Keywords Abstract
Schmidt, A.. "3D-Environmental Simulation - Multimedia and Multiuse." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. During the last 30 years the techniques of the 3D-environmental simulation have been developed from endoscopic photographs with simple scale models to highly complex computer generated virtual worlds. Environment-behavior-studies, experimental aesthetics, teaching architecture and urban design, support for design decisions in architecture and urban planning, citizen information and participation as well as project presentation, project marketing and tool for decision-making processes of public and private clients – a wide range of applications has lead to a project oriented use of different media. With different contributions the symposium wants to discuss the variety of application fields as well as the potentials and limitations of 3D-environmental simulation.
Tenngart, Carina. A Case Study on the Use and Experience of Healing Gardens In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. In Sweden today there is a growing interest for including gardens and nature in the treatment of people suffering from different kinds of stress disorders. Landscape architects are thus designing healing gardens that all are supposed to be restorative. This is a single-case study that by a series of studies aims at looking closer into how the design in one healing garden works. During 2002 a healing garden was built at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences in Alnarp. People diagnosed as having had burnout diseases are offered rehabilitation through a horticultural therapeutic program run by occupational therapists, physiotherapist, psychotherapist and horticultural therapists. Patients stay approximately 20 weeks and there are two groups a day with 8 patients in each group. All year around the patients are to use the garden in different ways, i.e. sowing, resting, pruning etc. The design of the healing garden in Alnarp relies on several theories. Regarding the restorative effects of the garden two theories on restorative environments are fundamental. That is Ulrich’s theory concerning recovery from psycho physiological stress and Kaplan & Kaplan’s theory on recovery from mental fatigue (Hartig et al, 1996; Stigsdotter & Grahn, 2002). Regarding activities that are to be carried out in the garden other theories from for example occupational therapy and psychology have been considered. Earlier research at the Department of Landscape Planning in Alnarp has shown that eight main characters constitute the building blocks of parks and gardens. The design process where these theories all have been transformed into physical elements and design hypotheses has been well described and documented. (Stigsdotter & Grahn, in press), (Stigsdotter & Grahn, 2002).In a first pictorial study the questions whether a garden is restorative and whether different gardens can be more or less restorative will be answered. The tool is an existing scale, the Perceived Restorativeness Scale, based on the theory of Kaplan & Kaplan and developed partly to assess the restorative potential in settings. (Hartig et al, 1997). Two healing gardens that differ much in size and design but have the same target group will be compared.To answer the question whether the patients in Alnarp find that there are garden rooms that are more important than others an observational study will take place in the garden. It will consider how patients use the garden, where they go, what they do and how much time they spend. To deepen the understanding semi-structured interviews will be conducted with some patients. The results can be interpreted with the help of the result in the PRS-study, the design hypotheses in the healing garden at Alnarp and design theories from for example urban planning. It would also be interesting to know whether a garden could be more or less restorative for different groups of people. If important garden rooms or characters can be extracted in the observational study these characters will be used in a second pictorial study. By using photos of these extracted characters patients will fill in the PRS both in the beginning and in the end of their rehabilitation. A group of healthy people will also be asked to do this version of the PRS. This will provide an opportunity to see if opinions differ between patients and healthy people and if patients’ opinions change during time. Case study methodology is used in this revelatory single-case study and different methods are used for triangulating this unique case and thereby enhancing its validity. It would be of interest to in future studies do the same studies/experiment with another group of people (healthy or other patient group) to see if the results are coinciding. The results can be applied not just in designing healing gardens but also in a wider context, e.g. in designing parks etc.
Oppewal, H, Y Poria, N Ravenscroft, and G. M. Speller. "A Choice Experimental Approach to the Valuation of Urban Greenspace." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. This paper reports findings from a choice experiment that was conducted to assess how users and non-users value greenspace. The study aimed to measure how people perceive and value greenspace for different possible uses and from different user perspectives, using a choice modelling approach. There are previous applications of choice modelling to studying park use (e.g. Hanley et al., 1998). These studies have however focussed almost exclusively on regional or national parks and other ‘non-urban’ green spaces and have not addressed the total array of possible green space ‘benefits’. We measure how residents value greenspaces and greenspace attributes in the different roles in which they engage with the greenspace in their cities, that is, as greenspace ‘consumer’, as local resident, and as citizen. In the analysis we test how these different user perspectives result in different greenspace valuations (cf. Payne et al., 2002). We also investigate how these valuations depend on actual use of greenspace and on socio-demographic characteristics (Spotts and Stynes, 1984). Choice experiments entail designing a series of hypothetical choice scenarios that describe variations on respondents’ current situation (e.g. Louviere, Hensher and Swait, 2000; cf. Louviere and Timmermans, 1990, Oppewal and Timmermans, 1999). Respondents indicated their likely response if the described changes were to occur. The method allows experimental control and allows to separate variables that otherwise would be too confounded to assess their individual impacts on valuation and choice. Results are typically analysed with logistic regression. A comprehensive list of 24 greenspace ‘benefits’ was generated from a review of literature and a series of exploratory interviews. These benefits are defined as characteristics that either apply or not apply for an urban greenspace. For example, a certain greenspace may offer pleasant views, or may not offer pleasant views, according to an individual respondent. Each respondent received several scenarios describing urban parks as could be present in a residential area like the resident’s current area. Respondents rated each described park on a set of criteria and then indicated which of the two parks was offering the greatest value for themselves, their neighbourhood, and for the larger communityThe choice experiment was conducted among a random sample of households in Brighton/Hove. 182 completed questionnaires were obtained. Analysis revealed that parks offering nice scenery are highly valued in terms of personal benefits. They are of less value to individuals personally if they have unique plants, natural areas, accommodate large events, offer food and drink facilities, or are visited by people from outside the own area. The presence of special activity areas, good maintenance, and some level of supervision add particular to the park’s value for the neighbourhood. These findings demonstrate that park attributes are valued differently depending on the perspective that the respondent takes when evaluating the park. This dependency should be taken into account when using valuations to inform greenspace planning. Methodologies as demonstrated in this paper may help decision makers to better understand and assess the trade-offs they are faced with.
Pacilli, Maria Giuseppina, and Miretta Prezza. "A Comparative Approach to the Study of Child-Friendly Environments: the Perspectives of Children, Mothers, the Elderly and Professionals in Three Italian Territorial Contexts." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. To study children friendly environments, a possibility is to start from constructs as well-being or quality of life of children and then assessing the congruence between the indications coming from literature and the characteristics present in the environment. Another way is to recognise that children have a privileged role in the definition of the characteristics of an environment friendly for them. This is in line with art. 12 of the International Convention on Children’s Right that establishes the right of children to express an opinion about every matter of their interest.The aim of the present research is to contribute to a greater understanding of the concept of child friendliness (c.f.) starting from indications provided by different types of people residing in different places in Italy. In a study on how children in different disadvantaged communities evaluate their own urban environment, i.e., the replica of an analogous study conducted in the 1970s (Chawla, 2002), it emerged that the environmental characteristics/qualities identified as important in the 1970s were still significant 20 years later. Thus, on one side it is possible to speak about some constants in the way children relate to their own world (Lynch, 1977). We thought it would also be interesting to understand if and how the concept of child friendliness is articulated in relation to both place of residence and children's age and to explore this concept from other perspectives, i.e., in other phases of the life cycle (mothers and the elderly) or in professionals who work with children. Therefore, we contacted 360 subjects residing in three different Italian territorial contexts, i.e., in a neighbourhood in Rome (Montemario), in Nettuno (40,000 inhabitants) in central Italy, and in Caserta (82,000 inhabitants) in southern Italy. In each of these three places, 120 participants were contacted, subdivided as follows: 20 children 8-9 years of age and their mothers, 20 children 11-12 years of age and their mothers, 20 elderly and 20 professionals working in different ways in the childhood sector. The choice of the children is easily understandable. As to the other participants, they were chosen because in some way they are sensitive to the condition of children in the urban environment: the mothers were chosen because in Italy often they are still the main caregivers, the elderly because they are weak subjects in the city, just like children, and the professionals because they are in contact with the reality of childhood in their work. All participants had been residing (or working in the case of the professionals) in the area for five years. All were first administered a form in which they were asked to imagine the characteristics of a child friendly environment. Then they were interviewed about the reason of each point they made. We chose the interview as instrument because it was more suitable to the explorative aim of our research. It gave the chance to the participants to express freely their personal point of view. We are aware that what comes out is partial in a global work of individuation of child friendly environment indications. It is strongly biased by the aware dimension of opinion that people have on the topic examined. Worthy of note, however, is that children productions were very rich. They didn’t show particular difficulties to cope with a work of fantasy on a question not very well known.Using this comparative perspective, we will reflect on how the concept of child friendliness was articulated in our participants, i.e., on how homogeneous it was internally, on how it differed according to the different types of participants considered, and on how much this difference could be attributed to the different experience in the territory and/or to the characteristics of the territory. It will be interesting to reflect upon the similarity between the ideas of participants and what is desired at both a legislative and local/national political level. The opportunity to identify more structured methods to explore the phenomenon and the real possibility to use them will be a matter of reflection.
Milfont, Taciano Lemos. A Conceptual Framework to Understand Sustainable Development at a Psychological Level In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. Although sustainable development and sustainability have traditionally been fields of environmentalists, ecologists, politicians, and economists, many psychologists have been working in this area. Any attempt to present the psychological aspects that support sustainable development (SD), however, hasn’t been done. The aim of this paper is to present such an attempt through a conceptual framework. Firstly, a brief summary of the origin of SD is provided. Following this, SD is discussed as a ‘contestable concept’. Then, the three steps necessary to build the proposed conceptual framework are presented. These are: (1) To make a distinction between the terms ‘sustainable development’ and ‘sustainability’, arguing that sustainability should be understood as ‘environmental sustainability’, and ‘sustainable development’ as the strategies to achieve it. Next (2), following Dobson (1998, Cap. 2), ‘environmental sustainability’ is defined as the belief that parts or aspects of natural resources are not replaceable by human-made, and that at least some of these need to be maintained into the future. Also, it is assumed that environmental sustainability must be understood through utilisation and preservation environmental attitudes. And finally (3) economic, social and political are presented as the dimensions of SD. Hence, the conceptual framework is referring to the paradigm level, or deeper meaning of the SD, that underlies the surface manifestations. Or, more specifically, it attempts to get the underlying social attitudes that support SD. Briefly, the conceptual framework tries to indicate the SD dimensions, principles and indicators. The dimensions are economic, social and political; the principles are steady-state economy, egalitarianism, and democratic values; and its indicators are attitudes toward limits to economic, population and consumption growth (economic dimension), attitudes toward equal distribution of wealth, formal/legal equality, equality of opportunity, equality of rewards/results (social dimension), and attitudes toward democratic values (political dimension). Yet, these indicators are social attitudes that support SD, and it is a strategy to achieve environmental sustainability, or the utilisation/preservation environmental attitudes. In conclusion, it is argued that if individuals present these social attitudes that support SD, they would support more the preservation aspect of environmental sustainability.
Martens, Bob, Z Turk, T. Cerovsek, and Tomo Cerovsek. "A Digital Library for Iaps Publications." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. "This paper presents creation of a digital library of previous IAPS proceedings. A large number of conferences resulted in an interesting output of scientific papers and it makes sense to have this wider and easier available to the audience. The currently used interface of the IAPS Digital Library was created in the framework of an EU-IST project, called SciX (Open Scientific Exchange of Information). First results on the gathering of initial content will be presented as well as related experiences. The SciX-project is funded by the European Commission in order to demonstrate the feasibility of alternative models of scientific publishing made possible by the Internet. The project includes both theoretical work in making a formal model of the scientific publishing process, to be used as a basis for studying the life-cycle costs of alternative business models, and demonstrators of functioning e-prints archives.The concept of self-organisation refers to the key idea that repositories would not be maintained by professional publishers, but by associations that do not have a commercial interest in managing the repository. The repositories should be created in such a way that they could be managed with a minimum of human effort. A major effort in managing these repositories is the organisation of the content - how to group papers into categories, how to create hierarchical directories, like Yahoo, across the papers in the repository, etc. Not unimportant is the management of the users and maintenance of the consistency of the data. An important aspect of SciX is applying text-learning techniques to automatically categorize the content. However, self-organisation means that decisions towards data entry and extensions of available information are not taken by the SciX-consortium, but remain in the hands of the association in charge. Furthermore, a splitting of workload can take place among a number of collaborating activists, so that an accumulation of smaller tasks is feasible. The criterion of "ease to use" has to be mentioned as a prerequisite, both for the maintainers as the endusers. Proprietary software packages normally do not meet this criterion; data entry and viewing have to preferably be performed from any internet browser and furthermore, a minimal level of computer literacy should be required. In many cases the editing of the data is being handled by non-librarians, which means that data will not necessarily be imported into the Digital Library as "clean" and "proper" as a library would prefer. Maybe from a librarian's point of view a "quick and dirty" approach is not preferred, but in this context for the enduser, hardly less effective. Furthermore, as the full text version is attached to the record the justification of the need for an ultimate precise citation is narrowed.The content providers behind a repository are responsible for what kind of information they input and how detailed or secured the pieces of information are in the projected repository. This does, for example, not cause serious problems in an academic context as long as reviewed publications (i.e. conference proceedings) are recorded. However, individual submissions with a variety of publication sources may lead to the installation of an advisory board who supports decisions concerning the relevance of entries, insurance of quality control, topical relevance, etc. For the moment, this is not planned by IAPS, as the inclusion of previous proceedings has the highest priority.Hardly any data from the early days of IAPS has been archived in a digital format. E-prints were therefore produced by means of scanning and then applying OCR to the scanned images for the creation of metadata (authors, title and summary). The "reuse" of archived digital data sources, which may be in general only available to more recent publications, is more efficient as additional human effort is minimal. In order to allow for as much re-use of existing digital material, SciX is not only aiming at tools that support digital libraries, but will support large parts of the publication process including the support for a conference organisation, reviewing, etc. The setup of an interface for submission and review for IAPS 2004 has to be mentioned in this respect.In the framework of the IAPS17-conference (2002) first ideas on setting up a Digital library were presented. However, further research had to be conducted and the rough estimation of publication output turned out to be larger as assumed. Before 1982 nearly 3.000 pages were published. Between 1982 and 2002 the output turned out to be around 9.000 pages. It can be stated, that the IAPS materials published before 1994 are rather difficult to trace back and digitalisation would allow for wide accessibility. Easy access to IAPS publications offers a great potential for new members, such as interested researchers from Eastern Europe."
Saura, M.(U. P. C. unive, and D.(Universit Muntanyola. "A Framework for Theory Applicable to Environmental Design: the Case of Barcelona's Public, Open Space System." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. "Theory is applicable to classical, interdisciplinary issues on the environmental assessment of public, open spaces. In the field of architectural design professionals, there is a great amount of literature on the link between culture and the built form (Cranz, 2002). Architectural design methodologies have for a long time been struggling with the congruence of fitness of form and function (Lerup, 1998). Recent sociological and cultural anthropology inquires are relevant to balance the scant environmental psychology bibliography available on this kind of the subject. In this paper contemporary issues of modernization, ethnic revivals, globalization, fads and fashions will be presented to demonstrate that these constructs do not ncessarily imply a lack of the designer's stand or awareness on the environmental constraints that they have upon the user's needs. Some open spaces work as expected because they were planned as being socially accountable environments of everyday life, to support human behavior. As it has been the case with historic, traditional environments, when physical form is flexible enough, then public, open-space design can accommodate the dynamism of "timeless" urban life. (Kostof, 1991). Yet, it is assumed that contemporary designers perceive tradition as opposed to modernization. (Rapoport, 1996). Evidence will be drawn from three examples: Torre de les Aigues (Barcelona, Cadira del Bisbe (Barcelona) and Empuries (one of Barcelona's site of the 1992 World Olympic Games). Ethnographic data has been gathered in a longitudinal study of Barcelona's open space system to prove that diversity and cultural change has been considered by the designer at the early stages of the design program. Theory has been used to interpret the data gathered between (between 1982 and 2002) through a set of qualitative studies made on a large user, age-group sample, particularly the young and the elderly. Cultural change has been evaluated through concepts of participatory, decision-making power, cultural distinction, and expressions of culture (e.g. changing "habitus," attitudes and values of teenagers' lifestyles which include participatory observation of use of open space at different periods of time). Further discussion will be needed with regards to a new definition of design programming as meaningful and accountable for environments that support human behavior in particular physical settings. The above mentioned study cases will show that evaluation can only be conducted when considering environmental design as an "open-ended" process. (Rapoport, 2003). Future research is needed on the validity of theoretical constructs for understanding the role of the physical environment in human life from the perspective of other age groups of citizens. "
de Kort, Y. A. W., I. van Liempd, and E. Hoekstra. "A Multi-User Multi-Method Evaluation of Childcare Facilities in the Netherlands." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. The present study comprises an evaluation of childcare facilities in the Netherlands. Data were gathered using analyses of plans and drawings, interviews, questionnaires, checklists and walk-through; management, staff, parents and children all participated in the study. The aim was to generate valuable information to give direction to future design of facilities.IntroductionThe main research question of the study is: What spatial and physical building characteristics determine the quality of child care facilities?Although the goal is to study the role of physical and spatial building characteristics, organizational aspects and philosophy of care are explicitly incorporated in the research, since these moderate the outcomes of design decisions. In other words, we believe that a building that fits perfectly for one organization does not necessarily provide the ideal environment for a second organization that differs in scale, philosophy of child care or clientele. We therefore integrate information from building and surrounding area, organization and pedagogical aims into one model of quality of childcare facilities. This quest for quality also distinctly aimed to investigate quality from various viewpoints and thus combined the input from experts, management and staff of childcare organizations, parents and children. MethodTwenty childcare facilities of varying scale, pedagogical aims, and building age participated in the study. Among these were 12 facilities for preschoolers, 2 facilities for children aged 4-12 and 6 combined facilities. After stratifying the population for scale, and newly built vs. renovated buildings, facilities were selected randomly from the Dutch child care organizations, thus making sure that the sample consisted of facilities from all parts of the Netherlands and from both urban and rural regions. In every facility, various types of users were asked to share their experiences with us. In total, 190 child care staff members, 214 parents and 108 children participated in the study. Measurements & procedureAs the title implies, we employed a multi-user and multi-method strategy to gather the necessary information. Phase 1 The first phase consisted of two steps 1. Analysis of the plans of the building and its surroundings (size, number & types of spaces , connections between spaces, layout characteristics)2. Questionnaire regarding general characteristics of building and organization (age, philosophy of care, organization of activities, etc.)This provided the necessary information for preparing the site visit and interviews. Phase 2 The second phase consisted of questionnaires for: 1.every group staff member (questions regarding behaviour patterns of the children, evaluation of group space, bedrooms, activity spaces, outside play areas, building and facilities)2.a selection of the parents of children visiting the child care facility (evaluation of interior and exterior of the building, outside play areas and surroundings)3. children of 6 years and older (evaluation of some building characteristics and feelings when in the center, open ended ‘ I wish’ question)These questionnaires were distributed at least one week before the site visit and collected on that day. Phase 3 The third phase comprised a site visit of two researchers, this consisted of 1.a walkthrough evaluation guided by an extensive checklist of objective and subjective measurements (building hardware, layout, exterior, outside play areas, group spaces, activity spaces, kitchen and staff facilities, etc.)2. an interview with two or three care givers 3. an interview with the management of the facility. ResultsAt present, data have been gathered from 20 child care centers and data analyses are in progress. The first challenge was to combine all the data from the various instruments into one or two datasets. Data from the questionnaires were analyzed for scale construction. Factor analyses were performed and scale reliabilities were computed. This resulted in over 20 indicators of quality of various parts and characteristics from the expert list, 14 indicators from staff questionnaires and 6 indicators from parents lists. Children’ lists and interviews have yet to be analysed. The aim now is to look for relationships between objective building characteristics and these various quality indicators. Some of the questions we hope to answer in the near future are: is scale of the facility related to satisfaction reported by staff, parents and children? is scale of the facility related to freedom of movement of the children, variety of activities? Is the available space for children related to satisfaction reported by the various users and to the amount of activities possible in the building and on the playground? Do users prefer one playroom per group, or rather smaller playrooms and additional activity spaces? Is layout of the building related to freedom of movement of children, contacts between groups, children and or staff members and other indicators of quality? Is children’s sleeping behaviour related to space or number of bedrooms per group? Is there a connection between pedagogical aims and the way the building is organised?
Herrington, S.. "A Participatory Design Process." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. Participatory design processes often require participants to think and act creatively. This can be difficult for some people, making the experience of participation frustrating or embarrassing. How do we help people envision beyond what they have experienced? How can we encourage people who are intimidated by drawing to create? This paper describes two important stages in a participatory design process that has been in development for the past five years. The first stage involves looking at pictures in order to foster constructive and sustained exchanges regarding the outdoor environment. The second stage involves clay work where participants begin to explore design ideas for their environment. The environments are typically parks or outdoor play areas at schools and childcare centers. Examples are drawn from projects in Canada and the United States, and they involve adults and children.
L. Cross, Tucker. "A Pedagogical Tool for Architectural Education." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. This paper will focus on applying to the early stages of architectural education the method* developed by Tucker Cross and Küller (2004) by promoting techniques that will help guide and influence architectural students to design environments better suited to the public. It will also compare students’ evaluations of six housing areas with a previous study that employed five experts evaluating the same housing areas in regards to certain design aspects. The paper will also key in on the practical design work accomplished by students. These students found existing areas needing renovation and utilized information obtained from their education and practical work to redesign these areas so as to meet design criteria sufficient to improve the area. Research has shown that the type of architectural education students receive during their training process will directly influence and affect the way they perform in the future (Hubbard 1997, Salama 1997, Symes and Seidel 1999, Whitfield and Wiltshire 1982). This leads us to the importance of design education and how it influences the way students will design in the future. Whitfield and Wiltshire in a study a little over 20 years ago report that when comparing individuals that were professionally trained in architecture to those who were not there were apparent differences in how they perceived and evaluated aspects of the rural and urban environment. This reinforces the importance of proper and elaborate methods in design education to assure that in the early stages of development, students are given the components needed to help create desirable environments. Preiser and Ostroff (2001) makes an important inference that “today’s currency and source of value is information, knowledge, and creativity.” We know from our past research that individuals prefer certain aspects within their outdoor environment. These results can help designers create better environments. Procedure The course began with a lecture, pertaining to the introduction to environmental psychology; this lecture focused on the history, methods and theories. Following there were lectures pertaining to the design of outdoor environments for the elderly, outdoor environment for children focusing on daycare centers, expert assessments methods and a lecture on the principle and design methods in developing the POE and expert checklist for evaluating outdoor living environments. The course also included a lecture on literature review of the various topics and explanation and procedure in filling in the forms and evaluating the six housing areas. Results Comparing the students’ results with results from the experts’ from our previous study showed a highly significant correlation between groups. As concerns the different environmental qualities, significant differences were shown in all six areas. As for the students, they responded in a very positive way in relation to the education and guidance they received during the educational process. Conclusion This study has clearly shown that through lectures and explanations of these researched and developed materials, this expert checklist can be used as a pedagogical tool for teaching architecture students. It has the ability to help guide them in creating better and clearer outdoor environments for future projects.Footnote* Researchers willing to replicate are welcome to obtain a copy of the expert form from the authors.
Kepez, O, and E. Demir. A Spatial Approach to Equity: Analysis of Resource Distribution at Ncsu Campus In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. In daily-life of a student, the time spent to access university resources on campus takes a significant part of her/his regular agenda. The resources, in a wide sense, are all of the facilities expected to serve for students. It is also possible to subtitle them by dividing into three main categories: general resources (like main library, dining halls etc), local resources (like branch libraries, c stores, etc.) and spot resources (like teller machines, phone booths etc.). In plan layout of a campus general resources are located to places having diverse transportation means. The site of this study is a university campus that contains various types of resources like main library, main dining hall, student center and health center. It is declared that there cannot be any restrictions to use these areas under normal circumstances . This asserts the significance of equity of resource use in terms of service and maintenance. The aim of this study is to analyze equity in campus environments with its associations to spatial configurations. In other words, by studying spatial configurations of various resources, this study evaluates the equity concept with its spatial indicators in a campus setting. Geographical Information System (GIS) was utilized as a method of spatial analysis due to the capability of complex spatial analysis it can provide. University layout plan was studied in the resource distribution for each type of resource category mentioned above. The different layers of resource distribution analysis were then combined to illustrate the overall resource distribution. Then, these were divided into two categories according to the proximity of the resources. The resources that were closely situated on the plan were taken as resource centers. The individual resources located alone in between other buildings were defined as single resources. Analysis is based on the time spent to reach different resources from different faculty buildings. For this purpose, the pedestrian zones providing the access to these resource areas were defined. Following these routes, the effect area of the resource center and other single resources are categorized according to the time one needed to spend by pedestrian access. The time spent to reach different resources from different faculty buildings have clear connection with the term equity in terms of spending more time to have the same resource. Four types of zones were recognizable on the thematic map showing the time spent to reach resources. These were codified in an ordinal scale from highest accessible to least accessible. For scaling-intervals used in this codification, pedestrian accessibility criteria was taken. The first zone refers to the buildings 5 minute walking far from resources. The second zone stands for walking time between 5 to 10 minutes. The third zone shades the parts that it takes between 10 to 15 minutes. The fourth zone refers to the parts, which takes more than fifteen minute walking to access resources. The findings of this research for the specific case studied are as follows: Central resource distribution concept had higher potential for resource equity. However, the practicality of this resource distribution concept was limited because of the linear layout of the campus studied. Thus, decentralization was proposed for an alternative approach to provide research equity. The methodology used has a potential to evaluate different campus layouts in terms of equity of spatial distribution of resources. Moreover, further research based on the same conceptual framework will help generate design guidelines of campus planning by simulating the possible configurations of various resource distributions in campus settlements with different layout geometries.
Katayama, M, R Ohno, and M. Soeda. "A Study of the Physical Factors that Influence to Pedestrians Distance Perception." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. The purpose of this study is to find the physical factors that influence a pedestrian’s distance perception on urban streets. Many studies have been conducted to clarify that such environmental factors as number of intersections and landmarks (Sadala 1980), slopes (Okabe 1986) and destination visibility (Nasar 1985) influence distance perception, but the factors concerned with atmosphere of place had yet to be dealt with. Therefore, we attempted to clarify the influences of the amount of trees, shops and spaciousness of route while including some factors that had been revealed in the previous studies. In the first part of the study five routes to a university campus from a nearby commuter station were selected. The subject students were then asked to estimate the distance of segmented parts of the route with different atmosphere. The result shows four factors: 1)’walking time’; overestimation of the routes taking longer time caused by obstacles and a crowded environment 2)’energy load’; overestimation caused by upward slopes and stairs. 3)’information load’; overestimation in stairs. 4)’spaciousness’; underestimation in wide and extensive place. In the second part of the study an experiment was carried out to investigate the influence of ‘spaciousness’ of place by using a visual simulator. This simulator was developed to synchronize the subject's walking motion on the treadmill with video images shown on the head mounted display (HMD). The subjects were then asked to walk through a path that consisted of two spaces with differing width or height to show the proportion of the length of two spaces. The result revealed that a narrower, lower ceiling path where people perceive a much clearer line perspective and faster optical flow tends to be perceived longer.
Zhang, H, and J. H. Shyng. "A Study on the Appropriate Dwelling Size of Collective Housing in Four Metropolises of Taiwan Under Consideration of Sustainable Development." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. Under the concept of sustainable development, the assignments of architectural programming should not be concentrated on composition of buildings only, but also be extended to the outcome of the programs to environment, furthermore to provide a positive impact to it. Among various dwelling types, collective housing can afford greater quantity of habitable units, better management as well as increase the efficiency of land usage and decrease the interference of the unused land. That makes it belonging to one of the more sustainable dwelling types. In the high densely occupied island Taiwan, collective housing is just the most popular dwelling form that should promote the sustainability of residential environment. Unfortunately, residential behavior and requirements of dwellers are less concerned in practice, so that the users often have to rebuild their new houses to fit daily life. This unsustainable phenomenon of a sustainable dwelling type indicates that negligence of behavioral requirement by architectural programming for collective housing exists. Hence a suitable architectural programming considering an appropriate size and also behavioral requirements of residents at the same time could solve the problem. This study would try to discus the size and the usage of collective housing in four metropolises Taiwan’s, Taipei, Taizhong, Tainan and Gaoxiong, in last ten years. Under the premises of satisfaction with dwelling behaviors of residents, the sustainable factors would be found out to understand the relationship between sustainability and dwelling behavior in Taiwan. Method of this study is based on the post-occupied evaluation (POE) intending to inspect some behavioral issues of housing programming under the influence of sustainable development. Through statistical analyses of data surveyed the influence factors, such as ”family characters”, ”usage behavior” and ”consideration of sustainability”, onto dwelling size would be figured out. Using correlation analysis as well as principal component analysis, the structure of influence factors to dwellings size of collective housing would be discovered. This study could contribute to the sustainability of Taiwan by establishing a model of appropriate dwelling size for collective housing. Consequences of the research would as follow: 1. Represent the influence factors of dwelling size, and how they affect the size of individual spaces in a dwelling unit. 2. Build up a regression model by taking the influence factors as independent variables and the size of individual spaces in a dwelling unit as dependent variable. Using this model, dwelling size could be adjusted to an appropriate situation according to the requirements of usage and characters of the residents. 3. Variegate the sizes of individual spaces in a dwelling unite under a fixed size of dwelling unit. 4. Compare the investigated data with the appropriate value calculated from the model to illustrate the difference between the actuality and ideal of the sustainable dwelling size of collective housing in Taiwan.
Jungmin, L, K Michihiro, F Kunio, S Takeshi, and L. Bin. "A Study on the Environmental Transition of the Elderly in the Redeveloped Residential Area." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. Improvement of urban infrastructure and advanced land-use can be accomplished by reorganization of urban area through urban renewal, land adjustment, and so on. However, it can also bring about a serious influence on conventional lifestyle and living environment. In order to see how those developments affect the change of living environment, this study investigates and analyzes the actual condition of reestablishing living environment, focusing on the elderly who are vulnerable to the environmental change in the redeveloped residential area. The target area is the southern part of Ikuno in Osaka, a redeveloped area which has been congested and composed of wooden houses. The government of Osaka has performed redevelopment projects in this area and this area is seen as a model of development. In particular, rental apartment complex has been constructed there for accommodating residents who move out from the existing houses. It is because of the infrastructure maintenance, such as the construction of urban planning roads, or the reconstruction of the congested area composed of wooden houses. Based on the interviews conducted with residents over sixty years old (16 persons), who were living in the rental apartment complex (83 households live as of May, 2003.), this study investigated and analyzed the actual condition of environmental transition in terms of outdoor activities and relationship between neighbors. At first, investigation into the changes of outdoor activities that happened after moving in the newly constructed apartment complex is performed, separating outdoor spaces close to dwelling units from the neighborhood. The following aspects have been studied for outdoor spaces close to dwelling units: 1. the increase or decrease of the number of outdoor activities such as chatting, caring for plants, cleaning, and meeting of neighbors created by those outdoor activities; 2. the change of places where residents set flowerpots, garbage cans, clothes-drying platform, and bicycles before and after moving, and 3. whether they open the front door or not during their presence in the house and the reasons for the change. Next, for the daily going-out activities in the neighborhood, questions about five types of places have been asked: 1. place which they visit often, 2. place where they talk with neighbors, 3. place for spending time, 4. place where they go for their health, and 5. place which they can stop in with a light heart. In addition, for the change of relationship between neighbors, the degree of intimacy, its distribution, the spatial range that can be recognized as neighborhood, and social activities like the residents meeting have been investigated. This study shows the following results:1. After they moved in the newly constructed apartment complex, the opportunities to communicate with neighbors at outdoor spaces close to dwelling units dramatically decreased, because outdoor activities such as caring for plants, cleaning and so on decreased and most activities took place indoors. 2. The places used by the residents in the neighborhood before moving are the important elements to keep their lifestyles and customs even after moving; 3. The formation of a neighborhood after moving depends on the location of households of the neighborhood previously formed and the common activities of apartment residents like the monthly meeting; 4. As mentioned above, when making an entire plan for redeveloping of congested area composed of wooden houses, not only the reconstruction of the elderly‚ living environments but also the following factors have to be taken into account: 1. investigation of the important life resources such as facilities, place and lifestyle in the area, maintenance and succession of them, 2. house design considering outdoor activities to form a connection between outdoor space and common parts, and 3. desirable arrangement of dwelling units that can consider the relationships between the previous neighbors moving in and the support of common activities of apartment residents to form an intimate community.
Chen, Kuan-Wen, and Yung-Jaan Lee. "A Study on the Measurement of the Quality of Community Life: from the Quality of Life to Explore City Competitiveness." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. Globalization has become a necessary trend for the 21st century. How cities can be competitive becomes an important issue nowadays for governments around the world. In an UN report, it is predicted that in 2050 over 50% of the world population will be living in urban areas. Consequently, the quality of urban life will play an important role in light of global city competition. In the new era, how to objectively measure people’s perceptions and attitudes towards their living environment becomes an urgent and appropriate task. Using the indicators of quality of life to evaluate the living environment of a certain area can therefore be adopted as an appropriate policy strategy and can be used as the basis for increasing the competitiveness of that area. This work acquires permission from the Detroit Area Study (DAS, University of Michigan) team to include Tainan as one of the global comparison samples. Therefore, using the DAS as the basis and using the literature of global city, sustainable development (SD) and city competitiveness to examine the quality of life in Tainan can therefore provide an evaluation system and a monitoring mechanism for evaluating the quality of urban life. Subsequently, results can be adopted by Tainan and other governments in Taiwan to increase city competitiveness and further to achieve the sustainable development goal.
Demir, Evrim, and Orcun Kepez. A Study on the Role of Densit(Ies) on Perceived Neighborhood Quality: Case of Off-Campus Student Housing Neighborhoods in North Carolina, Usa In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. The concept of density has been an appealing notion used by many scholars, since it is, at first glance, objective, quantitative and neutral (Churchman, 1999). Starting from the grand urban theories, social and spatial changes in environment have been related to density notions. Churchman’s prominent study on the concept reveals that both density as a phenomena and its measurements are complex varying among fields and scholars. For neighborhood quality (NQ) studies, which focus on the measurement of quality in the smallest socio-spatial unit of urbanism, density has been a crucial component with its various dimensions. However, due to the complexity of the concept its integration into these studies is again various. Therefore, the comparison of the impact of density on the quality of neighborhoods cannot be clearly made within cross-contextual studies. Density has not been fully understood with its relation to NQ. The main purpose of this study is to analyze interrelationships of density and NQ with its different dimensions. Considering neighborhood as both a social and spatial unit, this study includes social domain as well by integrating the notion of social interaction in this relationship. The conceptual framework of this study is based on understanding the role of different densities and social interaction on overall perceived NQ. In measuring overall perceived NQ, this study uses the conceptual model of perceived NQ of Connerly and Marans (1988), considering it the most comprehensive model in literature. Their model uses only objective residential density as a measurement of perceived NQ. This study argues that perceived NQ cannot be affected by only one type of density. In order to broaden an understanding of the effect of density on perceived NQ, it is necessary to measure density with its wider definition and various meanings. For this purpose, Churchman’s conceptual study on density is integrated with the NQ model of Connerly and Marans. This will help understand how different densities affect overall perceived NQ. Density and social interaction are used as independent variables. Perceived NQ, the dependent variable, is measured as overall and with its global indicators as satisfaction and attachment. Density concept is analyzed in a two-level approach: objective and perceived density. Four urban residential neighborhoods with different objective densities were purposefully selected as cases. To decrease the effect of other variables, respondent’s socio-economic status and general homogeneity of the neighbors were used as control variables. All the four cases were residential neighborhoods known to be off-campus student housing areas located in the same region and all were on the university’s bus route. Different objective densities grouped under residential and public space density were measured by the use of the neighborhood plans in an interval scale. Low-density\high-density matrix was developed for both residential and public space densities. Perceived densities, social interaction and perceived overall NQ were measured by a self-administered survey taken from a convenience sample of 30 respondents from each neighborhood. Perceived density was measured in an ordinal scale with perceived residential and public space density. Social interaction was measured as actual and perceived social interaction within neighborhood. Actual social interaction was measured with number of visits within neighborhood, number of neighbors known by name and considered as friends. Perceived social interaction was measured in an ordinal scale with satisfaction of social interaction in the neighborhood. Overall perceived NQ was measured with neighborhood satisfaction and attachment in an ordinal scale. The findings showed that density and perceived NQ had overall a positive linear relationship. Rather than objective residential density, objective public space density had a more significant effect on the overall perceived NQ. Especially public space densities measured for shared outdoor spaces (shared gardens and courtyards) and social amenities (community hall, pool, sports area, playground) were considered effective in the increase of perceived NQ. Objective residential density and social interaction demonstrated a combined affect in overall perceived NQ. Perceived densities varied related to the actual social interaction level of the respondent. Overall, neighborhood satisfaction rates were more parallel to overall perceived NQ rates than attachment rates as given by respondents. This was interpreted as the low attachment experiences of students to their housing environments, which showed satisfaction as a more reliable predictor in measuring NQ for similar contexts. The significance of this study is related to two important aspects. First, the results will help researchers develop an understanding in the effect of different densities on perceived NQ. Second, this study with its case selection is one of the few off-campus student housing studies, which defines a peculiar type of user group that needs attention in human-environment research.
Betrabet-Gulwadi, G, and S. Rodiek. "Accessing Enriched Experience: Recent Research, Design, Implementation and Use of Outdoor Spaces for Older People." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. This symposium presents recent research studies and design efforts that engage elderly participants in a dialogue regarding their outdoor space. The objectives of the symposium are to compare, contrast and discuss our collective endeavors and map a future focused agenda that will address pressing issues related to outdoor space use by older adults with varying levels of independence and from different ethnic groups. In our presentations and discussions, we look forward to: 1) addressing the psychological and social impact of outdoor designed spaces that are currently being designed, built and/or used at many facilities for older people, 2) examining preferences of elderly users from different ethnic groups for nature-related activities and settings in which they can occur, and 3) reflecting on when designed gardens, in particular, are deemed a success versus when they are not.
Betrabet-Gulwadi, Gowri, and Susana Alves. "Accommodating Culturally Meaningful Activities in Outdoor Settings for Older Adults." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. "This presentation will introduce a recent study that examined cultural variations in nature-related activities among elderly Spanish-speaking immigrants and English-speaking non-Hispanic Anglo-Americans. The study built on findings in earlier literature indicating that exposure to, and experience with nature (e.g., trees, plants, outdoor gardens) reduces levels of negative psychological effects among elderly people. Nature 'frames' (photographs of different types of outdoor settings selected as stimuli) were used to engage Hispanic older adults in an adult day care facility and Anglo-American residents in an assisted living facility in a discussion of nature-related activities and preferences. The findings suggest that older Hispanic adults find "furnished" natural settings (e.g., shaded courtyard with seating, plaza with informal seating) more compatible with their preferred activities such as family and group-oriented socializing. Anglo-American older adults in this study are drawn towards "authentic" natural settings (e.g., green lawn, natural pond) that were highly compatible with their preferred activities such as nature enjoyment and quiet reflection. The design and research implications of this study in accommodating culturally meaningful activities in outdoor settings for older adults will be discussed."
Chatterjee, Sudeshna, and Virginia Sullivan. "Action Research with Children in Public Housing: Simulating Courses of Action to Develop Environmental Competence." In Designing Social Innovation: Planning, Building, Evaluating - Proceedings of the 18th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Hogrefe & Huber, 2005.

This paper investigates how middle school children can be engaged in community and environmental design in order to create a more nurturing and equitable living place in their public housing neighborhood. Several outcomes are worth noting, although the conclusions cannot be generalized from this small sample of self-selected middle school children. The children’s summaries of their experience, presented to the NC State College of Design, demonstrated learning outcomes including social and environmental awareness, evidence of environmental competence and empowerment to truthfully analyze the present situation as a first step toward change. The children’s strongest needs from a designed environment were expressed in the three simulation studies as 1) satisfaction of physical needs by actualizing affordances, and 2) development of personal identity through psychological ownership of the designed environment.

