hans-Werner Wahl Frank, and Heidrun Mollenkopf. "The Meaning of Home in Old Age." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 693-694. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. In the context of home, the role of older adults are of special interest for two reasons: First, as people age, the immediate environment becomes more important, both in terms of time spend at home, and in terms of place of daily activities. Data from Germany reveals that about 93% of older adults, 65 years and older live in their apartments and not in institutions. According to time-budget data, older adults stay at home for about 80% of the day. Yesterday interviews revealed that about 81% of elder's daily activities take place at home (Baltes et al., 1999). Second, a good person-environment fit (e.g., Carp & Carp, 1984) is a necessary prerequisite for independence and well-being and thus for quality of life in old age, especially when people suffer from severe competence loss. Additionally one may consider that housing conditions for older adults have long been different in East and West Germany and have improved since reunification especially in East Germany. However, Gerontology often focus solely on the supportive quality of housing conditions, intending to keep older adults independent as long as possible. Less attention has been paid to the subjective experience of home and its impact on autonomy and quality of life.
Thompson, Bill. "The Molecule of Experience." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 710. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "Way back in 1874 Brentano made the point that "psychology from an empirical viewpoint makes it clear that objects of external perception really exist as they do to us. Indeed they do not exist outside of us and in contrast to that which really and truly does exist they are mere phenomena." Space syntax, semiotics, geographers and psychologists have all attempted to "explain" person/environment phenomena. All of these (now) agree that the 'individual in space' produces a unique (to them i.e. hedonistic) image or model of their environment."
Woodcock, Ian. "The Multiculture of Some Australian Streets." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 752. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "In "The culture of the Indian street", Tim Edensor (1998) describes his experiences as a westerner making his way through an idealised street in India. This street is composed from a number of different places, but is nowhere in particular. Edensor describes a variety of ways in which the Indian street is different from typical western streets, establishing a dialectic between a 'Dionysian' east and an 'Appollonian' west: The Indian street is valorised for its sensuality, as a place for embodied experience and dialogic engagement. In some ways this sort of writing might be seen as a late variant of an earlier, anthropological viewpoint, looking at the exotic, unicultural other while occluding from the gaze one's own society as a site for research, understanding and design intervention."
Houseknecht, Jerry G. Pankhur. "The Nature of Religious Influence: What Impact do Religious Market, Religious Homogeneity and Global Religious Culture Have on Motherhood Orientation in Nine Societies?" In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 506-508. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. This study attempts to assess the impact of religious market diversity on motherhood orientation at the societal level. Motherhood orientation refers to the importance people place on women having children as a means of fulfillment. Since virtually all of the major religions emphasize the need to procreate, it is clear that motherhood orientation is one of the values that constitute religious culture. In a sense, low levels of importance placed on women having children reflects low levels of influence of religion on reproduction and gender expectations. Although motherhood orientation is an interesting phenomenon, we are using it here not primarily for its own sake, but as a means to evaluate further three approaches to or theories of religion. These approaches are 1) the rational choice or supply-side theory, 2) the religious hegemony or cultural integration theory, and 3) the theory of global religious culture.
Tang, Hong. "The Perceptions to the Application of Western Design Elementsin Urban Open Spaces – an Investigation to Designers and Citizens." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 358-359. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. China has experienced peaks of economic development since the Reform and the Opening of minds. Urbanisation process is on going unprecedented in speed and scale. In recent years, urban landscape construction has become a priority over urban building construction. Western influence in urban landscape has filtered through from coastal regions to cities in the interior such as Kinming, there is a British Farm; from modern cities to the ancient such as Xian, where there is a Western Column Square, from metropolis to county town such as Rongcheng, where there is a huge Square sized as Washington centre square. The sequences of events cause heated argument about the acceptance of western influence. The argument focuses on whether we keep Chinese distinctive and characteristics in urban landscape development under the impact of globalisation. Then, people enjoy those new open space or not, what are they care about? In fact, Some public spaces are very popular; some of them are neither as busy nor as popular with people as the designers envisaged. Sometimes western design influences have brought out new contents and senses; sometimes they have been incorporated in inappropriate ways, or at inappropriate scales. Therefore, it is a good cutting-point to discover the reasons behind those phenomena. In this paper, investigate the perceptions of designers and citizens to the application of western design elements in several Chinese cities, with special reference to Qingdao.
Feldman, Roberta M.. "The Pragmatics of Action Research and Design: Supporting Women Public Housing Residents' Activism." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 778. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Over the course of more than a decade, I have been called upon to meet an array of requests for information and technical assistance by women resident activists living in a Chicago Public Housing development, Wentworth Gardens. This research has been based upon residents' requests - the research problems are not defined by me - and the resources available to the activists to conduct the research and/or prepare designs, and to implement the results are very limited. This paper will examine the pragmatics of demand-driven, action research and design practice; that is a research and design method that uses whatever means and resources are available - the researchers or designers and the participants - and any other resources these people can attract to accomplish their goals.
Sasaki, Yoh. "The Process of the Environment Improvement Activities in Thejapanese Local Town with Historical and Natural Property - Its Positive Spiral Structure and the Current Task." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 73-74. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. This paper is intended as an analysis of the process of environmental improvement activities in the Japanese local town Gujohachiman for this quarter of century. Although the town is originally blessed with natural environment especially of water and historical townscape, these properties have been gradually damaged under the social trend of globalization. But a survey of the water environment done by researchers in 1970's stimulated the consciousness of some residents and started a series of environment improvement activities. The process can be explained structurally with paying attention to the stage, field, method and subject. It is characterized by positive spiral and now is going into a new stage of another challenge?
Mikellides, Byron. "The Psychological Profile and Image of the Architecture Student.a Longitudinal Perspective 1969 - 2001." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 647-648. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. The aim of this paper is to provide a psychological profile of the architectural student in Britain spanning over 30 years and based on over 2500 students during the same period. Questions of Validity and Reliability will also be discussed. As this is a major longitudinal study, diachronic differences in certain psychological traits such as 'attitudes' - liberalism and conservatism - will be discussed by reference to the social and political climate over the period.