Al-Solaiman, S.. "Adaptation to a New Model of Housing: a Case Study of Low-Rise Private-Sector Housing, Elghat, Saudi Arabia." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. In line with the first development plan issued in 1974 in Saudi Arabia, the municipality of the town of Elghat planned an area of 95 hectares to accommodate 808 lots in three sized in addition to the public services and encouraged its inhabitants to move to it only one year later. This planning was according to western standards that were newly introduced to the country in general. The settlement of the people of Elghat was originally a traditional one that was the result of an unselfconscious process developing over a long period of time and providing a strong fit between the people’s needs and their environment since it adjusted gradually to the changes within the community. Houses constructed of mud bricks and stone were divided by narrow streets and cul-de-sacs. Wall-to-wall connected courtyard houses accommodated neighbors that were either relatives or close friends, a trait that facilitated social interaction and closeness of ties. The municipality first distributed the lots to the inhabitants as grants, so those who came first got the bigger lots. People were restricted to choose a house design from three ready-made plans provided by the municipality. Furthermore, the Real Estate Development Fund gave each family 30,000 SR to finance the construction. Since reinforced concrete was introduced for the first time, the lack of technical skill and knowledge of the contractor in charge resulted in many physical shortcomings of the houses. Many of them suffered structural problems due to uneven settlement or severe cracking, while others were built in the wrong direction having the back face the main street. In addition to the technological faults in the physical form the more important disparity was between the imported concept of living that these houses supported and their inhabitants. Instead of accommodating the extended family in one house, nuclear families were encouraged to each own a separate house thus affecting the closeness of family relations. Since lots were allocated on a first-come first-serve basis the families could not intentionally choose to be neighbors meaning that the new wide streets separated them further. The spatial organisation of the houses as well did not provide for the adequate separation of men and women nor did it respect their pattern of living. Another shortcoming of these modern houses was the lack of privacy it provided since the external spaces were now subjected to the preying eyes of neighbors who could easily overlook the setbacks. The drastic change of the urban and architectural environment that these people were subjected to, yielded varying responses. At first the sense of being part of the modern world overwhelmed the inhabitants blinding them to the negative side; in fact many were happy about specific aspects of life such as having less dust to sweep and sanitary installations. However it was not long until modifications were undertaken. In general they covered one of three purposes: to fix structural problems or faults in construction, to build additions in order to accommodate the growing family and to adapt to social needs by reflecting their patterns in the built form. The concern of this paper is directed primarily to the latter of these. In that category the findings were that concerns such as the lack of privacy, the inadequacy of male and female separation, the lack of space, the inappropriate separation of public and private (guest and family) spaces and the considerations of front and back have directed the adaptations carried out. The physical reflections of these social concerns will be presented in the paper. This study examines these modifications of more than 25 years by means of constructing a spatio-temporal path that documents these alterations in accordance with the temporal changes of the families’ social life. To do so 3 representative case studies were documented and analyzed in order to extract a social pattern that was not accommodated by the original design. The case studies were acquired through fieldwork encompassing interviews with the inhabitants of the houses regarding their social pattern and their physical environment; documentation of floor plans at the present state as well as reconstructions of the floor plans throughout the occupation of the house; and taking pictures of the external and internal features of the houses. Simply put, this paper documents and analyzes the process of adaptation between the ‘modern’ house of Elghat and their inhabitants- how the people adapted to the new physical environment by developing new patterns of social conduct and how they adapted their physical forms to their unchanging societal needs. Note: Elghat is a town that lies 240 km northwest of Saudi Arabia’s capital Riyadh and is at least one thousand years old. It was chosen for this study due to the clarity of experience since it transformed in a very short time from a traditional town to a physically modern one.
Lord, S.. "Aging at Home in Suburbs: a Comparison of Three Age Groups with Regards to Territorial Mobility and Residential Aspirations." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. Recent analyses bring to light the physical and social aging of American, Canadian and Australian suburbs built in the years 1950 and 1960. In the Quebec metro area, for instance, we find more elders living in suburbs than central neighborhoods. The generalized car dependency, as well as the maintenance associated with ownership, constitute potential obstacles for growing old at home in suburbs. Indeed, several authors have suggested that suburbs are functionally not adapted to less mobile and autonomous people, compared to central neighborhoods which offer a greater proximity to the commercial and transportation facilities.However, despite certain functional problems, suburban elders prefer to remain in their current home as long as possible. Attitudes seem to differ among “younger” seniors who would move in greater proportion to more central sectors (Després & Lord, 2002).The meanings of “home” for suburban elders can account for needs-adaptation imbalances observed between elderly and their residential milieu (Rubinstein, 1998). In everyday life,“ageing-at-home” is experienced positively by seniors through concrete and emotional dimensions, to the extent where senior suburbanites will maintain problematic residential situations rather than moving to housing types that would better serve their functional needs such as nursing homes, condominium or rental apartment. Indeed, these alternatives represent residential experiences and associate meanings which contrast with the interests, values and past living experience of suburbia. All of the elders interviewed in 1999 in our preliminary survey were mobile in the urban space, even the oldest. They used their car daily and drove pretty much wherever they wanted. While they experienced few problems at that time, the lost of their driver’s license should be considered as a key issue for the maintenance of their quality of life and the realization of their residential aspirations, even more so than functional autonomy or health problems.Several researchers have stressed the importance of adopting a temporal perspective to study the evolution of senior citizens’ functional autonomy as well as their social context to better understand their residential choices. Suburban elders’ territorial mobility as well as effective residence choices should thus be monitored along the years.This communication compares the territorial mobility and the perception of residential future of three sub-groups of suburban elders interviewed in 1999 (total=92) : 55-64 years old (n=36), 65-74 years old (n=32) and 75 years old or more (n=24). A second serie of interviews with the same elders is planned for 2004, as part of a qualitative longitudinal survey to explore, on the one hand, seniors’ effective residential choice, and, on the other hand, the evolution of their territorial mobility and its influence on those residential choice. The strong desire to age in place, the good health and the high territorial mobility observed for over 8 out 10 respondents in 1999 let us expect to retrace half of them in 2004 (total=46: 55-64=18, 65-74=16 and over 75 n=12). To generate the second set of data, interviews person to person with open-ended questions will be utilized. Elderly’ quality of life, residential satisfaction as well as meanings of home will be discussed in relationship with the evolution of their territorial mobility and, if need be, with their new residential environments.While a great majority of seniors expressed their desire to age in their home in 1999 (Després & Lord, 2002), we expect that most of them will have remained in place five years later. Strategies developed to cope with functional limitations and the loss of driving capacity will be analyzed. The most vulnerable minority with regards to vehicular mobility observed in 1999, mostly widowed women who do not drive or have access to a car, are expected to have moved in greater proportion to nursing homes mostly by obligation as they told in 1999. The impact on quality of life, residential satisfaction and experience of home will be scrutinized in order to adapt the suburbs’ environment to the needs of their aged population as well as to enhance the aging in place experience in these kind neighborhoods where most of elders are now living.
Loebach, Janet. An Affordance-Based Approach to the Design of Effective Learning Environments for Children In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. This paper advocates for a new approach to the design of settings within learning environments that more effectively responds to the inclinations of children. The work of researchers such as Gibson, Greeno and Heft regarding the theory of affordances has led to an understanding that children‚s perception of the possibilities inherent in their environment is functionally-oriented and is directly related to both their capabilities and intentions (Greeno, 1994; Heft, 1988). It has also been suggested by environment-behaviour studies that rigidly defined features and settings may only support a narrow set of experiences and actually inhibit children‚s natural imaginative activities (Pollowy, 1977; Moore, G et al, 1979). Consequently, unstructured or ambiguous activities and surroundings may be as important for supporting developmentally appropriate experiences as more defined, formal settings. This paper therefore explores the notion that Œloose‚, affordance-rich settings can successfully reflect and encourage children‚s natural learning behaviour, while providing the environmental conditions that research dictates is conducive to healthy development.This investigation focuses on the developmental benefits for children of access to, and engagement with, informal, affordance-rich features and spaces within the context of formal school environments. A number of affordance-rich features are used to illustrate how such Œinviting forms‚ respond to the needs and intentions of child users, with specific attention to a few critical psychological developments of the early to middle childhood stages. The results of a critical review of case studies of 3 formal learning environments, built within the last 15 years in Europe, North America and Australia, will be discussed with respect to each facility‚s ability to provide unstructured and engaging settings capable of facilitating some of the critical developmental experiences of children aged 4 to 7 years old.Please Note: The above mentioned case studies are under active review at this time. However, it is expected that this study will generate a set of design guidelines which will outline how various affordance-rich features, arrangements and patterns can be incorporated into the physical form of a school environment to provide incentive for the experiences and interactions that are considered critical to the healthy development of children in the age range of the study group.BackgroundResearch from a wide range of disciplines over the last couple of decades has provided enormous insight into the natural behaviour of children, the unique ways in which they perceive their environments, as well as the environmental experiences and conditions that are necessary for their healthy development and well being. Studies have demonstrated that appropriate development, for example, requires the opportunity for the child to experience both privacy and appropriate social interaction throughout the various stages of childhood (Wohlwill & Heft, 1997; Cooper Marcus, 1995). A child‚s ability to choose and manipulate their settings to suit their purposes is also known to be an important component in the critical process of developing a sense of identity and environmental competence (Proshansky & Fabian, 1987; Sanoff, Sanoff & Hensely, 1972). It has also been established that children learn by Œdoing‚, and that exploration and discovery experiences are important methods for obtaining knowledge and understanding (Brown & Campione, 1996; Sanoff, 2000). With respect to the physical nature of behaviour settings, both research and design practice has demonstrated that a successful environment is one whose form and philosophy is compatible with the desired behaviour and preferences of the inhabitant. In the case of learning environments for children, an effective setting must therefore embody an understanding of the natural learning behaviour of children and their unique perception of the opportunities afforded by a physical form or space. These facilities are particularly of interest since, as Gump suggests, children spend such a significant amount of time immersed in these environments that much of the time is devoted to living as well as learning (cf. Wohlwill & Heft, 1987). The quality of this living is therefore of vital importance. However, many formal learning environments for children do not exhibit an understanding of the natural behaviour and numerous needs of children, and fail to provide a built environment that effectively supports the variety of experiences critical to appropriate development during childhood.Sanoff suggests that achieving more appropriate learning environments for children necessarily requires an approach that recognizes the vast differences in needs, abilities and preferences that these sensitive users exhibit (1994). The critical factor in developing responsive learning settings lies in the ability of an environment to effectively accommodate the various demands and intentions of its users. In the case of children, an effective setting must provide physical forms and attributes that are congruent with the goals and inclinations of a group of unique children. That is, the ability to respond to the myriad needs and objectives of these particular users must be made integral to the form itself.
Küller, R.. "An Emotional Model of Human-Environment Interaction." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. Previous models of environmental psychology have put the focus mainly on the cognitive processes, with each step in the process leading to the next in a rather static manner. This may be exemplified by some of the attitude theories developed over the last years (e.g. Ajzen and Fishbein, 1980; Stern, 2000). Among the few exceptions to the cognitive approach is Russell’s Circumplex model of emotional response to environmental settings, where two dimensions are used in order to describe the human-environment interaction (Russell et al., 1981). Recently, however, several authors have pointed to the need to put more emphasis on the emotional aspects – so called ‘hot cognition’. Actually, recent research in the field of neuropsychology indicates that affective responses are faster and more basic than cognitive processes (Armony et al, 1997; Damasio, 1994; DeBecker, 1997; LeDoux, 1996). Over the last 30 years I have been concerned with the development of an environmental model, which is build around ‘the basic emotional process’. From an evolutionary perspective emotions may be regarded as instrumental for survival in an ever changing environment. For instance, fear is the emotional response to a hostile event, leading to aversive behaviour, whereas pleasure or anger might instead result in approach. The whole range of aesthetical responses can be regarded as a reward-aversion continuum in relation to external events. According to the present model the Basic Emotional Process evolves in four consecutive steps: Activation, Orientation, Evaluation, and Control. The physiological correlates of these steps were described in detail by Küller (1991). 1. Activation: The process begins by a change of some kind either in the eternal environment or in the mental representation of that environment. 2. Orientation: This is followed by exploratory behaviour, either in the external world or as an extended memory search. 3. Evaluation: The outcome is evaluated in terms of the significance for the individual, resulting in a positive, neutral, negative, (or conflicting) outcome. 4. Control: The process is terminated through overt behaviour or a restructuring of the cognitive structure, or both. The Basic Emotional Process is related to various characteristics of the individual and the environment in an elaborate model, each part of which has been corroborated by previous research, amongst other by means of multivariate analysis (Figure 1). The Built Environment can be further described in eight factors: Pleasantness, Complexity, Unity, Enclosedness, Potency, Social Status, Affection, and Originality. The relationship between some of these factors and the Basic Emotional Process has been empirically tested. For instance, an increase of Complexity, and a decrease of Unity, can result in heightened Activation of the central nervous system (Küller and Mikellides, 1993). (As this submission does not accept figure, this will be attached to mail.) Figure 1. The Basic Emotional Process is influenced by the Built and the Social Environment. This is mediated through the Individual’s Activities and Resources. The Social Environment can be described by means of five factors: Social Intensity, Interpersonal Stability, Familiarity, Coherence, and Friendliness of the situation, whereas the ongoing Activities may be analysed in terms of Work Load, Satisfaction, Routine, and Variation. As for the description of the Individual Resources this can be done by means of classical psychological descriptors, such as Emotionality and Excitability, modified through individual Coping Strategies. The ongoing processes might cover briefer or longer time periods, for instance, driving a car during rush hours, or office work during a normal week. The present model has been employed fully, or partly, in a number of experimental and field studies. Küller (1979) used the model as a theoretical and experimental framework in a study of social crowding and the complexity of the built environment. It was employed by the same author in a large study of housing for the elderly in Sweden (1988). In one study of daycare environments Laike (1997) found that extrovert children displayed higher levels of control than introvert children. Johansson (2000) used the model as a theoretical framework in a study of attitudes to pro-environmental travel behaviour, and Drottenborg (2002) used it to study whether beautiful traffic environments are safer than ugly ones. Küller and Janssens (1999) tested the complete model in a field study at the Meteorological Station at the Sturup Airport, Malmö, Sweden, and the outcome formed the basis for a redesign of the station. The model lends itself to application at several different environmental levels, such as, indoor climate, urban planning, and landscape design.
Tsoukala, Kyriaki, and Maria Daniil. "An Evaluation of New Public Space: the Case of Multifunctional Commercial Complexes." In Designing Social Innovation: Planning, Building, Evaluating - Proceedings of the 18th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Hogrefe & Huber, 2005.

The dominance of shopping, with the enforcement of its rules and conditions in almost every aspect of our life, is considered as a new prism through which we read and experience our urban environments, along the western world. This phenomenon does not fail to influence the Greek city. The present paper aims to examine the “experienced” reality of new “public” spaces, through a field research concerning Thessaloniki’s multifunctional commercial complexes. The population sample consisted of 40 individuals. The research data was collected by means of personal interviews and was analyzed with content analysis and descriptive statistics. In the first two sections, theoretical issues concerning the changes of public life and public space in the era of globalization are developed. This theoretical approach leads to questions about the changes observed in the Greek city, to which the responses are given through the field research’s results, which are extensively presented in the next sections.

Cimcoz, Nerime, and Aysen C. Benli. An Evaluation of the Aesthetical Concepts in the Architecture for Higher Education Buildings In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. This study is structured around three parallel themes: the loss of architecture’s aesthetic significance which aims to discuss the nature and the limits of architecture as an art in a general epistemological perspective; the problematic nature of architecture, after modern and postmodern effects in the bourgeois society within the Higher Education Buildings and the life of the young; and the aesthetical concepts in the architecture of higher education buildings and its political implications with the questions concerning the essence, form and culture in aesthetics. In our times, there has been a marked tendency to attribute the loss of architecture’s poetic significance to modernism and rationality. As a result, the architecture, art and aesthetics become far away from human. Different philosophical perspectives such as phenomenology and poststructuralism surprisingly converge on accusing modernism and its philosophical foundations for depriving architecture of its mythical rhetorical substance giving prominence to logos, i.e., to what counts as universal objective knowledge. Both viewpoints fail to recognize the Architectural Aesthetics of the problem concerning arts’ alienation from culture: the former by unrealistically suggesting a revival of pre-enlightened consciousness; the latter by renouncing rationality and history as futile attempts to overcome ‘the will to power’ which they assume to be an unsurpassable part of human existence. In this study, the significance of Aesthetics in the Art of Architecture, is discussed from the point of view of a historical-philosophical framework, developed from Platon, Kant, Hegel, B:Croce and our times. The accept of an universal architecture is negative as Aesthetical view, and whereas the industrial society aimed for universality and homogeneity, the information society will aim for multiplicity, as Architecture will be achieved to protect the differences of Architectures and Cultures and their different Aesthetical values. It is maintained that the loss of protection for local Aesthetical values in the Art of Architecture during the Enlightenment period and later, is part of a complex set of social, cultural, technical transformations that have brought about art’s separation from life in modern bourgeois society. An important part of this work is devoted to the discussion of the availability to social transformation and cultural changes in the Architecture of higher education and the environment of youth as Aesthetics of Architecture and the changes of design in the essence of Aesthetics, form and the results of the relations between Aesthetical concepts and Architecture of Higher Education Buildings. A re-assessment of the period after modernism, postmodernism and deconstruction, has been made regarding their position within the broader question of Aesthetics and Art’s autonomies. In a design, the most important factors to be taken into consideration are the essence, form and culture. For this reason, nowadays, to understand the essence, form and culture for university buildings environment and during the process of design of a certain item (object, building, environment, etc.) in an aesthetic manner as functional as possible for young people and for staff, it must be understood well some systems of culture in the world. Investigating whether to preserve this actual reality and to produce an aesthetic environment with a conformist idea, or change completely this system and going out from the actual reality and by a revolutionary manner to a new culture and reaching to a new horizon- to virtual reality which is not existing. It is there that the basis of the problem exists. Key words: Aesthetics in Architecture for Higher Education Buildings, Postmodernism, Essence (Function), Form, Culture.
Carr, V. L.. An Examination of the Impact of the Interior Environment on Patients and Staff in Maternity Facilities In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. "The research aims to determine which distinct aspects of the interior environment have particular impact on patient and staff satisfaction within maternity units. The study will be conducted in ten different types of maternity unit throughout the UK and will focus on recent developments in healthcare design, in particular the focus on patient-centred design and the patient-as-client philosophy now driving most new healthcare projects. My area of interest is in how this new emphasis on patient experience will impact on staff morale.The theoretical basis for our research lies within Environmental Psychology and Post Occupancy evaluation. The premise for Evidence based design is that a design solution for any new build or refurbishment project should flow out of a detailed analysis of the client’s work styles, organisational behaviours and psychological and physiological requirements. Roger Ulrich, considered one of the founders of the discipline in healthcare, pioneered research into the correlation between environment and patient welfare. He is quoted as saying, "We’re learning that when you use scientific evidence to drive the design of health care environments and processes, you can impact a wide variety of factors, from medical errors and nosocomial infections to stress and staff turnover.” (Bilchik G.S 2002) Colin Martin, in an article in The Lancet concurs,“The premise that physical environment affects patient well-being reflects common sense. Evidence-based design is poised to emulate evidence-based medicine as a central tenet for health care in the 21st century" (Martin, C., August 2000)Our literature review has involved a wide search of web-based articles and professional journals ranging from medicine, psychology and sociology to architecture and design. The basic hypothesis of my study is Happy staff = Happy patients. The patient experience of the healthcare environment is filtered through their relationship with the caregiver, therefore equal attention must be paid to the design of staff facilities. Questions asked: Is our concentration on the patient experience alienating staff in healthcare facilities? Is the focus on the public entrance and fa?ade, cosmetic and aesthetic taking too big a slice of our budget for healthcare buildings and are staff facilities being compromised, impacting on staff morale?As a result of the need for ethical approval from the various health boards, it was decided to use a descriptive methodology involving environmental quality assessment and user satisfaction studies. We are conducting a Post occupancy evaluation, developing and using the NHS Estates ‘Achieving Excellence Design Evaluation Toolkit’. Satisfaction questionnaires have been given to birthing mothers, birth partners, medical staff, midwives, hospital management and housekeeping/ancillary staff. The patient self-report forms are then correlated with their medical records to see whether there is any link between satisfaction with the interior environment and clinical outcomes. Focus groups and interviews will then take place to further discuss the issues raised in the questionnaires. We are currently analysing data from our pilot study at Forth Park Maternity Unit. Have received multi centre ethical approval for other sites, and are in the process of submitting R+D applications to the other sites. We have already conducted preliminary visits to three sites in the south of England and as at 31st January are in the process of customising the presentation of our questionnaires to suit the layout and type of maternity facilities involved. It is expected that the study will show that staff morale, job satisfaction and absenteeism rates are all positively impacted by perceived improvements in the working environment. The most positive response is expected from those staff members who feel a sense of ‘ownership’ of the design process and outcome, and a less positive response from those who feel new working practices are imposed on them. We have received funding for a three year research project from NHS Estates. "
Volker, L, and D. J. M. van der Voordt. "An Integral Tool for a Diagnostic Evaluation of New Offices." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. For several years now organizations are implementing innovative workplaces. Main objectives are an improvement of organizational performance and cost reduction by working more effectively and a more efficient use of accommodation and other facilities. Other objectives are: improving communication, attracting and retaining personnel and emitting a positive image. Although some research has been done already into the use and experience of new offices, there is a growing need for sound data collection about the effects of new concepts on organizational goals and user needs. Instructed by the Government, the Center for People and Buildings in Delft is developing an instrument that can be used for a diagnostic Pre- or Post-Occupancy Evaluation, including many relevant aspects. The tool can be used to evaluate the effects of design interventions, to indicate problems and to support decisions about changing the (physical) working environment. The instrument deals with the effect of the workplace on experience (satisfaction, health, image), use (behavioral patterns, occupancy), economical aspects (productivity, facility costs and Economic Value Added), future value (trends, adaptability to trends and organizational changes)) and the implementation process of new workplaces. It has a modular structure so users of the tool can select the subjects they want to include in a diagnosis. The introduction modules guide the user in choosing the scope of the evaluations, its objectives, research methods and prerequisites with respect to time and money, leading to an evaluation study that suits the conditions of the organization. Point of departure of the evaluation are the preliminary objectives set for the work environment and a clear description of the new and old situation (organization, working processes, facilities). The instrument provides a framework to analyze documents about the workplace, questions to execute interviews with ‘key-persons’ of the project organizations, questionnaires to ask the employees about their experiences, observations methods to list the use of the environment and a framework to check the costs and benefits. The modules of the instrument will be based on a review of literature and existing evaluation methods. Currently the instrument is being tested in cases at departments of the Dutch Government and other organizations. All data will be included in a database. As such, a number of data will become available for cross case research, building up a body of knowledge and benchmarking. The knowledge may fulfill our needs to confirm or disprove the hypotheses and expectations that go round in the field of facility management and real estate management.
Volker, Leentje, and Theo J. M. van der Voordt. "An Integral Tool for the Diagnostic Evaluation of Non-Territorial Offices." In Designing Social Innovation: Planning, Building, Evaluating - Proceedings of the 18th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Hogrefe & Huber, 2005.

Nowadays, many organizations have innovative workplaces with desk-sharing and desk-rotation. The main objectives are 1) to improve organizational performance by better communication, and 2) cost reduction by the more efficient use of accommodation and other facilities. Although some research has been conducted into the use and experience of new offices, there is a need for sound data about the overall effects on organizational performance and user needs. Commissioned by the government, the Center for People and Buildings in Delft has developed an instrument for an ex ante or ex post evaluation of non-territorial offices. The tool has been based on an extensive literature review and is being tested in a number of case studies. The tool can be used to indicate problems in the present situation, to evaluate the effects of design interventions, and in support of decisions to change the physical working environment.

Hong, Y.. An Integrated Approach to Behavior Setting Analysis on an Open-Plan Office In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. A behaviour setting can be viewed as a small-scale social system comprising people and inanimate components (Barker, 1968). Various components within the temporal and spatial boundaries of the system interact in an orderly and highly regulated fashion to fulfil essential setting functions. As a result of constant person-environment interaction, behaviour settings become associated with particular patterns of behaviour (Bechtel, 1982). Thus, analyzing the behavioural patterns occurring within each setting can help to understand and evaluate the impact of the physical aspects of the setting in relation to its key functions and objectives. The present study applies behaviour setting theory to the evaluation of a workplace environment. Conceiving of the environment in behaviour setting terms makes it clear that physical features of the workplace environment and behaviour patterns within the enclosure must be closely interrelated. Thus, workspaces and facilities must not only create a desired mood or atmosphere but also facilitate actions of people for organizational purposes. Using Behaviour Setting Analysis (eliciting subjective occupant accounts combined with observations of objective patterns of behavior), the study looks at the overall environment-behavior fit of a behavior setting as a workplace system in relation to setting functions and organizational goals. The setting of particular interest is an open plan office environment in a University Library, staffed by people who have recently been migrated from a set of closed group offices. In particular, the present study assesses the open plan office environment in relation to physical structure (arrangement of the groups in an open space, individual workstation boundaries and activities, facility use and locations, privacy issues and physical distractions), interpersonal and social relationships, and the attitudes and perceptions among office users. In addition, the study will compare the working environments before and after physical changes, to enable an evaluation over a 6 month period of time, the effect of the change on the individuals, groups, and organization as a whole. The open setting consists of about 25 regular occupants from 4~5 different groups. As a comparative study between pre and post office occupancy, data gathering will take place once in early October 2003 and another in April, 2004 (6 months later): a) individual interview, b) sociometry questionnaire via email, c) activity survey questionnaire via email, d) behavior setting survey, e) office photographs and floor drawing, f) interview with keypersons, and g) document references. Overall, the objectives of the study are 1) to describe key behavioral characteristics of office users in relation to the office environment, 2) to identify social and physical variables from the environment that affect or interact with the office users’ cognitions, motivations, and social processes, 3) to assess the structure of social interactions among individuals as well as groups, 4) to assess the interdependence and boundaries among workstations and facilities, 5) thus, to evaluate the overall environment-behavior fit in the workplace system for the setting functions and organizational goals.
Kohyama, S, T Suzuki, K Funahashi, M Kita, and B. Li. Analysis of City Space Based on the Ecological Geometry In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. "The "Ecological Geometry" has a possibility to substitute the Euclidean geometry for architectural design. This theory treats the visual flow in a view that appears when we walk in city space. That is, it has a possibility to explain the architectural environment directly that we are experimenting. The Ecological Geometry is the system of the coordinates contained our view directly. It is possible to expresses the peculiar of our visual experiences in each place. Compared with the Euclidean Geometry that based on x-y-z coordinates separated from our view. Some designers and researchers mentioned about experiences of our walking sequence. But it seems that many of them tend to be explained by visual experience like a slide show. We try to observe differential changes in the view appeared by walking. When one walks in the city space and even when he/she stays there, he/she usually catches the buildings as swaying the body and changing the view subtly and unconsciously. When one walks through the city space, the backward buildings may appear in the view from behind the front buildings gradually; or when one walks under an elevated railroad, it will expand gradually in the upper part of the view. The combination of these differential changes makes the characteristic of visual experience on each place of the city. These changes correspond with the arrangement of buildings. In this study, we aimed to explain the quality obtained from our experience in each place and tried to make clear the relation between an optical flow and the composition of city buildings. Three areas were researched :(Chayamachi-area, Sonezaki-area and the area in front of Osaka station) with different scale, differ buildings form, and different density of the arrangement. We were filmed a walking scene randomly. Visual experiences from the viewpoint of relation between an optical flow and the composition of city buildings were classified :(1) dive (2) walk through (3) covered (4) jump out (5) spread out (6) edge up. When comparing the three areas, it seems that the arrangement of the buildings and the pattern of our walk were somewhat related to each other. The former can be classified in more detail into density (low and high), the proportion of arrangement (straight, latticed, random etc.), uniformity of the size, volume of the buildings (tower, band, cube, a curved surface, a place surface etc.), and the latter into (1) walk toward the building (2) walk along the building. In Chayamachi area where small buildings stand closely together, the optical flow in the view changes dynamically with a little move. In front of Osaka station, where large buildings stand separately, the flow changes gradually. It is different from the combination of the vertical elements (e.g. high-rise buildings) and horizontal elements (e.g. elevated railroad) by arrangement of the building.Now, this study is at that early stage of developing the method. We think it is possible for these characters of visual flow in each place to be defined one of the design vocabulary for the city space."
Weber, R.. "Applications of Simulation Procedures to Experimental Aesthetics and to Design Decisions in Architecture." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. Recent developments in analogue and digital simulation techniques have increased possibilities to answer questions in architectural aesthetics through empirical studies. This paper will summarize several recent studies performed at the Institute of Spatial Design at the University of Dresden, present their results and discuss the potentials and limitations of such studies using representations of space. Specifically, we will show (1) the study of eye-movement patterns in 3D versus 2D representations of prototypical architectural interior spaces, (2) the study of influences of properties of facades on the perceived visual unity and beauty of streets, using QTVR based movies (3) the influence of spatial parameters on perceived aesthetic quality of streets, using 2D digital representations and 3D models, and (4)) the impact of spatial and functional parameters on the perceived quality of city squares by means of digital simulation of prototypical urban situations. The results of these studies show that many of the assumptions of common sense knowledge about the influences of design on the perceived visual quality of architectural space could indeed be corroborated, yet a number of common beliefs about the negligibility of contextual parameters in design were shown to be incorrect. The paper will conclude with comparison of the appropriateness of various of experimental methods in architectural research.
J. Schmidt, Alexander. "Appropriate 3D-Environmental Simulation in Planning Practice - High Tech Or Quick and Dirty." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. 3D-environmental simulation is a qualified method for communication between professional experts optimizing the quality of a project, information for citizens about a project to be discussed, and preparation for decision-making processes. There are various approaches to environmental simulation – ranging from a sequence of computer generated virtual pictures to endoscopic stills of simple scale models. As the communal budgetary deficit is growing it is difficult to convince the public client of the necessity of 3D spatial simulation and a qualified presentation in planning projects. By means of different projects the paper discusses three main questions. •3D-environmental simulation – quick and dirty: Which are the simple and reasonable techniques for the 3D-simulation of future urban design and architectural projects – as realistic as necessary but as simple as possible?•Target group oriented 3D-environmental simulation: Within one planning project different demands to the grade of reality apply to different addressees. How far can be simplified in a specific project?•Reduction of complexity by 3D-environmental simulation: Expert engineers usually tend to overload plans with information so that important statements regarding the environmental quality are not understood by laypeople. Can 3D-environmental simulation translate complex plans in order to make them comprehensible?
Bonnefoy, Barbara, and A. Rouag. "Appropriation of Residential Space by Maghrebian Women Living in Social Housing in France." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. IntroductionOur communication will relate to the appropriation of domestic spaces by the Maghrebian women living in the great sets in France. Several research (Rouag, 1998), (Bekkar, 1991) underline the strong identification of the women of the Maghreb to domestic space, housing being the privileged place of the women and the children. External space is that of the men. The immigrant women would interiorize the statute that their country of origin proposes to them and would reproduce this sexual division of space. However this strong territorialisation of the space of the women in the Maghreb does not reproduce itself the way in France (De Villanova 1994), with the younger generations. The cultural models interiorized by the individuals produce differentiated uses of housing. Thus the space configuration of housing prevents sometimes the exercise of some practise or encourages the inhabitants to adopt new practices. (Raymond, 1988). Certain installations borrowed from the French way of life would come to accompany the traditional uses without completely making them disappear. These conduits of arrangement and personalization of housing constitute for those which carry them out a means of adapting space, of even build themselves and to defining their identity (Eleb-Vidal, 1982).Main purposesOur objective is of knowing how the Maghrebian women are influenced by their culture of origin, and by the culture of the country in which they live or by the micro culture of the district in which they reside. How will this influence be expressed, and how will it be translated into terms of territorialisation? Which will be the share of its residential origin, of the duration of its stay in France, of the size of its family, but also of the quality and the nature of its vicinity in its uses and its practices of domestic space and the urban environment?Material and methodsTo answer these questions, a standardized questionnaire was proposed to 100 women living in social housing of the Parisian suburbs. Four topics were approached: Residential neighborhood satisfaction; uses and practices in housing; relations of vicinities; the spaces attended outside housing. A whole of descriptive data comes to supplement these topics (age, duration of occupation of housing, residential origin, paid activity, educational level, size of the family, size of the housing)Results The questioned women are generally satisfied with their district as well as their housing, which they consider sufficiently roomy and comfortable. They pass the majority of their time there. They are devoted especially to domestic activities, which they primarily share with their children and other women. Spaces of proximities (parks, sociocultural centers) are little attended except for the stores. The quality of the relations of vicinity shows a good insertion in a network of social relations and develops among these women a high feeling of satisfaction. These relations are established especially with neighbors of North Africa. The questioned women identified themselves with the spaces most representative of the family life (kitchen and living room). The domestic uses and practices in housing are also subjected to certain variations especially when they are traditional activities related to the culture of origin. The way in which the inhabitants arrange and decorate their living room (traditional vs contemporary) is related to the relations that they maintain with outside, and with the nature of their relation of vicinity. However, as we made the assumption of it, the whole of these results is moderated according to the age, of the marital statute, the paid activity, the duration of occupation of housing, and the residential origin, the socio-economic level. Conclusion For the whole of these women, housing is associated to the values of the family and they bring a very strong affective attachment there. The symbolic character allotted to housing is paramount here in comparison with a purely functional attitude toward inhabited space. (Lawrence, Noschis, 1984). The ways of appropriation of spaces in the housing seem strongly related to the relation that these women maintain with spaces external to the housing.
Keul, A. G., F Hutzler, G Frauscher, and A. Voigt. "Architrack - Evaluating Architectural Preferences via Eyetracker." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. Architrack, a Salzburg-Vienna cooperation, uses no-touch infrared reflection oculography as an evaluation technology. The US-fabricated eyetracker continuously measures the position of the left eye axis in 20 msec intervals. It was the instrumentation to record the architectural preferences of architects and of laypeople (experiment 1) as well as for objectifying the perceptual influence of urban gestalt factors by F. Moser (experiment 2). Surprisingly, eyetracker technology was only once applied to architectural stimuli in a project at Lund (Sweden) and, within IAPS, in a design evaluation by S. Lengyel (1988). The experiments presented here were realized in a diploma thesis at Salzburg University. Experiment 1 presented six Global Architecture images as wall projections by a video beamer and measured the fixation times of five professional architects and of ten laypeople (5 male, 5 female) within ten second intervals in a first run. In a second run, verbal comments on the stimuli were recorded. It was found out that the “professional focus” hypothesis (architects show significantly more fixations on architecture) was not true but that the visual preferences of the experts were more balanced, systematic, and explorative. Triangulating the fixation measurements and verbal records image-by-image, it was seen that preferences detectable by the eyetracker resulted in more explicit verbal descriptions. Also, a succession analysis of the order of fixations per image was done. Experiment 2 used ten color images containing urban gestalt factors of F. Moser, i.e. spatial elements allegedly influencing the visual contact with the environment. The factors “gate”, “building corner”, “vegetation”, “vanishing line/point” and “eaves edge” were studied. Comparing expert and non-expert eyetracking results, it was found that the gestalt factors “gate”, “vegetation” and “vanishing line/point” had explanatory power for visual preferences of both studied groups. The Moser gestalt factors, originally illustrated by drawings without urban details such as cars, persons, street lamps or ads, structured perceptional preferences and were not lost in the abundance of other objects and symbols. Thus, the pilot study of the new system Architrack proved successful to record behavioral, involuntary data allowing to check the “eye of the beholder” parallel to a verbal record. As already common in clinical, reading, traffic, advertising and software usability research, eyetracking also has the potential to enrich our knowledge on the environment-behavior interface of architectural preference.
Keul, A. G., F Hutzler, G Frauscher, and A. Voigt. "Architrack – Evaluating Architectural Preferences via Eyetracker." In Designing Social Innovation: Planning, Building, Evaluating - Proceedings of the 18th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Hogrefe & Huber, 2005.

Eyetracking of architectural stimuli has a surprisingly short history. Architrack used an ISCAN eyetracker to record visual preferences of architects versus laypeople at their first contact with architectural stimuli, and also to test the influence of urban gestalt factors. Using six Global Architecture images, ten seconds of eye movements per image were measured with five professional architects and ten laypeople (5 m, 5 f). Verbal comments were recorded after the eyetracking. Fixation and succession in thematic areas were analyzed frame-by-frame. With high between-stimuli differences, every picture actually was a singular case. Neither the professional focus hypothesis (architects show significantly more fixations on architecture), nor the gender hypothesis could be confirmed. Visual attraction was similar for all subjects at first image contact. Comparing behavioral eyetracker data with verbal data, some gaps were found. Of the urban gestalt factors (Moser) studied with ten color images, “gate”, “vegetation” and “vanishing line/point” had explanatory power for both groups.

Wurzinger, S.. "Are Ecotourists More Eco? Environmental Beliefs, Attitudes, Knowledge, and Behaviour in Swedish Ecotourists." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. Ecotourism has been suggested to be a sustainable form of tourism that should replace mass tourism in order to present a real chance for the protection of nature and culture (Suchanek, 2001). The term “ecotourism” appeared in 1985 but there still exists a lot of confusion about the concept. The World Tourism Organisation (WTO) and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) proposed a definition of ecotourism on the occasion of the International Year of Ecotourism in 2002. According to this definition ecotourism should take place in natural areas, it should be sustainable in terms of nature and culture, and it should consider ethical aspects as well as increase awareness towards conservation of natural and cultural assets. Ecotourism should further be small-scale, which means that activities should be carried out in small groups respecting the carrying capacity of local areas. It should also support local people, for example providing economic benefits and employment opportunities. Moreover, the main motivation of the participants should be admiring and learning about nature and local culture. In order to promote ecotourism, a profound knowledge of the ecotourism market is necessary. Based on the model of Stern, Dietz, and Guagnano (1995), the present paper focuses on environmental concern among ecotourists. In addition, the familiarity of the term “ecotourism” was investigated. It was hypothesised that ecotourists are more pro-environmental in general beliefs and specific attitudes towards the relationship between tourism and nature. Ecotourists were also expected to show more ecological behaviour than non-ecotourists. Furthermore, ecotourists were thought to know more about ecotourism. Empirical data were obtained by a questionnaire survey among 43 ecotourists and 78 non-ecotourists including tourists travelling to a city or a spa. All respondents were Swedish and travelled within Sweden. As measured by the Revised NEP Scale (Dunlap, Van Liere, Mertig, & Jones, 2000) it was found that ecotourists scored significantly higher on general environmental beliefs than non-ecotourists. Ecotourists also expressed a more positive attitude towards supporting local people than non-ecotourists. A significant difference in the same direction was found in self-reported general ecological behaviour between the two groups measured by Kaiser`s (1998) GEB Scale. The ecotourism group had more knowledge about ecotourism than the non-ecotourism group. However, in sum, it was found that most of the total sample had either no knowledge or little knowledge about ecotourism. In conclusion, ecotourists seem to be a different type of tourists in terms of their general environmental beliefs and specific attitudes. Ecotourists in addition to choosing a sustainable form of tourism also behave more environmentally friendly in daily life. They also have a more extensive knowledge about ecotourism than non-ecotourists. However, the fact that most of the two groups had no or little knowledge point out the importance of promoting knowledge about ecotourism.
Schuitema, G, L Steg, and C. A. J. Vlek. "Are Increasing Costs for Car Use Acceptable and Why?" In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. Traffic and transport causes more and more problems, such as environmental degradation, increasing congestion levels, decreasing accessibility and a declination of liveability in urban areas caused by noise and odour pollution. In general, the implementation of transport pricing policies is believed to be rather effective in reducing these problems by changing people’s transport behaviour. In this study we focus on transport pricing policies that imply a price increase for car use. One condition that needs to be fulfilled to make transport pricing policies effective is that they should be accepted. If pricing policies are not acceptable, they are not likely to be implemented at all. Therefore, it is important to examine the factors that make transport pricing policies acceptable. This study is aimed at examining which factors influence the acceptability of pricing policies. We assume that individual characteristics as well as characteristics of pricing policies affect the acceptability of transport pricing. Important individual characteristics may be derived from two general models: the theory of planned behavior (TPB; Ajzen, 1985) and the norm activation model (NAM; Schwartz, 1977). These models are aimed at explaining behaviour. It is believed that these models may also explain acceptability judgements, since policy acceptance indirectly influences environmental qualities by shaping the context in which decisions are being made (Stern, 2000). Various characteristics of pricing polices may also affect their acceptability. First, we expect that the acceptability of pricing policies depend on the perceived fairness of the policy: fair policies are more acceptable than unfair ones. Based on this we expect that the type of differentiation may affect the acceptability of pricing policies. Pricing policies often imply that certain car user groups have to pay more than others (i.e., variabilisation of costs), e.g., polluters pay more than non-polluters or people with higher incomes pay more than people with low incomes. Another important characteristic influencing the perceived fairness of policies is revenue use. We expect that pricing policies are more acceptable if the revenues are used to compensate those who suffer disproportionately from the policies. This study examines which type of variabilisation and revenue use is perceived to be fair and whether this influences the acceptability of transport pricing policies. Second, we expect that the more pricing policies restrict people in their freedom to move, the less acceptable the policies are. Therefore, the level of the price increase may influence acceptability judgements: the more significant prices increase, the more people need to adapt their travel behaviour, and the less acceptable the policies are. The perceived effectiveness may also affect the acceptability of pricing policies. On the one hand, if pricing policies effectively change people’s transport behaviour, people are likely to feel restricted in their freedom to move and therefore might find pricing policies not acceptable. On the other hand, if pricing policies have no effect at all, people have to deal with the costs, while at the same time the collective problems are not being solved. So, pricing policies should be effective to solve the problems, without significantly affecting once own travel behaviour. This study examines whether the price level and the perceived effectiveness affect the acceptability of transport pricing policies. A questionnaire study will be conducted among Dutch households. Respondents are asked to evaluate various transport pricing scenarios in which the price level, type of revenue use and type of differentiation will systematically be varied. All respondents will judge three scenarios on their acceptability, fairness and perceived effectiveness. Based on this, we will examine to what extent these policy characteristics affect acceptability judgements. We will also examine to what extent the acceptability of transport pricing is dependent on individual characteristics. Results will be available and presented at the conference.
Frick, J, and M. Buchecker. "Assessing Landscape Needs in Periurban Communities: Promoting Need-Oriented Participatory Planning." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. In the process of urbanization, local residents have been found to withdraw more and more from their everyday landscape (Buchecker, 2002). This withdrawal is particularly prominent in periurban communities. Due to a separation of home and work place, new residents of these towns lose their accustomed opportunities for recreation and social contacts. Moreover, based on a general shift of values (e.g., individualization), new needs arise even with long-time residents of these areas, which cannot be met by the existing spatial, social and political structures. As a result, inhabitants of periurban towns spend more and more of their leisure time outside their everyday landscape, increasing the prevalence of dormitory towns and also increasing leisure time mobility. Previous qualitative results suggest that the reason behind this withdrawal is a lack of opportunities to identify with the everyday landscape (Buchecker, 2000). Although there exists a strong identification with the town as a collective, identification on a personal level is missing. If residents cannot identify individually with their everyday landscape, they compensate for it in the private sphere and in nature-near areas. On the other hand, residents are not able to express their needs in the public, because of strong collective norms that are relicts of a traditional rural social system. Thus, their strong need for integration (i.e., collective identification) and fear of social sanctions counteracts participation and innovation. As a consequence, the satisfaction of basic needs and along with it, opportunities for personal identification are constrained. Moreover, conflicting needs and expectations of recent settlers and long-time residents can not be resolved. New planning instruments have to find ways to break this vicious circle and address the basic needs of local residents in order to provide opportunities for personal identification with the everyday landscape. However, basic needs toward everyday landscape have as yet not been systematically investigated. Similarly, the proposed relationship between identification, need satisfaction, participation and mobility behavior (Buchecker, Hunziker & Kienast, 2003) has to be confirmed. This study aims at systematically assess the needs of residents of periurban towns toward their home environment and landscape development. Needs are expected to differ between certain groups within the community (e.g., farmers, new residents). A second main goal of the study is to clear the processes within the aforementioned vicious circle and find ways to interrupt these dynamics. For this purpose, a questionnaire was constructed to assesses the status quo of the existing needs toward everyday landscape and landscape development, with a special focus on place identity (both on the individual and social level), perceived quality of life, willingness to participate, actual self-reported participation, and leisure time mobility. The results of a representative survey conducted in three periurban communities in Switzerland (N = 1500) will be presented. The three communities were chosen according to differences in degree of urbanization, differences in attitudes toward public participation, commitment to landscape development and extent of actual participation (i.e., conservative vs. innovative towns, “dormitory” towns). In the long run, the aim behind assessing landscape needs of residents is to promote new tools for participatory planning. For sustainable landscape development, new methods are needed, especially non-directive, process-oriented instruments which focus on quality of life instead of superficial spatial matters (e.g., Buchecker, Heller & Berz, 1999). Inhabitants must have the opportunity to express their needs at an early stage of the planning process. Instruments that incorporate local residents’ needs will allow tailoring participatory processes.
López-Torrecilla, J.. "Assessment and Significance of Public Spaces. a Study on Environmental Quality as Perceived by a Sample of Children in Three Madrid Neighborhoods." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. IntroductionPol’s explanation of space appropriation states that appropriation takes place when a ‘vacuum’ becomes ‘space’ (Pol, 1996). That space is dependent on the subject’s cultural background and his own identity depends on the space being appropriated. Appropriation is therefore the basis for the explanation of a number of aspects of urban life which otherwise could not be adequately explained.This is an ongoing research project in which we have undertaken a study of perceived environmental quality, in a way that considers different aspects of the reality of public spaces in several neighbourhoods. To this end, we have researched the different factors that influence the study. We have employed different variables, such as the degree of consolidation of the neighbourhood (its age, layout, variety of uses and the degree of utilisation of these), the gender of the subjects, their age and the time residing in the neighbourhood, their knowledge of it and everyday interactions with it and their relationships. By using the data collected through the questionnaire, we will be able to draw comparisons between the variables. We expect to see the degree of consolidation of the neighbourhood emerge as the most influential variable in the outcome of the study.Our immediate objectives are:To know if the degree of appropriation of the space occurs to a greater degree when the subjects reside in neighbourhoods of greater urban consolidation. We will attempt to analyse the ways in which that appropriation takes place. Finally, and in the measure to which the previous objectives are achieved, we will attempt to elaborate an approximate model of the appropriation on the part of the children, from a psycho-social perspective (cognitive, partner-affective, ecological aspects, etc.), which is the reason for collecting data on general factors in this scope.The starting hypotheses for our study are, firstly, that in the neighbourhoods of greater urban consolidation (the most central ones) due to the design of its fabric, the appropriation is encouraged. Secondly, we will attempt to explain the way in which this appropriation takes place (conducts of care, maintenance, attachment to the place) in the expectation that in the more centric neighbourhoods these will be greater.ParticipantsOne hundred and sixty-seven children with an average of age of 11 years were asked to fill a specific questionnaire designed for the research. The participants were 50.9% male and 49.1% female six graders from four State Primary schools in the city of Madrid, in each of the four neighbourhoods, Chamartín (46), Tetuán (40), Vallecas (41) and Vicálvaro (40). Chamartín and Tetuán were considered as central city neighbourhoods whereas Vallecas and Vicálvaro were considered as peripheral neighbourhoods while all of them have parks and green areas, the urban fabric as well as the level of urban consolidation are totally different between the central and peripheral neighbourhoods.InstrumentPart A: The questionnaire is in the form of a Likert-type scale consisting of 99 items divided in three blocks which refer to Public Space as it is understood in terms of city planning: Squares, Parks and Streets. The Questionnaire was assembled on the components as proposed by Pol: action-transformation and identification. Part B asks subjects list up to 20 locations in the neighbourhood from memory. In Part C, the subjects are asked to draw a sketch map, which would serve as directions on how to reach their home. In Part D they are asked to write a short assay on their neighbourhood.Preliminary conclusionsInsofar as this is an ongoing research project, preliminary statistical analysis of the collected data points to the possibility that Pol’s appropriation theory is verifiable and can be used as measure of the perceived environmental quality.ReferencePol, E. (1996): “La apropiación del espacio”, en Cognición, representación y apropiación del espacio, Iñiguez, L. & Pol, E. (Comp.). Publicaciones de la Universidad de Barcelona.
Flores, L. M., M Bustos, P Villegas, and S. Mercado. "Assessment of Social Interference in Preschoolers." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. "From the psychological perspective it is considered that a form to contribute to the explanation of the academic and social behavior is by means of developing contextual strategies that allow establishing the relation between behavior and context. The studies of the academic and social behavior (ASB) have put in clear that the ASB as analysis unit is characterized being bidirectional that varies in function with the physical and social restrictions of the scene with special emphasis in the behavioral transitions. The study of academic and social behavior in different conditions of motivation and school density, in spite of its social relevance had been little analyzed. The works of Legendre (1999) and Lopez, Menez, Paz & Trejo (1999) studies pertinent variables for academic and social behavior of young children. On the other hand, are the motivational models in special the blockade of goals proposed by Schopler and Stockdale (1977) and the model of interruption or discrepancy of Mandler (1991) that have explained the effects of the transitions on the behavior. The present study goes to propose a model that retakes the contextual and motivational variables, in which the academic and social behavior is the dependent variable. Method. Sample of 12 children chosen at random and pertaining to a center of infantile development of the City of Mexico, with an age average of 67 months. Temporary Sampling. Each boy was observed in average twenty-three occasions a daily one, per continuous periods of 15 minutes by sample (total of 275 samples or 69 hours), writing down the sequence of events (Bakeman and Gottman, 1989) by intervals of 5 seconds. Instrument. The observational Registry was used (CIAS), containing the definition of 15 excluding and collectively exhaustive categories mutually. Procedure. The academic and social conducts in the hall class were quantified emitted during the activities programmed by the teacher. The reliability average was of 89%. The score of agreement was 91%, by means of the Kappa coefficient de Cohen, who corrects the agreements by chance. Analysis of data. The categories were analyzed individually. First, the percentage of the academic behavior was determined in order to obtain an indicator of its values in the three levels of density and motivation in the task (low, moderate and high). Second, evidence of the predominant behaviors was obtained and, third these last ones were analyzed to identify if the distraction processes of or interruption were involved in, which produces deficit in the academic behavior. Results. In the three groups, the academic behavior is the one of smaller occurrence (38%), and it is observed that the nonacademic behaviors like "Watching others" (distraction) are the categories that more frequently interrupt the academic activity in conditions of high density, whereas in loss and moderate density the academic activity is interrupted by "conversation" (social interference). The three groups behaved very similar in the emission of negative behaviors (5% occurrence). Discussion and conclusions. In general terms, under conditions of observation of present study, the academic behavior, seems to be highly regulated by opportunities of distraction associated with the reduction of space. On the other hand, the low rates of negative conduct as negative interchanges or game seem to be controlled by the interventions of the educators, more than by the conditions of density. These findings can serve like antecedents important to analyze between interference and distraction, key processes to describe and to explain the high density situations (Santoyo, 2000). "
Takayuki, Kumazawa. "Assessment Strategy to Enable an Advanced Understanding of Community Development Schemes in Participative Processes." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. It is important that residents can participate in community planning and devise community development schemes. Residents are gaining increasing rights and skills to draw up plans swiftly. However, residents may misunderstand the provided information, because they do not have any community planning expertise. Furthermore, inadequate understanding and misinterpretation may cause disputes and reduce the degree of confidence and satisfaction. Promoting community development requires providing information in a way that enables residents to fully understand the issues. Then, residents can evaluate a scheme for themselves in regard of their own desired goals.This paper describes how residents evaluate community development schemes and how they alter their evaluation after being provided with relevant information and have gained an advanced understanding of the issue. We establish the factors that determine gaining an advanced understanding and consequently changing the evaluation and propose an assessment strategy for community development projects. This research consists of two experiments. We first determined the factor in a case study and then verified it. We analyzed the evaluations by individuals by weighting based on the importance of a community development scheme. In the first experiment, we organized a workshop for the residents of the O-okayama station area in Ota City in Tokyo and observed how residents evaluated a community development scheme from the workshop activities. That is, we extracted subjects’ initial evaluations (prior evaluation) and then provided them with information on the merit and demerit of the schemes. After that we extracted a second evaluation of the schemes from the subjects (posterior evaluation). A community development scheme includes assessing problems, setting goals, and developing a policy. The workshop also included consultative meetings with experts.We analyzed the results of the prior and posterior evaluations with a t-test. We considered that a decreasing variance of importance evaluation value means that the evaluation converges and an increasing variance of importance evaluation value means that the evaluation diverges. We established clarity of the scheme, individual profit, social norms, assumed term within which a project is completed, and the possibility of realizing a project as the factors that determine the evaluation for an advanced understanding of a community development scheme and made them the basis of our hypothesis.In the second experiment, to verify the hypothesis, we examined the effect each factor has on the scheme evaluation by using the design of experiments. The experiment was conducted by a using a five-way layout ANOVA. The subjects evaluated 100 schemes, to adjust the level of four of the factors: the clarity of the scheme, the social norms, the assumed term within which the scheme is completed, and the possibility of realizing the scheme. We compared the average evaluation values, adjusted them and extracted the schemes for use in this experiment. Then we set it up based on a profile description including situations, to adjust the level of a fifth factor, the individual profit. First, the subjects evaluated the importance of the schemes in nine stages by altering the level of the five factors (prior evaluation). Next, the subjects were given the advantages of all policies, the faults, effects, and dangers. After the subjects had deepened their understanding, they evaluated the importance of the policy in nine stages (posterior evaluation). Forty subjects participated in the experiment.As a result, we found that the determining factors were social norms and individual profit. The effect of these factors changed with the clarity of the scheme. That is, when the clarity was high, before gaining further understanding, the effect of the social norms and the individual profit was large. After expanding their knowledge, if the scheme was in line with social norms, a scheme that was perceived as difficult was evaluated as being applicable. On the other hand, when the clarity of a scheme was low, the effect of the individual profit increased as the subjects’ understanding deepened. Even if a scheme did not agree with the social norms, it was evaluated as easy to realize. Based on our results we found that a process that enables residents to understand the social norms and the individual profit of schemes should be introduced into strategic environmental assessment.
Monteiro, C.. At Home in the Street: Domestic Life and Sociability Pattern in Public Housing Estates In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. The apartments are small; most of them suffered several refurbishments, adaptation and extensions in order to meet family needs. The neighborhood is a peripheral place far from the city centre. Those are main spatial factors that affect the way these inhabitants live and experience their residential place. This study investigates how, when and where daily domestic activities such as household tasks, passive and active leisure, communal activities and personal ones happen in the house and neighborhood. The description of the dweller everyday life reveals a consistent lack of social activity inside the houses, great part of the activities involving sociability like to chat with neighbors and friends, to play with children, to date or just see and meet people happen in the surrounding spaces. Halls and staircases, front doors, courtyards and other spaces in the blocks are considered extended domestic areas where it’s easy to find adolescents playing, listening music, painting nails, dating, housewives chatting, and children playing; men playing cards and drinking beer. The modern like public housing estate conceived simply as residential place was transformed through the inhabitant’s cumulative interventions into a different space. In order to be livable, it had to become almost self-sufficient with the introduction of all the types of commerce, services and activities squeezed into the blocks and remaining public spaces. The present article presents a socio-spatial analysis aiming to understand how these near home spaces provide ground to activities that do not find space to happen in the houses. How integrated and segregated spaces are created and which types of activities they receive? Space syntax analysis provided ways to describe spatial qualities of those spaces close to the residential buildings which are regarded as extended sitting rooms. Dwellers interviews and the mapping of observed activities help to identify and to describe the inhabitant’s lifestyle and domestic routine. Multidimensional analysis correlates the data and describes the spatial qualities of the inhabitant’s sociability patterns.
Uzun, Inci. "Atriums in the Context of Contemporary Public Space." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. "Public spaces have an important role for development and maintenance of individual and public life in the historical progression. These spaces have supported social needs like communication and entertainment in addition to the daily needs like getting food, water and etc. But, the changes of the social life have affected the functions and qualities of public spaces. Today, the functions of agora, plaza and square are being carried to specialized places, houses and even in virtual spaces; and the changing conditions are affecting on kinds and qualities of public spaces.The physical problems of the cities which are over grown, crowded and dense depending upon the social, economic, and urban conditions created by the industrial revolution; and the possibility of constructing huge, day lighted and entire spaces using the developing technologies of steel and glass have caused the tendency of moving some urban public space activities to inner spaces and new kinds of enclosed public spaces emerged. Atrium is one of these enclosed spaces that depend on the idea of including positive qualities of urban public life and nature.Today's atriums are defined as "central, organizing, day lighted, interior" spaces. Atrium is a space seen in buildings which are used by large amounts of people like public buildings, offices, hotels, cultural, education and health care facilities. In every kind of building type, organizing, functional and public space properties varies. Atrium is a space that can provide many physical, social and economical functions in the building and this can be considered as the reason of its popularity. Atriums have an urban role because of being used as a meeting, leisure and socializing space that provide safe, enriched and pleasing ambiance. Atriums provide spaces protected from negative conditions, containing different activities and nature and art elements so people can get far away from the depressing city, spend good time and relax.Atriums have a central role for spatial organization, orientation and circulation; and have day lighting and energy save advantages. In addition to these physical functions, their spatial qualities present alternatives to city's negative conditions; they are also attraction points in the city. Especially for commercial buildings, atriums have a widespread public use according to their urban role and spatial properties.Atriums can have different forms in the building, and can be connected with the building spaces and the environment in different ways. In the context of placement in building and relationships with inner and outer spaces, atriums can have different degrees of openness and present different spatial organization and circulation schemes. From 1960's in America and Europe and from 1980's in Turkey especially in shopping centers, atrium has been a space used densely. The reasons of this rising trend depend on the spaces' qualities, environmental factors and relationships between building functions and users. In late 1980's in Turkey, depending on the development of shopping centers, atrium has been a space densely used and became popular. The atrium buildings are mostly constructed in the suburban areas to create attraction centers but in the city centers, constructing atrium buildings on these restricted and expensive areas is not preferred in Turkey.There are different opinions on the public space property of atriums. According to some researchers, atriums can be considered as public spaces, but for some of the others, the atriums are not true public spaces because of the access control and selectivity of entrance over them; these spaces are designed especially for commercial proposes. In the other hand some examples of atriums are blamed that they have a vacuum effect on the life of true public spaces like street and plazas. In this study, it is noticed that atriums especially in public buildings and shopping malls, have many of the public space properties regarding to the function, meaning and perception. Because of this reason, atriums can be considered as semi-public space and this statute has different levels from private to public for different kinds of buildings or for a definite building. Effects of atrium space on consisting public life are another discussing point of the study. In the study titled "Atriums in the Context of Contemporary Public Space”, in the context of contemporary public space concept; public space qualities and environmental effects of atriums will be pointed out regarding to the examples of Turkey and world."
Bonnes, M, G Carrus, and P. Passafaro. "Attitudes Toward Urban Green Spaces, Perceived Residential Quality and Neighbourhood Attachment." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. The paper explores the relationship between different spatio-physical characteristics of the city and resident perception, attitudes and uses of it. Specifically, the natural features of the urban environment, such as its green areas, were focused on. The relations among a) attitudes towards urban green spaces, b) frequency of use of urban and peri-urban green areas, c) perceived residential quality, d) neighbourhood attachment, e) general pro-environmental behaviours, f) environmental concern and d) environmental value orientations were explored through a field study in the city of Rome. A paper-and-pencil questionnaire was administered to 500 residents of different neighbourhoods of Rome. These varied for both their a) amount and b) quality of green spaces available. The questionnaire comprised different Likert scales measuring:-Attitudes towards urban green spaces (adapted from Carrus et al., 2003);-Frequency of use of green areas inside and outside the city (taken from Carrus et al., 2003);-Perceived residential quality (indicators taken from Bonaiuto et al., 1999);-Neighbourhood attachment (Bonaiuto et al., 1999);-General ecological behaviour (adapted from Kaiser, 1998);-General environmental concern (Dunlap et al.’s 2000 revised NEP scale and Gagnon-Thompson & Barton’s 1994 ecocentrism/anthropocentrism scale);-Environmental value orientation (items taken from Stern et al., 1995):Preliminary analyses, aimed at assessing the properties of various measuring instruments widely used in the environmental psychological literature, confirm the predicted structural properties (dimensionality, internal consistency, concurrent validity) of the scales used, as well as their adaptability to the Italian context. Further analyses, which are currently being undertaken, will use hierarchical regressions and/or structural equation modelling (SEM) in order to specify and test different possible causal paths among the variables considered. Both theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed.
Wisdom, S.. Awareness, Understanding and Communication of Tactile Pavement Usage Within the United Kingdom In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. "IntroductionThe purpose of this PhD research is to examine street environments and more specifically the pavement, which pedestrians walk upon. The investigation focuses on accessibility requirements relating to the needs and experiences of visually impaired pedestrians. The central aim is to understand how visually impaired people use tactile pavement and to define tactile pavement's relationship with other mobility and navigation systems. The research objective is to investigate, analyse and compare, manufacturers', implementers' and users' awareness and understanding of tactile pavement, within the UK. Background In 1986 the first tactile pavement was implemented in UK, to signify controlled road crossings and initially it had the legal status of a road sign. However, due to widespread trends for dropped kerbs (to increase wheelchair users opportunity for crossing roads), tactile pavement use was extended. In an effort to distinguish between tactile pavement at uncontrolled and controlled crossings, it was produced in contrasting red and buff colours. This caused much confusion for town planners and in 1991 tactile pavement lost its legal status. Officials thought, that it could not be practically upheld, due to the increased variety in tactile pavement surfaces. Expansion of usage has continued and there are now seven different types of tactile surface used in the UK: 1.Blister surface for pedestrian crossing points 2.Corduroy hazard warning surface 3.Platform (off street) warning edge surface 4.Platform (on street) warning edge surface 5.Guidance path surface 6.Information surface 7.Segregated shared cycle track/footway surface with central delineator strip. Despite the loss of legal status, the UK government appears keen to support standardized usage of tactile pavement. In 1998 the Department for Transport produced guidelines: "Guidance on the Use of Tactile Paving Surfaces", to assist streetscape designers and town planners in their work. Research Hypotheses Hypothesis 1: Many visually impaired people are not fully aware of the different meanings of the tactile surfaces. Hypothesis 2: Many visually impaired people have not received detailed mobility training about how to use tactile pavement systems. Hypothesis 3: Visually impaired people, who are aware of tactile pavement and use or have previously used it as a mobility cue; cease to rely on it, if they experience too many examples of inconsistent, incorrect and misleading tactile pavement installations. Hypothesis 4: Designers, town planners and other professionals, who are responsible for installing and maintaining pavement, are not fully aware of and do not consistently follow government guidelines relating to tactile pavement use. Research Methodology For this study a qualitative data collection method; individual interviews, was selected. Interviewing was chosen, because more quantitative survey methods, such as printed postal questionnaires, could have caused problems for many visually impaired respondents, who may not use print as their preferred reading method. To gather visually impaired interview respondents, volunteers were requested from local visually impaired peoples' organisations. This was an ethical method of contacting potential interviewees and did not break the UK Data Protection Act. However, it had the possible disadvantage of not reaching and including the least independent and mobile visually impaired people. Due to time and financial constraints, it was not feasible to extend the interviewee sample to cover the whole of the UK. Therefore the research is a comparison study of the cities Glasgow and Birmingham. Progress to Date This PhD project started in 2002 and is currently in the data collection stage. Initial findings indicate that visually impaired pedestrians do not know how to interpret all of the tactile surfaces used within the UK. This seems to be less of an issue with surfaces that have been installed over a longer time period, such as the red "blister" pavement used to indicate road crossing points. Yet for newer types of tactile surface, such as the "lozenge" surface for on-street platform edges, there appears to be a lack of awareness of their existence and confusion regarding their correct interpretation. One can anticipate that this lack of recognition may be less of a problem in future, when these surfaces are more established and when more people have received training about how to use them. Conclusion The central issues of this study are understanding and communication. The research aims to provide useful information about how visually impaired pedestrians use and learn how to use tactile surfaces. Furthermore it attempts to assess user awareness amongst those involved in the planning and implementation of tactile pavement systems. It is anticipated that the PhD thesis will be submitted in 2005."
Sandhya, P.. Behavioral Aspects of Human Shelter in India In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. A set of design requirements for “home environment” study will include the following:1. An environment facilitating the resident with a sense of security.2. Spaces within the houses and outside responsive to human privacy requirements.3. Highly visible and expressive territorial markers.4. Consistent spaces for social interaction among the residents.5. All these and other comparable requirements, clearly depend on the meaning of these terms, the definition of requirements and their relation to the knowledge of human characteristics. It seems clear from the arguments that these needs are necessary and thus compel us to raise new questions that these needs are necessary and thus compel us to raise new questions and introduce new insights for the design of home environment. The common feature about mankind is that, they are continuously adjusting and re- adjusting to their physical environment, shaping the mould that shapes them. The fact that no organism can be understood in isolation from its habitat is a truism and there is a sense in which all psychology is environmental psychology. However our particular concern is that of civilized man is to a high degree different from other species, and that he construct and controls his own environment. His capacity to do this is not instinctive (though his desire may be) its is acquired by experience and transmitted through his culture. Its range and power is increasing with the order technology at and exponential rate. Having made an environment, man can reflect on its consequences and store this information on to be fed back, giving the option of an environment with the same or different consequences next time. In house design, the considerations relating to the people and the way in which they interact with the outside environment have tended to be neglected. When they have been considered, it has rarely been based on data and the theory of man- environment studies. In addition, there has been much of generalization about human needs. Many users and thus failure of many residential buildings see clear result of this from the recent observations and experiments that reveal dissatisfactions expressed and experiments, which reveal dissatisfaction, expressed. These failures have served as an impressive reminder to designer and architects that the quality of home environment depends not only on its formal attributes, but also on the subjective experiences of people using this environment Diversity of information relating to this field could be considered as a reason for absence of application of data in design process. But variability of these concepts can be considered and constancies, which are found can be understood a become even more important. With different approaches and the variety of answers obtain by many researches carried out by different sociologists , psychologists and architects have provided some effective specification of requirement and together lead to better understanding of congruence possible between physical settings and human requirements as best understood at a given time .
Steinführer, A.. "Between Urban Growth and Shrinkage. the Challenge of Reurbanisation in a European Perspective." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. Urban restructuring (Stadtumbau) is to be seen within the frame of both the general tendencies of urban development in Europe and the manifold demographic changes which are already affecting physical structures and housing markets in the cities. Much is to be learned from the “forerunners” of this development – most prominent among them industrial and mining towns in the U.K. and, more recently, in eastern Germany. In the long run, however, these demographic changes will have severe consequences for entire neighbourhoods and housing markets in many European countries and not only in economically depressed regions. But urban restructuring faces the challenge of growth and shrinkage alike: On the one hand, land consumption and urban sprawl are on-going processes in the hinterland of the cities and towns, despite economic recession and overall population decrease. On the other hand, residential and commercial areas in the inner cities are abandoned, and “perforated” cities evolve. The density of inhabitants, amenities, uses and opportunities decrease – crucial preconditions of “urban life” (Urbanität) in a qualitative sense. Since it is these inner-city areas which form a significant physical and symbolic link between the centre and its outskirts, their abandonment will have consequences not only for the structure of the built, social and natural environments but also for the identity and the well-being of the urban dwellers. In the paper it will be argued, that a reintroduction of the concept of “reurbanisation” (which was casually in use during the 1980s) into urban research can be very fruitful in the context of simultaneous growth and shrinkage. This is mainly due to the fact that current urban and demographic research approaches can be integrated into one theoretical and methodological design. Reurbanisation is then used in a twofold sense: first of all, as an analytic concept for an understanding of processes leading to new uses of inner-city areas by different social groups. Secondly, it is understood normatively and meant to be a comprehensive, socially integrative strategy aimed at the improvement of the housing and living conditions of several age groups, household types, social strata and life styles in the inner city. Reurbanisation is therefore not identical with gentrification or regeneration which were either socially and demographically selective or developed within the conceptual frame of urban growth. Based on first results of two cross-national European projects on reurbanisation on the one hand and residential suburbanisation on the other hand , the paper will explore the situation of inner-city areas in a comparative perspective with respect to the built, social and natural environment. It will explore the attractiveness of these neighbourhoods for several groups of residents, not least with reference to the temptations of suburban housing.
Huebner, G, and A. L. Meijnders. "Biomass as a Sustainable Energy Source - Comparing Attitudes of the General Public and Neighbors of Biomass Plants." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. Although public acceptance is widely acknowledged as an essential factor in the successful implementation of new technology, it generally only receives attention in the implementation stage and not in the earlier stage of technology design. The present research aims to improve the understanding of public reactions to new energy technology, biomass systems in particular. Two survey studies were conducted throughout the Netherlands, one among consumers of gray and green electricity (N = 330) and the other among residents living in the vicinity of biomass installations (N = 360). Whereas consumers may at most have experience with the end product (biomass electricity), neighbors in addition are confronted with the production process (generating electricity). In our presentation we will report differences between consumers and neighbors and explain how direct experience may have influenced attitudes towards different biomass feeding materials in the light of social psychological theories. The implications for technology design and implementation strategies will be discussed.
Edgerton, E, J McKechnie, and K. Dunleavy. Building New Schools: Staff Evaluations and Involvement in the Design Process In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. Since 2000 Glasgow City Council have undertaken a major building project (Project2002) aimed at improving the quality of the physical environment in all twenty-nine secondary schools in the city under its authority. The actual type of building work undertaken has varied across the schools and ranges from a major refurbishment of some schools through to building completely new schools. With the support of the City Council, the Psychology division at the University of Paisley have undertaken an evaluation study of these new learning environments and their impact on users. Within the area of environmental psychology, it is widely recognised that consultation with users of the building (stakeholders) during the design process, is important (and many would argue essential) in order to produce a successful building (Scheer & Preiser 1994). Despite this, stakeholder involvement in the design process is often far from ideal. The reasons for this are many and varied and include cost/time considerations and often a lack of understanding of how this ‘consultation’ can be effectively implemented. It is also possible that some stakeholders may have little desire or expectation of being involved in the design process and therefore stakeholder satisfaction with their level of involvement in the design process may not correspond directly with their actual level of involvement. The purpose of this paper was to examine the relationship between users perceptions of their new environments (in this case staff in the secondary schools) and their satisfaction with their involvement in the design process. In particular it was hypothesised that there would be a significant positive relationship between staff perceptions of their ‘new’ schools and their level of satisfaction with their involvement in the design process. The research investigation was based on questionnaire surveys conducted with staff in three of the new secondary schools; these schools covered the range of different building work outlined earlier (i.e. from refurbishment through to complete rebuild). The questionnaire was designed as part of a larger evaluation study of how the new learning environments were perceived by pupils and staff. For the purposes of this paper, the subjects comprised only of staff that had worked in both the ‘old’ and ‘new’ versions of the schools. The staff were sampled by distributing the questionnaire through the internal mail system; this was then completed in their own time and returned to the researchers using stamp, addressed envelopes. The sample size consisted of 120 respondents across the three schools. For the purposes of this paper, staff perceptions were measured on three aspects: (i) responses to twelve aspects of the learning environment e.g. aesthetic appearance (external and internal), noise levels, security, etc. (ii) responses to six items that were combined to produce a measure of staff ‘self-esteem’ in relation to their work e.g. I feel motivated in my work’, I am proud to be a member of staff at this school’, etc. (iii) responses to six items on key work-related behaviours e.g. having enough storage space, finding a quiet place for class preparation time, etc. Involvement in the design process was measured in terms of “level of actual involvement” and “satisfaction with level of involvement”. The first correlational analysis examined the relationship between “level of actual involvement” and “satisfaction with level of involvement”. The analysis showed a significant, positive, moderate correlation (r = +0.56, p
Niezabitowska, E, and D. Masly. Building Quality Evaluations in Contemporary Poland - Barriers and Directions of Development In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. This paper describes our experiences in an attempt at implementation of chosen building quality evaluation techniques in Poland. It looks in details at contemporary Polish building market situation, circumstances and barriers that we have faced during our research project. It discusses the concept of research method for implementation in Poland and other countries of Eastern Europe, as an answer to identified difficulties and a way of bringing this branch of science into general use in Eastern Europe. This paper is concluded with the hypothesis of the world wide web use as a tool of gathering data from users in evaluation of behavioural quality of work environment. Building quality evaluations have a decided impact in the building industry practice in highly developed countries. They influence nearly all phases of the building process. In Poland building evaluations are still relatively new and unknown branch of science. Only few highly limited assessments are carried out by facility managers in the newest office buildings. They deal mainly with technical issues and unexpected failures. But after economic transformation the need for building assessment is enormous. Buildings owned by numerous state institutions as: education, medical care, judicature, local governments etc. are inefficient, offering environment of poor quality, far below users’ expectations. Despite this attempts at building evaluations introduction meet numerous difficulties. They are: a fairly weak interest of architect in this branch of knowledge, reluctance in a significant part of architectural society, the lack of people skilled in this profession and organisational limitations, like incomplete technical documentation, unsorted, numerous data, unclear structure of management in state organisations. As a matter of fact the building quality evaluation is urgently needed in Poland and in our opinion development of the market and constantly increasing competition will force application of this kind researches. Popularisation of building quality evaluations in Poland is urgently needed. There is needed a method that is universal, highly adaptable, effective and easy to use. During our research practise we met numerous organisational difficulties. For example we were invited to assess general performance quality of one of the latest polish office buildings by its owners but we were not allowed to plan any research activities in rented office spaces. Although there was a broad interest in results of the evaluation, the help and concern on owners’ side while researches were conducted were rather weak. The idea and aims of building assessment were hardly understood. In result the proposal of comprehensive survey was rejected at the beginning. In our opinion only method that allows quick gathering, segregating and analysing of data will have chance to popularise this branch of science in Eastern Europe. We have worked out the concept of such method. It is based on building performance concept. The main purpose of our concept is development of general knowledge about office buildings’ functional quality in Poland. Our concept comprises 105 categories that are separated into four Problem Groups (Building Flexibility, High Quality of Workspace, Efficiency of Space Utilisation and Others) and five Built Environment Areas (Site, Main Entrance, Building, Typical Floor, Workstation). Division into Built Environment Areas provides a useful framework to evaluate buildings and rationalises the process of data gathering. Our concept of evaluation method is not a final, completed tool. It is an effect of literature survey, analysis of world-wide known building evaluation methods and gathered experiences. It creates the base for future researches, comprehensive assessments and development of benchmarking centre. In our opinion only assessment method that enable conducting of researches in short period of time, that is adaptable and makes evaluations possible in changing, low budget conditions, method that covers general problems, uses simple scientific tools and techniques and produces clear, understandable to general public results, only this kind method could made building evaluations understandable and acceptable in Poland. Paradoxically underdevelopment in building assessment that we see in Poland, present difficulties and the need of constant search for new solutions give opportunity to develop innovations with high rate of sophisticated computer technology. We prepare a system that is intended to use personal computers connected by global computer network to collect users’ opinions on behavioural quality of work environment. Chosen users have access to website pages of research program after logging in. These pages allow them to participate in assessment and to review up-to-date results. Gathered data are stored in data base and analysed by computer programs which produce final results. This system is intended to be more useful, economical, timely in comparison with traditional questionnaire survey, especially while assessing office buildings where nearly every user has access to world wide web.
Garvill, J, A Marell, and A. Nordlund. "Car Use in Households- Different Measures and Corresponding Behaviour." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. In many everyday situations individuals’ choices are a result of a routine behaviour in a familiar situation. The choices are made almost without elaboration and the preceding choice process is far from the traditional five step decision process (Dewey, 1910; Simon 1955, 1956) that is assumed to occur in a more deliberate problem solving situation (Svensson, 1992). In many situations it is of interest to change habitual behaviour. Society, for example, might be interested in changing a routine behaviour to promote pro-environmental behaviour. Such behaviour can for instance, be to abandon the routine choice of automobile as a travel mode for daily trips. Changing a routine behaviour requires an understanding of how a routine behaviour is formed and what factors can be used to predict such behaviour. This paper focuses on measures of routine behaviour and corresponding actual behaviour. More specifically, this paper investigates if differences in car use in the household can be explained by differences in spouse’s attitude to cars and/or their car use behaviour. Traditional research of decision making is based on a deliberate choice process and as a consequence, theories are based on extended problem solving. For example, theory of planned behaviour (Ajzen, 1985) have been developed and used as a platform in research dealing with prediction of future behaviour (i.e. attitude – behaviour relation). Attitudes have however shown weak correlations with daily and repetitive behaviour and recent research on habitual behaviour indicate that measures of past behaviour predict future behaviour over and above measures of attitudes and intentions (Bentler and Speckart, 1979; Verplanken et al, 1997). Another measure used to predict future routine behaviour is ‘response frequency measures’ (Verplanken, et al 1997). By presenting a variety of travel items to an individual it is assumed that his/her travel ‘script’ is activated and the more often a specific travel mode is indicated the stronger the habit to use that particular mode. ‘The response frequency measure’ have been used and validated in a number of studies, for example, to measure car choice habit among commuters. In summary, three different measures have been used to predict behaviour; attitudes, past behaviour, and scripts, where the two latter have proven to be more useful in predicting habitual behaviour. In many households the number of adults often exceeds the number of cars and the household members have to divide the usage of the automobile between them. Many studies indicate that men use the car for commuting to work whereas females use the automobile for shopping and service activities (Krantz, 1999). In a situation where the individual is constrained by the spouse’s behaviour, different behaviour patterns are likely to emerge. By comparing the attitudes towards travel modes, scripts, and past behaviour between the dyad members and relate these measures to actual behaviour an increased understanding of both measures of habitual behaviour and actual routine behaviour might be generated. Additional information of habitual behaviour can be identified if the different measures also are related to different types of activities. It might, for example, be possible that the household members have the same attitude towards a travel mode (car), but that their behaviour/usage differs. In this study dyads attitudes and travel behaviour has been investigated in households with two adults and one car. Both spouses kept a detailed travel diary during one week. In addition, measures of attitudes towards different travel modes, past behaviour, and response frequency measures, ‘scripts’ were collected. The results show that spouses in general have similar attitudes towards cars and other travel modes such as bus, bikes and pedestrian walking. Spouses also show similar attitudes towards car usage. However the results show different car usage pattern among the studied spouses. Men, for example, drive more often than women; men also, more often than women, have an established car habit. Moreover, spouses with the same attitude engage in different car usage, such that men use the car for work related trips whereas women us the car for shopping trips. The results support earlier findings in that attitudes are not a good predictor of habitual car usage. However, attitudes are neither a good predictor of more thought through car usage. Also for less habitual behaviour past usage or response frequency measures are better predictors. Analyses using the response frequency measures show that men have a stronger link between the activated travel goal and the choice of car as travel mode, than women have, even tough a relation was found between spouse’s respective car habit strength. In the given situation where each individual is constrained by the spouse’s habits and behaviour, different behaviour patterns were found. The behavioural effect of the male car habit was conditioned to the women not having a strong car habit. The results thus support the view of a competitive situation between spouses for the only available car.
Thiel, Fabian. "Chances and Obstacles to Reuse Inner-Urban Brownfields by Legal Instruments." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004.

A future-oriented urban development, as far as legal research is concerned, has two main topics: On one hand it is important to continue with the programmatic opening-up of German urban planning law with regard to the environmental standards in Community law, e.g. the German nature conservation law (a good example for this instrument is the implementation of the SEA-Directive into urban development planning law in such a way that the planning procedure is not impeded, but rather optimized with respect to the weighing-up of environmental concerns on one hand and social and economic concerns on the other hand to stop suburbanisation-processes, reuse inner-urban brownfields in case of urban restructuring at the same time. On the other hand it is also necessary to strengthen the different planning systems of the local communities. Zoning plans, development plans and local landscape plans have to become effective instruments in order to control the environmental impacts of settlements. At the same time, the different environmental requirements and procedures relevant to development planning under the German Federal Building Code (BauGB) have to be focused and adapted to the existing development planning procedure. In order to achieve this aim, the local communities, as the authorities responsible for local development planning, should be responsible for monitoring. They are responsible not only for preparing the land-use and local plans, but also for altering, supplementing or suspending them. In addition to that, both other plans, the zoning plan and the local landscape plan, can have positive effects on controlling the land use: Zoning plans are able to limit the development of settlements to certain areas. On the other hand basic parameters of urban development in the interest of a space-saving development of settlement should be fixed in the zoning plan (e.g. a more specific and detailed type and scale of use). Although local landscape planning systems have no direct intervention possibilities with legal force to control the development of settlement areas in order to achieve a sustainable use of land. The preservation of countryside includes the following strategies: Reactivation of brownfield sites within the urban area, increasing density in existing settlements and mixed use in new building areas and enhancement of vegetation and open space in the urban area. Reactivation of brownfields as an important aim for the future means a significant part of the potential building land within existing urban consists of industrial, military, railway and postal brownfield sites. The development of these sites for settlement (and probably for stopping suburbanisation) is one of the most important strategy for development with economy of space and preservation of the countryside (and also for the reduction of a further dispersion of settlements into the surrounding area, a more efficient use of the existing urban infrastructure and for the reduction of deficits in vegetation in the core urban area). Sustainable land use has not only to do with real-estate-property, but also with the legal mechanisms of urban planning, in which local development plans (the most important plans to achieve an efficient use of land) lay down determinations which give constitutionally enforceable rights regarding the permissibility of land use that cannot be restricted on grounds of planning law in the subsequent procedure for granting planning permission for the specific building projects. Time restrictions on certain uses by the determinations of the local plans would be new and innovative strategies for all local communities in Germany. By the way, it is also important to discuss that planning law should become more flexible in order to take better account of the tendency for more short term land use, to avoid empty buildings that cannot fulfil the residents needs and to advance urban-restructuring-processes.

Daisaku, H, F Kunio, S Takeshi, and K. Michihiro. Changes of Place-Constructing Around Workplace in Case of Environmental Transition In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. Workplaces for office workers can be considered ‘second places’, after their ‘first places’. On working days, they not only work at their workplaces but also refresh or do personal matters around their workplaces. Therefore, various places are constructed by office workers around their workplaces as their ‘third places’. In this study, the office workers’ behavior to use efficiently the places is defined as ‘place-constructing’ from the viewpoint of Environmental Behavior Study (EBS), and place-constructing around workplaces was focused down and considered. We clarify changes of office workers’ place-constructing in office-moving as one case of environmental transition. One department of the company that moved its office from Kanda to Shinagawa in 1999 was selected as one of the settings of the study. Kanda is a mixed-used downtown area in Tokyo, and Shinagawa is a newly redeveloped area, also in Tokyo. The office in Kanda was in an eight-storied building and the floor size was 200 square meters. New office in Shinagawa is in a 31-storied building and floor size was 3000 square meters that is one part of large-scale urban project called ‘Shinagawa Inter City’. Thus these workplaces had different characteristics from each other.The methods were interviews and questionnaires of workers of the departments who worked at both workplaces. In the interviews, 7 workers were drafted, and the difference of each workplaces and the life around workplace were discussed. As a result, many topics about places for frequently visiting, dropping in, refreshing at, feeling ‘mine’, and walking around workplace, were mainly discussed. So these places and walking behavior were regarded as significant and having close relations to office workers’ behavior to use efficiently places around workplace. From this result, the questionnaires were organized and sent to 15 workers. The questions were about locations, reasons, activity about places for frequently visiting, and locations for dropping in, refreshing at, feeling ‘mine’, and routes for commuting and strolling.The ways of ‘place-constructing’ in each area were quite different. Architectural types of constructed third places in Kanda were restaurants, bookstores, coffee shops, general stores, banks. On the other hand in Shinagawa, were only restaurants. In Kanda, many third places were constructed around workplaces. But in Shinagawa, the number of third places was small and the architectural types of the places were limited. Third places in Shinagawa were mostly inside of ‘Shinagawa Inter City’, and they are dependent on workplace and treated as an extension of workplace. But essential third places are independent of both home and workplace, and these places constructed in ‘Shinagawa Inter City’ should be called ‘semi-third places’.Because various advanced functions for office workers in workplace in Shinagawa, for example dining hall, library, lounge, were furnished, many places for refreshing at, feeling ‘mine’ were constructed in workplace, and office workers took various activity into these places. In Kanda, there weren’t any other functions in workplace, and there were many third places around workplaces, so office workers often took their work out to third places.At next stage, KJ-Methodology were used, architectural types and activities about places for frequently visit were considered, 7 patterns of place-constructing were found. Before everything, places for friendship with fellow workers were constructed around workplace, and then places for doing personal matters, friendship with girlfriend, boyfriend or family, and taking lunch were constructed. These patterns show the progressive order and activeness of place-constructing around workplace. In Kanda there were many active patterns, but in Shinagawa there were many inactive patterns. A pattern that no place constructed around workplace increased from 1 to 3 in this environmental transition.Besides, same methodology used, locations for dropping in, refreshing at, feeling ‘mine’, and the extent and the shape of routes for commuting and strolling were considered, 5 patterns of walking around workplace were found. In Kanda, there were many patterns that office workers were well walking, dropping, and refreshing. However, in Shinagawa there were many patterns that office workers were not so much walking, dropping at places far from workplace, and refreshing at semi-third places. Three routes for commuting and many routes for strolling were constructed in Kanda, but only one route for commuting and few routes for strolling were constructed in Shinagawa. Complementary relationships were found between third places and strolling routes, and between semi-third places and commuting routes, respectively.Towards the improvement of quality of office workers’ life around workplace, the above EBS knowledge should be adopted in case of planning or designing city environment, including offices. For example, even if it is small area, a mixed-used landscape or not planned and left area could be significant third places for office workers in case of urban development.ReferenceRay Oldenburg: The Great Good Place, Marlowe & Company New York, 1999
Leach, R, and D. Uzzell. "Changing Attitudes to Waste Generation: Anomalies as an Indicator of Change." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. This research sought to assess the extent to which changing a hospital maternity unit policy would impact on parents’ attitudes and ongoing waste minimisation behaviour. The policy was changed from all parents supplying their own disposable nappies, to supplying parents with cotton nappies during their post-natal stay. This meant that provision would be made for all parents during a post-natal stay to freely use cotton nappies whilst on the ward, rather than bring their own disposable nappies to use for their baby. It was hoped that this change would encourage parents to reduce the amount of waste they produce, which is sent to landfill, by using alternatives to disposable nappies. Four groups of mothers were interviewed over the research period: two groups before the maternity unit policy was changed and two following the new policy implementation. One group from each interview phase was also offered a free trial of using cotton nappies with a laundry service. Mothers were sent a follow-up questionnaire when their baby was six weeks old. Survey instruments were designed based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1988; 1991) which takes steps towards understanding that an individual’s behaviour is not simply a direct result of their attitudes. Added to this we were also able to incorporate the role of direct experience in explaining behaviour change by comparing those who had and had not used cotton nappies while staying at the hospital. Eliciting parents’ attitudes towards cotton and disposable nappies, providing experience of cotton nappies on a maternity ward, and offering some parents a free trial of nappy laundering services were strategies employed to encourage parents to choose cotton nappies and evaluate the effectiveness of the maternity unit policy change. It was found that inconsistencies and contradictions were evident in parents’ responses. Results challenge the assumption that people are consistent in their attitudes and followed their primary understandings and beliefs with action. Rather this research highlighted the many anomalies associated with waste minimisation behaviour, through parents’ reasons for choosing a type of nappy and supported previous findings that environmental attitudes do not reflect environmental behaviour (Witherspoon and Martin, 1992; Widegren, 1998; Tarrant and Cordell, 1997). It also often assumed that the type of nappy that parents use depends on recommendations by other parents – an intuitive assumption that was found to be not always the case for all parents. The problem of addressing a collective problem is apparent with the need to make parents understand and take responsibility for their own waste production, including that of their children. It may be concluded that attitude change is an early step to behaviour change and that the anomalies evident in these responses are indications that whilst parents are as yet unwilling to change their behaviour and take full responsibility for their waste production, they are aware of the problems. Awareness is a necessary part of the behaviour change process although it will be key to progress this awareness beyond paying lip-service to many parents using environmentally considerate options.
Edgerton, E, J McKechnie, and K. Dunleavy. "Changing Schools: Pupil and Staff Assessments of their New Schools." In Designing Social Innovation: Planning, Building, Evaluating - Proceedings of the 18th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Hogrefe & Huber, 2005.