Mollenkopf, Heidrun, Stephan Baas, Fiorella Marcellini, Isto Ruoppila, Zsuzsa Széman, and Mart Tacken. "The Quality of Life of Older Citizens in Different Europeanneighbourhoods." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 766-767. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. The built and natural environments, the shape of urban and rural settlements, the constitution and nature of neighbourhoods are subject to permanent change. But despite a general trend towards growing closer together and levelling out (Lash & Urry, 1994), substantial differences remain. This is particularly true when comparing urban and rural areas in different European regions. Apart from geological and climatic differences, settlement types, infrastructure, and housing conditions differ widely. These differences clearly affect the quality of life of people. In a study comparing the satisfaction of older adults (men and women aged 55 years and older) with their neighbourhoods in urban and rural regions in five European countries (Finland, Germany, Hungary, Italy, and the Netherlands) we found considerable differences:
Ruiz, Vicente Lázaro, and Alfonso Gil López. "The Quality of Old People's Housing and their Preferences before Institutionalisation." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 461. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. There is great interest in discovering the current situation regarding residential environments (housing and residential homes) and facilities which elderly people are faced with, identifying the degree of subjective satisfaction of the aforementioned citizens and investigating the residential preferences before a supposed institutionalisation. The empirical work would be carried out with a survey of 323 elderly people between 60 and 85 years of age in which a series of possible answers are given . The results show that their housing have the spaces and services which are considered necessary, that the degree of residential satisfaction is very high and that sensitivity would be a principal characteristic that can be fand within residential homes for elderly people.
Marmen, Patrick. "The Renaissance of the Shophouse: Study of the House Transformations Due to the Introduction of Commercial Activities in the Bui Thi Xuan Quarter of Hanoi, Vietnam." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 223-224. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. The typology of the shophouse lies at the basis of development of many Southeast Asian cities. Hanoi is one such example. However, the French colonial power and, after, the communist ruler, created, beside the traditional commercial quarter, new areas with different typologies of shopping environment. In their ways, each had decreased the importance of the old traditional market town. By allowing and even encouraging the reintroduction of the commercial activities in the house, the economic liberalization of Vietnam have, since 1986, not only reaffirmed the importance of this quarter of Hanoi, but it also had created a real renaissance of the shophouse typology throughout the city.
Davies, Anne-Marie. "The Role of Focus Groups in Valuing Greenspace." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 745-746. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Urban greenspace (including parks, country parks, nature reserves, greenways, and all landscaped open space) makes an essential contribution to quality of life. It provides a recreational resource, a peaceful retreat within the city, an attractive backdrop to built environment development, a relatively safe and exciting play area for children, and a reserve for wildlife. The aim of this research into urban greenspace is to assess how strategic planning and design can maximise the contribution that greenspace makes to urban quality of life and urban environments, while minimising user conflicts and degradation. The research will help determine which greenspace designs maximise public utility without compromising (and indeed enhancing) the function of a city as a place of business and investment.
Naidoo, Vasie. "The Role of Globalization Affecting Ethnic Identity: a Southafrican Scenario." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 157-158. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. South Africa is made up of a large number of distinct ethnic groups with many of these groups coming from specific geographical areas in South Africa. Traditionally economic activities carried out in so-called traditional areas included basket-making, weaving and various other arts and crafts products were made. People tended to undertake a type of subsistence farming - in the main only for their own needs . Cultural traditions were upheld and tended to be reinforced by their way of life. For example, the extended family concept resulted in the sharing of resources, food, clothing, etc. with less disastrous consequences should there be droughts and famine - something which is not uncommon on the African continent. In addition tribal elders and traditional healers provided a social and community service. Traditions were transferred from one generation to the next in village life. More importantly skills, which resulted in the use of sustainable resources were also transferred from generation to generation. Tourists to South Africa can still see people living as they have done for hundred of years. However the customs of these people are disappearing as socalled progress and economic activity interfere with the balance of nature and destroy natural habitat. South Africa is known as the Rainbow Nation because of its diverse cultures, people and heritage.
Lay, Maria Cristina, and Antonio T. Reis. "The Role of Outdoor Spaces on Performance Evaluation of Housingschemes." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 417-418. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. The paper focused on the relationships between physical characteristics of communal open spaces in residential environments, types of outdoor appropriation, and degree of resident satisfaction with visual appearance of the housing scheme, including the exterior appearance of buildings and outdoor spaces. It is emphasised the impact (positive and negative) quality of the built environment has on community formation, and its effects on management, maintenance and performance evaluation of housing schemes. The study is based on the premise that communal open spaces should be the back stage where residents have the opportunity to perform social, recreational and functional activities that promote contact between people. Nonetheless, considering the effectiveness of social housing projects, it is frequently noted that the role of communal open spaces has been neglected, both in terms of physical and social performance. As Gehl (1987) remarks, activities such as walking, standing, sitting, seeing, hearing, talking, playing or other community activities, which make outdoor residential environments particularly attractive and meaningful to be in are also the most sensitive to the quality of the physical environment. This reinforces Canter´s (1970) argument that one of the most significant effects of design on behaviour is that of facilitating or discouraging interaction among people, further emphasising the influence of site design on contacts between people.
Entürer, Ay. "The Role of the Architect, the Role of Culture and the Possible Role of a Critical Approach to Achieve a Better Quality Environment …." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 566-567. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002.

"For centuries human beings have undoubtedly been affected by their environment. However, whilst on the outset they had initiated this process, they subsequently and indirectly became part of the process. At that time, people who called themselves artists, architects and engineers worked for the governing elite whatever society which took decisions on their behalf. In our times, people have practically no direct influence on this process; professional graduate from schools of various disciplines: Design, Art, Architecture and Engineering. Each of these disciplines assumes responsibility for a specific element of design. People exercise their right to chose a particular field they wish to become involve in. The end result is a strict separation between "Design, Art, Architecture" and "Life, Society, Human Beings." The protagonist remains the architect. S/he, as the chief designer and professional representative of the people, of society and of mankind uses these rights on behalf of all humanity. S/he is the creator and coordinator of the design, the execution and building process of the environment."

Atmoko, Teguh Utomo. "The Second Time Around: Impact of Development and Globalisation on Built Environment in Greater Jakarta." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 151-152. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. The archipelago of Indonesia was under colonial occupation for more than 350 years until its independence in 1945. The built environment of towns and cities at that time was similar to that of today with fewer environmental problems and without multi-storey buildings. Even in those days however, in several big cities such as Jakarta and Semarang, severe environmental problems had already occurred in the form of shantytowns. Basically, as in many developing countries, the structure of Indonesian towns and cities consists of planned and un-planned areas. In the case of Indonesia, the un-planned areas are known as kampung or traditional villages. They are frequently overcrowded; lack urban infrastructure and lack (public owned) open space.
Franck, Karen A.. "The Sensual City Or a Cocoon with Windows." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 757. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Trying to setting an even pace as I walk along the sidewalk, pausing to determine whether to cross against the light, negotiating the crowd as we all cross when the light changes, smelling the aftershave of the man next to me in the crowd and roasting chestnuts at the corner, my bag bumps into another brief case, a murmur of apology from me, no response, tasting the soft bun, hot dog with mustard I have bought on the corner, hearing reggae music from a vendor selling CDs, descending into the warmth of the subway station, sliding my card to open the turnstile, hearing the train rushing into the station, a screech of brakes and the bell ringing to signal the doors are opening, holding the overhead rail as the train swerves, smelling the sour scent of a homeless man asleep on one of the seats, this time pushing the gate to leave the platform, ascending the steps out of the station, feeling a cool fall wind, catching sight of a riotous mixture of buildings, signs and people; smelling Chinese food from a street vendor, a whiff of incense and then fish for sale at the market. This is the city of the senses.