This paper investigated how pupil and staff assessments of their school environment changed after extensive rebuilding had been carried out. The paper focused in particular on how the type of building work carried out was related to differences in pupil and staff assessments. Three schools were selected that reflected the different types of building work (ranging from a newly built school through to major refurbishment of an existing school). Using a questionnaire, data was collected from both S4 pupils and staff regarding their assessment of the new physical environments and the impact on their behaviour. All the new school environments showed significant improvements in staff and pupil assessments, however, the greatest improvement was for the new build and the least improvement for the refurbished school. Pupil assessments were generally more positive than staff assessments. Possible reasons for these differences are discussed.

Edgerton, E, J McKechnie, and K. Dunleavy. "Changing Schools: Pupil and Staff Perceptions of their New Schools." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. Since 2000 Glasgow City Council have undertaken a major building project (Project2002) to refurbish or rebuild all of the secondary schools in the city under its authority. In total 29 schools in the city have been involved, however, the actual type of building work undertaken has varied across the schools. Eleven of the schools have been demolished and completely rebuilt, fifteen schools have undergone major refurbishment and the remaining three schools have undergone major refurbishment whilst adding a new building. With the support of the City Council, the Psychology division at the University of Paisley have undertaken an evaluation study of these new learning environments and their impact on users. Although much is already known about ‘good’ design in learning environments (e.g. Sanoff 1994) little is known about how users perceptions are influenced by the type of building work their school has undergone. Previous research has suggested that newer schools are viewed in a more positive light by teaching staff (BPRU 1972). The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether staff and pupil perceptions of these new schools differed and whether this was related to the type of building project undertaken i.e. new school, refurbished school or refurbished school plus an extension (combination). The research investigation was based on questionnaire surveys conducted with six sample groups, namely pupils and teaching staff within each of the three types of ‘new’ schools i.e. new school, refurbished school and combination school. The questionnaire was designed as part of a larger evaluation study of how the new learning environments were perceived by 1st year pupils, 4th year pupils and all staff. For the purposes of this paper, the subjects comprised 4th year pupils who had been at the ‘old’ school and the ‘new’ school (these children are in the age range 15-16 yrs) and teaching staff that had taught at both the ‘old’ and ‘new’ schools. The pupils were sampled within one of their regular classes and the researchers were present throughout the data collection procedure. The staff were sampled by distributing the questionnaire through the internal mail system; staff completed this in their own time and returned this directly to the researchers using stamp addressed envelopes. The sample size consisted of 433 respondents (322 Pupils and 111 staff). For the purposes of this paper the analysis focused on responses to twelve aspects of the learning environment e.g. aesthetic appearance (external and internal), noise levels, security, etc. Within each type of school pupil ratings of the new environment were generally more positive than staff ratings. For the refurbished school, pupils indicated that the new environment was a significant improvement on all twelve aspects (compared with only four out of twelve for staff). For the combination school, pupils indicated a significant improvement in eleven of the twelve aspects (compared with two out of twelve for staff). For the new school, pupils again pupils indicated a significant improvement in eleven of the twelve aspects (compared with seven out of twelve for staff plus two aspects where there had been a significant deterioration). Finally, the ratings of all three schools by both pupils and staff suggested that the highest rated school was the new build school and the lowest rated school was the refurbished school. The researchers have suggested a number of explanations for the above findings including (i) the different experiences of pupils and staff during the building work, depending on school type, and (ii) the relationship (mismatch) between the new learning environments and important work-related behaviours that teaching staff need to carry out.
Millar, J.. Child Responsive Architecture: a Learning Tool In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. "An Investigation into Children's Perceptions of Architectural Space "There are children playing in the street who could solve some of my top problems in physics, because they have modes of sensory perception that I lost long ago." J Robert Oppenheimer, Physicist With regard to works previous (Stea &Taphanel, Tolman, Vygotsky et al), this hypothesis is formulated that, in relation to perception of space in the western world, young children have a fundamentally different understanding to that of adults. If this holds true, it could raise certain issues with the ways in which architects design buildings in terms of spatial awareness, orientational understanding and building language. This paper discusses the background to the hypothesis, outlines the questions that must be answered in order to improve the building design process and highlights the methodologies by which these questions will be addressed. Concerning cerebral lateralization, it has been demonstrated that pre-school children exercise their right hemisphere in an intensive way whilst simultaneously exercising their left hemisphere in the processing of language and through the production of speech (Springer, SP & Deutch, G, 1998). However, at the onset of formal education, the right hemisphere processes of imagination and intuition appear to be disregarded; hence the left becomes the dominant hemisphere (Edwards, B, 2001). The functions of the left hemisphere, through schooling, are being formalised * the logic is being aligned * whilst the right hemisphere is given much less encouragement and so logic appears to surpass intuition. In regards to spatial awareness * a logical understanding of space takes over from the base intuition of youth. It is suggested that in the western world, men and women only use half the mental capacity that it is available to them (Ornstein, R, 1975). By focussing on the left hemisphere and in many ways ignoring the education and the potential of the right, western civilisation is not reaching the potential that it could if using the brain to its full extent. (Ornstein, R, 1975) Those who receive formal schooling, especially from a young age, tend to become much more reliant on logical methods, rather than spatial methods of learning and understanding (Molfese, DL & Segalowitz, SJ, 1998). It is possible that, at present, the design of the built environment not only inhibits children, but also, due to a lack of understanding into their needs, is giving out signals to which they have a completely different response than adults expect of them (Stea & Taphanel, 1974). When considered, this highlights certain moral issues regarding how designers should respond to the people for whom they are designing. If children do indeed have a different perception of space to that of adults, then how can designers maximize the use of this knowledge and understanding to the fullest potential when creating space? By applying the fields of child psychology, sociology and neurology to the notion of architectural space, the intent of this research is to determine the most crucial ways in which children's perceptions and reactions differ, in some ways substantially, to those of adults. It will be tested by natural investigation, within two spatially different buildings with separate groups of children and adults of Scottish working class culture by looking at their personal and social cognitive maps by means of physical, verbal, drawn and written outputs. The natural potential for further research into this, in the future, would be to initiate a design based study to create a child specific space which then responds correctly to the needs of children and could be used to evaluate the conclusions."
Karsten, Lia. "Child-Friendliness: Some Methodological Reflections." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. Child-friendliness is a concept much related to policy practices. We as researchers try to inform policy makers (and designers and politicians as well) about the child-friendly (or: child-unfriendly) character of residential environments with the ultimate aim to claim improvements. How can we outline our research in a way that meets this aim? Over the last years I carried out several studies about children’s spending of time and using of space in different urban neighbourhoods. Broadly speaking these studies can be distinguished in three categories: observation studies in playgrounds/neighbourhoods, surveys / interviews with children, surveys/interviews with parents and other adults involved with children. Each of these research-approaches has their specific strength and weakness in the sense that they offer us quite different results, while the impact of the outcomes differs accordingly. In this paper I will reflect on some of these studies and the value they have (had) for spatial design and urban planning. I will pay attention to the difficult relationship between observation and interpretation, the different positions of children and between children and parents, and the complex relationship between behaviour and environment. In addition, I will go into the question of the environment as ‘a matter of fact’ for children when referring to their daily live in the neighbourhood. In the discussion, I will argue that the discipline of urban design can best be informed with observation studies (added with interviews), while departments of urban planning can benefit more from notions derived from interviewing/survey studies.
Chatterjee, S, and V. Sullivan. "Children Growing up in Public Housing: Public Neighbors and Agents of Social Change." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. This paper investigates how middle school children can be engaged to participate in community and environmental design in order to create a more nurturing and equitable living place in their public housing neighborhood. The two researchers conducted an instrumental case study researching a Raleigh public housing on a quid pro quo basis. The main research questions were:ß How do children use and perceive their living environment in public housing?ß What environmental factors contribute to nurturing childhood in public housing?ß How could design play a role in providing environmental affordances that dialectically support healthy child development?A ten-week after school workshop series involving the middle school population was designed, with inter-institutional support. This fitted into the program schedule prepared by Community Learning Partners for children enrolled with the community center of the housing project. In order to come up with design solutions for the neighborhood, an action research format operationalized by different methods—cognitive mapping, sociograms, field photography, questionnaire survey, public speaking, design programming, map making, 3D modeling and simulation—were used to answer the three research questions. The project culminated in a public presentation at the College of Design at which the eight students summarized their thoughts, hopes, and recommendations through individual power point presentations, which demonstrated their sophisticated skills in visual presentation. From this performance it was clear that children found certain methods more useful than others in representing their environmental preferences. They valued the 3-D modeling exercise and the simulated role-play within the modeled environment over the other exercises. Several outcomes are worth noting, although the conclusions cannot be generalized as the small population middle school children were self-selected. Clearly the benefits to the younger participants as indicated by their final presentation—an individual summary of the series—were social and environmental awareness, evidence of environmental competence and empowerment to truthfully analyze the present situation as a first step toward change. The design recommendations were closely linked to the concept of social justice, to psychological ownership through more functional choices and freedom to personalize their place. In an environment where children have no control over the conditions of their physical home, the fieldwork gave them experience in thinking that their preferences could lead to the creation of a more nurturing environment.
Maalouf, M.. "Children Housing Relationships in Differently Structured Welfare Institutions in Lebanon." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. Families are subject to suffer from serious difficulties and unresolved problems at all levels incurring discordance and conflicts which result in some family members, notably children, to leave the house and seek resort and some social institutions such as children welfare institutions that provide an alternative to the family atmosphere.This study attempts to determine a child’s ability to cope on his new environment physically and socially. Besides, It intends to evaluate environmental conditions that contribute to the promotion of children well-being and to their positive adaptation living away from their original homes and families. This study hopes to provide as well recommendations for modifying the conditions in the children new environments. For this reason, we chose two types of Lebanese children welfare homes as a sample :1-- The social institutions which receive children coming from families which mainly suffer from socio-economical difficulties. Theseare structured in a way to receive as many children as possible where social workers look after the children at all levels. The landmark of the style of live in these spaces of transition (Lawrence, 1984) is collectiveness in all types of activities.2-- The Villages for children receive children who have to live away from their mothers (due to death, sickness, etc.…). Every village is a complex of ten or fifteen houses. Every house is built following a well established scheme of structural and interior design. In every house, a social worker (whom the children call mum) takes care of 8 to 10 children and of all the affairs of the house. The population considered in this study represents children ten to twelve years of age living in these two different kinds of environments :--- 95 children hosted by welfare institutions;--- 40 children hosted by S.O.S villages.The methodological procedures implemented in this study are based on a multi disciplinary approach which makes use of some research tools such as :-Visiting the children and observing these environments under the provided conditions.-Asking children to draw a house whereby, their drawings are assessed objectively using Maalouf ‘s scales (2003) inspired by barrouillet (1994) and Greig (2000).-Investigation by questionnaires (open/close questions).The results of this study reveal that away from their parental houses, these environments, though constraint, activated the children to express significant modes of behavior such as responses to territorial spaces (personal spaces), love / hate bonds, feelings of belongingness, avoidance, intimacy and sense of freedom. These modes of behavior are expressed by children in special ways characterizing each of these two environmental settings, Besides, the analysis of these results cast light on the major role of social and emotional climates (Moos, 2003) ; climate which enhance personal skills such as coping (Korpela 1992). fact, the social climate has a pervasive influence on the emergence of feelings of attachment (Feldman, 1996 ; Mc Andrew, 1992) to a place (home, home range, relatives homes).Our findings stand out by conveying a special concept called “Residential Social Hope“ after Maalouf (2003). During the congress we will expound this concept by setting out three processes that show how children lacking family support – living away from home – are able to develop positive relationship with their homes. The “Residential Social Hope” concept is evident in the welfare institutions but lacking in the S.O.S villages. It appears that when the children are kept assured being connected to their roots and that their first (parental) home does always exist for them to return to, they express certain and positive attitude reviewing their relationship with the members of their families and with their homes. Broadly speaking, this concept put the social climate in its significance and effect about the functional aspect (Robin 2001).
Cele, Sofia. "Children in Interaction with Urban Space." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. An increasing number of children in Sweden grow up in urban settings, a fact which has consequences for and challenges the traditional way of conducting urban planning as well as the use of recognised consultation methods. During 2003 a comprehensive consultation project has been conducted in an area in central Stockholm. The exclusive aim of the project has been to focus on children’s everyday environment and to try and enhance its qualities. The assumption is that by improving the local environment parents will feel more at ease with letting their children out on their own, thereby both enhancing children’s quality of life but also reducing traffic when parents no longer need to drive their children to school. The aim of this paper is to focus on this unique project were urban planners have been working together with children, teachers, police officers, youth workers, researchers and people from different organisations to try and find out and describe how children use and value their local environment. It focuses both on the methods used and on the knowledge drawn from the consultation process Via the use of multiple qualitative methods with some addition of a quantitative material, children’s diverse realities have been trying to be understood and enhanced. Via methods such as working with maps and drawings, interviews, walks and photography the children have expressed their views on the local environment. The use of these qualitative methods are described, analysed and discussed in relation to the gained result. The result from the consultation process is a rich material on how children interact with urban space and it reveals a diverse picture of how they understand and perceive their everyday environment. It presents how children use their physical environment in a way that leaves room for continuos interpretation and where most objects have multiple uses. Whereas the meaning of some objects varies from time to time others provide the children with safety and recognition. Further on, it underlines the need for children to be physically active in their environment but also that many children seek solitude and have a need for their own space. It also proves that the social and physical environment for these children act together and form a unity which they explore with all their senses. Heavy traffic, dangerous road crossings, homeless people and drug addicts present the children with a sense of fear that to a certain extent make them feel unsafe but at the same time also attracts them. Finally, the paper outlines and discusses the workshops that local government officials have held in order to try and use the knowledge gained through the consultation process with the children in the physical planning.
Cele, Sofia. "Children in Interaction with Urban Space. the Challenges of Children's Participation." Journal of Applied Psychology [Special Issue 18th IAPS Conference] 6, no. 3-4 (2004): 71-80. The participation of children in different processes is an increasing phenomenon due to the implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Unfortunately the level of competence involved in these processes is often remarkably low. Children are often included in processes only to provide a democratic profile for the work. Children’s participation is positive but must be performed with enough knowledge about and interest in the children involved. There must always be a positive outcome for the children and they must be able to see that their participation has made a difference. Otherwise children’s experiences of participatory work will only result in them becoming disillusioned. Through the use of an example from a project in Stockholm some important issues regarding children’s participation in urban planning are raised, discussed and also questioned.
Björklid, P.. "Children's Access To, Use of and Relationship with Open Space." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. In recent years projects involving the concept of “child-friendly cities” have attracted attention in Sweden. While research into this area has taken place in other countries (cf. Bartlett et al. 1999; Chawla, 2002; Horelli, 2003), no such research exists in Sweden. Several international studies have shown that children a few generations ago generally had much greater freedom to explore their neighbourhood than children have today. In the past children played alone outdoors more often and also played in the street (Engwicht, 1992; Van der Spek & Noyon, 1995). Parents today watch over their children more and do so until the children are older (Gaster, 1991). In the Netherlands a changing pattern has been observed, children today spending more time indoors than was previously the case (Karsten, 2002). In parental questionnaire studies in Stockholm’s inner city and suburbs (Björklid, 2002) one in three parents felt that they themselves had greater opportunities as children for visiting places and friends. A similar proportion also felt it was safer in the past with regard to both traffic and other dangers (cf also Prezza et al. 2001; Risotto & Tonucci 2002). The aim of this study is to describe 12-year-old children's use of their neighbourhood and to analyse how this is influenced by the traffic environment and other physical and social factors. Children's and parents' experiences of children’s outdoor environment has been studied as well as how these experiences might influence children's use of space and independent mobility. Parents completed a questionnaire and children described the places they visit. This was accomplished by means of written reports, the children’s own photographs, group interviews and walking tours. The project consists of several part-studies. The present study focuses on children’s access to, use of and relationship with their local environment. The results will describe variations between children’s experience and use of their local environment in a traffic-segregated suburb built during the late 1960s. Parents’ and teachers’ evaluation and use of the local environment will also be presented.
Björklid, P.. "Children's Independent Mobility and Relationship with Open Space – Studies of 12-Year-Olds' Outdoor Environment in Different Residential Areas." Journal of Applied Psychology [Special Issue 18th IAPS Conference] 6, no. 3-4 (2004): 52-61. The aim of the present study is to describe 12-year-old children's use and perception of their neighbourhood. Two residential areas were investigated: an inner-city area with heavy traffic and a traffic-segregated suburb built during the late 1960s. The results show that 12-year-olds have greater independent mobility than younger children – though this is less marked among the mainly immigrant families of the suburban area, where parents express a greater need for control and a greater fear of “stranger danger”. On the other hand, fewer children are allowed to cycle in traffic in the inner-city area, due to a perceived lack of consideration on the part of motorists and a lack of (connected) cycle paths. Children in both areas point out the problems caused by traffic and by inconsiderate motorists. Other problems experienced as troublesome include noise from traffic and the underground, littering, older children who argue homeless people, drunken people and drug users.
Van der Linden, Judith. Children's Preferences for Child Care Physical Environments: the Relationship Between Children's Preferences and Design Recommendations In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. In 2002, almost half of Australian children under 12 years of age used some type of child care, a number that has increased gradually over the last decade and is expected to grow even further in the future (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2002). As a result, children are spending more time in child care settings. Research has identified that child care environments influence children’s behavioural, cognitive, social and emotional development (Moore, 2003; Wohlwill & Heft, 1987). Based on this research, and the growing number of children in child care, it is important that children are exposed to high quality child care settings. In previous research, a number of design recommendations for child care environments have been developed (e.g. Prescott & David, 1976; Moore et al, 1994), culminating in scales such as the Childhood Physical Environments Rating Scale (CPERS; Moore, O'Donnell & Sugiyama, 2003). These recommendations, if implemented, should lead to higher quality child care centres, and to related positive impacts on children’s development. While quality has been defined in terms of what the research indicates as important, it is notable that little research has investigated children’s preferences for different child care environments. While it is unlikely that young children are aware of the impact of different designs on their development, it is probable that they have preferences for different design aspects in child care environments. Previous research on children’s design preferences in other types of environments, such as school and home environments, demonstrates that young children do have design preferences (Cohen & Trostle, 1988, 1990; Groves & Mason, 1993). The paper reports on research investigating some relationships between aspects of the design quality of children day care facilities as defined by the Childhood Physical Environments Rating Scale, and children’s preferences for these facilities. The research hopes to begin to fill a current gap in the literature, and investigate the question: “Do children prefer child care environments which are identified as high quality based on previous research?” This research investigated the physical environment aspects of colour, activity-richness and privacy and interaction in relation to children’s preferences. These aspects have previously been identified as influencing children’s environmental preferences in other environments such as schools and playgrounds (e.g., Cohen & Trostle, 1988, 1990; Groves & Mason, 1993; Van Andel, 1990). The sample consisted of 60 preschool age children (3;0-5;11) from 10 different child care centres in Sydney, with the same number of boys and girls and of older and younger children. The materials used were six sets of three A4 photographs depicting the environmental constructs of interest. The three pictures depicted three different quality-levels for each of these three constructs as defined by CPERS. The pictures were created by manipulating digital photographs of spaces of two child care centres with the computer program Photoshop.After a short warm-up task, each child was presented with the sets of pictures and asked to choose which one of the pictures he or she preferred. The research aimed to identify whether children prefer what current design recommendations define as high quality, or environments with design aspects that are supposedly lower in quality. The paper will report on these results. If differences are found between children’s preferences and the research based recommendations, then a future challenge will be the development of overarching design recommendations that both address the preferences of children as well as the recommendations based on developmental relationships found in previous research.
Tutal, O.. "Coffee Houses as a Public Space." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. Buildings such as shops, “arasta”, “bedesten”, mosque, “hamam” and “han,” which were the major units of the Ottoman towns and whose borders have become more indefinite in the contemporary cities while being identical with the market (bazaar), constitute the base of this system of cultural relations. Coffee Houses, one of the most important characteristics of this physical environment, are the spaces that from the Ottomans to the present day transferred socio-cultural relations to the public area, and primarily to the “mahalle” scale that shaped the social topography of the same places. Coffee Houses, symbolizing different poles of the public life that is controlled very firmly by any form of political and religious authority, appear most of the time as the place where social life is reshaped. While mediating for the reproduction of the social order, they assume the role of a productive center of a multi-faceted communication web in the daily life of the communities, as the places that consume and are consumed at the same time. Being the medium of a freely chosen social relations, they shape the new life philosophy woven by their users and that they lead to the socialization movement that surrounds all the layers of society via a wide-ranging cultural network. They, in this way help decreasing social and cultural pressure by means of their contribution to the process of socialization that mitigates the conventional rules to govern the society, as the socialization web grows. So that they accomplish things that even numerous reforms could not have achieved so far and via exploring common use in from the traditional to the modern, and from the local to the universal. Coffee Houses are the most important places where public life of the society is mostly spent and where, in spite of the cultural and religious traditions isolated by the Ottoman ethnic structure, the (bashfulness) in the social form of the city gets unconcealed. For that reason, Coffee Houses are not only places to be shared, but they also eliminate the separation between common / public space and private space. Coffee Houses may well be said to be one of the signs of modernity for they create a new time and space, restructuring the social life(Habermas, 2000). In the context of beyond-modern discussions, these concrete and symbolic buildings of space that are capable of disclosing the conflicts and changes of the social life are described as places of identity, of relations and as anthropological spaces(Auge’,1995) that are intended to be historical. Transformations caused by the effects of the life style on different sorts of traditional social order places “anthropological space” and “non-space”, which is the product of post-modernity, into opposite poles. New spaces such as cafeterias and Internet cafés, which maintained the characteristics of the “non-space” contrary to the Coffee Houses, have proved to be more effective than most of the past time transformations owing to their prevalence and intensity. When seen from the perspective of the state of prevalence, it could be stated that, with the use of technology, such transformations are operative especially in the Internet cafés, to constitute social forms of connection in the global scale, while making different people that are liberated from time and space, closer. If considered with regard to the matter of intensity, because information and distribution gets more effectual over the agenda, communication networks demanding more and more place in the daily life, and even because of the theory insisting that information and distribution, these factors become the source of significant changes in the way to conceive the spaces that is inhabited and in the way that those spaces are shaped(Mitchell, 1999). Just the same, on the one hand there we experience disunity, hyper-individuality and a growing loneliness, on the other hand, the relations that constitute the basis of the social relationships and the spaces that house those relationships are dissolved in parallel to the process of modernization and they start transforming the most intimate and individual characteristics of the everyday life(Sennett, 1978). iddiaIn this paper, the spatial construction of the Coffee Houses from past to the present will be analyzed, and the process of change that finally involves cafeterias and Internet cafés – spaces that show the characteristics of the “non-space” as opposed to the “anthropological space” in the beyond-modern discussions, will be scrutinized.
Oi, N.. "Cognition of Spatial Separation in the Interior: Comparative Experiments Using Computer Graphics and Full-Scale Model." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. IntroductionIn his classic paper, Inui et al. shows the concept of spaciousness for rooms with a window). This concept might be quite ahead compared with other studies around psychological effect of windows), but had long been deserted even in its home country until Munakata et al. have developed it). In these cases, spaciousness is the holistic impression of two spaces: the interior around you and the exterior seen through the window. In a relatively large room such as a living room, which has some partition walls or furniture in it, the interior space is often felt separated to two (or more) sub-spaces). These two cases may be similar because both of them have two spaces. However, these two cases are different, as people usually do not go through the window but usually go around partitions. Thus, the feeling of spatial separation of the interior could be more appropriate than spaciousness or continuity) sometimes. This paper explores the concept of cognition of spatial separation in the interior.MethodsThe study of closed space) was referred to when the space for the experiments are designed. Full-scale models are set using the corridor in a university building. Six settings of partition walls between the space where the seating (or starting) position is included and the other side of the partition were used focusing on the differences in arrangement and size: short walls from the both sides, a short wall in the center, a hanging wall from the ceiling, low partitions (1110 mm, 740 mm, and 370 mm in height).Computer graphics, as well as drawings, photographs and scale models are often used in designing or evaluating architectural space, but these presentation techniques should be used carefully. The depth perception could have important effect on the cognition of separation. Consequently, three experiments were planned for the comparative study as follows.Experiment 1: Computer Graphics. Each subject estimates the projected images on the screen) from the specified seating position.Experiment 2: Full-scale Models. Each subject estimates the real space of full-scale models from the specified seating position.Experiment 3: Full-scale Models. Each subject estimates the real space of full-scale models while walking along the instructed route in the space.Magnitude Estimation method was used in all experiments to estimate the cognition of spatial separation. To investigate the relation between the easiness of movement in the space and the feeling of separation, the impression on “easy to go through – hard to go through” was also graded according to seven ranks. As these are the preliminary experiments to investigate whether spatial separation concept has the possibility for the room design, subjects are twenty students of Kyushu Institute of Design (10 female, 10 male). Most of them are studying environmental design.ResultsIn each experiment, the similar tendency is found among subjects. Consequently, spatial separation is presumed to be a common feeling. The result of Experiment 1 shows that the feeling of separation increases with the height of low partitions, as the easiness of movement decreases. The result of Experiment 2 also shows that the feeling of separation increases with the height of low partitions, although the difference in the easiness of movement between 740 mm and 1110 mm is not apparent. The result of Experiment 3 shows the similar tendency to other experiments, except the impression of the easiness of movement for 1110 mm low partition.ConclusionThe spatial separation concept seems to have strong possibility to be used in the room design. From the comparative experiments, validity of still images of computer graphics for the cognition of spatial separation was confirmed. However, the further work should be needed, as the eye point of the still image seemed to have some influence on the cognition of spaceAcknowledgementThe author would like to thank Mr. Ken’ichi Nagao for his contribution to the experiments.
Ramadier, T.. "Cognitive Map and Social Group: a Technique for Comparison." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. The aim of this communication is to compare data recorded by sketch maps with those recorded by figurative materials that people dispose in a display unit. Each time the researcher investigates cognitive maps of an urban area, at the city or neighbourhood scale, he or she only access to a representation of this cognitive image of space rather than it expression. Then, the ability of the respondents to communicate their cognitive image to the researcher is always a problem when comparison concern social or cultural analysis. Furthermore, in the context of globalisation and high mobility, most of the questions in urban planning are to detect social differences for spatial representation on a same urban area. Therefore, the wide investigation of cognitive maps by sketch map, since the sixties, reveal that this technique is not efficient in this perspective: motor skill, creation of symbolic representation of physical elements, familiarity with paper and pencil format, etc., are strongly dependent to the social groups. Generally, these factors do not interest researchers and they try to minimize them. In this perspective, we propose to use symbolic but expressive standardised materials that respondents manipulate to communicate their spatial image of an urban area in order to compare social groups. Is this tool minimise problem of motor skill, abstract and symbolic representation of physical elements, or does it appear new problem of symbolisation with the standardised materials? Which problem? Who prefer manipulate standardised materials and who prefer drawing? Are we always observe the diversity of spatial structure (route map, survey map, etc.) with standardised materials? Are the necessary limitative classification of standardised materials have a suggestive influence on the spatial product? And at least, is it easier to analyse the product of this tool rather than those of the sketch map?To answer to these questions, we ask 30 persons per group (students in geography, workers in city-center without universitary diploma) : “which are your knowledge of the city-center of Strasbourg. We are interested to record your knowledge spatially”. Half of each group of respondents begin by the sketch map task, and one week after by the standardised materials task, and the second half of groups begin by the opposite order. In all the conditions, respondents have fifteen minutes to elaborate their spatial product. Conclusions relate to similarities and differences observed between standardised materials and the sketch map technique. Indicators used in this comparison are qualitative and quantitative: typology of spatial structure and its conservation from one’s to the other task, number of element, rate of each category of physical element and its conservation, etc.
Vestbro, Dick Urban. "Collective Housing - for the Emancipation of Men?" In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. The Scandinavian collective housing model emerged as a result of pressure from women’s organisations, who saw collective housing as an instrument to reduce housework, which in turn was regarded as a precondition for women’s chances to uphold gainful employment while fulfilling family obligations. The later self-work model, where residents take turns in cooking, also aims at facilitating everyday life for its inhabitants, although not only for women. This house form can be seen as an example of a spatial structure that provides attractive intermediate spaces between private and public parts of the urban environment, which are both strengthened by patriarchal society (Woodward 1989; Nordic Council of Ministers 1991; Vestbro 1997; 2000).In the self-work model of collective housing all adults have to take turns in cooking. Research on collective housing confirms that the distribution of tasks between men and women are more equal than in other forms of housing. This conclusion is based on interviews and observations in some of the Swedish collective housing units built in the 1980s (Vestbro 2000). It is supported by the author’s personal observations from one of the self-work units. No systematic study has been made, however, of the division of everyday task in collective housing, except for a Danish study from the beginning of the 70s. This study did not cover collective housing of the kinds mentioned above, but only communes where small groups of people share a house or a big apartment. The study revealed equal distribution of tasks with respect to shopping, washing dishes, cleaning and child rearing, but not with respect to textile work, where females dominated, and not concerning woodworks or car repair, where men dominated (Christensen & Kristensen 1972).The present paper has the character of a pre-study for a more comprehensive research project aimed at addressing the issue whether the Scandinavian collective housing model actually promotes changes of gender roles towards equality and men’s emancipation. On the basis of current theories on forms of masculinity the paper tries to work out a conceptual model for a study of conflicts between gender roles in collective housing in Sweden. Useful material is found in the research overviews made by the Program on Men and Gender Equality of the Nordic Council of Ministers (Oftung 1998). An interesting question to explore is how communal cooking tasks and periods of “paternity leave” come into conflict with employer’s demands. Another research question is whether support from the collective may facilitate more emancipated forms of masculinity. Based on the author’s own participant observation in collective housing it is argued that this type of housing may be a tool to liberate men from stereotype gender roles imposed by patriarchal society. It is noted that male members are encouraged to recognise their “female” sides, such as showing feelings and being observant upon the well being of fellow residents. Besides the ideological and behavioural factors, the role of the design factors is discussed. One of the design factors is the degree of social control achieved through a tree-like room structure, where residents pass easily overviewed communal spaces on their way to their private apartments, as developed in Palm Lindén’s research on collective houses (1989;1992). Her thesis is based on the concepts of the theory of Space Syntax (Hillier and Hanson 1984).
Pita, J.. "Communication Spaces." Journal of Applied Psychology [Special Issue 18th IAPS Conference] 6, no. 3-4 (2004): 205-214. The course of human history has been marked by a series of key moments in which our relationship with the environment has changed. These moments, as McLuhan pointed out, have brought about changes not only in how we approach certain tasks, but also in the very nature of the tasks themselves. The Post-Industrial Revolution in computing and communications constitutes the most recent of these historical landmarks and we may ask ourselves in what ways it is changing what we do and how we do it. The present study investigates this question, looking at the new relationships produced by these new technologies, and how they are changing all kinds of phenomena, including, of course, the places in which we live and relate to one another. In this regard, it offers a phenomenological approach to the concept of space, by means of what we term “communication spaces”.
Pita, J.. "Communication Spaces." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. This study looks at the new spatial paradigm emerging in the wake of the new information and communication technologies. Some authors have referred to the “change in landscape” brought about by the new technologies. Others have sought to develop successive models of spatial definition. Thus, Parent & Virilio spoke of the primitive horizontal, the modern vertical and the natural oblique, of the theory of fluids, of acoustics, of engineering (1)It is only relatively recently that the increasing acceleration in human evolution has allowed us to contemplate two changes in landscape: One derived from the First Industrial Revolution, giving rise to the “culture of the object” and, currently, the other, derived from the Second Industrial Revolution, that of computing and communications, which has given rise to what is known as “information culture”. In this context, the informational model has been applied, with considerable success, to the analysis of all sorts of things. Everything can be viewed from the perspective of information. At the same time, information has been invading everything. The costly development of the culture of the object has been replaced by information technology, which is flexible, fast and cheap. These last two changes in landscape share a common characteristic insofar as their relationship with what is real is neither direct nor immediate but mediatised. There is a developing concept of “extensions of the organism” (2), which is now encompassed by the more generic concept of “interface” “Interfaces” have been essential in the development of information culture, where the real object is replaced by computer encryption. Taken to the extreme, this means replacing real spaces with cyberspaces. All of this implies a fundamental re-thinking of the models of spatial definition. The ordered and coherent Euclidean space of our grandparents is being replaced by a space-time in which the discontinuous and ethereal take precedence. It is now a matter of a space that is overflowing with information and consequently increasingly immaterial, in which the most basic topological relationships are being called into question and the occupation of which requires ever more sophisticated means of interaction. “The space in which the human being develops is delimited by the scope of his/her senses. There is a visual space, a sound space, a motor space…These spaces form the person’s environment. They also form the environment or place in which s/he can communicate with other people, since s/he is able to see or hear them. The auditory communication space is therefore not the same as the visual communication space, simply because of the heterogeneity of the different senses and also because of the determinants (barriers of diverse intensity) of the reality surrounding us.” (3) The concept of “communication space” proposed here refers to the spaces between which it is possible to establish a communicative process. Or, to put it another way, the space-time covered by the human senses. “Communication spaces may be understood as phenomenological spaces and are modulated both by the architecture that supports them and by the possible means of communication available, as well as by many other distortion factors” (4) The most recent and notable of these communicative environments is cyberspace. Unlike other communication spaces, it forms a “place” which is accessed by means of various extensions, and would therefore seem to be particularly suitable as a medium for human communication.
Forsythe, D.E., and G. Winkel. "Community Building and Social Capital: Can They Change Housing Quality?" In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. Community building is a key ingredient in comprehensive community initiatives(CCI) to improve poor neighborhoods throughout the United States but the scholarly literature evaluating the results of this approach is sparse. CCI refers to the activities of local organizations, governments, religious institutions, or other agents to increase leadership, resident participation, and effective cooperation to achieve shared goals. CCIs emerged in the late 1980’s in the United States as responses to several trends: 1) the decline of the welfare state and the devolution of responsibility for the welfare of inner city residents and communities to local government and the non-profit sector 2) recognition of the interdependence of problems of physical deterioration, economic disinvestment, social marginality, crime rates, and levels of political influence for distressed inner city neighborhoods;3)leadership of liberal foundations who believed that by being comprehensiveness, coordinated, and collaborative with local institutions, and involving community participants, successful interventions could be achieved. All draw on the idea of social capital. Relationships that lead to effective cooperation constitute the social capital of the community, which can be used to achieve collective and individual goals. This paper uses three theories of social capital to evaluate a community building initiative in four small neighborhoods in Harlem and the Bronx, and focus on housing. These different frameworks critically draw on three competing ideas about social capital: 1) theories that focus on the role of voluntary associations and intervening institutions in democratic societies (Putnam,2000); 2) a functionalist theory of social capital, emphasizing the utility of social networks for the achievement of individual and group goals (Coleman, 1988); and 3) Bourdieu’s (1986) concept of social capital as the social process reproducing the class structure of capitalism and controlling individual access to capital and credit through class membership. Bourdieu reminds us of three significant issues for would- be community builders: 1) the absence of social capital that translates into good educations, jobs, and a wealth of other positive outcomes is actively produced through exclusionary practices that are integral to the structure of mainstream institutions 2) efforts to generate social capital readily replicate the “fault lines” of society such as race, class, age, and gender ; 3) if social capital is to be useful for achieving capital intensive goals such as better housing, then new relationships must be built between the wealthier sectors of society and low-income, minority communities (Briggs, 1997). Most CCI’s try to address these issues by developing relationships with local institutions to improve access and inclusion, by attempting to hire staff who reflect the composition of the community, by self-conscious outreach to different sectors of the community, and by engaging government and the private sector in community building efforts. Nonetheless, problems of access to networks and institutions rich in economic and social capital limit the achievements of CCIs. DeFilippis (2001) argues that community development efforts attempting to build social capital divorced from economic capital ultimately contribute little to the lives of the poor and powerless. He particularly faults Putnam’s use of social capital as a property of a community as misleading because it denies the unequal power relations and access to economic capital that exist in a community and between particular communities and those who possess power and capital in the larger society. Housing provides a tough test for the use of social capital to improve disadvantaged communities because good housing requires the investment of financial capital as well. This paper evaluates whether social capital contributes to better housing directly and how, if at all, it leverages the investment of financial resources in that housing. Looking across the four sites, several variables emerge as particularly relevant: 1) population resources; 2) the initial condition of the housing stock; 3) the success CBOs have in building social capital; 4) different ownership forms; and 5) the strategies CBOs use to bring pressure on owners of deteriorated housing for improvement. Single site analysis have indicated that the part of housing quality related to behavior is very responsive to increases in social capital through CCIs, but the part related to financial investments are more complex. Housing markets in these communities also varied in ways that affected the success of housing improvement strategies. This paper will us quantitative and qualitative data, HLLM and GSI, for the four sites to examine these issues.
Hoffman, S, A High-Pippert, and M. Noble. "Community-Based Energy: Concepts and Case Studies." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. Distributed generation (DG) technologies are defined as a variety of small, modular power-generating technologies that can be combined with energy management and storage systems and used to improve the operation of the electricity delivery system. While useful, this understanding of DG overlooks the social implications embedded in a distributed generation system. The California Energy Commission, for instance, says that DG is electric generation located at or near the intended place of use and can be used as a primary source of electricity, essentially reducing or even eliminating reliance on a utility for the provision of electric service. Considered in this light, DG can facilitate the creation of community-based energy (CBE) systems that would fundamentally reshape the structure of the electricity system and make technological choice an important but hardly dominant issue. Instead, the question of how to power society becomes primarily an issue involving social norms and values, rooted in issues of democratic governance and community empowerment. For local power advocates, community-based energy would also be a major step in bringing about a necessary transition to a more environmentally-benign electricity system. While appealing, the claims offered by CBE advocates are hardly self-evident. That is, there is very little evidence to show that a distributed energy path necessarily requires or even recommends decentralized or participatory decision making, beyond allowing citizens to express an ambiguous and hard to operationalize environmental preference. Nor is it self-evident that more robust and broader forms of public participation will yield more environmentally benign energy decisions. The research described in this presentation tests the validity of the claims offered by CBE advocates and examines the variety of social organizations that are most likely to bring about the transformations envisioned by CBE systems.
Brower, Sidney. "Community-Generating Neighborhoods." In Designing Social Innovation: Planning, Building, Evaluating - Proceedings of the 18th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Hogrefe & Huber, 2005.

Neighborhoods are generally accepted as a proper concern of urban designers. Recent interest has shifted from the idea of creating neighborhoods to that of creating residential communities. Can one really design a neighborhood so that it will generate a community? Social science research supports the idea of community-generating settings, and suggests ten properties of these settings. A study of the development histories of fifteen planned communities in the United States finds that these properties are present. It also finds that a unified and distinctive appearance is often a catalyst for community action. Appearance can, then, be a community-generating property, but its power derives less from its inherent physical qualities than from the social context in which it is seen. By itself, appearance is no more than a façade. Community design requires more than what urban designers are typically called upon to do; it requires the active participation of others.