Clark, Charlotte. "The Significance of Gibson's Theory of Affordances for Environmental Psychology." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 393-394. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. This paper will critically examine the contribution of Gibson's theory of affordances (1950, 1966, 1979) to environmental psychology. Gibson's theory offers great potential for environmental psychology, as the concept of affordances appears to be a truly transactional concept. Gibson saw perception as direct and proposed that individuals could directly perceive and respond to meaning that exists in the environment. Gibson believed that the environment contains information about the function of objects, in the form of affordances. Affordances are the possibility for action afforded to an observer by an object in the environment. The affordances of the environment can be either physical aspects of the environment or provided by the presence of other people; Gibson also believed that affordances could be shaped by social and cultural influences (Costall, 1995). Thus, by perceiving the affordances of objects in an environment, an observer is able to assess the functional significance of that environment. To perceive affordances is to perceive how you can interact with the environment.
De Souza, Paula Fracinete. "The Silence of Childhood." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 528. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "In the period between June and October of 1998 a socio-economic mapping was made on the families, children and adolescents of the Lixão do Roger (Roger´s waste tip), in the city of João Pessoa, capital of Paraíba State. During April 2000, our research sub-group began 48 interviews, in a semistructured form, with the children and teenagers who work and live on the rubbish tip and in the social housing of the housing estate "Condomínio Esperança". Being included in this project, my specific objective was to investigate the denial of childhood in Lixão do Roger. There, children and teenagers are drawn into the informal labour market at a very early age. The work basically consists of sorting the rubbish - bottles, beer and soft drink cans, cardboard, plastic and other kinds of material that can be sold for recycling. They have a childhood completely different from that experienced by boys and girls of the middle and upper classes. The children and adolescents who live and work there have no experience of a normal childhood with games, entertainment, sport and school. Their social horizons are limited to the work in the waste tip since little time is left for play, school and, in short, for childhood."
Carabias-Hütter, Vicente. "The Social Compatibility Analysis (Sca) – a Tool Needed to Assess and Evaluate the Social Aspects of Sustainability." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 621-622. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Sustainability encompasses an ecological, a social and an economic dimension. New strategies and new ways of solving problems in all areas of society, whether of a technological or non-technological nature, will not only influence the ecological and the economic environment, but also the social environment. If the potential social impacts of such strategies and solutions are ignored, their successful implementation may be at risk due to a lack of general public acceptance. Therefore new methods using transdisciplinary approaches are needed to take the social dimension into account for decision-making and planning.
Blumen, Orna. "The Social Environments of Employed Women and Employed Men." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 317-318. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. The purpose of this study is to examine the similarities and differences in the social environments where women and men act ordinarily. It leans on the conceptual merits of occupation, social segregation and social distance. Several studies showed that occupation reflects inter-group interactions as well as being indicative of the social distance throughout the urban space of residence, with the greater distance between the highest standing groups of professionals and managers and the lowest standing groups of labourers (Duncan and Duncan, 1955; Shevky and Bell, 1955; Uyeki, 1964). These studies also validated the virtue of occupation for the effectuation of Park's (1926) concept of social space better than other socioeconomic variables. In spite of this understanding, occupation is rarely distinguished as an independent sociospatial issue. Ordinarily it is enfolded into the inclusive socioeconomic status of segregetion when only one or two occupational categories are considered (e.g., professionals or blue-collar workers: see Palm, 1981: 290-92); the emphasis usually placed on economic aspects conceals its impact even further (the residents' income or the % of those working in selected economic sectors, see Clark, 1982, Davies and Murdie, 1993.).
Frick, Jacqueline, and Florian G. Kaiser. "The Structure of Environmental Knowledge and Its Various Influences on Ecological Behavior." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 645-646. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Individual behavior is one of the major sources of environmental problems. Besides situational barriers, mainly psychological obstacles keep people from behaving ecologically in a strong and persistent manner. This is where environmental education is in great demand. Knowledge is commonly seen by environmental education as a necessary precondition for a person's ecological behavior. Not surprisingly, the majority of educational interventions rely on the dissemination of information. However, in order to make most efficient use of information, it might be necessary to identify those types of knowledge that have the biggest influence on our behavior. Environmental knowledge should therefore not be treated as a homogeneous unit, but rather as consisting of different types of knowledge. Consequently, knowledge can have various impacts on ecological behavior, which can be explored separately.
Sun, Kim Kook. The Study on Characteristics of Korean Furniture Reflectingtraditional Residential Culture and Thought In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. More importance is being put on the effort for design, which reflects the traditional culture in this time of globalization. Because the tradition is important in holding a cultural identity of design in the modern society of complex and multi-national culture. If we design furniture through modernization of tradition, we can retain an identity of traditional culture and still create a new culture having a regional differentiation. This study will grasp a cultural characteristic reflected in Korean furniture, which is an important and essential element in interior space, based on the contemporary period and geographical background and wil reveal a unique characteristic which will give birth to an identity in the mingling modern culture.
Lassandro, Paola. "The Telematics and the Changes of Buildings and Urban Settlements." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 304-305. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. This research objective is to analyse how the telematics technologies spreading can change spatial and functional organization of residential and tertiary buildings as well as urban settlements. First of all it is important to study the changes that new technologies determine at society, environment and economy level and then in building and urban sector in order to research new solutions. The technology impact on society has been always widely debated. According to Mc Luhan the big changes in the society have been due to the new technology introduction: the will, the printing press, etc. Computer, telecomunication and their integration into miniaturised smart system have taken us into a new dimension, where it is possible to overcome space and time limits. The market, the way of carrying out research, relaxing and enjoying ourselves are changed.
Süer, Yasemin Sayar Dür. "The Transforming, Unifying and Excluding Power of Globalization the Case of Cigli / Izmir." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 149-150. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Globalization is a concept, which addresses to the increase in circulation of people, goods, money, information and images and to the intensification of the relations established upon these. In short, it corresponds to a new threshold of the mobility experienced around the world. When we examine the studies held upon this concept, that became a key word for all disciplines in the recent years and consider the impacts of the concept, two major approaches that are occasionally intertwined with each other can be observed. Whereas some theoreticians emphasize the unifying and emancipating side of the process of globalization, others claim that globalization divides as much as it unifies and that this constitutes the reason underlying the inequalities between regions and different classes. However, the general tendency focuses on the thought that the small group of entities that can get globalized together with their cultural productions have gained an identity and mobility beyond the geographies, but that the remaining non-globalized majority is then inevitably bound to get localized and finally that this is regarded to be the cause of an increasing communicative gap between the two groups.