Karaman, O.Y., and M. T. Kiray. "Comparing the Space and Neighbourhood Quality of the Mass Housing Areas in Izmir as a Housing Problem." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. The house is one of the most important necessities of mankind. Since the dawn of history shelter for the activities of families has been a conspicuous feature of every civilization “Housing problem” in Turkey has been growing in volume due to rapid population increase and particularly rapid urbanization. Due to the industrialization and rapid urbanization of the new developing cities, such as Izmir -the third biggest city of Turkey-, housing demand has been increasing together with an insufficient housing production to meet the needs of the city. Besides all these effects, Izmir faces the difficulty of the rapid increasing population, and migrating people from rural areas with hopes of finding new job opportunities, since 1950’s. The ongoing migration process from rural to urban areas has accelerated socio cultural and spatial differentiation and diversity, and constituted a great housing problem. In order to find a solution to this housing problem, various housing policies, and master plans have been put into practice; but cannot be properly implemented, because of the land speculation, and lack of financial resources of the municipalities to expropriate the land for basic services and political pressures. Depending on this, both planned, and unplanned housing areas have been constituted without assuring the physical, and social well-being. As a result; the land speculation ruined the historical buildings of _zmir in the needs of the housing demand to build new high-rise apartments that can be evaluated as insufficient. The lack of financial resources of the municipalities, and the policies that encourage the migrations from rural areas to developing city Izmir formed the “squatter housing” in the borders of the city. Squatter housing construction is the major means for shelter of low-income families who cannot have their place in the housing markets, and self-housing their own individual homes. Therefore, the number of squatter dwellings has increased parallel to the rapidly growing urban population. In 1980’s as a solution of the housing demand, “mass housing” areas have been built in the planned areas by the municipalities, and public associations. This new item; was an alternative solution for preventing the demolition of the historical buildings and to build new squatter houses. “Mass Housing Solution” served especially for the lower income group with the houses located outskirts of the city within low quality of urban life with lack of green areas, natural elements, and social environment. These households mostly the immigrants of the rural areas represented the continuum traditional-rural way of life in the cities firstly in “squatter areas” than in “mass housing” areas. This kind of mass housing areas served to provide the balance between cultural continuity, and the needs of modernization. While the mass houses for the lower income group was continuing to be produced, another approach have been developed for the mass housing policy. This new policy is aimed to build new “mass houses” with high living quality standards for the upper income groups, in the centre of the city, with green areas, play areas, recreation areas, shopping centres, sport centres and etc. Both the community and individual household either from lower income group or higher income group, are interested in the housing status of that household. By “housing status” it is meant a whole complex of activities, satisfactions, rights, obligations, convinces, and expectations surroundings the use of a particular dwelling unit by a particular household. The mass houses that have been built both for lower income, and higher income groups have to sustain the housing status which the society living in those houses wish to own. In this paper, the house status of the mass houses will be put in to light by comparing them with the criteria shown below, and building “mass houses” as one of the solutions for the housing demand will be criticized._ House Quality_ Environmental Quality_ Neighbourhood Quality _ “Mass House’s Settling Principles_ Accessibility To City Centre_ Typology Of Plans_ Profile Of The Users.Representation of the continuum traditional-rural way of occupants’ lives in the mass housing areas will also be put forward in addition to the points that we have focused on in this paper. To put forward the different uses of the mass-housing areas, and to compare the space and neighbourhood quality of the mass Housing areas in Izmir, the mass houses in “Maviehir” as the examples of the high economic levelled way of living, and mass houses of “Çili” as the examples of the low economic levelled way of living will be discussed in this paper as a case study.
Chorherr, Thomas. "Concrete Alternatives to Urban Sprawl and Suburbanisation - the Concept of a 24Th District." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. Urban sprawl is one of the megatrends in large cities and the major problem in Vienna´s urban planning. The demand for recreation areas, the dream of an own house with a garden and cheaper grounds have been a high motivation for many citizens to settle outside of the city. The consequences can been observed at the results of the last national census. The inner districts of Vienna have significantly lost population, the areas around Vienna had a very high increase. The political instruments of city and regional planning did not react to the trend of urban sprawl and even accelerated these developments with some land use regulations. (see programs such as “Wohnen im Grünen”, “Neue Siedlerbewegung”) . So we now have lots of residential areas with nearly no social infrastructure, public transport or stores in short distance. Residents highly depend on their cars and become part of the daily traffic collapse when eg driving to work.Besides political instruments such as tax policy or regional planning policy the major approach for Vienna must be to develop concrete projects in the city offering those qualities people are asking for. There is no doubt that new residents with (or near to) recreation areas, individual free space such as terraces or balconies, community areas, participation will positively react to these qualities and stay in the inner districts of Vienna.One concrete idea in discussion is the development of a new district in the area of handelskai at the right riverside of the Danube. The term 24th district is more symbolic but shows the potential. New technical solutions in covering the handelskai can be improved for a new access to the Danube riverside as a living area not only for new projects but for all residents. The public infrastructure is existing, and potential is high. The aim is to develop a concrete sustainable district as a concept against urban sprawl in Vienna.
Rivlin, L, and K. Steinmayer. "Consequences of the Relocation of an Urban University." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. "Relocation has been identified as a stress-producing aspect of life, one that challenges people's sense of well-being and ability to cope (Dohrenwend & Dohrenwend, 1974; Fried, 1963; Mazumdar, 1992). It also is part of most people's experiences, more frequent in some cultures than others. Although much of the work on relocation has focuses on residential moves, a recent study has examined the relocation of an urban university. The study was designed to address three major areas of concern. The first was the issue raised in the earlier literature on residential relocation that identified moving as a stressful life event (Dohrenwend & Dohrenwend, 1974). Our aim was to examine this process in a non-residential move. The second area of concern related to the role of participation in the planning for the move by the university members, other than administration, and whether impacts would be identified after the relocation. The third related to connections to place, place attachment and place identity (Manzo, 2003; Proshansky, Fabian & Kaminoff, 1983) and whether the moving of a university, a workplace and educational setting, impacted an occupant's sense of self. Although our research examined relocation in a single, urban university, which may be seen as setting limits to the generalizability of findings, the research raised a number of issues regarding relocation that warrAnt further consideration and development. The move was planned by the administration with little or no input from the different departments and offices in the university, despite efforts on the part of some faculty to influence the design of the renovated space and the move processes. An outside move specialist was hired to facilitate instrumental concerns, especially the packing and delivery of office furniture and equipment. A team of two faculty members and three students worked together to design a survey to tap the many potential consequences of the move on faculty, students, staff and administrators at the university. This survey was developed from a questionnaire and interview used in earlier research on relocation. It was pretested and distributed to the faculty, students, staff and administration of the university. It was a mix of scaled and open-ended questions. The survey included demographic questions, reactions to the new spaces and the new neighborhood, reactions to the university as a community, comparisons of the new and the original spaces, reactions to the move process, the technology in the new site, things (if any) missed from the original site, and an open-ended opportunity to add anything they wanted to include. The questions with multiple choices and rating scales were analyzed statistically. The explanation of choices and open-ended questions were content analyzed. Reliability of the coding was tested by a multiple coding procedure with three research team members participating at each analysis session. They worked toward consensus for the development of thematic categories (Miles & Huberman, 1994; Strauss, 1987). The analysis of 480 surveys returned by faculty, students, administrators and staff members uncovered deep feelings about the move, concerns that the new space was not meeting their work or educational needs, and great disappointment about the building and its offices and classrooms. Problems were identified with technology (telephones, computers, copy machines and FAX service) that made the work of the participants difficult to address. Some people liked the "modern" designs of the renovated spaces. People also reported missing things from their old locations, especially a park that was across from old space and the nearby New York Public Library, a major research resource. The neighborhood in the original site, less than ten blocks away, was viewed as less congested than the new site that had heavier vehicular and pedestrian traffic, some of it generated by the Empire State Building across from the university. These concerns reflect important aspects within the context of people's daily lives, the way they go about their jobs, their classes, and the social relationships possible in an urban university. First, a move of any kind represents a rupture in routines, and in this case there was the need to create a new place where work and classes could function in an effective manner. Many occupants had difficulties in dealing with the technology and the new offices, most of them with rigid cubicle designs, and maintaining the pace of work that was associated with their different roles. The ability to move smoothly through a day, deal with problems, and use time productively was challenged by obstacles for which people were unprepared. There also were threats to respondents' connections to place and place identity (Manzo, 2003; Proshansky (Proshansky, Fabian & Kaminoff, 1983). For many the relocation uprooted connections that had been established, components of place identity. The research offered a number of possibilities for ameliorating the consequences of relocation, including pre-move meetings and workshops to anticipate problems, discuss the concerns of people and to develop strategies to assist them prepare for the relocation. After the move it would be useful to acknowledge the existence of a formal adaptation phase, a settling into the building, with discussion groups and focus groups to address people's concerns. Moving is a stressful, difficult transition that challenges people's identities whether it is residential relocation or a university relocation. It can be viewed as creating an environmental deprivation (Mazumdar, 1992), a sense of losses experienced by those impacted. Moving places is a critical life experience that is central to the work of many environment and behavior professionals and can benefit from an open discussion of the consequences of a move. "
Göæer, Özgür Pehlivaner, and Kenan Göæer. "Continuity, Change and Limits in Conserving Historical Settlements." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. This paper aims to release contrast between the role of conservation in the formation and the continuity of the local identity, at the historical site, Assos that has been declared as the historical and natural site. Assos is a small historical village, which dates back to 2th B.C, in North Ege. The contradiction of the economical developing and the limiting spatial structure is explained with the concept of conservation. In this study it is questioned that, in the historical and natural site, does the spatial continuity limited by the conservation restrictions affect social continuity? In the sense of this question a case study including a spatial analysis along with a face to face inquiry is conducted. By means of spatial analysis the relations between the space and the social cultural structure are compared both in dwelling and the settlement scale. Houses typologies, the organization of the public and private space give us implications about the changing spatial organizations. The second stage of case study; a total of 67 inquiries that compare the indoor and outdoor activities, habitual choices, choices of occupation had been made. By the way the social and spatial structure of Assos settlement are analysed. Historical areas encounter some difficulties, these are: the effects of changing social and economical conditions, character of the social structure, spaces that are not functional anymore. The settlements that cannot supply the requirements of changing conditions are always under the threat of being degenerated by the popular culture. In other words, one of the most important issues is identity. The theoretical concept of social and economical stage of this study is based on studies of M. K_ray (1964) in Ere_li and also a case study of E. Kongar (1986) in _Izmir and research theories of Rapoport (1980, 1990) concerning cultural aspects of environmental adaptation and design. To conserve the continuity of local cultures and to keep up with the change of their constitution are the critiques to the present settlements. Transformation of the present buildings according to the developing demands and needs and the new perspectives to save historical and cultural heritage are one of the important topics of the world architecture. Main problems, during the process of participation of historical settlements to life cycle, are cultural transformation and spatial and social continuity. Basically, social continuity is the evolution of the elements that form the social characters of the settlement (these are social, cultural, economical and demographic structure) as well as, preserving the local identity that constitutes environmental values. It is essential to conserve and sustain the identity of the settlement for the social continuity. The acceleration of the spontaneous changes in the settlement by external factors such as industrialization, tourism or migration, is accompanied by the cultural transformation. This transformation is inevitable and unfortunately, its limits are unpredictable.There are two important criterions for the spatial continuity of the historical sites such as Assos. The first one is the conservation of the historical buildings that have an important role on the constitution of the present historical identity and the other is the quality of the relationship between the new and the historical settlements. Despite the tendency for the spatial enlargements in Assos, parallel to the economical improvements, it has been prevented by the Law of Reconstruction. This situation causes some tensions for the public. There is an important point that should be mentioned, regarding the principle “historical sites and the local public must be considered as a whole and the social continuity is as important as the spatial continuity. In order to prove the principle that mentioned before, an implementation including face to face inquiry which determine the social and spatial structure of Assos settlement and a comparative case study including a spatial analysis of historical and new settlement is achieved. The inquiry ask for the answers of the changing in life styles, economical statue, behavioural choices, communication tools between two generation that affected from touristic development in Assos. The next stage of the case study gives information about the spatial differences between historical and new settlement separated by city wall located out of the historical settlement. By the help of this case study, it is understood that in conserving historical settlements, spatial continuity depends directly on social continuity and public oriented restrictions. Suggestions for the solution of these problems is an ambience of discussion has been created in the settlement areas, being announced to be site areas, in topics such as the necessity of making inhabitants gain awareness in the framework of the concept of protection, and the culture of the region is also a value which has to be protected. The site conservation projects that have been done in spite of the public cannot give the required results. Another reason for this is the lack of projects prepared with the attendance of the inhabitants. The lack of the councils that would control the conformity of the application projects to the conservation laws is another problem.
Suschek-Berger, J, and M. Ornetzeder. "Cooperative Refurbishment: Models for Participation of Owners and Tenants in Ecological Refurbishment of Multi Floor Buildings in Austria." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. BackgroundMaintenance and retrofitting of existing buildings and flats is of growing importance in the construction industry. In Austria, around 50% of the total annual investments are spent on renovation and refurbishment of old flats.However, in order to be successful these extensive refurbishment programmes are impossible without user integration - this is particularly true in cases that demand the legal consent of residents (e.g. additional energetical and ecological improvements). An early and systematic involvement of users could certainly help to avoid many of the problems and overcome the lack of support for extensive refurbishments that builders currently encounter. In our view, the demand for cooperative refurbishment is not only a function of necessity. User participation is rather seen as a chance for occupants to actively evaluate their own residential environment. Although a more active user participation may lead to additional organisational effort it is worth the attempt since in most cases this leads to a high acceptance and identification with the chosen solutions by the residents.Project Cooperative RefurbishmentThe Project Cooperative Refurbishment studies the needs of occupants during refurbishment processes in multi floor buildings, develops efficient and feasible models of user participation and implements exemplary participation processes in refurbishment projects.The most important steps in the project are:* problem evaluation from the building owners' point of view* problem evaluation from the occupants' point of view* evaluation of various international models for participation in refurbishment processes - selection of particularly promising methods* development of a participatory model for user involvement in refurbishment processes* implementation of two pilot projects as best practice examples.The project develops a model of participation outlining an ideal process integrating occupants (and possibly also neighbours), designing a modular system that can be adapted to specific practice situations, involving users during the whole process of refurbishment, considering and promoting normative aspects of sustainable use of accommodation and making suggestions for the integration of neighbourhood concerns and local politics.This flexible and modular model of participation can be implemented in refurbishment processes for old buildings. A practice brochure will document the results and provide guidelines for construction companies on how to implement the model.The research project will be finished in July 2004. At present time interviews with experts in the field of refurbishment and participation are done, focus groups and discussions with occupants who were involved in former refurbishment processes are in preparation. Best practice models in Austria and Europe are analysed. In addition, housing associations have been contacted for possible pilot projects and one has already started.The presented paper will describe the most important steps and results of the research project. We will outline the needs of occupants during refurbishment processes in multi floor buildings with a special focus on ecological improvements. Furthermore we will discuss efficient and feasible models of user participation and we will present some current experience related to the implementation of such participation processes in refurbishment projects.
McCoy, Janetta Mitchell, and Debarati Majumdar-Narayan. "Creative Places: Articulating the Pleasure-Arousal Hypothesis." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. Understanding of the characteristics of places that support or inhibit creative behavior is a highly valued but neglected area of research. This may be due in part to the absence of a framework for understanding the relationship of creativity and place. Three hundred sixty-one individuals responded to the question “Where are the places you have your most creative thoughts?” and described their most and least creative environments. The responses were then categorized using Mehrabian & Russell’s (1974) pleasure-arousal hypothesis and framework. Results have strong implications for designers and organizational decision makers.
Bulamile, Ludigija Boniface. Crime Prevention and the Built Environment in Tanzania In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. BackgroundFear of crime is as much a problem as crime itself and is an important policy issue in its own right. Fear of crime is often associated with fear for one’s personal safety, especially when alone and after dark. Fear of crime may keep people off the streets, and other public areas. It may thus constitute a barrier to participation in the public life of cities (Wekerle and Whitz-man, 1995:2-3). This observation is based on research in planned cities of industrialised countries, but can be assumed to be applicable also in unplanned areas in poor countries.In Dar es Salaam – the biggest city of Tanzania with an estimated 3 million inhabitants – the crime rate is growing, thereby increasing fear of using public space. In order to address this problem the Safer Cities project has been initiated. In March 2000 two studies were initiated in Dar es Salaam within the framework of this project. The studies usher some light on the experience of violence and crime, and the feeling of insecurity. 43% of the respondents stated that they had been victims of burglary between 1995 and 2000, while 32% stated that they had been mugged. 61% of the interviewed stated that they felt unsafe in their homes after dark (Robertshaw et al, 2000:13).The study further noted that burglary affects more people living in newly established suburbs compared to those living elsewhere in Dar es Salaam. Generally people with higher incomes and those owning houses are more at risk. In 78% of incidences victims reported that some-one was at home when the burglary was committed (Robertshaw et al, 2000:14).Crime prevention through environmental designCombating crime is often associated with increased policing, more severe punishment of cri-minals, social and educational programs, and programs for poverty eradication. In the last decades there has been an increasing interest in the potential of the built environment to con-tribute to crime prevention. In research and practical policies it is nowadays often recog-nised that the design of buildings, streets, parks and other public places can deter criminal activity and enhance urban safety. Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) has become a well-known concept for the design and management of urban space to reduce the incidence and fear of crime (Wekerle and Whitzman, 1995:12). CPTED invol-ves detailed situational analysis to identify local patterns and the micro-environmental con-ditions that might be creating opportunities for crime. Major factors for CPTED include clear divisions into private, semi-private, communal, semi-public and public space; a mixture of urban functions so that around-the-clock uses occur; design of neighbourhoods for clear overview and avoidance of dark corners, and grid-like communication patterns instead of tree-like urban structures with many dead end streets, which are used only by a few (New-man, 1974; du Plessis, 1999). There are two diametrically opposed approaches to CPTED. The one called “target harde-ning” implies fences, barbed wire, gated communities and privatisation of public spaces. The other one is based on the idea of planning a city so that people are present in communal and public places around the clock. The determining factor for design is to avoid dark, unseen spaces and adapt a grid structure rather than a tree-like structure. The two approa-ches are to a high degree excluding each other. High fences and gated communities contri-bute for instance to more fear outside the private realm, which in turn make people use com-munal and public spaces less, thereby reducing the chance for intervention when crimes occur (Newman, 1974; Coleman 1979; du Plessis, 1999).Oscar Newman’s defensible space theory and Coleman’s views on crime reduction strate-gies have gradually gained momentum among decision-makers and planners in USA and Western Europe. These theories can be assumed to be relevant to urban areas in poor count-ries as well, but in order to be fruitfully applied the local context has to be taken into conside-ration. The contextual factors can be assumed to comprise climatic and cultural aspects (influencing the use of outdoor space), ownership of land and real estate property, the role of local crafts-men and professionals, and the influence of planning legislation on urban development. No study with this focus has been done in Tanzania so far.Aim of studyThe aim of this research is to document the present tendency towards “target hardening” in Dar es Salaam and to investigate to what extent this tendency goes against the other approach to reduce crime by environmental design. The study intends to explore to what extent current CPTED theories are applicable in the Tanzanian context. On the basis of such an analysis attempts will be made to work out recommendations for house and neighbourhood types that prevent crime, and to introduce elements of CPTED thinking in physical planning.Research methodsIt is proposed that the research methods will comprise the following: a) Analysis of aerial photographs for tracing urban patterns where public spaces have high integration values (assumed to produce good crime prevention) versus tree-like struc-tures (where less overview is achieved). GIS may be used as a tools of analysing the spatial characteristics influencing the level of crime.b) Analysis of statistics on crime, including an assessment of its reliability and coverage. The frequency of burglary and other types of crime taking place in urban areas should be matched with the spatial patterns assumed to be related to crime prevention.c) Comparative studies may be made between high crime districts and low crime districts to establish factors influencing the crime.d) Collection and documentation of examples at the micro-level of designs determined by the two contradictory types of crime prevention. e) Interviews with key persons such as police officers, planners and mtaa leaders about frequency of crime, suitable actions to prevent crime, and about spaces that people tend to avoid for fear of crime.f) Interviews with a selection of residents who have carried out constructions because of fear of crime.g) Interviews with urban dwellers about their inclination to intervene in case of observing crime, and about the type of spaces they avoid in the city.
Raudsepp, M, and A. Ojala. Culture- and Gender Specific Profiles of Environmental Sensitivity In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. "Environmental sensitivity (Chawla, 1998) - "a predisposition to take an interest in learning about the environment, feeling concern for it, and acting to conserve it on the basis of formative experience" is an integrative construct which characterizes persons' general pro-environmental orientation (environmentalism). It can be operationalized through various indicators (environmental awareness, interest in environment, environmental concern, emotional involvement etc.). Determinants of environmental sensitivity include cultural, socio-structural, group-level and individual factors. Both mother language and gender are among the determinants of the relative position of a person in the concrete socio-cultural symbolic landscape, which shape his/her socialization towards certain attitudes and beliefs. Zelezny et al. (2000) explain consistent gender differences in environmentalism with different role expectations and socialization traditions for men and women. According to Kalof et al (2002) gender differences in environmentalism reflect real and symbolic asymmetry between categorical groups in the society. Subordinate groups tend to be more environmentally sensitive and express stronger beliefs and attitudes associated with environmentalism due to their greater vulnerability and having less power. Valuing altruism, solidarity, common resources and public goods is therefore significant for them.Th paper has two aims: 1) to compare the profiles of environmental sensitivity among 2 cultural communities (Estonians and local non-Estonians and 2) to analyze gender differences in environmentalism as moderated by culture. In our study the hypothesis of asymmetry (Kalof et al., 2002) is tested along 2 dimensions: language (Estonian as the dominant language) and gender (supposed male dominance). According to the hypothesis, subdominant social groups express greater environmental sensitivity compared to the dominant groups. The context: Estonia is a small (population 1, 4 m) country with low density of population (31 p/sq km). Compared to other industrialized countries it has relatively well preserved natural environment (forests cover nearly 50% of its territory). Natural environments (landscapes) have cultural significance. Due to the recession of industrial and agricultural production the level of human environmental impact has diminished. The standard of living is relatively low. Estonian ethnic stereotype includes environmental sensitivity as a component, traditions of rural sustainable lifestyle are partly preserved. Majority of non-Estonians live in the cities and have less practical contacts with the nature. The data is based on a national survey. The sample (N=987) represents age, sex and territorial distribution of the population of Estonia. Self-administered questionnaires in Estonian and Russian languages were used. Multi-item measures of environmental sensitivity were grouped into the following blocks: attitudes and beliefs concerning natural environment (e.g. emotional involvement with nature, perceived restorative qualities of forest, biospheric values), attitudes and beliefs concerning environmental protection issues (e.g. several scales of environmental concern, NEP scale) and attitudes towards environmentally responsible activities (e.g. behavior intentions, perceived social norm, knowledge of environmental consequences, self-reported habitual behavior). In addition, several psychological measures and the short version of Schwartz's value scale (SVS) were used. All measures are based on previously validated scales. Comparison of various indices of environmental sensitivity among Estonians and Russian speaking non-Estonians shows that these groups have different profiles. Estonians are characterized by a more rational and pragmatic attitude towards nature. They are more anthropocentric, regarding nature as a resource. Environmental problems are more often treated from the viewpoint of technological optimism. Estonians believe more in the effectiveness of individual pro-environmental measures and are more ready to overcome barriers to pro-environmental activities. When controlling for the effect of place of residence (urban-rural), there were no difference in the frequency of habitual pro-environmental behaviors between the groups. Non-Estonians are characterized by a more emotional relation to nature, they experience more intensely the restorative quality of nature, they are less pragmatic and more idealistic in their beliefs concerning man-environment relations, they are more ready to act pro-environmentally. On the whole, the profile of environmental sensitivity of Estonians is more concrete, pragmatic and practical, among non-Estonians it is relatively abstract, emotional and idealistic. Hypothesis of greater overall environmental sensitivity of non-Estonians was not confirmed. Men and women had also different patterns of environmental sensitivity. As hypothesized, gender differences among Estonians were more pronounced than among non-Estonians. Theoretical implications of the results will be discussed."
Grimshaw, R, Chr Peglow, M Puybaraud, and M. Symes. "Design Quality and Institutional Performance - the Impact of Well-Designed Buildings on the Performance of Higher Education Institutions in England." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. This paper will report on a study of the role that good design plays in promoting organisational efficiency and effectiveness in higher education in England. The study assessed the added value brought by good design to selected universities which had recently engaged in programmes of new construction and of building renovation. These programmes affected the performance of the universities concerned and lessons which can be drawn are of interest to designers and to those funding investment in the institutions where knowledge is created and transmitted. The research investigated the activities of design, the organisation of design processes and the management of spaces dedicated to advanced levels of teaching and learning, to research and to institutional administration. The methodology of the case studies which were undertaken included the collection of secondary data on student and staff characteristics, on the academic profile of the universities concerned, on flows of public and private finance and on indicators of performance such as student and staff retention and staff publications records. Primary data collection included a questionnaire survey, structured discussions with groups representing key stakeholders, structured interviews with personnel involved in operating or using the facilities concerned, and direct observations of the buildings and of their patterns of use. The analysis of this information used specialist software, selected because of its ability to combine qualitative and quantitative data. The results highlighted both the factors which were common across all case studies and factors which were specific to each institution and location. The sample of building projects aimed to cover: campus and inner city locations; accommodation for teaching, research and academic staff; humanities or social science based education, science and engineering departments and schools with a basis in studio space; large and small facilities. Specific to the English situation was a concern to portray the division between the building heritage and design policies of “Oxbridge”, the “redbrick” universities, institutes of technology and various types of “new University.” Design criteria employed included: functionality, sense of place, efficiency in use, community image, sustainability and flexibility, aesthetic qualities. A Design Quality Indicator System previously in use was critically reviewed and a more generic method of measuring the impact of perceptions of design quality on institutional performance was proposed.
Brower, Sidney. "Designing for Community." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. Neighborhoods are generally accepted as a proper concern of urban designers. Recent interest has shifted from the idea of creating neighborhoods to that of creating residential communities. Can one really design a community? The concept of co-neighborhood is introduced to mean a neighborhood with physical and social characteristics that are especially favorable to the creation of community. The question then becomes, can one design co-neighborhoods? A review of social science literature and a study of planned communities in the United States suggest fifteen attributes of co-neighborhoods that can be introduced through design. These can be grouped into five strategies. Each strategy incorporates both physical and social components. Strategy 1. Assemble a group of people who are predisposed to getting along with one another. There are two components. The first is to market a clear vision of the community-to-be so that new residents will come in with similar expectations and similar goals. The second is to attract people who feel that they can live together with a minimum amount of stress. Strategy 2. Bring people together into an organization that has the authority and the capacity to address their common interests. There are two components. One is to create an organizational structure that makes it possible for residents to work together in a purposeful way and on a continuing basis. The other is to create community-size neighborhoods by building physical subdivisions that house the optimum number of people for an area-wide organization. Strategy 3. Introduce programs, processes, and symbols that bring people together and hold them together over time. The strategy has four components. The first is to assemble a group of residents who are all strangers together, and so unusually open to the possibility of meeting new people and forming new friendships. The second is to create programs that remove barriers to interaction, and give people a pretext for meeting one another without having to commit to developing friendship. The third is to design residential environments that remind residents of community-defining events, symbolize their traditions, and give them a sense of continuity and direction in changing times. And the fourth is to attract a population of stable, long-term residents; they are more likely to develop a local social network, and develop an emotional attachment to the area. Strategy 4. Provide facilities that bring people together under conditions that are conducive to meeting and interacting. It has four components. One is to design residential areas with their own schools, convenience stores, parks, playgrounds, etc.; places that bring local people together. Another is to arrange the houses, spaces, and related uses so that they open people and activities to view, reduce obstacles to meeting, and increase reasons and opportunities for interaction. The third is to create an environment that is suitable for leisure-time use, and so conducive to casual socializing. And the fourth is to create ownership and tenure conditions in which individual residents stand to benefit from the success and lose from the failure of the collectivity. Strategy 5. Introduce forms and symbols that express a collective identity. It has three components. One is to create a composition in which all of the parts are subjugated to the whole; this conveys a message that the differences between individual residents are less important than the similarities that bind them together. The second is to create physical boundaries that make it easier for residents to identify and reach agreement on who belongs in their area and who does not, and to define the jurisdiction of their neighborhood organization. The third is to create an overall appearance that is distinctive, and with which residents as a group are willing to identify. The study concludes that it is possible to design for community as long as design is understood to include both physical and social components. In application, the five design strategies do not necessarily have the same order of importance: a strategy that is important in creating one type of community may be marginal or irrelevant in creating another. If, as suggested, communities are more likely to happen in co-neighborhoods, then it is reasonable to believe that good communities are more likely to happen in good co-neighborhoods. Criteria for good co-neighborhoods include congruence, control, and equity.
Lesmeister, C.. Developing Design Interventions for Children's Outdoor Play Environments In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. Research ProblemAt the University of British Columbia Child Care Services complex, I will compare two outdoor play yards. Yard A was built and designed several years ago by a landscape architecture student whose children attended the day care. Yard B was recently built after renovations to the day care room. Yard A represents a traditional type of playground space with its open patch of grass and scattered play equipment. Yard B is densely planted, has defined circulation paths, and is spatially complex. A single group of children will be observed playing within both spaces. The comparison of the play experiences will help to reveal what attributes of the two yards best support the child s development. Parents and early childhood educators will contribute their perceptions and observations. During the interviews, I will aim to discover what elements we perceive as being beneficial to the child. I will use the beneficial attributes of the yards to generate a series of design interventions. The interventions will be implemented in Yard B. Through the implementation process, I aim to discover how and if the attributes from one yard can be designed into another while maintaining the same developmental benefits. ContextThe day care complex is located on the campus of the University of British Columbia on the West Coast of British Columbia. The children who attend the facility ranged in ages from 6 months to five years. The study yards are intended for toddlers (children aged 12 to 24 months). The families are either students or professors at the university.Theoretical Framework/Relevant LiteratureI will be using literature and theories that discuss the design attributes of quality outdoor play spaces for young children. Susan Herrington s work in creating interventions for children_s outdoor play spaces provides an example of successful applications of this type of work. Dudek, Mark. Building for Young Children. London, England: The National Early Years Network, 2001.Herrington, Susan. The received view of play and the subculture of infants. Landscape Journal: Design, Planning, and Management of the Land. 16 (2). 149-161 1997.Herrington, Susan and Kenneth Mark Studtmann. 1998. From yard to garden: new directions in the design of children’s outdoor play environments. Landscape and Urban Planning. 42: 191-205.Moore, Robin C.; Goltsman, Susan M.; Iacofano, Daniel S.. Play for All Guidelines: Planning, Designing, and Management of Outdoor Play Settings for All Children. 2nd ed. Berkley, CA: MIG Communications, 1992.Shaw G., Leland. Designing Playgrounds for Able and Disabled Children, Spaces for Children: The Built Environment and Child Development. Weinstein, C.S and Thomas, G.D(eds.), New York: Plenum, 1987.Research Questions How does the same group of children play in a contrasting outdoor environment?What do families and early childhood educators perceive as being a quality outdoor space for young children? What does a toddler's rich outdoor play experience look like?What developmental opportunities are there in the toddler_s outdoor yard?How do the children's play experiences differ before and after the interventions?How can a designer translate the attributes of one environment into an adjacent location? Can we translate attributes from these yards to other neighbourhoods and contexts in Vancouver?Research MethodologyIn order to understand the children’s relationship to the environment, I will use video, interviews, and a written play narrative. Through video, qualitative examples of children s play experiences will be documented. The videotaping will occur a total of eight times in thirty-minute sessions. The children who are enrolled in the traditional play yard will be documented. The children will be taped four times in their yard, Yard B, and four times in the other yard, Yard A. They will be taped twice on sunny warm days and twice on cold rainy days in each yard. While the children are being taped, a second observer will scribe play narratives. There will also be a series of interviews with staff and families. The interviews with staff will help gain further insight into how the spaces are used by children, and what attributes of the play spaces are developmentally valuable. State of Development Yard A has been observed and documented through the use of a field observation form that Susan Herrington and I have developed for another research project, The CHILD Project. The form is meant as a tool to record and understand the physical conditions of the space, functional and relational spaces, and community context. Avenues for Research Findings and ApplicationsMy thesis project will be a part of a five-year, interdisciplinary university-community partnership endeavour called CHILD (Consortium for Health, Intervention, Learning and Development) in Vancouver, Canada. The aim of CHILD is to improve evidence-based policy development, encourage more effective advocacy work, and ultimately, better conditions for healthy child development in the Province of British Columbia. My work will contribute to the CHILD Project s body of research. It will also be used to apply design interventions to a series of day care centres in different neighbourhoods of Vancouver.
Gumpert, Gary, and Susan Drucker. "Digital Cities and Uninhabitable Alternatives." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. All communication technology is inherently paradoxical with every advancement in connection simultaneously disconnecting. Space is transcended with two points connected, but the very act involves some degree of separation from the roots of physical space. The conflict of territorial emancipation and the search for place is at the heart of matter – what is community in a technological age? Is it possible to retain vibrant place-based communities while recognizing the absolute dependence upon digitalization and the increasing significance of digital communities? To what extent do Information Technology (IT) rich environments influence behavior in virtual and physical environments? Is there a symbiotic relationship between the two? This paper will make use of “medium theory” to evaluate the relationship between digital and physical communities. Using “medium theory” it will examine the relatively fixed features of each means of communication and how these features distinguish each medium physically, psychologically and socially from each other and from face-to-face interaction in the physical environment? With regard to digital environments, such variables as the senses that are required to attend to the medium, whether the communication is bi-directional or uni-directional, how quickly messages can be disseminated, whether learning to encode and decode in the medium is difficult or simple, how many people can attend to the same message at the same moment are considered when evaluating how the variables of the medium influence its social and psychological impact in both digital and physical environments. At the heart of this analysis is an assumption that there is a paradigm of “social equilibrium” that governs social relationships – that under ideal circumstances a balance between the centripetal and centrifugal force of media technology is possible and necessary. With an understanding of the unique social and psychological influence of a given medium, the values and priorities of place and non-place are selectively emphasized, nurtured, preserved or rejected as they vie with each other. In order to grapple with a paradigm of “social equilibrium” we will take a medium theory perspective in order to examine several key concepts upon which the nexus of relationships and technology rest.1) the concept of sustainability—Is a viable sustainable community dependent upon a combination of an internal and external communication infrastructure?2)A theory of displacement-- Communication technology displaces and relocates functions within a sustainable community. The former impediments of space and borders disappear as the limitations of site (place) are transcended by communication technology. This reciprocal and defining interdependence of place modified by communication technology can perhaps be described as “dis-place-ment.” One occasion replaces or dis-places the other. Digital place (the connection of one site with another) reallocates some portion of time shared with the other.3) the process of balancing-- The digital revolution challenges traditional forms of social cohesion associated with place-based communities. The introduction of any communication technology shifts and alters the equilibrium of social interaction. Can a desirable balance be attained in which the benefits of each situs of community are enjoyed without one eclipsing or cannibalizing the other? This paper will then reflect upon the following questions: Can community be sustained in the 21st century without dependency upon global media connection? To what degree is communication dependency built into a contemporary vision of community? Can a community dependent upon external connection retain an identifiable and idiosyncratic character? How can unique social spaces of a physical city best co-exist with a digital city?
Mura, Marina. "Discourse and Social Representations of Tourism." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. Within the perspective of Environmental psychology of sustainability and of ecology (Bonnes, Buonaiuto, 2002; Bonnes, Nenci 2002), our goal was to investigate the representation and experience of urban tourism according to the different types or groups of users (Martinotti, 1993). Following the post-tourism approach (Urry, 2002), which defines it as a cultural form, as a “glance” predetermined by direct and mediated communication, no longer subjected to space-time boundaries or established places and motivated by the drive towards “the right to pleasure”, it was assumed that the psychological and social processes involved are expressed within structures of restorative and self-regulation experiences (Korpela, K. M., Hartig, T., Kaiser F G., Fuhrer, U., 2001); Social Identity (Capozza, Brown, 200) and Place Identity (Twigger-Ross, Uzzell, 1996) and that they rest on Social Representations (Farr, Moscovici, 1984) of the culture of tourism and time, which, together with individual behaviour, direct social and physical environment planning. This involves the issue of sustainability of mobility, linked to the falsifying of places in order to make them appear spectacular. In this first exploratory phase of our research we decided to undertake an analysis of the “discourses” of today’s tourist experience in relation to an urban environment, that of the city of Cagliari, by means of conversational and discursive analysis (Antaki, C. ,1994; Speer, Potter, 2000). We examined 40 in-depth interviews and descriptive reports (Atkinson, 2000; Bruner, 1992) – utilising the “jeffersonian transcription” (Jefferson, 1989) – in order to evaluate if conversational and discursive analysis was able to reveal, not only the conversational and rhetorical moves, but also the shaping of social representations. The results obtained provisionally support our hypotheses and seem to indicate the compatibility between the discursive approach and that of social representations: the rhetorical force of the statements made by the interviewees (Billig, 1996) seems to comply to social norms linked to the different areas of activation, while the objectification of the reference elements appears closely connected to the different positions taken by the social actors (inclusions in the social context, Doise, Clemence, e Lorenzi Cioldi, 1992). The representations which emerged are characterised by the presence of common elements (objects “to be seen” in the city and behavioural characteristics of long term and short term visitors) and different elements (social characteristics of the speakers and of the type of “visitor” referred to). The “regenerative power ” of places is organised in a discursive manner: they are seen as able to produce a psychological and physical “distancing” from daily routine and working life, mainly through sight and, to a lesser degree, through other senses. Moreover, the social and physical characteristics of places are linked to social identity and place identity, as well as relations with co-visitors (the best itineraries are those selected by a stable resident for a friend. The pleasure and satisfaction they generate lies in their capacity to create emotions which remain engraved in memory, and in the quality of the relationship established with travelling companion/s).
Depeau, Sandrine. "Distances, Difficulties and Travel Cognition: Spatial and Psychological Conditions of Children's Independant Autonomy in Urban Environments." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. This article examines spatial conditions of children’s autonomy of home-school travels. Children aged 10 to 12 years (n=83) shared out in 3 urban environments (A traditional site, and a mixed site closed to a traffic calming area in the center of Paris, a new-town in the suburb) were interviewed at school. They were individually asked (1) to sketch-map their home-school travel, (2) to draw their home-school travel on a map of the city, (3) to answer a questionnaire about the home-school travel. These methodological tools permitted to collect the Home-school spatial distances and the difficulty of cross-roads, which were measured and analysed via a Geographical Information System (GIS). The question of children escorting during home-school travel was extracted from the questionnaire and analysed in comparison with travel-distances and the difficulty of cross-roads and the cognitive map. Results show that parents-escorting for the home-school travel is more a question of spatial distance whereas peers–escorting, more habitual in the New-town, seems to be a factor of motivation and a factor of securisation. At the end we discuss the role of the environment and the structure of dangerous travel on the autonomy and the role of autonomous mobility on the structure of the cognitive map.
H. Mollenkopf, Kaspar, F R. Marcellini, I Ruoppila, Z Szeman, and M. Tacken. "Diverging Outdoor Environments for Ageing in Europe: the Impact of Objective Conditions and Subjective Evaluations on Life Satisfaction." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. In research on environmental conditions for ageing, regional divisions, especially those relating to urban- rural differences, are frequently neglected. Data collected in the EU funded project MOBILATE, conducted in 2000 in urban and rural regions of five European countries (Finland, Germany, Hungary, Italy, and the Netherlands) with different welfare regimes and diverging geographical and cultural conditions, enable us to compare patterns of elder men‚s and women‚s everyday life, their personal resources, and the environmental conditions prevailing in the areas they live in. The sample included N=3950 persons aged 55 years or older, disproportionately stratified according to gender and age. Standardised questionnaires and a diary were used to assess the essential features of the community and various aspects of everyday life that are important for autonomy and well-being in old age. Objective conditions were related to subjective evaluations of neighbourhood, services, the possibilities to pursue leisure activities, and satisfaction with life. Results show that e.g., political and economic change in eastern Europe and the former GDR has brought about similarity among elderly persons‚ objective housing and neighbourhood circumstances, but that average data submerge clearly existing urban/rural differences. Italy, to give another example, is an industrialized country with a strong drive to modernization, but socio-economic circumstances and traditional values of rural older people continue to diverge significantly from those of their counterparts in urban areas. In general, comparison showed similarities in basic human conditions, but also remaining differences in both neighbourhood amenities and patterns of everyday life.
Seidel, Andrew D.. "Dligiting Relationships: Future Communities and Centralizing Wealth." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. "The so-called "Washington Consensus" for nearly thirty years has acted onworld and national economies based on the assumption that the free market will solve all problems. The average American family today with two working adults has approximately the same disposable income as the average American household of the early 1970s which had only one working adult. Seventy-five per cent of Americans shop in Dollar stores (although, perhaps, far fewer admit it). Increasingly, the digital divide is not only among nations but is also within the wealthiest nations. What will this centralizing of wealth and the pushing down of the middle class standard of living mean in the formation of communities in an increasingly digitized world? Will communities physically disperse for some and be increasingly geographically fixed for others? Will the definition itself of community divide so far that the two views become irreconcilable? This paper will attempt to asses these interactions among the nature of the future formation of communities, the changing patterns of wealth and the digitization of our lives."
Sugiyama, T.. "Do People Really Prefer Natural Scenes? an Empirical Examination of Preference, Naturalness and Tidiness." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. Many studies on environmental preference have indicated that people prefer “natural” scenes to “human-made” scenes (e.g., Herzog, 1989; Purcell, Lamb, Peron, & Falchero, 1994). Researchers argue that strong preference for natural scenes is associated with biological importance of natural elements for people or restorative quality people feel in natural environments (e.g., Kaplan, 1987; Purcell, Peron, & Berto, 2001). Since a significant number of studies have shown the similar result, it appears that preference for natural scenes has been taken for granted. However, a study by Nassauer (1993) provided interesting findings that may question the commonly accepted association between preference and naturalness. Comparing people’s perceptions of conventional lawns and various patterns of native plant gardens in a residential area in the US, Nassauer found that the perception of tidiness and care is highly correlated with preference. Her study suggested that tidiness is another salient dimension that affects preference. However, since the stimuli in her study were almost equal in terms of naturalness, Nassauer did not touch on the relation between naturalness and tidiness.In order to closely examine the role of naturalness and tidiness, this study investigated people’s perception of various types of outdoor scenes, which range from tidy to messy and from natural to human-made. The objective of the study was to explore in what way the perceptions of naturalness and tidiness interact and influence preference for the environment. One hundred and seventy-eight undergraduate students in Japan and Australia assessed eleven photographs of outdoor scenes on a semantic differential scale. The scale involved ten pairs of adjectives including liking, attractiveness, beauty, interestingness naturalness, simpleness, conspicuousness, unclutteredness, maintenance and efficiency.Factor analysis (oblique rotation) on the ten semantic differential items extracted three factors. The first factor included liking, attractiveness, beauty and interestingness. This factor can be interpreted as preference. The second factor included naturalness (negative), simpleness (negative) and conspicuousness. If these items are interpreted in a reverse way, it is possible to characterise this factor as plainness. The third consisted of unclutteredness, maintenance and efficiency. The factor involves neatness and good human care, thus can be interpreted as tidiness. The results indicated that preference and plainness were fairly independent from each other, but preference and tidiness were somewhat correlated. The perception of naturalness was mainly associated with plainness, but it had a moderate loading on preference as well. Bivariate correlations between liking, naturalness and unclutteredness were also calculated. A significant but modest negative correlation was found between naturalness and unclutteredness. However, the similar magnitude of positive correlation was also found between preference and naturalness, and between preference and unclutteredness.The analysis suggests that salient perceptual characteristics of the presented stimuli are preference, plainness and tidiness. Naturalness did not appear as a primary perceptual dimension. However, it seems fair to say that naturalness has a complex role in the perception of the stimuli employed in the study. The results indicate that perception of naturalness has mixed contributions to preference: a positive contribution from natural elements (tree, foliage and water) and their restorative effects, and negative contribution from its rather untidy appearance. Thus, it can be argued that naturalness has two different aspects that have opposing influences on preference. In other words, naturalness is not a unidimensional construct, but involves at least two dimensions. Further research examining the dimensionality of naturalness seems worthwhile to have a richer understanding about the way people perceive natural environments. The results of the study will contribute to the design and management of various types of outdoor environments. Past research has demonstrated that ecological design is often perceived as being messy and unkempt (Mozingo, 1997). This study will provide a theoretical underpinning for design and management principles of such environments.
Bourennane, Malika. Does an Enabling Strategy Fulfils Its Promise? a Case Study for the Evaluation of the New Development Control Code In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. The purpose of the research project is to assess how the new Development Control Code, 1995 is applied and followed in low income residential areas with particular regards to its relaxed capacity. On the Code, the relaxed capacity means relaxing minimum requirements of setbacks on the merit of each case. One of the main focuses is on female-headed households and their opportunities to carry out small business that is called informal economy on their plots. The research method for the project is planned to be fourfold: firstly, entailing literature review on gender issues, theory of justice, good governance as base for theoretical framework; secondly, multiple case study - The fieldwork will comprise a comparison between two low-income housing areas where the implementation of the planning code is expected to be principally different. The methods will comprise analysis of official policy and planning documents; key person interviews with local and central government officials, local community leaders etc.; so called expert assessments of spatial qualities such as accessibility, shaded spaces, cross ventilation and other climatic qualities; observations of use of space, and interviews-in-depth with households of different demographic, educational and class composition, and experience of building construction- thirdly, following a case; fourthly comparison with Northern African perspective is also proposed. It is hoped that the findings of the research will be of direct use to supporting the basis for UN Habitat's enabling human settlement strategy which is aimed at favouring the disadvantaged majority. Furthermore, it is expected that the mode of evaluating planning regulations in this study could be used as a tool in other rapidly urbanising low-income countries. The research is expected to contribute to a deeper knowledge on the enabling approach to low-income housing and to the problems of implementing planning legislation in a situation of rapid urbanisation.
Cudmore, S, and D. Uzzell. "Does the Environment Cause Personnel Turnover in the Royal Navy?" In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. The Royal Navy perceives that personnel undergo a “culture shock” on going to sea for the first time, and that this contributes to them leaving the organisation. A deployed ship is an isolated and confined environment, where normal work and living boundaries are blurred. This exploratory study investigated the expectations and feelings of a group of junior personnel. It identified how the expectations and feelings changed over time and with experience of different parts of the organisation. The psychological contract is an a-theoretical concept that is commonly used to assess people’s understanding and expectations of their relationship with their employer. Aspects of psychological contracts were explored in this context, and the possible relevance of affordances, the theory of planned behaviour and the affect heuristic were also explicitly investigated as means of explaining the processes that were occurring. The “environment” investigated covered physical, social and organisational aspects of life in the RN and at sea. A range of data collection methods were used to identify the best way of obtaining information from this group, which had low literacy. These were one-to-one interview, structured card sorts, critical incident, word association, and participant-generated and pre-prepared questionnaires. It was found that a combination of environmental aspects led to personnel deciding to leave. An immediate “culture shock” did not appear to be a major cause. It was more due to an increasing “disenchantment” over time; caused by changes in individuals’ expectations through experience of the environment, and changes in their perceived individual needs. Violations of the perceived contracts were part of participants’ decisions to leave, as was the wish to “settle down” and have a stable social life. The physical environment seemed to act as a “dissatisfier”, becoming more of an issue as people became less enchanted with their job and lifestyle. The findings were consistent with other work on isolated and confined environments, with people finding the confined social and work space lead to stress. Alcohol was widely used as a coping mechanism, as was the use of cues for privacy. Participants were most positive about their personal and social spaces on the ship, despite the poor physical environment. The work generally upheld assumptions about psychological contracts, in that they largely consist of information given by the organisation rather than individuals assumptions prior to joining. Also, that psychological contracts appear to evolve over time in response to experience of the organisational environment. Participants expressed strong preferences for the structured card sort and word association exercises, both of which have a strong verbal element in the data collection. They were also found to be the most effective methods by the interviewer for managing the interview content. A consistent difference was found between the results of structured card sort and a questionnaire which asked an identical question. Respondents said that they felt they were more accurate in the structured card sort, as it enabled them to recall more information. This difference should be explored further. A model is presented showing how affordances, combined with the affect heuristic and the theory of planned behaviour, explain the findings of this study.
Clark, C, R Martin, E van Kempen, H Davies, M. M. Haines, Lopez I Barrio, M Matheson, and S. A. Stansfeld. "Dose-Response Relationships Between Road Traffic and Aircraft Noise Exposure and Reading Comprehension: the Ranch Study." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. Previous field studies have indicated that reading comprehension in primary school children is impaired by chronic aircraft noise exposure (Evans et al 1995, Haines et al 2001a) and chronic road traffic noise exposure (Cohen et al 1973, Lukas et al 1981). However, some studies suggest that aircraft noise exposure only affects performance on the most difficult items of a standardised reading test (Haines et al 2001b, Hygge et al 2002). Previous studies have compared children in high and low noise exposures and have not examined dose-response relationships between noise exposure and reading comprehension. Furthermore, previous studies have omitted to examine the relationship for combinations of aircraft and road traffic noise exposures. This study examined the dose-response relationship between aircraft and road traffic noise exposure and reading comprehension in three European countries, the Netherlands, Spain and the United Kingdom. This cross-sectional field study compared the performance on a standardised reading test of 2010, 9-10 year old children from schools with differing aircraft and road traffic noise exposures. In the UK aircraft noise exposure levels were based on 16 hour LAeq and road traffic noise measures were based on proximity to motorways, A- and B-roads and traffic flow data. In the Netherlands, aircraft and road traffic noise exposure levels were modelled using geographical information systems. In Spain, measurements of aircraft and road traffic noise were undertaken. Acute noise measurements were also taken internally in the classroom during testing to identify any further sources of noise that might interfere with testing. A total of 129 classes from 89 schools in the areas around Schiphol, Barajas and Heathrow airports participated. Testing took place in the schools and data on potential confounding factors were collected in a child questionnaire and a parent questionnaire. The data from the three countries was pooled and analysed using multilevel modelling, which enabled data at both the school level and the individual level to be fitted in the same model. The final model was adjusted for noise exposure, age, gender, country, dyslexia, parental employment status, home ownership, crowding at home, mother’s educational attainment, long standing illness, main language spoken at home, parental support for school work and insulation in the school. In preliminary analyses of pooled data from the Netherlands, Spain and the UK chronic aircraft noise exposure was associated with impaired reading comprehension and a similar effect size was observed in each country. A 5dB change in aircraft noise was associated with a two-month difference in reading age in the UK and a one and a half-month difference in the Netherlands. Chronic road traffic noise exposure, however, was not associated with reading comprehension. The results suggest that chronic aircraft noise exposure was associated with impaired reading comprehension in children, whilst road traffic noise exposure was not. An effect of aircraft noise on reading is consistent with previous studies (Evans et al 1995, Haines et al 2001a), whilst the lack of an effect for road traffic noise is not (Cohen et al 1973, Lukas et al 1981). These conclusions are preliminary; we are currently examining the effects of combined road and aircraft exposures and their interactions. Future research is needed to confirm these findings for road traffic noise and to identify the mechanisms underlying the effect of aircraft noise on reading comprehension, with a view to informing interventions and policy.
Martin, R, I López-Barrio, M Matheson, C Clark, E. van Kempen, B. de Frutos, J. D. Guillén, S. A. Stansfeld, and M. M. Haines. "Dose-Response Relationships Between Road Traffic and Aircraft Noise Exposure on Long Term Memory: the Ranch Study." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. IntroductionPrevious studies have found chronic exposure to aircraft noise to have a negative effect on children’s performance on tests of long-term memory (Evans, et al., 1995, Meis, 1998, Hygge, 2002; Boman, 2003;). This study examined the dose-response relationships between chronic aircraft noise exposure, road traffic noise exposure and combinations of aircraft and road traffic noise exposure in school and Long-term-memory. This study formed part of the RANCH project (Road traffic and aircraft noise exposure and children’s cognition and health). This cross sectional field study compared the performance of 2844 9-10 year old children from the Netherlands, Spain and the United Kingdom on tests of long-term memory from schools with differing levels of aircraft and road traffic noise exposure. The data on potential confounding variables was collected through questionnaires administered to both the children and parents.MethodDesign. Primary school children were selected to take part in this cross-sectional epidemiological field study on the basis of school noise exposure close to each one of the three major European airports (Heathrow, London; Schipol, Amsterdam; and Barajas, Madrid). In each country, schools were selected from a range of aircraft and road traffic noise exposures. Mesures. For the measurement of episodic memory a version of the Child Memory Scale (Cohen, 1997) was used and adapted for application to a group. In particular, the test evaluated the recall capacity and the delayed recognition of two stories after a lapse of 30 minutes during which an interferer task was carried out. With respect to recall, two scores were obtained: the correct recall information and the conceptual recall. Analysis. Comparable methodologies were employed in each country to enable a comparison of effect size in different countries. The data from the three countries was pooled and analysed using multilevel The final model was adjusted for noise exposure, age, gender, country, parental employment status, home ownership, crowding at home, mother’s education, long standing illness, main language spoken at home, parental support for school work and insulation in the school. ResultsIn preliminary analyses of the pooled data (Uk, Netherlands and Spain), aircraft noise was associated with impaired recognition, conceptual recall and correct information in analysis of multi level adjusting for country and confounders Road traffic noise was not found to be significantly associated with any of the outcome.DiscussionThese preliminary analyses suggest an effect of aircraft noise on cued recall and recognition memory. This results are consistent with previous studies (Evans, et al., 1995; Hygge, 2002; Boman, 2003). Road traffic noise was not found to be significantly associated with any of the outcome. Taken together these results suggest that exposure to aircraft noise, but not road traffic noise, leads to impairments in children’s long-term memory. Further analyses will clarify the dose-effect relationship between noise exposure and long-term memory and will inform policies on children’s noise exposure.AcknowledgementsThe RANCH study was funded by the European Community (QLRT-2000-00197).
Rahmaan, A.. "Dynamics of Sustainable Development and Management of the Global City: a Conceptual Approach." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. "The paper deals with the complex and dynamic interaction of the salient determinants and parameters of sustainable development and its management against the backdrop of functional and formal variables which are responsible for the incipience of the Global City. These variables are connected in a "cause " and "effect" relationship, and iteratively interact with each other. This relationship is further compounded by the fact that some times it becomes difficult even to differentiate between the "causal" and "effectual" variables. The accelerating pace of technological developments and their differentiated diffusion in various developing countries is leading to drastic socioeconomic changes and shifts in political and trade alliances. Due to these rapid changes, the developed countries are currently passing through tertiary revolution which is much more complex and dynamic than the earlier agricultural and industrial revolutions. The innovational advancements in high technology and the ensuing socioeconomic changes are leading to the piecemeal incipience of the Global City. The cost effective transition to the tertiary civilization and smooth formation of the Global City calls for pro-active planning, and management of its development on a sustained basis. The paper is comprised of five parts. Part one deals with the introductory aspects of transitional changes in the socioeconomic conditions and their physical manisfestations at various hierarchical levels of the Global City. Part two attempts to identify the salient determinants and deterrents of the Global City and the consequential shifting emphases of various dichotomies and dilemmas. Part three attempts to formulate a paradigm for sustainability and management of the Global City. Part four undertakes the analysis of the various factors of sustainability and management of the Global city in the context of the paradigm, formulated in the previous part; and finally, part five outlines the salient conclusions and recommendations of the study. "
Petritsch, Wolfgang. "Eastern Europe as New Old Environment ." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. "As European Union Special Envoy for Kosovo (1998-1999) and High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina (1999-2002), the speaker was actively involved in the civilian implementation of the Bosnian Peace Agreement (Dayton, OH, 1995). Ambassador Petritsch is currently Austria´s Permanent Representative at the UN in Geneva. As a diplomat with a degree in history, he sees tragedy and future perspectives of Southeastern Europe, a historical and social unity in diversity, against its historic background leading to special identities and identity problems. The European expansion and the European Union Road Map for Southeastern Europe sketching a way how to move closer to the EU do not touch "new lands", but rather a "new old environment" with historic interconnections and cultural relations to Western and Central Europe. The resulting myths, role making and role taking in identity formation as well as the Balkan as integral part of European culture have to be taken into account. Globalization alone cannot give the answers."
Ebden, M.. Ecological Sustainability and Its Occupational Science Underpinnings: What Influences People to Make 'earth-Friendly' Choices? In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. Research problemHumans engage in a complex array of occupations throughout their daily lives. Occupations are all the ways we occupy time and space; they involve everything we do including all activities and actions. Occupations take place within an environmental context. That is, the environment influences the occupations people engage in and the occupations, in turn, influence people and environments or the ecological context. It is becoming increasingly more important to address the impact human occupations have on ecological sustainability. To address the impact of human occupations, we need to understand the influences or reasons why humans engage in certain occupations.The occupations we engage in can be divided into categories according to the effects the occupations have: those occupations motivated by outcomes that are favourable to the individual and those occupations that are motivated by outcomes that are „earth friendly“ or favourable to the ecological context. Although situations exist where occupational outcomes favour both individual and ecological contexts, ecosystems are experiencing increasing pressures resulting from people engaging in occupations that favour individual needs at the expense of ecological balance, harmony and health. Many factors such as values, attitudes, characteristics and past experiences influence human occupations. This research aims to investigate the occupational influences on two groups of people: those people who are known for engaging in occupations that are favourable to the ecological context and those people who are known for engaging in occupations that primarily favour the individual.ContextThis research will aim to capture a range of diverse views by exploring the experiences of influential people across a range of cultural and geographical locations.Theoretical frameworkOccupational science: the study of the ways people occupy time and spacePerspectives of health: individual, public/population, ecological, prevention, promotionEcological sustainabilityEconomic rationalismEnvironmental psychology/eco-psychologyEnvironmental sociologyHypotheses1. That common values, attitudes, past experiences and characteristics influence the occupations of people who engage in occupations that favour the ecological context.2. That common values, attitudes, past experiences and characteristics influence the occupations of people who engage in occupations that favour individual needs at the expense of the ecological context.3. That the values, attitudes, past experiences and characteristics of these two groups of people are different.4. That structures within societies can provide opportunities for the development of values, attitudes, characteristics and experiences that are favourable to people engaging in occupations that promote ecological balance, harmony and sustainability.Questions1. What particular values, attitudes, past experiences and characteristics influence people to engage in occupations that favourthe ecological context?the individual at the expense of the ecological context?3. What do these people believe influence their occupational lives?4. What occupations do they engage in thatdemonstrate promotion of the ecological context?favour individual needs at the expense of the ecological context?6. How do people who favour engagement in occupations that support the ecological context view people who engage in occupations that support individual needs at the expense of the ecological context and visa versa?7. What changes would need to occur within their society to encourage a greater focus on sustainability?MethodologySample/populationPending ethics approval, approximately 7-10 people will be chosen from each of the two perspectives. A sample of people from a range of cultural and geographical locations who are internationally, nationally and locally well known will be chosen to identify a range of factors, micro to macro, which might be influencing them. Participant selection will cease once saturation of the data occurs.Data Gathering/AnalysisA grounded theory approach will be used to guide the research methodology whereby the data collection and analysis processes are intertwined and evolve. A series of approximately 3 in-depth interviews with semi-structured questions (1-2 hours duration) per person will be transcribed and analysed. The initial interview with each person will preferably be person-to-person with follow up interviews using telephone or person-to-person means.State of development of thesisThis research project is in its infancy, with the development of the research proposal and literature review currently underway. I would greatly appreciate the opportunity to share my research ideas with my peers and gain feedback. I anticipate a substantive literature review will have taken place by July 2004.Avenues for research findings applicationsThe possible findings of this research may highlight more explicit ecologically-centred models and philosophies that may influence occupational and social change through applications in areas such as health, public policy and education.
Senkatuka, Ian. Effective Urban Infrastructure Management in Developing Countries - an Analysis of Kampala City In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. Urbanization is occurring rapidly around the world, particularly in developing countries that are suffering from the brunt of its adverse effects. By 2030, urban areas in developing countries will need to accommodate a projected doubling of the urban population (World Bank 2002). Urban areas are potential dynamic engines of growth. Local governments need to take steps to make their cities more hospitable venues for economic growth (World Bank 2002). They must provide a good living and working environment. For this to occur they must have good infrastructure that needs to be managed responsibly if development is to be sustainable (World Bank 2002)In many developing countries, local authorities and public corporations normally provide the physical infrastructure, which is vital for economic growth and development, or they provide a conducive environment for others who provide some of it, particularly housing. However, urban infrastructure providers are failing to keep up with the rapid urbanization, adversely affecting the natural and the built environment and exacerbating poverty. This is because of various constraints that include: lack of finances, a lack of capacity, unnecessary political interference, haphazard and inefficient provision, etc. Kampala, Uganda’s capital city has not been spared. The planning and management of physical infrastructure is poor and uncoordinated, leading to inadequate and poorly maintained infrastructure. The problems are further complicated by the country’s complicated land tenure system and non-compliance with the planning by-laws. The country’s scarce resources are also being wasted by some of the infrastructure providers. For example, roads are provided with no plans for drainage, newly constructed roads are dug up by other infrastructure providers trying to provide their own services, etc. This makes one question the seriousness of the providers. The city has many poor roads, poor storm water drainage, poor garbage collection, slums, poorly planned and maintained open spaces, inadequate provision of water and sewerage facilities, etc. While the responsible parties are trying to address the problems, they still have a very long way to go.It is argued that some of the constraints faced by infrastructure providers can be handled, and that innovative methods and institutional arrangements can result in much better service provision even at low investment levels (World Bank 2000). Coping with infrastructure challenges, involves more than simple planning. It involves tackling inefficiency and waste, both in investment and in service delivery (World Bank 1994). This is a challenge for urban authorities in developing countries. Ways need to be found to ensure that infrastructure provision keeps pace with urban growth on a basis, which is financially and environmentally sustainable, and equitable.It should be acknowledged that to address these problems a combined effort of all the infrastructure providers and other stakeholders like the central government and the private sector, may be needed. While the involvement of the private sector is at the heart of the Uganda government’s strategy on infrastructure, the private sectors involvement has been minimal in most areas (Price Water House Coopers 2000). This is an issue that needs to be looked into.This research will be looked at housing and its associated complementary infrastructure like roads, water and sewerage facilities in Kampala City, provided and maintained by the local government, or influencing infrastructure provided by the local authorities. It will try to determine:1. How urban physical infrastructure can be efficiently provided and maintained in developing countries with their limitations, in a manner that will lead to sustainable development.2. How to integrate urban infrastructure planning and provision to avoid the inefficient use of scarce resourcesIt will mainly focus on roads and other associated services, like storm water drains, pedestrian pavements and street lights. In particular, it will try to address the following research questions:- Can urban road infrastructure be provided appropriately in a manner that matches the increasing urbanization?- Can Kampala’s road infrastructure providers do more to improve service delivery, even within current constraints they face?- Can the involvement of the private sector, taking advantage of their finances and management expertise, help infrastructure providers to improve their service delivery?- Is there an enabling policy environment aimed at ensuring that the road infrastructure is efficiently provided?- Can innovation and intermediate technology help improve service delivery?The methodology for the research will include the following:- Literature reviews of national and local government policies e.g. on decentralization, infrastructure provision and management, the planning and management policies of the infrastructure providers, good practice, etc. - Case studies in developing countries and the developed world. Comparisons will be made to Dar-es-Salaam, Nairobi, Botswana and Peru. There are cases of some Community Based Organisations in some countries like the Karengata association in Nairobi that is trying to manage their own infrastructure. In Kampala, there are a few examples of residents of particular areas like Muyenga, running out of patience with the local authorities, and providing their own road infrastructure.- In the developed world, Cites in Sweden and the United Kingdom will be selected to see what can be learnt from how they provide and maintain their infrastructure. - Comparisons will be made between Kampala and other African cities, which have better functioning systems of management, like CapeTown.- A pilot study will be undertaken before the main fieldwork is undertaken- Key Person Interviews of technocrats in local government and in public infrastructure corporations, representatives of Non Governmental Organisations (NGO’s) and Community Based Organisations (CBO’s), and the private sector. These will include:- Government ministers like the Ministers of Works, Housing and Communication, and the Minister of Local Government in Uganda, - 0n policy issues.- Representatives of donor organizations involved in infrastructure provision – on policy issues.- Town clerks of Kampala city and some other selected cities, and city managers- Chief planners - on what is currently being done, problems faced, challenges, - City engineers- on what is currently being done, problems faced, challenges, - The main founders of CBO’s involved in some form of infrastructure planning and management e.g. the chairman local council 1 around Muyenga in Kampala, Karen and Lanagata in Nairobi – on why they had to provide and manage their own infrastructure, their results and challenges- Representatives of the private sector e.g. key business organizations, and the general public - on their views, to determine if they may be interested in participating, and if so how. - Systematic Observations, taking photographs and an analysis of aerial photographs, to see what is currently being done and to determine if it is being done in the best way.
Shibata, S, and N. Suzuki. Effects of Indoor Plants on Task Performance and Mood: a Comparison Between Natural and Imitated Plants In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. "In recent years, many researchers have provided scientific data in support of the belief that looking at "nature" has a positive influence on recovery from fatigue or stress. For example, Ulrich et al., (1991) reported that recovery from stress was faster and more complete when participants were exposed to natural rather than urban environments. Moreover, even a small amount of indoor plant may facilitate the recovery from mental fatigue (Shibata and Suzuki, 2001). However, it is not well investigated about which aspects (i.e. color, shape, or complexity) of natural elements cause these effects.MethodIn this study, we investigated how visual aspects of plant affect the participants' task performance and mood. To accomplish this, we used three room arrangements as independent variables: a room with (1) indoor foliage plants, or (2) imitations of foliage plants, or (3) a room with neither of these objects. In both two plants condition (1 and 2), three potted plants were placed in the room. The plants placed in natural plant condition were natural and alive. However, in artificial plant condition, those were imitations. In both plant conditions, participants were not informed whether the plants in the room were natural or artificial. If it is simply a shape of the plant that causes recovery effects, results in both two plants conditions should be the same.Undergraduate students (M=9, F=12) performed 2 sessions of Go/No Go task using Stroop style color words under one of the three room conditions. In this task, one of three color words (red, blue green) was displayed on the center of the 17-inch CRT display in one of these three colors. Participants were instructed to press the key when the displayed color word and its color were the same (). The interval between two color words was 1 sec. To assess participants' subjective fatigue, the General Arousal Check List (GACL; Matsuoka and Hatayama, 1989) was used. This questionnaire contains 20 adjectives to assess participants' mood state, and each of these 20 items is classified to one of 2 factors (Energetic Arousal(EA) and Tense Arousal(TA)).ProcedureEvery participant participated in all three conditions, one condition in a day. After participants arrived for their laboratory appointment, they were asked to take a seat, then they were given a general description of the experimental procedures and task instructions. After the electrodes for the physiological recordings were attached, and preliminary recordings were obtained, they were asked to complete the GACL questionnaire.When the participants completed the questionnaire, they engaged in the color word task for five minutes. Five minutes later, the participants were asked to complete GACL questionnaire again. Then, they were given a 3-minute break to rest and instructed not to stand up while they rested. When the time was over, participants were again asked to complete the GACL questionnaire. Following this, they engaged in the color word task for another five minutes. Again, participants were asked to complete the GACL questionnaire, and then asked to evaluate the room and the plants placed in the room. After the participants finished all three conditions, they were asked how they thought about the plants placed in the room, whether those were natural or artificial.Results and DiscussionTo determine the participants' subjective fatigue were affected by the plants, two 3x3x4 ANOVA was conducted using the scores of GACL (EA and TA) as the dependent measures, with using whether the plants in the room were real or artificial, or no plant (Objective Naturalness, ON), whether the participants thought those plants were natural or artificial, or no plant (subjective Naturalness, SN), and Time (pre- and post-task of each 2 session) as the independent variables. As for the EA score, a SN x Time interaction was significant (F(3,55)=2.80, p<.05 however="" there="" were="" no="" significant="" effects="" for="" the="" ta="" score.="" in="" follow-up="" analysis="" pre-task="" ea="" score="" of="" second="" session="" sn="" group="" was="" lower="" than="" others.="" these="" results="" suggest="" that="" whether="" participants="" thought="" plants="" natural="" or="" artificial="" have="" more="" on="" mood="" rather="" a="" real="" thing="" not.="" is="" positive="" influence="" by="" nature="" recovery="" may="" be="" caused="" not="" simply="" looking="" at="" but="" people="" belief="" has="" an="" restorative="" effect.="">
De Groot, J, and L. Steg. "Effects of Transport Policies on Quality of Life." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. It is widely acknowledged that the current transport system is not sustainable, especially given the many environmental problems caused by traffic and transport. Many policies aimed at reducing these problems are not implemented, because policy makers expect such policies will have negative effects on people’s quality of life. However, little is known about the perceived quality of life consequences of (environmentally) sustainable changes. Therefore, it is not clear whether such transport policies would significantly reduce people’s quality of life. This study examines the perceived consequences of transport policies on quality of life. In order to get a valid picture of effects of future environmental policies on life quality, a theoretical model is needed explaining how Quality of Life should be defined and operationalized. Furthermore, a model can describe how environmental policies may affect people’s life quality. The Social Production Function (SPF) theory (Lindenberg, 1986) could provide such a framework. This theory explains how individuals produce their well-being by trying to optimize achievement of two universal needs within the sets of resources and constraints they face. According to the SPF theory, the two universal needs that people try to achieve are on the one hand optimizing psychical well-being and on the other hand optimizing social well-being. An important strength of this theory is that a clear distinction is made between instrumental goals (e.g., comfort, status, affection), activities (e.g., driving a car) and resources (e.g., money, time, health) that may be used to fulfil these goals. This distinction between instrumental goals and means in order to reach these universal goals is often not made in studies on Quality of Life. The SPF theory has typically been applied to measure and monitor actual changes in Quality of Life (e.g., resulting from ageing, health problems), therefore this study will examine whether the SPF can be a useful framework to use for modelling Quality of Life for sustainability goals.Last year, the EU sponsored “ASses Implementations in the frame of the Cities of Tomorrow” (ASI) project started, which aims to examine effects on Quality of Life effects by implementing transport policies in more detail. In the ASI project, we will examine how changes in Quality of Life by the implementation of transport policies can be assessed in order to secure public acceptability and to promote sustainable transport systems. In March 2004 a mail survey will be conducted. This survey is based on SPF theory and is aimed to examine the perceived effects of sustainable transport policies on people’s Quality of Life in five EU countries (i.e., Austria, Czech Republic, Italy, the Netherlands and Sweden). Amongst others, respondents will be asked how the use of various transport policies contributes to different quality of life aspects. A discussion about how to use the SPF theory in sustainability issues for future research is provided.
Nevarez, Julia. "Embedded Epistemologies: Spatial Metaphors as Conceptual and Analytical Tools to Understand Urban Phenomena." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. Understanding how the city functions involves an analysis of its social and physical structures. While much has been said about the shape, uses and perceptions of the city at different historical moments, little attention has been given to the conceptual and analytical tools used to obtain this knowledge. The epistemological foundations of how we understand the city are vast, but do not tend to be explicitly identified. Even less attention has been given to the examination of the spatial metaphors that serve as analytical tools to understand the city. This paper seeks to 1) uncover the implicit and explicit spatial metaphors used to convey knowledge about cities, as well as 2) attempt to unmask the assumptions about the city upon which these metaphors rest. An awareness of the way knowledge is produced emerges from the sociology of knowledge. Feminist scholars have taken upon the task to critically examine the way in which dominant epistemological traditions operate. Among the many contributions made, notions such as situated knowledge or social situatedness, social location, and standpoint theory are examples. All these metaphors, presented here as examples of concepts that have help advance social thought are very spatial. Spatial metaphors are excellent analytical tools to convey ways of understanding and analyzing society. In the practice of seeking knowledge about the city there is also an important use for spatial metaphors. In cities specifically, spatial metaphors are abundant, they serve as tools to better understand urban dynamics. After all cities are largely composed of forms and shapes that delineate urban structures, so does spatial metaphors. They delineate the thinking about (the analysis and conceptualization) of cities. Therefore, this presentation will seek to examine the spatial characteristics in the production of knowledge about the city. Some of the metaphors that will be included in this presentation are: concentric circles, continuum, scales, layers, skein, thicket, multi-nuclei, network, frame, satellite, spoke and hub, among others. These metaphors are embedded in discourses that represent certain economic, social and political conditions. The origin of this metaphors in terms of the scientific discourses that promote them, as well as the methods used to apply these metaphors in the analysis of urban processes will be addressed in this paper. This exercise seeks to uncover the possibilities and limits of the knowledge these spatial metaphors produce. The perspectives, assumptions, points of views from which these spatial metaphors emerge are important considerations that filter our understanding of reality, in this specific instance, urban.
Raudsepp, Maaris. "Emotional Connection to Nature: Its Socio-Psychological Correlates and Associations with Pro-Environmental Attitudes and Behavior." In Designing Social Innovation: Planning, Building, Evaluating - Proceedings of the 18th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Hogrefe & Huber, 2005.