Vana, Tentokali, Kallipoliti Lydia, and Tsamis Alexandros. "The Urban Voids as Connecting Vessels." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 217. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "A historical city can be read in many ways. One of those is through its history. The question is that there are many histories. Through its written history? It is well kown, that there are many histories written by men though, by historians. Which of those? One of the most enchanting readings of the city is undoubtedly the reading through its built history. The buil history of the Greek city is not continuous. A non continuity which is identified not only on the ground of the city, but also underneath. Not only on the upper layers of the same city. The fact is that the Greek city is buil on another city. The Greek city is a palimpsest. The layers of this palimpsest, represent the different periods of the city´s history. In such a case, the lower layers of the hitorical past are hidden from the upper layer of the present. Thus the "contemporary" architerctural reality is identified by the upper level of the city´s palimpsest, which for most of the Greek cities, is extremely dences. The built part of the contemporary historical city is so dence, that the void is an obliterating feature. The scarcity of the urban void renders it as an extremely valuable commodity. A commodity though with a lot of properties: spatial, social, economical, cultural, historical. Afther all the urban void constitutes the only means for the revelation of the traces of the revelation of the traces of its own history wich are hidden under the upper layer of the palimpsest."
Oppewal, Harmen, Yaniv Poria, Gerda Speller, and Neil Ravenscroft. "The Value of a Room with a View." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 464-465. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. A better understanding and assessment of student preferences for campus accommodation is increasingly important for universities, as state funding decreases and competition for students increases, hence research into university accommodation is increasing (Abu-Ghazzeh, 1999; Murray, 1996; Kaya and Erkipp, 2001). This study measures student preferences for halls of residence using a stated preference approach (Green et al., 2001; Oppewal and Timmermans, 1999). By way of the stated preference method we are able to measure the relative importance of several room attributes including the size of the room, sharing of facilities, the rent, and the newness of the building. One additional attribute that is the specific focus of this study is the view from the room. Previous studies of room views have mostly focused on their effects on well being (Kaplan, 2001) whereas one recent study focussed on measuring the market value of the view from a hotel room (Lange and Schaeffer (2001). The aim of the present study is to assess the value of the view from the room, in terms of its content, relative to other room attributes.
Trifiró, Mónica Cortellezz, and Nesrin Karake. The West Residential Periphery of Great Mendoza (Mendoza, Argentina): the Expression of the New Types of Social and Spatial Segregation In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Great Mendoza (Mendoza, Argentina) is considered an intermediate city at national level and it leads a large space that exceed the provincial borders. The west area of Great Mendoza it is placed in the piedmont between the precordillera of Andes and the plane. This area, according to many authors, doesn't present favourable characteristics for human settlement because of natural and environmental conditions. Geologically it is an active area with two tectonic faults, one in the N-S direction and the other one in the SW-NE direction. The depredation of the natural vegetation by the settlers has accelerated the process of desertification, thus increasing the risk of violent flooding from the west of the site as a result of summer storms. The combination of active faults and slimy soil makes the zone extremely vulnerable. Environmentally, the settlement is not free of pollutin from various sources: pig breeding pens, garbage and trash dumping sites and some factories which contaminate by emission of solid particles.
Thompson, Bill. "Theoretical and Methodological Issues Culture and Architecture." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 563-564. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. The creation of an intellectual world apart from a material world has advantages, such as assisting the division of labour, yet creates problems when trying to combine the two, as happens when considering the cultural context of architecture. Questions about people and their surroundings as a culture require explanations that no single discipline could hope to honestly provide. Architecture has traditionally managed by treating the material world as science whilst offering designing as art or history but this duality is becoming harder to maintain 'thanks' to more than one hundred years of psychological explorations into perception.
Doratli, Naciye, and Özgür Dçyürek Numan. "Thoughts About Morphological Transformation of (Famagusta)Gazy•ma•usa According to Different Political Scenarios." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 207-208. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Urban morphology is concerned with understanding the process, which shape the built form of settlements, as well as with understanding the ways in which that built form affects the social and economic processes that operate in these settlements. In accordance with the transformation and development process that a settlement faces, the morphology of the settlement also changes. Relevant perception, interpretation and evaluation of the morphological changes would convey to rational decisions for the future developments of the settlements, especially when a structure plan fails to exist. In this respect, evaluation of the morphological transformation of Gazima•usa would be useful for further planning studies,since it still has no structure plan.
Rincón, María Del Socorr, and Jorge Eduardo Ca López. "Tototitla, Lugar Donde Cantan Los Pajaros: Significación De Territorio Y Planificación Participativa. Formas Particulares De Ocupación." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 177-179. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. La estructura urbana de Xochimilco se caracteriza por descansar en Antiguos Pueblos de origen prehispánico cuya economía dependía principalmente de la agricultura. Actualmente enfrenta un acelerado crecimiento urbano que se refleja en la presión sobre la tierra agrícola y forestal (chinampa y montaña), esta se explica por la importante movilidad social principalmente de distintos lugares céntricos del Distrito Federal, estados de la República y el propio desdoblamiento de los Pueblos Originarios. La zona de montaña representa para diferentes sectores de la población una alternativa de conseguir un patrimonio familiar barato a través de la compra ilegal de tierra agrícola que algunos lugareños y avecindados realizan. El incremento de la población, la escasez de suelo apto para el desarrollo urbano y la crisis económica han influido directamente en la demanda de vivienda; la cual, que en alguna medida, ha sido cubierta a través del desarrollo de asentamientos irregulares.
Preiser, Wolfgang F. E.. "Toward Universal Design Evaluation." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 705. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. In a global and aging marketplace, which is rapidly growing smaller through technology and ecommerce, there is a need for a range of human-centered products, facilities, and amenities that people need and want. People worldwide are living about 20 years longer. In the United States alone, there are over 50 million people who are permanently disabled, and everyone is likely at some time to experience disability as a mismatch between themselves and their environment. The need has never been greater to design buildings, rooms, public spaces, and products that can be used by all people.
Oswald, Frank, Annette Hieber, Heidrun Mollenkopf, and Hans-Werner Wahl. "Towards the Fit of Environmental Needs and Available Conditions in Different Urban Neighbourhoods and Its Impact on Outdoor Place Attachment." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 768-769. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "Person-environment relations in old age on the level of the meso-environment of neighbourhoods can be regarded from the perspective of individual needs, reaching from basic housing needs to maintain autonomy to higher-order needs or comfort-oriented preferences (Carp & Carp, 1984). Alternatively one might focus on available options like amenities at home as well as in the neighbourhood, such as access to services, shops, public transport systems or to significant others. In this study an individual and transactional point of view is taken (Werner & Altman, 2000), to focus on the fit between environment-related needs and existing environmental conditions in different urban settings and for persons of different ages. Besides, from a broader perspective one might argue that the amount of fit or misfit between environmental needs and conditions is related to a "good" life in the community. Therefore, the impact of person-environment fit on outdoor place attachment, indicating community bonding, will be addressed."
Almhjell, Eva. Tracking Children´s Land - Use in Norway In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Scientific studies have shown the importance of children´s outdoor play and activities. Whether in cities or in the countryside, free time and space is of importance to children´s development as human and cultural beings. In this we consentrate on physical space, and children's land-use in their immediate surroundings. The method is based on a concept of children as competent subjects with specific knowledge that is of crusial importance in the municipalities' land-use planning. To gain knowledge of children´s land-use, a dialog with children has to be developed, and a convenient method of mapping children's land-use is nessecary in municipality planning. «Children´s Tracks» is a method developed in Norway during the last decade.
M. Almhjell, Eva. "Tracking Children´s Land - Use in Norway." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 717. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "Some scientific studies have shown the importance of children´s play and activities in free air. Whether in cities or in the countryside, time and space are of significance to children´s development as human and cultural beings. "Children´s Tracks" is a method developed in Norway during the last decade for gaining knowledge of children´s land-use by mapping children's land-use patterns in municipality planning. The importance of making children´s interests visible in the municipal planning process is well known in Norway. On the national level we have National Policy Guidelines for Children and Planning. The Norwegian Planning and Building Act is in accordance with these guidelines. Both are considered as implementations of the UN Convention on the Child´s rights."
Julia, Bardes. "Traditional and Modern Supporters for Environmentalism Ineuropean Countries (Germany, Great - Britain, Italy, Hungary and the Netherlands)." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 249-250. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002.

The ecological paradigm as well as the green movement is characterised by its various philosophical roots and activism backgrounds. The ecological thought refers to ancient spiritual and philosophical world's view (cosmic vision of unity contained in old religion, oriental spiritualities, and romantic movement, in particular its Naturphilosophy), as well as to the new scientific concepts that emerged with the development of the ecological science. The green movement originated from older movements concerned by the preservation of nature or animal's welfare that already exist a century ago, but really emerged during the seventies, inheriting from the activist virulence and the contesting ideology of the protest student's movement of the late sixties.

Silvia, A., G. Mikami, Doris Pina, C. C. K. Kowaltowski, Regina C. Ruschel, Lucila C. Labaki, Stelamaris R. Bertolli, Francisco Borges Filho, and Édison Fávero. "Transfer Process of Self - Built Houses in Environmental Protection Areas in the Region of Campinas, Brazil." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 84-86. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "The paper describes the transfer process of a population from an environmental protection area to a new location with the cooperation of a technical support program. New houses were built through the action of technical aid in the form of an automated house design program and further technical information interaction with self-builders. Houses were evaluated as to satisfaction and their environmental comfort conditions. In developing countries and particularly in Brazil, low income population groups often occupy vacant land close to urban areas with good infrastructure of transportation and job opportunities. These areas are often under environmental protection, and therefor residential building activities are illegal. In many municipalities these so-called urban invasions fall under the scrutiny of environmental laws and the population is forced to new locations through government supervised programs. This paper described the transfer process of one of these groups of populations in the region of the city of Campinas, in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The local government provided a new area for subdivision and organized the distribution of residential lots per families. The program further offered the option of house constructions through a minimal house "kit", called "COHAB-Embryo" or the assistance of a technical aid program devised by a research group of the State University of Campinas. Houses were to be self-built in both cases. The Kit however supplier builder with the building materials on site."
Dovey, Kim. "Trees and Webs." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 808. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. The desire to secure our cities against threat is likely to have some profound effects on city form. Will we recreate the walled city with electronic and concrete barriers or are there prospects to do something much smarter? This presentation will consider two different ways of thinking which apply at once to models of cities as well as social, political and commercial organizations-the 'tree-like' hierarchy and the 'web-like' network. These are forms of thinking which have informed conceptions of the city from the early work of Jacobs and Alexander to recent conceptions of 'smooth' space and rhizomatic spatial practices. Both networks and hierarchies have their advantages and dangers. Cities have always embodied both hierarchies of identifiable control and networks of exchange, resistance and violence. A first response to September 11 is to call upon stronger hierarchies of control. But any such retreat to a 'walled city' mentality will kill civil urban life more effectively than violence. Is there a more sophisticated approach through understanding the potency and resilience of urban networks-meeting terror on its own turf and starving it of targets in multiplicitous cities of difference?
Nnaggenda-Musana, Assumpta, Barnabas Nawangwe, and Dick Urban Vestbro. "Typology of Houses in the Informal Urban and Peri - Urban Settlements in Thelake Victoria Region. a Case Study of Bugolobi, Mbuya and Kitintale Areas of Kampala." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 431-432. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Uganda today, especially the capital city Kampala, is urbanising at a very fast rate; urban sprawl, environmental degradation, resource degradation, densification and segregation are all matters of great concern in the country today. Construction of houses is done haphazardly without a care for the environment and therefore future generations. The country's architectural heritage is being destroyed as people mimic western solutions that do not suit our environment. The 1972 Development Plan for Kampala was intended to genuinely address the acute housing problems of the population of the rapidly growing city, the majority of which was found to be in the lowincome group. The housing policy within the Development Plan had to try to alleviate the situation bearing in mind that resources were and would continue to be scarce. Firstly, it proposed to divert a large part of the public resources available for housing from the richer to the poorer sections of the population, but since 1970 there has been no public investment by Government into the housing sector due to the economic stagnation that followed the political chaos of the 70's. Secondly, the policy proposed that the provision of all types of housing in Kampala would be by a partnership between the Government and the Private Sector with each partner concentrating on that aspect of housing, which it was best able to provide. However the housing trends in Kampala today have not developed as was assumed by the proposed housing policy; since the policy of privatisation has led to Government divesting its interests in housing and other social sectors.
Seidel, Andrew, Daniel Mittleman, Kyriaki Tsoukala, Gary Gumpert, Susan Drucker, and Peter Van Den Besselaar. Ubiquitous Technology, the Media Age and the Ideal of Sustainability In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002.