The study investigates associations of emotional connection to nature with other measures of environmentalism (environmental beliefs and pro-environmental behavior) with data from a representative survey (N=987). Composite indexes of nature-related positive and negative (responsibility-related) feelings had significant positive correlations with environmental concern, ecocentrism, pro-environmental behavioral intentions and habitual self-reported pro-environmental behavior. Feelings of emotional affinity toward nature had stronger motivating force for pro-environmental behavior intention than responsibility-related feelings and general environmental beliefs. Another category of nature related emotions – negativistic dispositions towards nature - showed opposite pattern of relationships.

Raudsepp, Maaris. Emotional Involvement in Nature: Its Socio-Psychological Correlates and Associations with Pro-Environmental Attitudes and Behavior In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. "Emotional involvement with nature characterizes the extent to which people have an affective relationship to the natural world: positive feelings when in contact with the natural environment, and negative feelings (distress) as a response to destruction or degradation of nature (e.g. Kals, 1998; Chawla, 1998). Another concept referring to nature-related positive feelings is restorative environmental experience (Kaplan, 1995). Several theoretical models include emotional involvement with nature as a component of environmental consciousness and as a predictor of environmental attitudes, beliefs and pro-environmental behavior (Chawla, 1998, Kals, 1998, Kollmus & Agyeman, 2002). Restorative nature experiences are also considered as significant motivators of environmentalism (Hartig et al., 2001). The aim of our study was to investigate the associations of emotional involvement with several other measures of environmental consciousness and its relative impact on pro-environmental behavior. The data is based on a survey study which was carried out in 2002. The sample (N=987) represents age, sex and territorial distribution of the population of Estonia. Self-administered questionnaires in Estonian and Russian languages comprised a large set of measures concerning environmental attitudes, beliefs and pro-environmental behavior. Emotional involvement was measured using a 10 items scale (adapted from Kals et al. 1998). Perceived restorativeness of nature was measured with a specially constructed "forest attitude" scale (which includes "fascination" and "being away" items from restorative experience scale (Laumann et al., 2001) in addition to items concerning perceived threat and pragmatic attitudes to forest). Factor structure of the emotional involvement scale is in accordance with the theoretical model (Kals, 1998) being divided into 2 factors: affinity towards nature (comprising positive feelings) and responsibility related emotions (negative feelings in reaction to perceived environmental destruction). Forest attitude scale is structurally divided into 2 factors representing utilitarian and non-utilitarian attitudes to forest. The latter consists of items related to perceived restorativeness of the forest environment. On the basis of factor analysis indexes of nature related positive and negative emotions, and a restorativeness index were computed. Mean values of these indexes differed significantly across all sociodemographic categories (except educational level): emotional reactions towards nature were more strong among Russsians compared to Estonians, among women compared to men, among older respondents compared to younger ones, among less affluent compared to the more wealthy. Place of residence did not differentiate positive emotions, whereas negative emotions were more intense among urban (vs. rural) inhabitants. Forest has more strong restorative meaning for Russians (vs. Estonians), for older persons and for the less wealthy. There were no differences related to gender or place of residence in the experienced restorativeness. As predicted, past and present experiences of nature had also significant effects on emotional involvement (the measures included: having contacts with nature at work, keeping pets at home, gardening, frequency of outdoor activities). The following psychological variables had the highest correlations with emotional involvement indexes: self-efficacy, generalized trust, collective self-esteem, collectivism and general values (biospheric, altruistic and tradition values measured with the short version of Schwartz' value scale). Emotional involvement with nature was significantly correlated with all measures of environmentalism. It had significant positive correlations with environmental concern, ecocentrism, moral commitment to protect nature, pro-environmental behavior intentions and habitual self-reported pro-environmental behavior. Emotional involvement had negative correlations with anthropocentrism and scepticism towards individual capacity to have any pro-environmental effect. Positive emotions had stronger associations with other indicators of environmentalism than negative (responsibility related) emotions. The pattern of correlations of experienced restorativeness of forest with other measures of environmentalism was similar. Both emotional involvement and perception of restorative qualities of forest are strongly related to animistic and religious beliefs: those persons who do not believe in the inherent spirituality of nature experience significantly less both positive and negative emotions in nature. Several regression analyses were performed to compare the relative importance of emotional and rational determinants of environmental attitudes and pro-environmental behavior. Theoretical implications of the results are discussed."
Fischl, Géza, and Anita Gärling. Enhancing Well-Being in Health Care Facilities In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. IntroductionFocusing the investigation on health supporting built environmental components, researches showed (Shepley & McCormick 2003), that therapeutic environments are powerful agents of healing (Canter & Canter, 1979) for patients. Ulrich's theory (1991) depicted that, therapeutic environments unproved medical outcomes of patients by reducing stress. Research findings show that therapeutic environments for patients allow recovery from stress through access to nature, exercise and physical movement, and enhanced social activities (Calkins, 1988; Cohen & Weisman, 1991; Devlin, 1995; Kaplan, et al., 1999; Shepley, et al., 1995; Parsons, et al., 1998; Ulrich, 1984, 1991). Outcome-based research findings are beginning to reveal that beyond recovery from stress, therapeutic environments are related positively to improved health and behavioral outcomes of patients (Lawton, et al., 1996; Rubin, et al., 1997; Zeisel, 2001b; Zeisel, et al., 2001). Problem identificationThere is a clear need for research to identify environmental characteristics that tend to be stressor and what end-use consumers really need and want in health care environments (Davidson & Teicher, 1997; Devlin, 1995; Gray et al. 2003; Potthoff, 1995; Shepley et al., 1995; Stern et al., 2003; Ulrich, 1991; Ulrich et al., 2003). A comprehensive qualitative measurement technique would be preferable in contradiction to focus group discussions, which can, at least, establish a shared view on the environment and even more, enable/empower the participants /consumers to act toward the proposed plan together with the design professionals.Aim and research questionThe aim of the research is to develop a method which gathers both quantitative and qualitative measures on the well-being supportiveness of the environmental attributes and also useful tool for design or re-design purposes.What are the psychosocially supportive components of the built environment, and is the suggested multi-methodological approach an appropriate tool for evaluating those components?The objectives specific to research questions are the following:1. To investigate the relevance of psychosocial components in the suggested multi-methodological tool2. To analyze the data gathered by the suggested tool in terms of well-being supportiveness in a real environment setting3. To provide guidelines for designers about psychosocial supportive environmental components integrated in the design process4. To evaluate the proposed design by comparing it to the existing environment 5. To compare design professionals and laypersons perspective with regards to perceived psychosocial supportiveness Study design / methodologyThe study will be conducted among health care personnel, patients and visitors (the end users of design). A multi-methodological approach, the Triple-E (Fischl & Gärling, 2003) will he used at different health care environments. Triple-E tool consists of three stages, namely the Empowerment session, Environment assessment session and the Evaluation of architectural details session.Empowerment session. The empowering session is based on the Future Workshop (FW) method (Jungk & Müllert, 1987), which is a participatory based brainstorming technique. It is adapted to draw out opinions, feelings, and emotions of users toward a built environment regarding psychosocial supportivenessEnvironment description. Küller's model (1991) describes the mechanism of human emotion processes from a human-environmental interaction point of view. The semantic environment description was built on this model and has been administered in this study.Evaluation of architectural details. The evaluation of architectural details consists of a questionnaire focusing on perceived well-being and preferences, specific to the quality of the environmental elements. The questionnaire was designed based on individual interviews of health care personnel and patients, and was pilot tested within the same subject groups. The questionnaire measures temporal mood, feeling of safety and perception of noise level as part of the evaluation. Preliminary ResultsThe preliminary results show that, with the Triple-E tool, psychosocial components of the environment can be measured by a combination of a structured brainstorming session, a semantic environmental description session, and an architectural details session. The structured brainstorming session yielded data mainly on the physical environmental complaints and functions (79%); the semantic description was more associated with the aesthetic quality of the environment (83%); while the architectural details contributed almost equally to both. User group differences were found and further considered in the design process. The analysis-synthesis model of design helped to make the designer understand how psychosocial approach could be integrated in the design cycle. The ranking of the influential architectural details on perceived supportiveness for architect and patient groups is in the following order: 1) window; 2) floor and wall; 3) ceiling and furniture; 4) handicraft, photograph, chair and curtain; 5) noise level, safety, and space for moving. Preliminary results show that the significant architectural details may influence individual psychological skills, which in turn can affect the individual social skills and self-management.
Keul, A. G., and Bob Martens. "Environment and Behavior Research in Austria." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. Environment & Behavior research came up in Europe (biologists Haeckel, Uexküll) and had its early psychological roots in the German-speaking countries (Germany: Hellpach, Stern, Lewin, Muchow; Austria: Brunswik). Research was brutally interrupted by the Third Reich, people destroyed (Muchow) or forced out (Lewin, Brunswik). Environmental psychology's second life started in the USA (Lewin, Barker) and interest spread in central Europe again after 1945 (Kaminski, Boesch, Lang, Graumann, Werbik, Salber, Revers). In Austria, W.J.Revers at Salzburg, M.Haider and G.Guttmann at Vienna were the founders of academic Environment & Behavior research which is now in its second generation (Allesch, Maderthaner, Keul). IAPS 2004 hosted by the Vienna University of Technology, is a good presentation chance for Austria to this international forum. The following symposium will show a representative sample of ongoing research and organization work. Vienna University of Technology (Martens) has taken the initative to faciliate communication of IAPS publications by organizing a digital library together with colleagues from Slovenia (Turk, Cerovsek). R.Maderthaner, Vienna University, will present his main axis of research on quality of life and landscapes. As examples for work done in architectural psychology, architect T.Forsthuber will present his innovative Kids & Youth Center at Salzburg and A.G.Keul the POE. A workgroup Salzburg-Vienna has started Architrack, the application of the eyetracker to building evaluation. First results will be communicated.
Pato-Oliveira, C, M Ros, Bartholomeu Tróccoli, and A. Tamayo. Environmental Beliefs: an Empirical Validation with Brazilian Students In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. This research presents the factorial structure of an environmental beliefs scale (The Brazilian Environmental Beliefs Scale – BEBS) answered by 483 university and high school Brazilian students (170 males y 309 females) with mean age 20.7 (SD = 5.74). The BEBS is the Brazilian version (Bechtel, Corral-Verdugo and Pinheiro, 1999) of a scale that was developed from the propositions of Dunlap, Van Liere, Mertig and Jones (2000). The BEBS include general environmental beliefs and specific environmental beliefs regarding the water, energy, waste and his consumption, reuse or saving. Principal factor extraction with promax rotation was performed on 47 items from BEBS. Principal component extraction was used prior to principal factor extraction to estimate number of factors, presence of outliers, absence of multicollinearity, and factorability of the correlation matrices (Tabachnick & Fidell, 2001). The results suggested the presence of two factors that were internally consistent and well defined by the variables. The highest SMCs – squared multiple correlation, for factors from variables was .47. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin – KMO was .84. These analyses indicated no presence of multicollinearity or singularity and showed acceptable factorability indices. With a cut of .40 for inclusion of a variable in interpretation of a factor, 26 of the original 47 variables loaded on two factors labelled “ecocentric beliefs” (a = .81; 16 items) and “anthropocentric beliefs” (a = .72; 10 items). The ecocentric beliefs grouped items related to the environmental concern and a worldviews in which man and nature are interconnected. In this dimension the nature has intrinsic value and man and nature are in balance. Items like “To separate organic from non-organic household waste contributes to environmental conservation” and “Consumption aggravates environmental problems” are some examples of this factor. The second factor, anthropocentric beliefs, reflect an instrumental perspective of nature orientated to improve the quality of life of human hood. This dimension represent the idea that humans are the center of universe and the most important life form (Kortenkamp & Moore, 2001). Items like “Our life quality depends on the variety of good consumption” and “Consuming extra sheets of paper is pernicious, but I do not do anything against it” are examples of items that load on this factor. Additional ANOVA analyses were performed with these two factors and demographics variables (age, gender, level of study and work). Results show gender and age group differences on ecocentric and anthropocentric beliefs. The gender results seem consistent with the ethic of care associated with women (Day,2000). Analyses of the social desirability questions revealed no influence over the measure of environmental beliefs. These general results are in line with authors that argue that environmental concern has cultural differences and can vary among samples, suggesting a influence from situational variables on environmental ethical reasoning (Gooch, 1995; Bechtel, Corral-Verdugo & Pinheiro, 1999; Corraliza & Berenguer, 2000; Hernández & Hidalgo, 2000; Kortenkamp & Moore, 2001; Bamberg, 2003).
Ojala, Ann. Environmental Concerns in Estonia In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. Environmental friendliness and environmentally friendly behaviour are an important issue in Estonia and all over the world because the environmental scholars are continuously worried about environment conditions. The human behaviour is one of the reasons why environmental problems are raising. Environmental concern is a concept, which is widely used in environmental psychology literature. This concept is often seen as one of the attitudinal mediators, which leads to environmentally friendly behaviour. The environmentally friendly behaviour might also be seen as moral behaviour, where the person should sometimes act against his/her personal interests.The present work is based on P. W. Schultz’s theory about egoistic, social-altruistic and biospheric environmental concerns. P. W. Schultz, relying on theory of norm-activation by S. Schwartz (1977) and expanded norm-activation theory in environmental psychology (Stern, Dietz & Kalof, 1993) supposed that environmental concern (an attitude) is based on belief of harmful consequences for the valued objects. Schultz (2000) proposes that these valued objects can be classified as self, other people or other living things. He calls these concerns as egoistic, social-altruistic or biospheric environmental concerns. Schultz claims that these three concerns are not definitely distinct so that egoistically concerned people could be as environmentally concerned as people holding altruistic or biospheric concerns. Still the biospherically oriented person could be concerned about environmental problems far away from their home and so the biospheric concern provide a broader motive for behavior. The people holding more egoistic concern should have had less contact with natural environments than people having other types of concerns.The aim of this study was to test Schultz’s environmental concerns theory an Estonian sample and control a hypothesis about the behavioural connections with nature and the attitudinal bases of environmentally friendly behaviour. Estonia is rather small country with 1,4 million inhabitants and the biggest city is the capital Tallinn with 400 000 inhabitants. The structured questionnaire “Environment and us” was conducted by the Tallinn Pedagogical University’s Environmental Psychology Research Unit in 2002. Several questions about various aspects of social life, environmental concern and values, environmental friendliness, behavioural intentions, and beliefs were asked.The sample of this study consisted of 687 Estonians, of which 54 % were women. The age of respondents ranged from 15 – 80. For hypothesis testing the factor analysis, descriptive statistics and t-tests were used.Two highly correlated factors appeared which were named egoistic and altruistic-biospheric concerns to the environment. The valued objects of natural environment did not form separated factor. Based on the percentiles I divided respondents into two groups: more egoistically (constituting 12% of all respondents) and more altruistic-biospherically (constituting 16 % of all respondents) environmentally concerned. The more altruistic-biospherically concerned people did not have more connections with nature (they were not living more in the country side or small towns, they did not have more domestic animals or pets and did not have more summerhouses or owned more land than the more egoistically concerned respondents). According to the theory the egoistically and altruistic-biospherically concerned respondents did not differ in evaluating environmental problems in close environment. But more egoistically concerned evaluated the environment conditions in the whole world better than the altruistic-biospherically concerned did. The egoistically concerned people were more optimistic and thought that each individual can take more action for environment compared to the altruistic-biospherically concerned. The altruistic-biospherically concerned had higher scores in environmentally friendly behaviour intention scale, which means that their willingness to take an environmentally friendly action is higher. Interestingly the more altruistic-biospherically environmentally concerned people had more emotional connection with nature and valued higher the inner beauty of nature.The results showed that the altruistic-biospheric concern for the consequences for other people and natural environment is more important indicator for environmentally friendly behaviour, but more altruistic-biospherically concerned did not have more connections with nature. In seems that Estonians` environmental concern is not influenced by their place of residence, maybe because many Estonians have still grandparents living in the county-side or they own land there. The difference being more egoistically or altruistic-biospherically concerned is rather based on other indicators like emotional connection, admiring and observing nature. Maybe the psychological factors are better indicators of different types of environmental concern than the actual time spent in nature.
Saoutkina, E.. "Environmental Factors of Pick-Pocketing: Perceived Risks and Actual Risks." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. Until now little importance has been attached to psycho-environmental and even criminological research on pickpocketing (defined as a non-violent theft of objects from pockets or bags of an individual). Uzzell, Brown and Breakwell (2000) found that responsibility of being pick-pocketed is often attributed to the inefficient work of police rather than to an error of the pick-pocketed. However, the victimized person’s inattention is repeatedly implicated in cases of this theft. Pickpocketing is difficult to repress since the urban environment presents numerous factors facilitating pickpockets’ activity. One of these factors, the environmental overload, is likely to cause a fatigue and a distraction, making some individuals become easy prey for a pickpocket.Many findings in the field of the CPTED have shown that certain environmental characteristics can be favourable to the occurrence of specific crimes in an area. Criminals, acting in a rational way, research places to commit a crime according to their perception of opportunities and examining social and physical environment of places (Brantingham & Brantingham, 1995; Clarke, 1992). Nevertheless, common perception of crime occurrence risk rarely coincides with the reality of criminal events and is related to ecological labels (physical and social) rather than actual crime rates. Moreover, a potential victim’s risk perception is not determined by the reflection on opportunities that environment offers to a criminal (Chaguiboff, 1992). ObjectiveThis research aims to study pickpocketing by examining the interactions between the potential victim and the pickpocket; interactions that take place in the tissue of objective environmental settings. We attempt to establish the difference in perceiving the same environment by both actors: 1) by perpetrator, from the point of view of criminal opportunities that environment offers;2) by the potential victim from the point of view of pickpocketing risk that environment represents. MethodThe environmental characteristics of 23 sites situated in Paris and in Moscow, defined by high or low pick-pocketing rate, were submitted to direct observations. The observed characteristics included those identified in our interviews with 25 perpetrators as favourable for the pick-pocketing commitment. 459 passers-by in each site were interviewed on their in-spot pick-pocketing risk perceptions. In order to have the third point of view, interviews with 80 pickpocketing victims were conducted.ResultsWith regard to environmental characteristics of sites, the findings suggest that in both cities the pick-pocketing cold spots are defined by elements of discharged environment while the hot spots are defined by elements likely to cause environmental overload. Analyses provided evidence that passers-by’s risk estimations do not coincide with the actual pick-pocketing rates. The risk is estimated as “low” at sites presenting characteristics of social order and numerous signs of wealth. And vice versa, pick-pocketing risk is estimated as “high” at sites demonstrating social disorder symbols. However, the pickpockets view these environmental characteristics differently. They prefer to act in places presenting characteristics of social order since population feels there in confidence. On the contrary, they judge unsuitable sites demonstrating social disorder, as they generate avoidance behaviour. These findings question the Defensible Space Theory, previously challenged by Shaw and Gifford (1994).Almost 30% of explanations given by passers-by to their risk estimations concern the level of social density of site. Although the idea that “pickpockets act in crowds” is generally accepted, people don’t know why pickpockets prefer crowds and how they use this factor. Our interviews show that perpetrators are aware of and profit of this. The analyses of interviews with pickpocketing victims show that over 35% of victimisation scenarios included three elements: attention drawn to some elements of the environment, an environmental overload, a relaxing atmosphere of the place. Besides, analyses demonstrate clearly that pickpockets apply special diversions only in 30% of cases, using, in other cases, the situation and particularly their knowledge about how the environment influences the victim.The discussion of this and other results will focus on theoretical and practical outcomes for the research on crime perception and victimization. The added value of this study consists in understanding the complexity of an environmentally determined crime from several angles (the one of potential victims, the one of actual victims, and the one of perpetrators).
Castrechini, A, and E. Pol. "Environmental Issues in the Nineties Trough the Press. a Longitudinal Study." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. Much of the literature about environmental issues and mass media is based on case studies of specific problems or events. In contrast, this paper will explore such issues from a longitudinal approach. The objective of this research was to explore the social representation (SR) of the environment and environmental issues, specifically the representation that is constructed and spread through the press. Assuming that SR are stable entities, that require time in their process of formation, a study of longitudinal character was made looking for to characterise the evolution of this representation throughout the Nineties.The paper presents empirical data from two different Spanish newspapers: ‘La Vanguardia’ and ‘El País’ in their Barcelona edition. Twelve issues of each pair year of the decade were reviewed searching for environmental news, obtaining a sample of 1400 news. The analysis of press articles was structured in two parts, taking care both the format (newspaper, section, length of the article, use of pictures/graphs, etc.) and the content of the news (actors, context, themes, author’s posture, etc.). In this sense, data analysis was conducted coding each new and developing a database of codes and, subsequently, themes (Strauss and Corbin, 1990).The longitudinal study shows not only how environmental news has been increasing throughout the decade, but also their diversity. The urban problems have a greater presence on the newspapers. In spite of this, the environment continues being associated to natural environment due to the use of this type of images in the pictures.
Avanzini, P, and M. Manetti. "Environmental Perception Observatory in a Coastal Area Affected by Strong Environmental Impact." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. "In the year 2002, under the sponsorship of La Spezia Port Authority, a coastal area has been analyzed in order to correlate the environmental health with the people environmental perception. The aim of the study, called the OASIS Project, was to set up a management tool for the freezing of the conflicts between the different anthropogenic activities located in the area. The area under examination is the Ligurian coast around the Gulf of La Spezia (Italy). This area is characterized by several conflicting activities (commercial marine traffics, port, industrial facilities, fishing, aquaculture, tourism and marine protected parks). The tool for the management outlined by the project was an Observatory capable to monitor many different sensitive parameters both ecological, social, economical in relation with the psychological perception of the quality of life. The tool envisaged is an interpretation model operated by mathematical routines and expert evaluations able to predict the eco-system and people reaction to environmental perturbations. The study outlined that the environmental perception, connected to environmental survey was a very important parameter to be considered, so the correlations between people environmental perception of the eco-system perturbations and/or the eco-system evolution had to be considered together.The tool, for what the people perception is concerned, has to be a measure of the “Quality of Life” consisting in the balance between personal objectives and interests and collectively accepted standards. The measure of the Quality of Life is performed through what is called "Social Capital", a parameter cluster as: sense of community, collective efficacy or empowerment, citizen participation and so on. Further more conventional parameters related to the material well-being, are to be considered:This method of evaluation of the Quality of Life has never been applied before to contexts as defined before. It has been applied in different contexts (Edmondson R. (2003) Hawe P., Shiell A. Perkins D., Brown B., Taylor R.B. (1996) (2000), Marsdsen D. e Oakley P.(1990). The aim of the paper is to present the methodology in order to collect comments from a very expert community before starting the project. The Observatory will consist of the selection of a significant group of citizens to whom submit, periodically, series of questionnaires to evaluate the evolution of the perception with time. The questionnaires will contain also questions presenting imaginary future possible scenarios to give the management of the coastal area the tools to predict the reactions to eventual interventions. The objectives of the eco-social Observatory of the OASIS project are:-To evaluate the Quality of Life level and the Social Capital of the community in relation with the eco-geo-bio-physical parameters of the ecosystem.-To define the sensitive social parameters to be considered.-To determine the degree of social pro-activity or reactivity of the community towards sensitive parameters.-To establish, using an expert system analysis, a forecasting capability of the effects on quality of life and social capital of the community for an integrated geographic management.-To set up a project of coalition building aimed to increase the people level of participation and the civic engagement."
Kobayashi, K, T Suzuki, K Funahashi, M Kita, B Li, and T. Shimmura. Environmental Qualities of Public Open Space Through the Expression of Impressive Scene with Person in City In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. "IntroductionRecently in Japan, there are many man-made public spaces planned and designed, especially in the center of cities, for example, "Roppongi Hills" and "Siodome Siosaito" in Tokyo, "Canal City" in Fukuoka, all of them large scale redevelopment areas. Some projects are reported on TV or magazines, so people seem to be interested in architecture and urban design. Even if urban design is appropriate, all designed projects are not "place for people (being in place)", because their projects not altogether appropriate, (e.g. middle aged "noisy" women take souvenir pictures, a singer with back-band make a noisy loud voice). Sometimes, we can see impressive and lively scene with person in urban public space. However, there are few vocabularies to express for the way of being impressive and lively in place and the relationship with the person. The aim of this study is to catch the structure of people's thoughts, "impressive" scene with person in city, and consider their person-environment relationship. MethodThe method of this study is questionnaire for collaborators (they are about twenty years old).The questions are three blocks: Ö^ "Please take a photograph your impressive scene with person in city", Ö_ "Please explain this scene's person-environment relationship(e.g. with others, place and city)", Ö` "What impression do you have on site ?"The number of response is four hundreds twenty-five. This reportÅfs object ranges from Ö_ person-environment relationship through impressive scene with person in city to Ö` the structure of peopleÅfs thought, impressive scene with person in city. Results Person-Environment Relationship through the "Impressive" Scene with Person in City.The places for impressive scene with person in city are: Ö^ riverside, Ö_ seaside, Ö` park, Öa street, Öb temple or shrine, Öc man-made public space(e.g. plaza, square), Öd places of amusement, etc. Generally, nature and water's edge are more than man-made public spaces. This seems to be a problem relating public space design.The activities for impressive scene with person in city are: Ö^ sitting, Ö_ resting, Ö` sleeping, Öa dancing, Öb looking or watching, Öc standing, etc. The situations for impressive scene with person in city are: Ö^ standing still alone("TATAZUMU" in Japanese),Ö_ relaxing,Ö` getting used to place and scene,Öa enjoying themselves,Öb being such as good pictures,Öc being absorbed in their activities,Öd being lively,Öe attractive, Öf being free, etc. Their activities and situations seem to be, one person or a few person relaxing and taking it easy.The relationship with others(being around the person) is: Ö^ not consciousness of othersÅAÖ_ being absorbed in their area, Ö` contrast between the person and others. The relationship with place(person being in) is: Ö^ getting used to place, Ö_ making good use of place, Ö` being as having place all to oneself, Öa fitting in place. The relationship with city(background of being person) is, Ö^ contrastive,Ö_ symbolic,Ö` being occupational, Öa being Ågone upon anotherÅh(the person's layer, the background layer, etc), Öb religious activities. Generally, relationship with others and city seem to be contrastive. Environmental Qualities of Public Open Space through the Expressions of "Impressive" Scene with Person in City Collaborator's impressions were: Ö^ imagine the person's personality, (e.g. their way of living and daily life), Ö_ feel strange or mysterious,(e.g. what the person do), Ö` feel like imitating the person, Öa feel peculiar to this place, etc. One of environmental qualities is just being in place influences each people.ConclusionsIn this report, the structure of peopleÅfs thoughts, impressive scene with person in city is mixed: Ö^ influence of the person's personality,Ö_ peculiar to the place where the person is. In various countries, sometimes, we can see impressive scene with people in city. Although the means of impressive are different in each country, if there are a lot of chances to see impressive scene in daily life, the city will be attractive. Keywords: Environmental Qualities, Public Open Space, Impressive, Person-Environment Relationship, Urban Design. "
Edgu, E, F Cimsit, and A. Ü. nlü. Environmental Quality as a Determinant of Functional Occupancy In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. This research aims to study the relationship between the physical structure and the functional occupation of a downtown Istanbul district Tarlaba, which throughout the last century has faced tremendous changes leading heterogeneity in social structure along with lower levels of environmental quality. As many migrants primarily preferred to settle in the district considering the economic conditions and proximity to urban amenities, the socio-cultural background such as the traditional life styles and customs of the new comers usually contradict with the physical possibilities of the built environment. The district has gone through changes from housing a homogenous bourgeoisie population, to heterogeneous ghetto groups. Recent studies on the area, cover the interrelation of socio-demographic change, physical deterioration and especially outcomes of crime factor in Tarlaba. These studies expose certain relationships between parameters such as change of users, gentrification process, functional use of buildings, and eventually change of quality in the residential environment. This research aims to expose effects of physical, social and functional setting preferences, to environmental quality, regarding the changes manipulated by the main arteries, topographic and the syntactic structure of the main arteries bordering the district and the selected vertically connecting streets. The upper artery of the case study area, Tarlaba.Boulevard is the core of the mentioned socio-cultural change. The boulevard maintains its unique position connecting the old, thus administrative city centre to the modern, thus cultural city centre Taksim, while comprising a slowly spreading commercial strip among residential units. The lower artery of the case study area, Dolapdere Street, on the other hand, carries one of the most heavy traffic loads of vehicle transportation, with connections to main highways. Owing to its frequented location, and relatively larger building plots, Dolapdere Street has been housing many small factories and manufacturers, while decreasing the proportion of residential population. The vertical streets connecting these two arteries also expose the effects of socio-cultural change to the changes in land uses. The research is composed of a three-staged case study where the first stage exposes the functional occupancy of the selected arteries, the second phase covers interviews with the selected floor occupants, and the third stage analyses the topographic character input of the area through syntactic structure of the streets. The comparative analyses of the data will show the implications on the relationship between environmental qualities through functional occupancy preferences of the plots. The results of the research is considered to expose the relations between the character and dispersion of non-residential functions, the effects of these functional occupancies to the criminal vulnerability of the neighbourhood environment and the syntactic structure of the streets.
Johansson, M.. "Environmental Value Orientation as an Explanation of Differing Motives for Conservation of the Local Biodiversity." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. Biological diversity encompasses the genetic diversity within each species, the range of species in a given ecosystem e.g. species diversity and the diversity of ecosystems across an entire region (Primack, 2000). At present 1 per cent of the world’s described species are threatened with extinction. The most pervasive and overriding threat is habitat loss and degradation due to human activity such as agricultural practices and fishing, but also the development of human settlement and infrastructure. In Sweden 10 per cent of the regional plants and animals are threatened. The Swedish government has defined 15 environmental quality objectives based on five fundamental principles, one of them being the need to preserve the biological diversity. In addition to the national goals, county councils and municipalities formulate local objectives and implement the necessary strategies to obtain them based on expert knowledge. Little is however known to what extent expert opinions are supported by the inhabitants’ attitudes towards and motives for conservation of the local biodiversity. The overall aim of the project was to investigate the public’s attitudes towards biodiversity in Kristianstad municipality in South of Sweden . Kristianstad is characterised by a diversified nature. The region is well-known for its wetland areas, that has been suggested as Sweden’s first candidate as a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve. The present paper focuses on people’s environmental value orientation and the perceived importance of various motives for conservation of the local biodiversity as well as general attitudes towards conservation. The theoretical point of departure is Stern’s et al. (1995) model, suggesting that our basic values guide the view of nature or environmental value orientation. These values are further proposed to act as filters for new information. Stern and Dietz (1994) put forward three different environmental value orientations, a biocentric (sometimes called biospheric) orientation, where nature is valued for its own sake, an egoistic orientation relating to the value of nature for oneself, and a social-altruistic orientation were nature is valued for its benefits for the human-being. These environmental value orientations have been further elaborated and empirically related to basic values by Schultz (2001) and Schultz and Zelezny (1999). In the present study it was hypothesised that people from various social backgrounds express different environmental value orientations. They therefore find various motives for conservation of the local biodiversity to be of differing importance, although they may express a similar general attitude towards biological diversity. Empirical data were obtained by focus group discussions as well as a questionnaire survey among 271 persons, living or working in the municipality of Kristianstad. In the focus groups discussions that included various groups of inhabitants, motives for conservation of the local biodiversity were identified. By means of factor analysis these motives were interpreted as motives related to the importance of biodiversity for human recreation and well-being, biodiversity as a resource for human survival and conservation of biodiversity for the nature’s own best. The three environmental value orientations, as measured by Schultz’s and colleagues’ instrument, were to a similar degree expressed irrespective of the social background. People expressing differing environmental value orientation significantly differed in how they prioritised various motives for conservation of the local biodiveristy. Furthermore these motives did indepently predict the general attitude towards conservation of the local biodiversity. In conclusion it seems important to bring forward diverse motives addressing both people with egoistic, biospheric and social-altruistic environmental value orientation, in order to gain support for local objectives as well as strategies aiming at conservation of the local biodiversity.AcknowledgmentThe present paper is part of a larger project “Biodiversity in the public’s mind” financed by FORMAS grant 21.5/2002 and carried out at Environmental Psychology Unit, Lund Institute of Technology, Sweden, with DSc Maria Johansson as project leader. DSc Marianne Lindström assisted the work.
Rivlin, L.. "Ethical Concerns in Participatory Environmental Practice and Research." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. As an advocate and practitioner of participatory research and practice, the ethical concerns in this type of work are raised not to discourage its use but to address some critical issues. Participatory researchers and practitioners often engage in their work with great enthusiasm and with confidence that the results will provide directions that the participants will appreciate and from which they will draw benefits. However, enthusiasm and energy can mask some of the ethical concerns that must be addressed. The issues fall into a number of overlapping areas, including the techniques used to solicit participants, the ability to project the amount of time and labor necessary in becoming a participant, unexpected events over the course of the work that may compromise the health and safety of participants, expectations of outcomes that may exceed what is possible, issues that relate to publications that emerge from the research (for example, authorship of writing, disclosure of personal information that may violate people's privacy and anonymity) and the empowerment of participants through participation in the project that cannot be followed up in their lives after termination of the research. I will address some of these concerns using examples from my research and that of colleagues. Some of the potential problems can be anticipated as planning ensues and can be addressed by the research team. Others are more subtle and may not be apparent until the research or project is completed, but also need to be dealt with by discussions with as many participants as possible. The opportunity afforded by this IAPS meeting to share research and project experiences and deal with these troubling but important issues can yield directions to those interested in pursuing this form of work.
Hochgerner, Josef. "Europe Extended - Scenarios and Projects." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. A democratic, social and prosperous development of the European Union 25+ will require a basis of highly valued mutual respect between different interest groupings, ethnic, regional and national cultures. In a political sense this may be achieved only if „Europe“ becomes acknowledged by the majority of citizens. Thus a topical aim is to overcome the tipping point from the European Union being a „project of elites“ to beginning to matter for everyday businesses and masses of people – even though they may remain in different spheres of interest, traditions and solidaric networks, and in a variety of ways toward modernisation.The presentation will identify relevant stages in the creation of the European Union and an outlook on the potential of future developments. From a socio-economic point of view the great scenarios will be confronted with a selection of programmes and projects in support of education, research, institution building and social and economic progress in the new Member States and beyond. An issue for debate is whether efforts and resources involved may be sufficient to facilitate breakthroughs of EU integration and „Europeanisation“.
Demir, E., O. Kepez, and F.A. Rifki. "Evaluating (Dis)Continuity in Pedestrian Environments: a Comparative Case Study of Two North Carolina State University Campuses." Journal of Applied Psychology [Special Issue 18th IAPS Conference] 6, no. 3-4 (2004): 33-42. "This research studies pedestrian-oriented environments in a university context utilizing the theoretical constructs of "(dis-) continuities of space" developed by Mark Fried (2000). The case study is the still developing Centennial Campus of NC State University. In exploring the association of Fried's (dis-) continuity concept with space, we employ a correlational research design where space is the independent variable and continuity is the dependent variable. Continuity of space is approached in both direct and negative-induction way. We study spatial configuration objectively with variables such as distance between spaces, spatial barriers for pedestrian movements, and physical and functional layout of campus spaces and we use a survey instrument for subjective data collection. Conclusions show that the spatial structure of campus environment is a significant factor in continuities of space and proximity and barrier variables have a combined and enhanced effect on the level of physical and social continuity of space in neighborhood scale."
Demir, E, O Kepez, and F. A. Rifki. "Evaluating (Dis-) Continuity in Pedestrian Environments: Case of North Carolina State University Centennial Campus." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. "Human-environment interactions are complex because each of the two realms, in and of itself, has many dimensions along which it is defined and measured. In the extremely wide spectrum of human-environment focused research projects those that define environment in terms of its physical as well as social dimensions and the individual person as the unit of social interaction can be singled out as the ones that begin to overcome the difficulties of this complexity. However, such efforts are few and far in between. This study is one of such attempts.The theoretical framework of our study is built on Marc Fried's "continuity" and "discontinuity" concepts of environment, which consider environment, i.e., place, as a combination of both social and physical constructs . In "Continuities and Discontinuities of Place," he defines “continuous place” as environment where successful convergence of “space as a physical construct” and “space as a social network” is observed. Conversely, unsuccessful convergence of these implies the “discontinuous place” concept. These concepts are further articulated in the paper in order to set this stage for effective presentation of our project that is built on its theoretical framework. Our case study is NC State University Centennial Campus, where long-term design principles of the main campus "a campus of neighborhoods" and "a campus of paths" has been employed. These concepts have been helping shape the main campus as a pedestrian-oriented environment that houses diverse land uses and locales. Compared to main campus, Centennial campus is new and more than twice in size but does not seem to have the same pedestrian orientation, neither does it the environmental diversity. The aim is to test if this is so or not. We do this by assessing "continuity" and "discontinuity" of places in Centennial Campus and compare them with similar places on Main Campus. Therefore space, or place, is our independent variable and continuity the dependent variable. That is, we “test” if a given space is continuous or discontinuous.In operationalization of these main concepts, space was measured in two sub-concepts: physical spatial attributes and socio-cultural environmental attributes. The dependent variable continuity was approached in both a direct and negative-induction way. Rather than measuring the continuity concept only, we argue that by measuring discontinuity we can understand how continuous a space is, too. This negative induction to the subject is more reliable since the concept of continuity - in terms of its indicators- is rather hard to operationalize. However, discontinuity indicators are rather more relevantly accessible by reading the spatial attributes. Therefore, uniting the continuity and discontinuity concepts increases the clarity of the research findings since the use of triangulation is fundamentally crucial in the research design. The concepts of “a campus of neighborhoods” and “a campus of paths” were evaluated under each category of the sub-variables of the independent variable.The assessment was made in a 2x2 square matrix form where the concepts of "continuity" and "discontinuity" were evaluated in relation to the "physical space" and "social space" concepts. This evaluation also encompassed three scales. Starting from the neighborhood scale and going to the site scale of the Centennial campus, the development was analyzed in relation to the concepts incorporated in the matrix. Finally, the Centennial Campus was assessed in relation to the entire campus that included the existing developed part of the University.In the tactical level of research, objective and subjective (perceptual and evaluative) data gathering methods were utilized. Objective data was collected by studying the physical attributes of space in various scales, as mentioned above. The barrier and proximity analysis of space was executed for this purpose by studying the distance and number of streets to be crossed to the nearest “campus plaza” (main public outdoor space), “campus green” (middle-scale shared outdoor space), “neighborhood courtyard” (small scale shared outdoor space). For perceptual and evaluative measures of space, a survey was conducted with 54 respondents including students, faculty, employees and staff, representing various user groups. Respondents were asked several questions related to their personal profile and use of space and to evaluate their environment in an ordinal scale. They were also asked to indicate their daily routes and the places of use on the map attached. The subjective data taken from surveys were combined with the objective measures of the physical attributes of space and interpreted. Continuity levels were assigned to campus spaces in an ordinal level using the discontinuity measures assessed. Comparisons between the physical spatial attributes and the social attributes of different campus spaces and their combined effect on continuities were made. Conclusions showed that the spatial structure of campus environment is a significant factor in continuities in the campus scale (central versus linear configuration). In the neighborhood scale, the proximity and barrier variables have a combined and enhanced effect on the level of physical and social continuity of space. It should not be construed from this paper that the intent of this study is to test the validity of Fried's methodology, since a single project with a relatively small sample is not capable of doing so. Instead our intention is to introduce an alternative interpretation of urban design intentions from Fried's perspective and theoretical framework."
Witt, Tom. "Evaluating Creative Collaboration and the Design Process." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. The question which drives this paper is whether collaboration is equivalent to or anything like participation as it was envisioned by the early work which promoted consideration of the user in the solution of design problems. First, the environment, which led to Wicked Problem Theory (Rittel 1970; Rittel and Webber 1969) and the development of methods to support argument and participation, will be discussed. Second, I will review the literature on collaboration as a tool for promoting creativity in the design process. Third, I will explore the continued relevance and implications of the properties of Wicked Problem Theory as it relates to creative collaboration and whether this is participation as Rittel envisioned it. Wicked Problems (I will enumerate only a few of the characteristics here) cannot be defined without simultaneously solving them. Even when solved they tend not to remain solved, but, rather, erupt in unexpected ways. Solutions to wicked problems tend to be symptomatic of other unforeseen problems. The knowledge needed to resolve, therefore, wicked problems is distributed in unknowable ways—no one knows who knows best. It is this last characteristic of Wicked Problems that led Rittel and others to develop methods that encouraged argument, doubt and, most important to this discussion, participation. Issues Based Information Systems, IBIS, for example, was developed as a method to encourage transparent argument and participation. Participation by all who may be affected by a solution, not just those who are designing the solution—the professional designers.Recently, there has been great interest in the development of methods to promote collaboration among professional designers. While the immediate intention seems to promote interconnectivity among the various disciplines involved in the solution of design problems, there is some indication that collaboration can promote creativity as well. Wicked Problem Theory suggests that design is essentially done in the imagination in two phases: the generation of alternatives and the reduction of alternatives--thinking of as many solutions as possible and reducing them all to the one or two best. It is in the generation of alternative solutions--quantity of production-- that design, as a problem solving activity, tends to reflect the research in creativity in interesting ways. This, however, is not a collaborative activity. It is individual in nature. While there is a great deal of literature on the methods to support creativity in individuals, there is much less on methods to support creativity in groups--collaboration. There is nothing in the literature to suggest that collaboration extends to the user or to those others that may be affected by a solution derived from the collaborative process.Methods to support participation were developed to enhance the creation and dissemination of knowledge. Collaboration is an activity involving the relegation and control of power.
Moore, J, and A. Abbas. "Evaluating Cultural Regeneration: the Role of Place and Community." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. This paper explores the relationship between cultural activities and facilities and their role in fostering social inclusion and wider cultural regeneration. A key element of sustainable cultural facilities is in the way they form part of a local sense of place and contribute to a cultural place identity (Low, 2000). In addition, recent research has focused on urban development and regeneration in the UK and the ways in which arts and cultural activities can foster social inclusion in deprived areas (Long & Welch, 2003) . In this way, there may be a symbiotic relationship between culture and place that has yet to be fully explored. The concepts of place and place identity are central to this approach, taking as it does a distinct physical, cultural, social locale as the unit of analysis (Moore, 2000; Proshansky et al, 1983). Specifically, this study takes a transactional approach to place which is concerned with individual experience and action placed within social, physical, cultural contexts (Ittelson et al, 1974; Bechtel & Churchman, 2002). Physical contexts are shaped and defined by the people who conceptualise and use them. Both Urry (1990) and Sheilds (1991) have stressed the importance of cultural places in constructing cultural activities and social relations. Forrest & Kearns (1999) have argued that the physical environment is important for community morale and social interaction as well as key landmark buildings. It can provide an opportunity for building social bridges between generations and groups in a local community. Drawing from two evaluation studies of cultural projects (AV Digital Arts Regional Festival and an ESF funded Cultural Skills Programme) in the economically deprived region of Teesside, this paper will identify the pathways by which cultural activity can enhance place identity and vice versa. The paper will draw from structured interviews with participants from socially excluded groups taking part in cultural activities as well as artists working with these groups. Interviews will examine participants’ experiences of cultural places, and ways in which cultural activities may or may not contribute to their relationship to the local environment. In this way, the role of culture in developing a sense of place and community will be explored.
Speller, G, and N. Ravenscroft. "Evaluating Public Participation Processes and Outcomes." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. The British Labour Government introduced reforms to the governance of local democracy and healthcare through statutory duties on local authorities to consult with their communities about the planning and delivery of services. A ‘collaborative discourse’ typifies New Labour’s approach to community involvement. This entailed a marked shift away from both the input-driven systems, which characterised the post-war welfare state, and the market-oriented approaches, which came to the fore during the 1970s and 1980s as governments strove to control public expenditure (see University of Birmingham School of Public Policy, 1999). Ministerial enthusiasm for public participation certainly stems in part from the view that there is a need to ‘rebuild’ the relationship between government and the electorate. The public is seen as having lost confidence in politics and policy makers. Providing high quality services at ‘a price people are willing to pay’ is seen as the key to winning back their trust. By virtue of their ‘closeness to the community’, user groups, citizens’ panels and area/neighbourhood forums, are seen by ministers as an important means of exerting pressure for service improvements on public sector managers, professionals and frontline staff. Past research (e.g. Horelli, 2002; Speller, 1988; Wiesenfeld & Sánchez, 2002) has shown that involvement in PP and satisfaction is greater, when people attribute the consequences of their actions to their personal efforts; when they assume responsibility for their situation; when they feel their physical and social surroundings to be important; and when they identify with their neighbourhood and with other residents. A genuine Public Participation exercise can facilitate these conditions. In addition it can provide a learning process (increase personal, social and ecological understanding); help participants to appreciate the variety of perspectives on community values and goals and to accept that varying perceptions are legitimate, thus increasing quality of life for all. The opportunity for a practical exercise to facilitate and evaluate the process and outcome of such a local community group arose during the EU-funded 3-year GreenSpace Project (2000-2003). This presentation will describe the various attempts at creating such a group and outline the design of a participation process evaluation matrix containing 40 criteria that were based on research literature and past experience. Each criterion not only maps the process but also is a record of the achievements of the participants. A selection of the criteria is discussed to demonstrate the value of the matrix. Throughout the process the design of the matrix assured that the aims and objectives of the group were given prominence. In addition, in-depth interviews were carried out with participants after both the 3rd and the 6th monthly meeting in order to monitor any changes in participants’ perceptions of their ability to influence the decision-making process and their understanding of the democratic processes at work. In addition to the PP process evaluation matrix an outcome matrix was designed. This was developed with input from the participants and has resulted in an important feed-back tool for participants and facilitators alike. Appleyard (1979) points to the critical importance of public participation in environmental decisions, since it facilitates meaning and reduces alienation by taking responsibility for a decision. It is hoped that this participatory exercise will provide such meaning for the participants and that their continued involvement will result in positive change.
Kiray, M. T., and Ö. Y. Karaman. "Evaluating the Diversity of City Centers/squares as a Case Study the Square of Izmir Konak Meydan." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. "In today’s world, the crucial importance of spaces where people gather is becoming increasingly apparent. As private developments increasing scale, and as public entities recognize pressing needs for civic spaces, the design of parks, plazas, and city squares makes ever more significant contributions to modern life. Unfortunately, Izmir as the third biggest city of Turkey is lack of such identified modern public spaces. As a solution for this need many projects have been developed. One of these modernization projects is the Transformation of the historical city centre “Konak Meydan_” into a more modern public space. This study aims to put forward the evaluation process of this historical city centre and will discuss the new face and image of “Square”.Izmir, being the centre of a rich and large hinterland in the middle of Aegean shores in Western Anatolia and with its much important geographical and strategically position, has been a large city throughout the ages. “Konak Meydan_” is the most important city centre of Izmir. And it is also one of the oldest squares of Izmir, which had been diverted during the past 100 years, from an Ottoman Empire city centre to a modern republican city centre. “Konak Meydan_” is one of the squares of the city, which carries out all the needs of the city such as serving for general traffic, or for meeting places, for markets, for approaches to prominent buildings, such as city halls, churches, mosques, theatres, museums of art and of natural history, or else since two centuries. “Kemeralt_” serves as a market/shopping place; municipality and government buildings are the one of the most striking points of the square; a picturesque clock tower dated to 1901 is the meeting point for thousands of people during a daytime; AKM and Sabanc_ Convention centres are the cultural parts of the Square with the historical opera house. And a historical central library building of Izmir stands beside the opera house. Also “Konak Meydan_” serves as the intersection point of the general traffic routes. The square has been rehabilitated and evaluated during the historical process after the republication of Turkey for the modern republic city in order to elevate the urban quality. During these evaluation processes, the square started to loose its definition and identity.Despite having all the facilities that are first acknowledged and than sampled above, Although “Konak Meydan”_ has distinct recreational values, these values do not have a definite relationship with each other even they were located side by side. Open squares in cities supposed to have distinct connected recreational values, because they usually serve as the "heart of a great city." From that time on, a questioner was raised in order to make this city centre, a living modern square. As an answer to this questioner; nowadays, a project has been maintained for “Konak Meydan_” to modernize Izmir’s new image and face for the new Millennia. In order to make the Plaza gain its identification and definition, the needs of the square was obtained due to the cultural and social needs of the inhabitants. - The Gulf was the most important part of “Konak Square”, and the square had lost its relation, and connection with Izmir Gulf, during the evaluation process of the Square. So the most important criteria was obtaining the connection of the sea with the Plaza. The square was connected directly to seaside by taking the car way under the ground. And a pedestrian route connected the square with the seaside. A membrane system was applied above the pedestrian route symbolizing a ship’s sail, so the route as the ship ready to set sail to the sea. - All of the facilities such as shopping, meeting, cultural activities etc. have been rehabilitated individually and also have been combined with each other as to make a designed city centre, and the quality of urban space and living have been elevated, finally the square has regained its identification and definition by using such elements as pedestrian routes, meeting plaza, pools, and etc., these elements especially the perpendicular ones have helped to minimize the scale of the huge, unidentified square into the human norms. - By this new project, the preservation of the historical places such as the historical Mosque, or the “Clock Tower”, the market place put on the agenda, and by eliminating the additions preventing the connection of the historical values to the historical square, the Plaza regained its historical values. "
Witt, T.. "Evaluating the Effects of Interior Environments on Creative Behavior." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. Much research and discussion has taken place regarding the creative activity of designers and the development of creative places (architecture and interior design), but little has been done to address the issue of the potential to design places that enhance the creative activity, behavior, of all users of the space. This symposium will look at this issue of the potential of well-designed places to stimulate, support, and enhance creative behaviors and how to evaluate the efficacy of such places.
Potthoff, Joy K.. "Evaluating the Role of Design Principles in Enhancing Creativity in the Interior Environment." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. The elements and principles of design (line, shape, color, texture, space, balance, harmony and unity, contrast and variety, rhythm, repetition, emphasis and focus, scale, and proportion) are historically found to be a constant in creative work. They have been part of our creative thinking since early man/woman found expression and painted on cave walls and played music on stretched animal skins. The use of the elements and principles by the artist (painter, sculptor, graphic designer, architect, interior designer, cinematographer, poet, musician, etc.) to create organization out of chaos is fundamental to the artist's creative process. The human brain receives and reacts to stimuli via sensory perception (sight, hearing, touch, smell, and taste). In artistic, creative endeavors people tend to respond favorably (sometimes ecstatically) to stimuli which finds its' genesis in the use of the elements and principles. It is as if our brain is programmed to respond positively when stimuli or information is presented in this framework or Gestalt. The genius of creative work is when the right combination or ratio of the elements and principles, appropriate to the context of the piece, have been used. Some examples illustrating this criteria in the built environment are found in the following structures: The 13th century chapel of Ste.-Chapelle, Paris, where the vast areas of stained glass create a dramatic space seemingly without walls; in the exquisite shapes, colors and patterns found in the 16th century tiled vaults and domes of the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne, Turkey; in the Hotel de Soubise's ornate and decorative salon rooms designed by Germain Boffrand in the 18th century for the Princess de Soubise; in the simple flowing lines and forms found in the interior of the chapel at Ronchamp, France, built by Le Corbusier in 1951; and in the stark geometric simplicity of Frank Gehry's Vitra Design Museum built in 1989 near Basel, Switzerland. This presentation will focus on the role the elements and principles of design have on the creative process in relation to buildings and their interiors.
Hutter, Gérard. "Evaluation as Flexible Interpretation - Developing Housing Projects in the Context of Inward Urban Development in Germany." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. Discussions of inward urban development as a non-expansive orientation of local governments in Germany tend to treat evaluation criteria as fixed criteria of performance. An alternative way to view evaluation criteria is as variable sources of interpretation that preserve flexibility. The remainder of this abstract explores the notion of evaluation as flexible interpretation further with respect to an understanding of urban development as a learning process (Tonn et al. 2000). Interpretation as a verb can be defined as giving meaning to a cue (an event, a project, an action and so forth). Interpretation as a noun can be understood as an explanation of a cue with regard to a frame of reference (Weick 1995). Evaluation as flexible interpretation combines two alternative ways of evaluating a cue: Either with regard to fixed criteria of performance or in pursuit of criteria that still have to be found. In the first case the evaluator is using a well-defined frame of reference in advance for evaluating an action. In the second case the evaluator is exploring retrospective which criteria suit an elapsed action. All action is effective with respect to some criterion. The problem is simply to locate the criterion, to use it to interpret one meaning of the action, and then to convince other people that this is a plausible meaning for what occurred. Research findings on the management of innovation describe the dynamics of linking action, criteria and evaluation in detail (Van de Ven et al. 2000). Especially for strategies of local governments to foster inward urban development a flexible use of criteria is to be taken into consideration. Urban development, especially of big cities, has always been characterized by the juxtaposition of growth, urban renewal, the gradual exchange of new for old as well as the development of brownfields. But inward urban development has been and still is a contested policy theme in Germany. The statements of the Federal Government on sustainability strategy, “The Prospect for Germany” (Perspektive Deutschland) strengthen the aim to drastically reduce the annual rate of land consumption for residential and transport purposes and stress the need to develop inward urban development strategies as a widely spread practice on local level. To understand inward urban development as a strategic challenge for local government it is useful to distinguish three fundamentally different understandings: •Inward urban development can be understood as a market-driven process of intensifying attractive building sites in accordance with the existing consumer needs. •Infill development is being realized in Germany by many local authorities on the basis of one or several projects, e.g. in Germany, the widely known reuse of the former French barracks in Tuebingen (“Französisches Viertel”) for housing with high density, little individual traffic and high quality of open spaces especially for children. •In this abstract inward urban development is understood as comprehensive and pro- as well as reactive strategic challenge of local government. A fully developed inward urban development as long-term strategy can require the implementation of projects in contrast to existing market forces to demonstrate the potentials of innovative activities. Strategy implies the development of orientations with relevance for several projects. Of course, residents, local enterprises, interest groups play important roles in the making of an inward urban development strategy. But either pro- or reactively such a strategy has to be developed and/or legitimized by the local authorities to turn single and transient events into a strategy for long-term development. Developing housing projects in the context of inward urban development requires that projects are interpreted flexible as either the possibility of implementing pre-defined strategic goals of local government or the possibility to learn about the limitations of such a strategy and alternative ways of strategy-making. Case studies show some local actors trying to develop a flexible strategy for inward urban development (Hutter et al. 2003). Nevertheless, it remains unclear if flexible capabilities are widespread at local level and which guidelines based on strategy-research findings could foster a learning process in accordance with the environmental challenge of inward urban development. The full paper explores this research theme further in accordance with findings of organizational learning, environmental decision making and research on innovation processes.
Pol, E, and R. Marans. "Evaluation in Progress [Board Session - Chair: Ombretta Romice]." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. The IAPS Board have invited Professors Enric Pol (Barcelona) and Robert Marans (Michigan) to address new aspects of environmental evaluation in respect of urban sustainability. Both speakers have developed original and comprehensive tools for those interested in assessing people‘s relationship with their neighbourhood. Enric Pol‘s instrument The SID/BCN (Social Impact Detection/Barcelona) is a tool for detecting and explaining social impacts. From a background in socio-environmental psychology, it consists of a checklist that acts as guidelines for elaborating a social inventory and impact detections. Robert Marans‚ DAS 2001 - Detroit Area Study) produces accurate and credible information on the quality of life; that can inform government, corporate, institutional, and community policy makers, enabling them to make more rational decisions about the region's future; measure and document public perceptions about salient aspects of community life in the region at the beginning of the 21st century and identify the extent to which they have changed since the 1960s. Parallel quality of life studies have taken place in several world cities including Brisbane, Belo Horizonte, Brazil, and the Brabant region in Holland. Future studies are being considered in Istanbul, Beijing, Warsaw, and Haifa.
Tsoukala, K, and M. Daniil. "Evaluation of New Public Space. the Case of Thessaloniki." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. New economic conditions and new technologies create new forms of space, while some of the older uses of urban space are being abolished or transformed, under the pressure of new activities and of the new means which make them feasible. Not only does this fact influence each of the spatial components, but it also influences the relations between them, in such a degree, that new terms have to be found, in order to demonstrate the city’s contemporary situation. Thus, ‘Metropolis’, gives ground to new concepts, like Metapolis, new terms, which seem to be already familiar in the international bibliography.The privatization of public space is the main key-concept proposed for the interpretation of public life today. This phenomenon concerns the dominance of shopping, the enforcement of its rules and conditions, not only in the multifunctional shopping malls but also in places such as airports, train and metro stations, museums and other cultural centers. The impact of this phenomenon was also observed in greater urban districts, which are organized according to the multifunctional shopping mall logic. The aforementioned phenomena are now evident in almost all the contemporary western world. The loss of the dominant role assumed by the public square in the activities of urban public life does not fail to influence the Greek city. At the expense of the public square and street, that is of the public urban environment of the city, some new “public” places develop successfully, as they attract increasing numbers of people. These places often contribute to the expansion of their area, which is usually the suburbs. In these areas commercial activity prevails over all activities of the public realm, once one of the major functions to be traditionally encountered in any public area and which nowadays is redefined through consumerism, a universal phenomenon.For most of these new places, which are by rule privately owned but for “public use”, the “public” nature of their character is often disputed; the meanings of participation, appropriation and public concern, the freedom of movement and access are not always self evident, something which used to be the case in a traditional public space. The present paper aims to examine the “experienced” reality of these new public spaces within a Greek city with a large population, Thessaloniki. Four main questions orientate our study: How does contemporary public life evolve within the specific city and to which types of space does it relate to? Which are the identity and the ambience of these new public spaces? To what extent do users appropriate these spaces and from which factors is this influenced? With which criteria do the users evaluate these places?The field research was chosen as the means to exploring the users’ behavior. 45 individuals of different gender, age, sociological and professional background formed the sample for this research. The data was collected by means of interviews. The discourse of the people asked was analyzed following the techniques of semiotics and context analysis. The qualitative analysis that we have chosen led us to conclusions related to the questions derived from the initial theoretical investigation of the topic of the present research.
Ribeiro, T.. "Evaluation of the Ecologic Environment in Unsafe Work Environments: the Role of Work Performance and Social Climate." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. In a previous research about the factors of industrial accidents in a particular setting of foundries – the burr workshop, several ecological factors were identified as accounting to the accident-proneness of that particular work environment. Those factors were clearly related to the variables of space and the layout of the setting, as well as to the ambient conditions (cf. Ribeiro, 2002, 2003). These findings called the attention for a sustainable occupational safety policy based on the importance of an appropriate work environment design in relation with the particular features of the work to be done in specific work contexts. Industrial safety remains an important outcome of the people-environment compatibility at work to be studied, although it is not a current issue of the environmental psychologists’ preferences in the study of the work environments. In fact, the existing outcomes to the settings’ appropriateness to work are still mainly job performance and job satisfaction, perhaps because the existing research is done in office environments rather than in industrial ones, and the first ones are supposed to be safer than these latter ones. It is then assumed that good performance (i. e. high levels of performance) and high satisfaction with the job are good predictors both of satisfaction with the building and of satisfaction with the ecological environment people work in. Evaluations of physical features of settings are prevailing in environmental psychology research as a mean to assess work-environment compatibility. In fact, evaluations are processes, which are part of human cognition, and human cognition is considered to be a privileged process of the human adaptation to the environment. For instance, to Ittelson, Proshansky, Rivlin and Winkel (1974) “the single human psychological process most critical for man/environment interaction, (…), is that of cognition.” These evaluations are not straight-line, but can be influenced by varied means, like previous experience, local time-setting dependence, job satisfaction, job performance, etc. From the strict point of view of industrial psychology, job performance and job satisfaction are common issues related to safety. There is a great controversy about the balance between individual productivity and safety. Some authors prone to emphasise the importance of the incompatibility of high levels of performance and safety, others strongly simply disagree. Concerning the problem of the social climate and safety, no agreement exists either between experts. Some underline the importance of a good social climate to prevent industrial accidents; conversely, some others call attention to the correlation between good levels of social climate and group cohesion and accidents at the workplace. Also, the links between high cohesiveness of the working group and performance are not straight-line established. For instance, Bakeman and Helmreich (1975) found that high cohesiveness followed good performance rather than causing it, which is not yet completely shared by social psychological views. Finally, several researches associate job satisfaction to non-injured workers in comparison with injured ones (Pestonjee et al., 1977), and found that injured workers became more dissatisfied with safety status that non-injured ones (Rundmo, 1995).Aim of the paperThe aim of this paper is to highlight and discuss some issues of the evaluation of the ecological environment in this particular context of unsafe work environments: the burr work setting. This particular work setting is a finishing section of the foundries. Here the burr from the metal pieces is removed using a mechanical burr. To burr a piece of metal consists of putting the piece in contact of a mechanical burr, and to move the piece using one’s hands until it is cleaned and polished by the friction. This particular work setting is generally very unsafe, for the accident rates are often higher in this setting than in the other work settings of the foundries. How do the environmental evaluation of this ecological environment vary with the individual job performance? How do they vary with the social climate of these settings? Finally, are they influenced by any means by the individual accident rates? Methodology Comparison between two high /low accident rates burr work settings of two similar companies (company 1- high accident rates in that setting and company 2 – low accident rates in that setting) of the foundry industry. Both settings are similar in technologies, raw materials, equipment, and manufactured products, varying only in the accident rates for the same year.MethodsData gathered from the burr work setting of foundries, according to the following methods: - Objective data: collection of accident rates per setting, number of accidents per person, analysis of the reports of accidents - Observation: site visits during working time- Interviews with first-line supervisors and safety department supervisors- Questionnaire to the workers (volunteers) of the setting, under the following topics: physical environment, work organisation, safety practices, job performance, social climate and job satisfaction, and biographical data.Expected FindingsAlthough I do not have results yet, I expect to confirm the influence of both the individual job performance and of the individual accident rates to both the environmental satisfaction and the environmental evaluation. In other words, positive association between individual job performance, low individual accident rates and both environmental satisfaction and environmental evaluation are expected. Also positive links between social climate and environmental evaluation and environmental satisfaction are expected.
Ribeiro, Teresa. "Evaluation of the Ecological Environment in Unsafe Work Environments: the Role of Work Performance and Social Climate." In Designing Social Innovation: Planning, Building, Evaluating - Proceedings of the 18th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Hogrefe & Huber, 2005.