Sustainability is about improving the quality of human life while living within the supporting ecosystems. It is associated with understanding the interconnections among economy, society, and environment. Sustainable development is related to the quality of life in a community - whether the economic, social and environmental systems that make up the community are providing a healthy, productive, meaningful life for all community residents, present and future. Today, technologically assisted and facilitated communication is altering the sites of work, home and play. Information Technology (IT) is becoming a key dimension of planning workplaces, schools, homes and the cities and nations in which they are located. In this media age great concern is voiced with regard to the digital divide and the changing nature of community. What is a sustainable digital community? What is a sustainable digital nation? What is a sustainable digital world? That is, once we break down physical barriers, is the boundary of a city a significant boundary? How has the quality of life in communities changed? Does the concept of sustainability change as a result of the increasing presence of communication technology? This workshop will discuss the impact of communication technology upon design, planning and sustainability. The objective is to articulate the design and use issues being raised by the introduction of wired and wireless communication technology. The aim is to shape a research agenda for environment and behavior studies which focuses upon IT rich environments and their influence on behavior.

Seidel, Andrew D.. "Ubiquitous Technology, the Media Age, and the Ideal of Sustainability." In Culture, Environmental Action, and Sustainability: Proceedings of the 17th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain: Hogrefe & Huber, 2003. As technology proliferates and decreases the conceptual distance between people and countries, another gap widens, further separating the information-rich and the information-poor and affecting the physical environment. While the Internet, for example, was once touted to be a liberating and decentralizing force, the results, thus far, have been the opposite. What technology has become is a centralizing force that is one of many factors leading to the centralization of decision-making, wealth, and the world of work. In turn, these changes have affected other areas. To explain this phenomenon, this paper briefly examines the changes occurring in how wealth and work are distributed around the world; and, then, how changes in technology (i.e., the Internet), media, and the ideal of sustainability may be following a similarly centralizing pattern.
Edgerton, E., J. Mckechnie, P. Tucker, and S. I. Fletche Speirs. "Understanding Participation in Home Composting: a Proenvironmental Behaviour?" In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 265-266. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. The growth of the 'green' lobby and concerns about environmental sustainability, have prompted the UK (and other EU governments) to implement policies aimed at reducing the amount of household waste that goes into landfill sites. In order to achieve this, one popular strategy has been to encourage and promote recycling behaviours. Numerous studies have been conducted to try and understand and explain the variables that influence recycling behaviour; these include environmental attitudes (Ladd, 1990; Vining and Ebreo 1989), social norms (Oskamp et.al. 1991) and numerous demographic factors such as household size, style and location of recycling centres. However, a more recent household waste management strategy that has received greater emphasis is the promotion of home composting behaviour. This emphasis is driven by the EU Landfill Directive which requires that, by 2020 at the latest, the amount of biodegradable waste going to landfill should be reduced to 35% of 1995 levels sites.
Gorchacov, Ricardo M. Fait, and Raquel S. L. Guzzo. "Understanding the Man by the Interaction with Environment Andcommunity." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 329-330. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. La comprensión con la salud humana fue una constante en cualquier sociedad, en lo tanto este concepto fue extendido para una comprensión amplia de bien estar, no solamente restricto al funcionamiento del organismo, mas principalmente de otros estados subjetivos como la felicidad y la sabiduría, nombrados por Gonzáles Rey (1995) como un estado cualitativo de vida determinado de manera social y histórica. La busca por los estados subjetivos ha motivado la comprensión de la esencia humana sobre una perspectiva sistémica y de interacciones en que el ambiente y la comunidad tienen un papel relevante en el proceso.
Depolo, Marco. "Unhealthy Work Environments: the Role of Psychosocial Workingconditions." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 811. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. The globalisation process has deeply changed the world of work, creating new challenges for productivity and adaptability in an increasingly deregulated labour market. As a consequence, the employment relationship has suffered the effects of new demands for both external and internal flexibility, leading to a new deal in finding alternative ways to interpreting the employment relationship in itself. Some of these organizational changes have also generated conditions that may affect - more or less directly - the quality of working life, producing unhealthy work environments. As a consequence, a poor psychosocial can be considered as an antecedent for a number of negative and risky situations at work.
Pla, M. T. Bovet, Pena R. Vila, Mayol C. Sánchez, Bofarull J. Amat, and Ribas J. Vilàs. "Unidades De Paisaje Y Actividades Recreativas Y Medioambientalesen Un Parque Público." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 290-291. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. El crecimiento urbano de muchas poblaciones inmersas en un área anteriormente rural o forestal y actualmente industrial provoca que ciertos espacios que en el pasado presentaban un uso agrícola o forestal en la actualidad hayan caído en el abandono de la producción y estén a la expectativa de cambios de uso y de la especulación de los suelos urbanos. La necesidad de zonas verdes en poblaciones que han crecido desmesuradamente en pocos años y el alejamiento de las zonas rurales y forestales en zonas próximas a las grandes metrópolis, provoca el interés de las instituciones municipales para convertir ciertas áreas próximas a los núcleos de población y que aún no están edificadas, en parques, destinados a un uso recreativo y medioambiental, que la población demanda.
Kabisch, Sigrun. "Upgrading of East German Cities Under the Pressure of Population Decline and Housing Vacancy." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 122-123. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. One of the most urgent problems of East German Cities at present time is the huge amount of unoccupied apartments. In contrast with many other East and Central European countries, housing shortage is not on the agenda. It is estimated that more than one million apartments (13% of the whole housing stock) are empty. Already in 1990, about 400,000 dwellings were unoccupied because of a bad state of repair caused by a longterm neglect of the older tenemental areas by the former state. At present, there are serious prognoses until 2030, announcing an amount of vacant apartments of 1,5 to 2 million, if there will be no strategies acting against. What are the explanations of this unusual situation, what are the consequences for urban life and reside, and how can the cities deal with such a new phenomenon? These questions are in the focus of an ongoing research project, carried out in a co-operation between sociologists, economists, ecologists and jurists.
Cao, Wenyan, and Yasushi Nagasawa. "Urban Space: as an Extension of Daily Living Space for Seniors' Housing in China." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 540-541. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. As the biggest developing country, China has been facing the most serious ageing problems in the world. The improvement of the urban environment for an increasing senior population has become urgent for urban planners, designers and policy makers. The purpose of this research is to identify characteristics of the inter-relationship between seniors' daily activities and urban built environment, and to clarify the environmental factors supporting seniors' utilization of urban environment as well as design and planning principles for creating a suitable urban built environment for seniors'.
Weisman, Lyn Dally Gebo, and Stacey Grant. "Urbanism, New and Old, and Supports for Aging in Place." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 774. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Over the past several decades, important new concepts have emerged, in both senior housing and urban planning, with important implications for the successful aging in place of older persons. Researchers of senior housing have discovered that many older persons [perhaps 25+% of the total] choose to age in communities with exceptionally large high numbers of other elderly; Hunt & Gunter- Hunt [1985] have characterized such settings as «naturally occurring retirement communities» [NORCs]. At the same time, within urban planning, there has been a questioning of the patterns of low density, segregated land use, and exclusive reliance on the auto, which have shaped community development in North America for the past four decades. A counter approach - known as «the new urbanism» [Calthorpe, 1993; Katz, 1994] - advocates higher densities, mixed land uses, and a pedestrian orientation. Finally, there is increasing recognition [Hunt, this symposium] that these two concepts - «NORCs and new urbanism» - may be mutually supportive. People may be better able to age in place in communities which possess the attributes of «the new urbanism,» with these communities, over time, becoming identified as «NORCs.»
Moser, Gabriel, Alain Legendre, and Eugénia Ratiu. "Urbanite's Relationship Networks: Adjusting to Urban Constraints." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 783. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Urban life has been repeatedly described as being constraining. What is the impact of living in a metropolis on interpersonal relationships? Data on the extend of the relationship network and the way of relating of Parisians, suburbians and inhabitants of a minor town were collected by standardised interviews.302 heads of family, half of them having the possibility to escape for week-ends (second home, family house) described their relationship network, the origin of each relation and the modalities of frequentation. Results show that urban constraints, and specifically the short free-time left to people living in Paris and its suburbs, results in adjusting relational behaviour. Difficulties to interact frequently with a traditional network friends is compensated by an increase in local sociability. The number of relations originated in neighbourhood associations and workplace is much higher for the Parisians and suburbians than for the inhabitants of the small town. Furthermore, urbanites meet their friends less spontaneously, even when they keep as many relationships as people living in smaller towns. Only those who have the opportunity to escape have a mean number of relations similar to the small town inhabitants, and they meet their friends preferentially on week-ends out of town.
Leary, Michael B.. "Urbanization in South Africa: Development, Labour and Economicactivities." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 786-787. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. The past decade has seen South Africa undergoing major transformation in areas such as economic activity, urbanization and composition of the workplace. Traditionally mining and agriculture have been two main economic activities and have employed many thousands of people. Much of the labour force utilised by these two sectors has been unskilled and has meant that large numbers of people in rural areas have made their livelihood from these two sectors. With globalization and a change in the economic activities has come increased competition. Agriculture for example has undergone major structural changes. Marketing of agricultural products, previously centralised under a particular control body is now often the responsibility of the producer. Producers have cut costs and re-engineered in order to be competitive on world markets and to compete successfully in a free market system.
Inje, Chanohk Oh. "Users' Responses for the Elderly Inpatient Hospital Design." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 538-539. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. As the medical conditions change, the hospital users' needs for the medical environments are also changing. The major design issue for the medical environments is the user-focused design including the comfort environments that users feel home-like. In order to design the use-focused environments, users' responses for their environments have to be examined. POE is the one method to grasp users' responses for their environments. This is the process of evaluating buildings systematically and comprehensively after they have been built and occupied. It focuses on building users and their needs. It provides users with the opportunity to participate in the planning process. As a result, more human environments that meet user needs are created and they allow users to be more satisfied with their environments.
Vazquez, J, S Omelianiuk, and P. Mosconi. "Valoracion Ambiental De Espacios Publicos Urbanos, Comparación De Patrones De Diseño Y De Uso." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 285-287. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002.

Frente al actual modelo de globalización, el paradigma del paisaje del Tercer Milenio, se basaría en dos valores singulares: la urbanidad y la sustentabilidad, relacionadas con la vocación del territorio y la capacidad del soporte frente a los procesos de antropización. Los modelos de desarrollo predominantes en la actualidad contienen una contradicción insoslayable: la que proviene del dato de la finitud de los recursos planetarios y la concepción, de que las sociedades deben avanzar en la dirección del crecimiento económico cuantitativo.[1 ] Con el crecimiento exponencial de la población, los ecosistemas sin su influencia son escasos. La ciudad es la modificación de mayor nivel causada por el hombre.

Flores, Isabel Cardenal, Stephany Hess, Ernesto Suárez, and Bernardo Hernandez. Valoración De La Investigación Psicoambiental En España. 1988 - 2001: ¿de La Segunda Infancia a La Madurez? In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Es el objetivo de este trabajo reflejar el desarrollo y alcance de la investigación de la Psicología Ambiental en España, con especial atención a las contribuciones empíricas. En este sentido, aunque se considera las publicaciones de naturaleza teórica, hemos estimado que el vigor y la capacidad productiva de una disciplina se hace patente, de forma objetiva y mesurable, en la calidad y la cantidad de sus contribuciones empíricas. En nuestro análisis partimos del año 1988, fecha en la que se publicaron las actas de las Primeras Jornadas de Psicología Ambiental, celebradas en Madrid en 1986, que constituyeron un hito de especial relevancia para el quehacer psicoambiental. Entre las comunicaciones de dichas jornadas se presentó un trabajo (Hernández y Jiménez Burillo, 1988), que ofrecía un panorama de la evolución ascendente de las publicaciones psicoambientales desde el año 1971 hasta el año 1986, que realizaba un pronóstico favorable en el desarrollo de la investigación.
Pato-Oliveira, Claudia, Bartholomeu Tróccoli, and Álvaro Tamayo. "Values and Ecological Behavior: an Empirical Study." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 263-264. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "This research presents the factorial structure of a scale designed to measure ecological behavior and its relationships with value priorities (Schwartz, 1992; 1994) and demographic variables. 255 students of a public university and a secondary public school in Brasilia (139 females and 116 males) with average age 22.70 years (SD = 6 years) answered Schwartz's (2001) new instrument (The Portraits Questionnaire - PQ) and a measure of ecological behavior. PQ includes short portraits of 40 different people, which describe a person's goals, aspirations and wishes, all expressive of the same single value type. An instrument based on Karp's pro-environmental behavior (1996) adapted to the Brazilian reality measured the ecological behavior. Principal factor extraction with oblique rotation was performed on the 36 items of the Brazilian Ecological Behavior Scale (BEBS). Principal component extraction was used prior to principal factor extraction to estimate number of factors, presence of outliers, absence of multicollinearity, and factorability of the correlation matrices (Tabachnick & Fidell, 2001). Four factors were extracted. As indicated by SMCs, all factors were internally consistent and well defined by the variables; the highest SMCs for factors from variables was .67. With a cut of .30 for inclusion of a variable in interpretation of a factor, 24 of the original 36 variables loaded on four factors labeled "economy" (turn off the lights when I leave the room; turn off the faucet while brushing my teeth), ...."
Solana, E. I. De La Fu, Álvarez P Suárez, García J García, and De La Fuente L. Sánchez. Variables Psicosociales En La Determinación Del Objeto Del Veredicto En Juicios Por Delitos Ecológicos1 In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002.

"Diversos estudios han puesto de manifiesto que el nivel de "concienciación" y "sensibilización" hacia la problemática ambiental es muy alto en nuestro país (Álvarez, De la Fuente y García, 1997; Álvarez y De la Fuente, 1998; Amérigo y González, 1996; Aragonés, 1997; ....), siendo considerados como problemas más graves la desforestación y la escasez de recursos hídricos, problemas ambos estrechamente relacionados con los incendios forestales. No cabe duda, por tanto, acerca de lo acertado de la inclusión de éste delito medioambiental (artículos 352 a 354 del Código Penal) en el catálogo de los que han de ser objeto de enjuiciamiento por el Tribunal del Jurado, al pretender recoger los tipos "que tienen un acreditado interés superior en la conciencia ciudadana" (López-Muñoz, 1995)."

Al-Homoud, Majd. "Way Finding as a Function of Layout in Multi - Family Housing." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 405-406. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Finding ones way around the built environment is affected by the way the environment is structured. Way finding is a major functioning of any physical layout; layout components such as buildings, paths, nodes, landmarks, and other personalization elements facilitate it. The target population was located in the city of Fuhais, Jordan. The suggested hypothesis, that way finding in any multi-family housing is affected by the local physical layout components, was tested using random sampling. The total sample size was 104 multifamily householders from the housing of Isment. The data was collected through face-to-face interviews with one of the householders of each of the selected units using a structured questionnaire. The results of the study demonstrate that buildings, paths, and vertical elements as well as signs, colors, and building numbers. The complexity nature of our present life and the use of the car makes it complicated to find our way, especially in the available design of multi-family residential settings in Jordan that try to imitate traditional images of the Islamic city in its complexity of configuration. The built environment should provide direct and indirect affordencies according to people's needs; proper way finding is one of those direct affordencies. Some architects try to reuse old patterns and layouts of architecture, in attempt to recreate the new patterns in traditional way.
Swetkis, Doreen, and Sanda Kaufman. "What are They Thinking? Young Adults' Attitudes Towards Environmental Risks." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 237-238. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "Public decision processes in the United States are increasingly participatory, requiring awareness of many issues at stake, willingness to attend meetings over lengthy time periods, and understanding of joint decision processes and of technically complex concepts such as environmental risks. High school students in the United States often reach voting age (eighteen years) during their last year of school. Thus they are newly minted adults, with the right to engage in voting and other forms of public decisionmaking. Yet their patterns of preference in matters of public interest remain overlooked in the research literature. This lack of attention seems rooted in an underlying assumption that the perceptions, beliefs, and behaviors of young adults especially regarding public issues are either similar to those of college students or even adults in the general population, or that they will shortly become that way. This assumption bears investigation for several reasons. First, there is the consideration of the size of the young adult subpopulation in the US, which is currently experiencing a "boomlet," with real consequences for voting and other decision outcomes. Second, there is the concern that the opportunity for participation in public decisions is not adequately matched by interest and skill, with possibly detrimental consequences for such decisions. Third, there is research suggesting young adults have attitudes towards personal risk that differ in meaningful ways from those of older adults, with unpredictable consequences for attitudes towards other kinds of risk involved in public decisions."
Lawrence, Roderick J.. "What Makes a House a Home? Reconsidered." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 689-690. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. "In 1987, the author published a paper titled "What makes a house a home?" That contribution showed that house and home are not necessarily synonymous because a wide range of cultural, economic, socio-demographic political and psychological factors should be considered in tandem with architectural and geographical characteristics. In the same year "Housing, dwellings and homes" was published as an interdisciplinary monograph that showed the importance of context, dwelling practices, dialectical relations, and institutional constraints that need to be considered in terms of a temporal perspective. This book followed the article by examining the reciprocal relations between housing, dwelling and home with in-depth analyses of case studies in Australia, England and Switzerland. Since that paper and book were published numerous studies on housing and the meaning of home have collectively provided a vast collection of publications on these topics from a range of theoretical and methodological perspectives. Some have argued that home is not a useful concept. However, the fact that the words house and home have different meanings in diverse languages suggests that research is necessary in order to decipher the use of these terms in precise localities. The author's own work has stressed that although the concept of home is ambiguous it is a fundamental human concept which is grounded in sets of human relationships that order and define the status of individuals, households, families and larger social groups in society at large. Today it is appropriate to reconsider the same question in order to assess whether the sets of factors proposed in 1987 should be complemented by others, and what theoretical and methodological principles should be applied to study them."
Berto, Rita, and A. T. Purcell Peron. "What Types of Scenes do People Say are Restorative?" In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 818. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. There has been an increasing amount of research addressing the significant issue of the restorative value of environments. While this research has produced significant insights, one characteristic of a large proportion of the research is that people are exposed to examples of different types of scenes about which they make restorative judgements. An interesting issue therefore is the question of the relationship between the types of scenes that are found to be restorative using this approach and the types of scenes that people consider to be restorative when they are not prompted by the presence of an example. The research to be reported addressed this issue.
Cranz, Galen. "Why Ronchamp is Different: an Interview with Dr. Alfred Tomatisabout His Treatment of Le Corbusier for Hearing Loss." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 565. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. The body has become a fashionable focus in cultural studies, but ironically it is often used as a metaphor, standing for something else, rather than the direct physiological experience of the body. A few architectural scholars (Cranz, Lepori, Franck) have acknowledged the role of the physical body in architectural design. Here, the ear and the psycho-physical process of listening is related to architectural design, in a dramatic case study of Corbusier.
Buchecker, Matthias. "Withdrawal from the Public Life: Between Social Control and Individualism." In Culture, Quality of Life - Problems and Challenges for the New Millennium: IAPS 17 Conference Proceedings, 749-750. IAPS. A Coruña, Spain, 2002. Several studies have shown that with increasing urbanization local residents increasingly withdraw from local public life into the private sphere of their homes and into remote recreation areas (Buchecker, in press; Fuhrer & Kaiser, 1993; Hartig 1996; Sennett, 1974). The villages thus mutate more and more into dormitory towns (Buchecker and Schutz, 1999, Krüger 1987). Many experts, in particular planners and politicians, see this tendency as a consequence of the global phenomenon of increasing individualism and a disbanding social coherence (Klages, 1996). Others assume that this tendency is caused by a lack of suitable opportunities for the residents to have an influence on the development of the community (Gensicke 1996; Kleger 1989; Habermas, 1981). In many Western countries formal procedures of public involvement have been introduced on the local level, however, they do not seem to be adequate (Godschalk & Paterson 1999). In order to examine which of these assumptions is true we started an investigation in two Swiss rural communities with similar characteristics, however differing in their degree of urbanization.