Environmental evaluation is a topic often focusing onto office buildings, public or private utilities, but not on industrial facilities. This paper deals with the issue of environmental evaluation in industrial contexts. Its aim is to highlight and discuss it in relation to industrial safety, by focusing on the particular case of the burr work setting of the iron-steel foundries, which is an unsafe industrial environment. Results show that environmental evaluation of these particular industrial contexts cannot be considered biased by the individual number of accidents, or biased by perceived job performance. Conversely, some reciprocal influences can be considered between POE and organisational satisfaction, on the one hand, and social climate, on the other hand, the latter only for the low-accident rate context. Conclusions stress the importance of environmental evaluations like post-occupancy evaluations (POE) so as to improve people-environment compatibility at work and to enhance industrial safety.

Cahantimur, A.. "Evaluation of the Environmental and Social Impact in Traditional Home Environments and Suburbia - a Case Study: Bursa-Turkey." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. "Transition from the industrial society to the information society as well as the globalisation process led to changes in space and spatial organizations; thus, most of the cities around different regions of the world have been subject to important social and cultural alterations. Changes concerning home environments show a dramatic transition procedure from past to future; tradition to contemporary, while bringing about some continuity and development trends in urban-housing environment. In its broader social context, housing is immensely diverse and complex, and intimately interrelated with its socio-economic, political, and neighborhood environment. All of these shows that, the immense diversity and complexity of housing within different neighborhoods, cities, and countries are worth to emphasize on, not only in spatial but also socio-cultural dimensions. There is much more diversity in housing conditions among Third World countries than there is in the developed world. Their housing conditions and housing problems are quantitatively and qualitatively very different. Third World countries vary from each other in all fields including housing systems, policies and stocks . The only common denominators are low levels of income, a limited inheritance of quality housing, inadequate investment in residential infrastructure, and continued high levels of urbanization.Turkey, as a third world country , has experienced great developments in political, economical and technological fields, which caused a very rapid urbanization. The ongoing migration process from rural to urban areas, industrialization and increasing concentration of people in big cities have accelerated socio-cultural and spatial differentiation and diversity. which bring about some continuity and development trends in urban housing environment. However, providing sufficient number of residences that are available with the average income of people as well as constructing the substructure necessary for these residences have not been succeeded, thus, a lack of healthy accommodation problem, which is typical for underdeveloped or developing countries, has arisen. Besides the very high level of migration from rural to urban areas due to the rapid industrialization, Turkey has also been influenced by the migrations from abroad. Squatters, build and sell and construction cooperative societies as well as housing financed by the state have been emerged as the solutions to these problems in this country. None of these presentation forms has been a form to enrich the life quality nor to create good quality environments. "Pull down-rebuild" processes in the city centres led to the demolishing of historical and cultural values, to the permanent density increase, to the loss of green areas as well as to the insufficiency of the social substructure. What’s more , the rapid development of housing areas in suburbs - without required examinations of their suitability for our cities and people, caused the fertile land to be used in an insufficient way. The urban development in cities caused a permanent decrease in the life quality, shortcomings in terms of satisfaction of the psycho-social needs and our cities began to loose their identity with their meanings.Bursa, the city where the fieldwork of the study has been taken out, had encountered all the above mentioned problems as a city which has experienced the rapid industrialization process in Turkey and unfortunately its rich historical structure and important cultural heritage have been damaged. However, in spite of these negative developments, when the city’s structure and housing pattern is examined, it is seen that, Bursa insists to protect its spatial structure reflecting its historical identity. As from this point, in this comparative study the different urban housing patterns, the diversity in social, cultural and spatial structure will be argued in terms of change or continuity. Thus, the aim is to bring new solutions to the urbanization and housing problems with a qualitative approach. The paper consists of four sections with a brief introduction on urbanization process and urban housing environments in Turkey. The first section deals with the theoretical literature on the concepts of home and house, environmental and social impact in terms of environmental quality and residents’ satisfaction. At the end, the determination of the conceptual framework of environmental quality and residents’ satisfaction in house environments takes place. The second section covers a case study that, firstly, examining physical and social characteristics of the selected traditional and contemporary housing environments in Bursa. And secondly, investigating the perceptions, evaluations and choices of the residents about their houses and neighborhood environments through the terms of residential satisfaction and environmental quality. The study will conclude with the findings of the case study to offer some proposals , on one hand, for using the existing house stock in traditional environments in a more productive way, on the other hand, for providing both physically and psychologically healthy home environments against the rapid urbanization process in Turkey.ResuméTurkey, as a third world country , has experienced great developments in political, economical and technological fields, which caused a very rapid urbanization, within the end of the 20th century. And in the 21st century, the ongoing migration process from rural to urban areas, industrialization and increasing concentration of people in big cities have accelerated socio-cultural and spatial differentiation and diversity which bring about some continuity and development trends in urban housing environment. This situation shows a dramatic transition procedure from past to future ; tradition to contemporary, that worth to emphasize on , which are discussed by some aspects in this study."
Francescato, G.. "Evaluation, Persuasion, Translation: Evaluating Points of Contact Between Research and Practice." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. "By focusing our attention on Evaluation, the theme of the 18th IAPS conference raises a number of questions. Such questions are articulated further by the examples of developments and topics given in the call for papers: housing surveys, post occupancy evaluations, various modes of impact assessment, modeling techniques, and simulations. This paper seeks to examine two of these questions within the framework of a larger issue, namely, the search for points of contact between research and practice. As is well known, this issue has concerned the field of person-environment studies since its inception, but there is still little consensus on its implications for the purpose of our work, its theoretical underpinning, and its methodological aspects. The first question I propose to address is the need to differentiate among the variety of actors who participate in the construction of the built environment. Too often evaluative research that, by definition, implicitly aims at presenting critiques of practices perceived as inadequate, is designed and conducted in an abstract mode without any but a cursory reference to the modus operandi of individuals and groups through the actions of whom the built environment is produced. At the micro level, for example, insufficient attention is often paid to the different modalities inherent in designing and planning. And more generally, the same is true of the differences between these two activities and the broader spectrum of activities in economic, political, and cultural domains that play a role—often a crucial one—in shaping the built environment. I posit that our field needs to develop a more sophisticated understanding of the dimensions that articulate these differences as a means for producing research that is not only valid and reliable, but also persuasive. As a corollary to this issue, my second consideration involves the need to generate studies aimed at uncovering and explicating the power structures and decision making processes that affect the built environment. The vast majority of evaluation studies operate on the basis of an implicit assumption that valid and reliable knowledge is not only a necessary but a sufficient condition to obtain its application. We certainly need to continue to pursue such knowledge, but we also need to focus a great deal of attention on the often unexamined processes that militate against the utilization of available knowledge. I attempt to show that we need to do this both at the philosphical/theoretical and at the empirical level in order to insure a more effectively translation of the findings of evaluative work into environmental and social improvement. This paper addresses these two points within a critical examination of my own evaluation research in publicly-assisted housing (Francescato et al., 1979; Francescato, 2000) and a number of central issues in the "Smart Growth" movement in the United States with particular attention to the potential relationship between urban form, physical activity, and health that has been the subject of recent studies (e.g., Berrigan & Troiano, 2002; Ewing et al., 2003; Saalens et al., 2003). "
Francescato, Guido. "Evaluation, Persuasion, Translation: Examining Points of Contact Between Research and Practice." In Designing Social Innovation: Planning, Building, Evaluating - Proceedings of the 18th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Hogrefe & Huber, 2005.

This contribution seeks to examine two questions raised by the call for papers within the framework of a larger issue, namely, the search for points of contact between research and practice. The first question addresses the need to differentiate among the variety of actors who participate in the construction of the built environment. The second question involves the need to generate studies aimed at uncovering and explicating the power structures and decision making processes that affect the built environment. I suggest that evaluation studies must include processes of persuasion and translation and I offer a possible model for implementing such work.

Nevarez, Julia. "Everyday Urban Life in the Global Landscape: Gender, Choices and Lifestyle in Public Space." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. "The experience of the city offers an opportunity to revisit everyday life as a source of knowledge about what constitutes urban living. Embedded in the larger frame of globalization that affects cities, everyday life emerges as a space that speaks for the complexities of urban life. Among these complexities, gender plays a significant role. This paper seeks to illustrate through content analysis of regular visits to Central Park, New York City how the uses of public space provides an opportunity to examine issues regarding contemporary gender practices. The fluidity and shifting character of the roles we play seem affected by social structures that are also characterized by the fluidity of the movement of people, goods and ideas. Particularly the line between gender roles is blurred when lifestyle choices are counterpoised to the expectations and requirements of the urban environment. This presentation will first account for the transformation occurring in the public spaces of the global city, specifically in Central Park, New York City. Second, introduce a layer of analysis between everyday life, gender practices and lifestyle choices within the context of the city by analyzing the practice of cycling.Urban public spaces are increasingly privatized due to changes in the economy at the global level and to the changing role of the government at a local level. The consequences of this privatization affect the maintenance and functioning of public space. Business improvement districts and Conservancies in the case of Central Park produce high levels of maintenance, beautification and surveillance. This generates what I like to call an "aesthetics of order" that glamorize the image of the city and is counterpoised to the multiple ways in which public space is actually used. A tension exists between the control exerted in public spaces and people's desires to appropriate public space through use. This use is embedded in everyday life choices and lifestyles. Through the journeys and trajectories that shape our everyday lives, we appropriate, negotiate and become social agents in our uses of urban public space. It is within this context that I plan to describe how the everyday practice of cycling unfolds an appropriation of public space that can be considered gendered. Choices, options, and practices are mediated by gender practices. Broader issues regarding public space used as the façade for advertisement displays and the role of public space within the global city context will inform the experience of cycling. In addition, an analysis and critique of gender roles and use of public space will frame this presentation."
Rambow, R.. "Exhibiting Architecture: the Visitor's Perspective." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. In Germany, as in other European countries, the cultural aspects of architecture and building are currently an issue of intensive debate. A whole range of initiatives has been started by professional bodies and the government in the last years with the common goal to bring architecture to the people. No matter if architecture is treated as a school subject, if buildings are opened for guided tours at the nationwide „architecture day“ or if citizens are informed about important developments in their city or neighbourhood: The success of these initiatives depends on the fact that abstract concepts of architectural qualities must be communicated in a way that is comprehensible as well as relevant for non-architects.From a psychological point of view this is not a trivial problem. Many studies have shown how crucially different the perspectives of architects and laypeople in relation to architectural phenomena are. These differences of perspective must be overcome in a successful act of expert-laypeople-communication, which implies at least two consecutive processes: The expert must first anticipate the lay perspective with a certain degree of precision and he must then be able and willing to design his communicative contribution in a way that fits the laypersons cognitive and motivational needs.In architecture this is usually complicated by the fact that communication is multi-modal. The architect might use a wide range of visual media like plans, fotos, models or simulations, accompanied by verbal explanations to help the layperson to develop a mental representation of a planned or realised building and its architectural qualities. All of these elements of communication have certain features that either enable or hinder lay understanding. Together they have the potential to supplement each other, provided that cross-references are easily detectable or made explicit.Exhibitions of architecture are a class of real life situations where the constituents of communication are relatively stable and explicit and therefore suitable for investigation. Moreover, since the number of architecture exhibitions on all scales has noticeably increased in the last years, they are highly relevant as an instrument for the public discourse on architecture.In an explorative field study we investigated the understanding and evaluations of exhibition visitors in relation to their level of expertise. Two architecture exhibitions constituted the setting of the study. They were shown at the same time on two separate floors of the same institution. Both exhibitions were comparable in terms of size and in terms of content, as both displayed advanced contemporary architecture and centered on concrete, mostly built, projects. On the other hand they differed markedly in terms of displayed material, media integration and information design. The study was conceived to answer the following questions: Which media (texts, 3 D-models, pictures, videos) are considered by the visitors as most helpful and why? How do the visitors integrate the different media cognitively to construct a mental representation of a project? Which informational needs remain unsatisfied and why? What kind of interaction between level of expertise and media use can be observed?The study consisted of a questionnaire and additional in depth-interviews. N=691 visitors filled out the questionnaire directly after leaving the exhibition. It consisted of socio-demographical questions and general evaluative questions on both exhibitions. All participants were assigned post hoc to one of the following levels of expertise: expert (mainly practising architects), intermediate (mainly students of architecture) and laypeople (persons without any professional relation to architecture). For each of the both exhibitions N=90 additional interviews were conducted, N=30 for each level of expertise. In the interviews the participants gave detailed reports on how they used the different media, what they liked and disliked about them and what fostered or hindered their understanding of the projects. The results of the general ratings show a small main effect for level of expertise (with laypeople evaluating both exhibitions slightly more critical than experts and intermediates)and a larger main effect for exhibition but no interaction. Analysis of the different media shows that the difference between the two exhibitions seems largely due to the fact that one does present 3 D-Models while the other does not. Models are rated as most helpful for understanding by experts as well as by laypeople. For the other media (texts, pictures and videos) there are differences depending on level of expertise in the case of exhibition 1 but not in the case of exhibition 2. The reasons for this pattern can be inferred on the basis of the qualitative data from the interviews: Exhibition 1 obviously used display formats for which expert knowledge was necessary to extract new information, e.g. it presented very long texts without discriminating between basic and more detailed background information. Corresponding reasons can be found for the videos and the picture material.Two main conclusions can be drawn from this study: 1. Architecture exhibitions can be designed in a way that satisfies the needs of both experts and laypeople. But to achieve this the presentation has to consider certain standards of informational display. 2. These standards can be developed on the basis of theoretical knowledge from cognitive psychology and can and should be validated in an empirical fashion. These conditions taken into account exhibitions can be a powerful tool to foster the public discourse on architecture.
García-Mira, R, J. E. Real Deus, G Blanco, and M. D. Losada. "Exploring Cognitive Representations of Citizens in Affected Areas by 'prestige' Disaster." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. IntroductionRecent disaster occurred in Galicia after the sinking of Prestige oil tanker, envolved the dumping of thousands of tons of toxic and heavy oil, a lot of which have been arriving to the coast of Galicia, to the North of Spain, as well as to the West of France. How has Galician community responded to this disaster? What features have characterized and mediated the mass community response process? There was a clear understanding of the nature of what was happening, of the nature of the disaster and its threat, as well as of their effects on economy, ecology, employment, etc, or other ways of life (mainly birds). This provided a solid basis for social action. On the other hand, the initial attribution of responsibility to the Government, who minimized the impact of the tragedy -disqualifying itself for the task of exerting a clear leadership for managing the crisis-, made easy the development of social action. Another important aspect in the environmental management of the crisis was citizens credibility and trust. This is an absolutely necessary requirement in order to carry out an effective management in hazardous waste sites (see Williams et al., 1999). When there is no trust, it is very difficult that Government can convince citizens that places are safe, in this case for authorizing fishing again. Trust and public credibility is a dynamic construct (Greenberg, Spiro & McIntyre, 1991) and the most of studies about this point out that its determinants are very complex. In our study, credibility of institutional information, as well as from public channels of TV has been totally affected. We can make a question: what depends this trust or credibility on? Perceived duration of threat is also a characteristic to take into account, because of the role as a mediator in the response process of the community (see Evans & Cohen, 1987; Otway & von Winterfeldt, 1982; or Slovic, 1987). Studies by Levi, Kocher & Aboud (2001) also reveal that the risk impact on residents life depends on the duration of the effects of the danger, in the same way that Baum, Fleming & Davidson (1983) pointed out that a higher stay of the negative consequences in the life of victims is related to more subsequent adverse effects, or with a reduction of individual, social or community well-being (Eldelstein, 1988). Levi et al. (2001) point out that from a community view, long term disasters can have a double impact: that which arises from the disaster itself, and the social problems generated along the time. We will analyze the variables that duration of threat depend on. ObjectivesWith all these aspects in mind, we have dealt with the following objectives:i. Analyzing the trust and credibility of several public institutions and information sources.ii. Analyzing perception of the duration of threat, in terms of the time that citizens believe that everything is going to come back to normality.MethodSample and instruments.- A random sample of 1652 residents was surveyed along the Autonomous Community of Galicia (Spain), amongst people older than 18, from areas that were threatened but not harmed and from areas that sustained major damage. We used a Social Impact Evaluation Protocol specially designed for this event. Procedure and Data analysis.- In order to achieve our objectives, we carried out some descriptive analysis in order to know basic features of the public response. Secondly, we used a Multidimensional Scaling approach to obtain additional information on the underlying dimensionality and the importance given to each dimension by different groups. A multiple regression analysis was also computed with the resultant variables.Results and DiscussionWe have to take into account that people develop their own beliefs system on the nature of the threat after a disaster, as a part of the facing process (Vyner, 1988; Kroll-Smith & Couch, 1993; Rochford & Blocker, 1991). This beliefs are socially constructed (Berger & Luckmann, 1966) and are influenced by the interaction of individual, social, cultural, political and economical factors, in addition of the contaminant characteristics themselves. In this work, we used beliefs on the duration of contamination, as well as the scope of the disaster, but we also used the attributions that people made on the action and effectivity of the Government and the institutions in order to manage the crisis. The consequence, in addition to a social fracture, was a perception of distrust and lack of institutional credibility, that, as Williams et al (1999, p. 356) point out, are not limited to an individual construction, but they emerge also from social construction, or from a combination of both.
García-Mira, R, J. E. Real, D Uzzell, G Blanco, and M. D. Losada. "Exploring Cognitive Representations of Citizens in Areas Affected by the Prestige Disaster." In Designing Social Innovation: Planning, Building, Evaluating - Proceedings of the 18th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Hogrefe & Huber, 2005.

In November 2002 the oil tanker Prestige sank in the Atlantic Ocean, spilling thousands of tons of toxic heavy fuel oil, which reached the Galician coast, as well as the coasts of Northern Spain and Western France. Widely recognised as the biggest ecological disaster in Europe, it caused widespread ecological damage to the affected areas. The social response to this disaster was unprecedented, involving extremely large numbers of citizens. This chapter assesses the degree of social impact of the disaster, as well as the attribution of responsibility, trust and credibility of several public and private organisations and the media. An exploration of cognitive representations of risk is also addressed.

Marans, R. W., Z Gocmen, T. K. Kim, and C. Vogt. "Exploring Linkages Between Parks and Natural Sites to Park Use and Neighborhood Quality." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. The availability of natural resources, open spaces, and recreational facilities are important considerations in the process of selecting places of residence for many home buyers (Garling and Friman, 2002; Vogt and Marans, 2003). At the same time, these resources and facilities contribute to perceived neighborhood quality or neighborhood satisfaction (Allen, 1990; Marans and Rodgers, 1975). The growing issue of urban sprawl and the consequent loss of natural resources, farmland, and other open spaces, together with the creation of parks as a means of maintaining open space suggest that planners need a better understanding of how people respond to different quantities and qualities of these resources. This paper explores selected responses to specific natural resources and parkland in terms of their quantities. Specifically, it examines park visitations and neighborhood satisfaction as a function of natural resource and park availability. Availability is measured in terms of Euclidean distance and acreage.Opportunities to explore these relationships are presented using attitudinal and behavioral data from a survey of over 4000 respondents in the metropolitan Detroit area. Additionally, objective data covering the availability of the region's natural resources and parks are linked to each respondent allowing for bivariate and multivariate analyses. The paper presents findings that address several research questions including:1. To what degree does the amount of parkland within a half a kilometer of a household influence park visitations?2. Is distance to parks associated with park visitations?3. Is there a relationship between availability of parkland (distance and amount) and neighborhood satisfaction?4. Are different quantities of natural resources (i.e. water, wetlands, and wooded areas) within a half a kilometer of a household associated with neighborhood satisfaction?5. Are different quantities of open land (farmland) within a quarter of a kilometer associated with neighborhood satisfaction?Possible implications of the findings for growth management, the planning of residential neighborhoods, and park design are discussed.
Altun, T. D. Akyol. "Expos as Universal Interactivity Spaces and Urban Renewal Sites." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. Fairs which have been organized date from prehistoric ages, were an item of human life and urban life cycle. They were founded for presenting the products, exhibiting and commercing. Also they provided the communication between people. In that time, they have transformed in their form and meaning, have had various characteristic parallel with social life. They have passed over their concept and have been spaces which cultural change and communication have been continuing. At the end of the 17th century, fairs were less important parallel with the improving of cities. But the effects of Industrial Revolution fairs were transformed again. In this context, Industrial Revolution can accept a breaking point in the development process of fairs. Modernity, which have foundation on Enlightenment philosophy in 18th century in West-Europe, were a cause for collapsing the normative structure of cultural, political, ethical information systems. The effects of Industrial Revolution have added to this movement, which had began before Industrial Revolution, and they have caused great transformations have ever not seen. Exhibitions activity had begun to develop with improving urbanizing, expanding economic structure, serial manufacturing by machines. Finally exhibitions had changed by Industrial Revolution. It was necessary that fairs had to become international. In this frame, World’s Fairs/Expos, which is a sub-result of Industrial Revolution and modern movement, when Britain had got strong in the middle of the 19th century, have emerged as a new fair type that a tool for aims of Britain that exhibiting economical, cultural, industrial improvements; searching markets for their remain products and proving themselves to the world. Expos have been a symbol of moving transition period from crafting to industrialism in a multi-sharing spaces, also they have come together different nations from all over the world and have been an organization which countries have demonstrated their cultural and political power. After first exhibition in 1851 in London, a lot of world fairs have been organized in different sizes to now. During the 1,5 centuries process of Expos, they have been spaces which the developments, technologies, art, architecture, economical, social and cultural life in the world have been reflected on them. So they can be resembled a shop window as a focus point which all nations have been met. Also new ideas and new inventions have firstly introduced, new techniques have experimented, futuristic ideas have formed the viewpoint of world, visual shows have presented in Expos and they create the world of future. So Expos, can be also determined as a reverberation point. Expos had been important as communication spaces, which have met the different nations in universal platform. In Expo time, this organizations act as a social interactivity space, because many different nations come together. The architectural product and settlement of the expos provide interactivity between people. There have been used various technological opportunities, visual display have been demonstrated to the visitors which are architectural skin and spaces using the developing communication technology. Expos where world meets and where are forced the boundaries of visuality, perception and virtuality can be accepted as big agoras. Especially in our time to create the interactive spaces and to ensure educational exhibits and individual experiences, which people can only experiment in expos, are the most important items for the designer because the advanced communication systems are enough to have knowledge for people. So expos are an interactivity and communication spaces with their different activity points which were created by architectural and spatial designs also with visual computer technology and expos develop the people-environment relationship. Expos are organizated by different nations in each time. Before the Expo, a city prepares and generally a big abandoned urban region rehabilitates for the world fair. Countries are generating rehabilitation strategies for their sites. The transportation network, substructure of the city and other facilities are renovated. Also after the Expo, the Expo areas are renewal sites for the city. The renovating of these urban areas is continuing and these sites provide the new and modern identity to cities. Expos also ensure the developing of the all country. In history the expos were big chance for many cities. The Eiffel Tower, which were acquired the urban identity to Paris, were constructed for the 1889 Paris World’s Fairs. Sevilla in the Spain and the Lisbon in the Portugal are two cities which were developed by the world’s fairs. In this context, this study aims to search Expos as interactivity spaces by analyzing the different Expos with their activity spaces and their architectural products, and also to investigate the post-expo use of Expo site in urban scale after the world’s fairs by looking over the some Expo sites.
Ponje, M., Harry J. P. Timmermans, and P. van der Waerden. "Factors Influencing Awareness Levels of Urban Greenspaces: a Partially Exploded Logit Analysis." Journal of Applied Psychology [Special Issue 18th IAPS Conference] 6, no. 3-4 (2004): 14-24. This paper reports the results of an analysis that was conducted to estimate the effects of park attributes, socio-demographics and distance (accessibility) on how well urban parks are known to individuals. Because the data that was collected only provided information on some of the parks that were known to respondents (that is, they were not requested to indicate their whether or not they known each park in the study area), a partially exploded logit model was formulated and estimated. Results indicate that the information level of a park is influenced by its type, available facilities and distance. In general, socio-demographic variables turned out to be less influential although some specific effects were found for gender and age.
Ponje, M, Harry J. P. Timmermans, and P. van der Waerden. "Factors Influencing Awareness Levels of Urban Greenspaces: a Partially Exploded Logit Analysis." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. The provision of urban greenspace serves many different purposes. Landscape architects and planners wish to preserve or improve the ecological value of urban landscapes. Greenspaces have a positive influence on flora and fauna and the urban climate. In addition to the ecological value, urban greenspaces, if properly designed, may contribute to the aesthetical value of the urban fabric, improving the quality of life. Finally and perhaps most importantly, the provision of greenspace offers people possibilities to conduct some of their social, recreational and leisure activities. The spatial allocation of urban greenspace causes a major challenge to many planners and decision-makers. The urban population or better the demand for urban greenspace is not equally distributed across the city and will typically change over time. Consequently, the distribution of greenspace cannot be expected to be in equilibrium. Some parks will be overused, others will be underused. Neither situation is sustainable. Overusage may damage the ecological and aesthetical quality of the greenspace, ultimately inducing a decaying process. Underusage implies an inefficient and ineffective use of resources. Planners therefore have to develop longer-term strategic and short-term city management and marketing instruments to improve a sustainable use of the existing urban greenspace. One of the main sources of information supporting the design, planning and implementation of such instruments is a better understanding of people's awareness of urban greenspaces. People can only use a particular greenspace if they know it. Vice versa, raising the awareness may increase the use of any given greenspace. Unfortunately, there is a relative lack of academic knowledge about the factors influencing individuals' awareness of the urban greenspace. The purpose of the present study, which part of a much wider research program across several cities, is to gain more insight into which locational and non-locational characteristics of urban greenspaces and which sociodemographics influence the probability that an individual will know a particular greenspace. To that effect, a partially exploded multinomial logit model is estimated from data collected by a questionnaire among 1297 members of 1107 households in the Eindhoven region in the Netherlands in 2002. The effects of household and individual characteristics, and specific features of the parks are examined.
Steg, L, L Dreijerink, and W. Abrahamse. "Factors Influencing the Acceptability of Energy Policies." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. Household energy use has significantly increased during the last decades. Since energy use is a major contributor to the greenhouse effect, many policies have been proposed to reduce household energy use. Such policies need public support, i.e., policies that are not acceptable can hardly be implemented. Environmental psychologists can contribute to the development of successful energy policies by examining which factors influence the acceptability of such policies. The acceptability of energy policies is not only dependent on individual characteristics, but also on characteristics of the specific policies. In this paper we discuss the results of a questionnaire study among 112 Dutch respondents in which it is examined which factors influence the acceptability of policies aimed at reducing household energy use. First, we examined which individual factors influence acceptability judgements, by examining to what extent the value-belief-norm theory (VBN theory; Stern, 2000) is helpful in explaining these judgements. Results reveal that acceptability of policies aimed at reducing household energy use is indeed especially dependent on personal norms. As expected, personal norms are stronger when respondents feel more responsible for energy-related problem. Moreover, as proposed by the VBN theory, respondents feel more responsible for energy-related problems as they are more aware of these problems. Finally as expected, problem awareness is dependent on environmental awareness, while environmental awareness is significantly related to general values. These results confirm the VBN theory. Second, we examined to what extent policy characteristics influence the acceptability of energy policies. We hypothesised that push measures aimed at increasing the costs of environmentally unsound behaviour will be less acceptable than pull measures aimed at decreasing the costs of pro-environmental behaviour. Second, we hypothesised that policies aimed at reducing direct energy use (i.e., the use of natural gas, electricity and motor fuels) are more acceptable that those aimed at reducing indirect energy use (i.e., energy use associated with the production, distribution and disposal of goods and services such as food products), since many people are not aware of indirect energy use associated with their consumption pattern. Third, we hypothesised that policies aimed at changing behaviour that require a one single action (such as buying energy-efficient appliances) will be more acceptable than policies that target behaviours that require repeated action (such as buying food). Fourth, we assumed that the acceptability of policies is dependent on the way the revenues are used. More specifically, we hypothesised that push measures will be most acceptable if the revenues are used within the energy domain rather than to benefit general public funds. All four hypotheses were confirmed. ReferenceStern, P.C. (2000). Towards a coherent theory of environmentally significant behaviour. Journal of Social Issues, 56, 407-424.
Staats, H, M Weenig, and M. Van den Bogerd. "Family Dynamics: Norm Congruence, Social Identity, and Group Dependence in Performing Proenvironmental Behavior in the Home." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. Arguably, a great number of environmentally relevant behaviors take place within the family home. One interesting feature of household environmental behavior is that strong normative control can be executed by household members simply because they are in the position to actually observe the behavior of the other group members on a permanent basis. A second feature is that household members will, more often than not, consider themselves to belong to the family, which may have substantial influence on the perception of their social identity. We reasoned that these family dynamics might exert their influence through personal and social norms regarding the performance of environmentally relevant household behaviors. We hypothesized that personal norms and social norms will congrue in predicting behavior when social identity is high, and will contribute independently when social identity is low. We investigated whether the joint contribution of personal norms and group norms to explain the proenvironmental achievements of the group, i.e., the family, was moderated by social identity regarding two behaviors for which varying degrees of group interdependence exist in realising optimal environmental performance. Proenvironmental acts within the household clearly differ in the extent to which members of a group depend upon each other in obtaining the desired result. For some behaviors the action of one group member is sufficient to obtain the desired result for the whole group, for other behaviors each group member can contribute independent of others. Two questionnaire studies were performed to explore the merits of this conceptual framework on behaviors with different levels of group dependence. In the first study (N=190) the focal behaviors were closing the curtains in the living room (low group dependence), and the time group members spend showering (high group dependence). In the second study (N=163) the focal behaviors were lowering the thermostat of the central heating well before going to bed (low group dependence), and switching off lights in rooms that were not used (high group dependence).
Schmuck, P, and R. Cervinka. "Focal Points of a Psychology of Sustainable Development." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. According to the recent Worldwatch reports and the Johannesburg Memorandum (www.joburgmemo.org) the globally threatening trends like climate change, species extinction or growing injustice in sharing the worlds resources could not be reversed in the last decade, despite of the declaration of Rio de Janeiro, and despite a growing scientific activity aiming at sustainable development (SD). Thus, a chance for intensifying the impact of psychology in fostering SD may be a reconsidering and reflecting our implicit or explicit assumptions about human nature relevant for SD: Are human beings able to take into consideration the future after the own life cycle? Are we able to feel ourselves as a part of nature responsible for conserving the net of life we are living from? Are we able to reduce our consumption of resources to an amount which does not impair the carrying capacity of our earth? Are we able to share justly the available resources within the human generation living now and between us and future generations? Basic questions like these will be reflected and discussed in the symposium.
Speller, G. M., N Ravenscroft, and H. Oppewal. "Focusing on Urban Greenspace and Quality of Life in Brighton and Hove." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. Greenspaces in cities play a vital role in promoting healthy living by providing places for physical activities and relaxation, thereby increasing psychological and physiological well-being (DTLR, 2002). In addition, ecological benefits are widely recognised, e.g. countering air and noise pollution, increasing biodiversity, cooling of the air and aiding urban drainage systems. The concept of 'quality of life' (QOL) is complex and there is little agreement on its precise definition, or of its individual components (Massam, 2002). A number of researchers (e.g. Turksever & Atalik, 2001; Diener & Suh, 1997; Grayson & Young, 1994) suggest that a meaningful definition of QOL must encompass two fundamental and linked sets of processes; those related to an internal mechanism which produces a sense of satisfaction with life, and those related to external stimuli which trigger the internal mechanism. This presentation will describe results from focus groups conducted among a range of community groups in Brighton & Hove. They focus groups aimed to explore Brighton & Hove residents' perceptions of their greenspaces in terms of quality of life, e.g. which positive and negative issues are seen as important; which attributes are considered desirable; what 'meanings' do greenspaces have for people; what value systems do people hold; are ecological issues seen as important; and how could quality of life be improved in terms of greenspaces? A recent British Government report (DTLR, 2002) confirmed the need to focus on a range of community groups, in order to produce a more complete picture of the needs of the whole community. The two most prominent positive issues raised were that the greenspace should be within walking distance and that there is a coffee shop available. The absence of entrance fees and a wide choice of styles of greenspace were also seen as positive issues. Negative issues largely involved sanitation and maintenance (dog mess, closed or dirty toilets, vandalism and graffiti). Accessibility was mostly discussed in terms of not having easy access or access having been recently denied to motorised vehicles used by the disabled and parents with young children. It was felt that rather than policing trouble spots to prevent misuse of the car parks, the authorities are closing the facilities for everyone and thus denying access to special needs groups. When discussing attributes of an ideal park, certain features were important across all groups, the most prominent being the need for a safe place. Most groups expressed the wish for an authority figure in the park to settle disputes between park users and to curtail physical and verbal abuse. The ethnic minority group expressed the highest level of anxiety not only in terms of other park users but also regarding unknown insects in less manicured areas of a greenspace. For a number of groups the ability to socialise in greenspace was paramount. Only a few participants focused on ecological sustainability of an ideal greenspace. The majority across all groups visualised more 'constructed' facilities, e.g. clean toilets, good quality coffee shops, car parking, hard surface paths, additional benches, shelters against rain and sun, more activities for teenagers, barbecue facilities and 'art in parks'. Many participants felt a sense of ownership and spoke of at least one park which they considered to be 'my park' but in some cases participants also spoke of the loss or their park through user disputes or appropriation by an outside group. The focus group discussions raised many issues and illustrated the importance of different perceptions by different groups in terms of QOL, specific contexts and needs and how these are influenced by a person's role at that point in time, past experiences and values held.
Hagerhall, Caroline M. P.. "Fractal Dimension as a Tool for Defining and Measuring Naturalness." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. Perceived naturalness has been identified as one of the most important predictors of landscape preference (see, for example, Kaplan & Kaplan, 1989). Yet the physical attributes identified are still fuzzy. Naturalness is commonly associated with how dominant vegetation is in a scene or the extent of human-induced change. However, recent research has shown that such conceptions of naturalness cannot account for all of the data (Purcell et al., 1994, Purcell & Lamb, 1998). The purpose of this paper is to discuss the possible use of fractal geometry as a tool for defining and measuring naturalness. Fractals are often viewed as a new geometry because they are fundamentally different from traditional so-called Euclidean geomtries, such as circle and squares, developed by mankind. Mathematical description of forms found in nature played an important role in the development of fractal geometry (Mandelbrot, 1983) and a large body of subsequent work has since shown that a wide range of natural phenomena are fractal (see, for example, Barnsley et al., 1988; Barnsley, 1993). The term fractal is used to describe fractured shapes, which have the characteristic of being self-similar. This means that the same pattern will appear again and again when a fractal object is viewed at increasingly fine magnifications. This special quality of scale invariance can be identified and quantified by a parameter called the fractal dimension, D. This paper reports preliminary data examining correlations between the fractal dimension, D, and rated naturalness of landscape scenes. Recent work by the author and colleagues has similarly shown a possible connection between landscape preference and the fractal dimension (Hagerhall et al., submitted manuscript). Studies have indicated that mid range D values may be the most preferred (Aks & Sprott, 1996; Taylor, 2001). Preliminary work by Taylor and colleagues has also shown that fractal scenes with mid range D values may have a particularly good damping effect on stress levels (Taylor et al, manuscript) The collective findings give rise to the hypothesis that the fractal dimension could provide part of the explanation to the well-documented connection between environmental preference and naturalness. However, empirical data on connections between fractal properties and perceptual and physiological responses are still scarce which means that any conclusions must be treated with considerable caution at this stage. From the point of landscape perception and landscape architecture and design the fractal dimension is particularly interesting since it is a perceived dimension and a parameter that can be used directly in design work. Furthermore, the fractal dimension could be applied also to built environments (Bovill, 1996; Taylor, 2001), which provides possibilities to expand the idea of naturalness and the positive effect of natural forms and natural qualities to mixed or completely built environments.
Hagerhall, Caroline M. P.. "Fractal Dimension as a Tool for Defining and Measuring Naturalness." In Designing Social Innovation: Planning, Building, Evaluating - Proceedings of the 18th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Hogrefe & Huber, 2005.

Naturalness is a key concept in research on landscape preference and restorative environments. However, what it is that constitutes the naturalness and the natural qualities has been less studied and the physical attributes identified are still fuzzy. This study suggests that fractal geometry, which is abundant in nature, could be used as a tool for defining perceived naturalness. The results show that landscape silhouette outlines with a fractal dimension around 1.3 were rated as most natural indicating that this particular fractal dimension may play an important role in people’s definition of perceived naturalness. Similarly, outlines with fractal dimension around 1.3 were rated as most preferred. The study used data from both psychology students and landscape architectural students and the results show that naturalness judgements were less affected by subjects’ background than preference.

Antunes, D, and J. M. Palma-Oliveira. "From Bus to Car: the Psychological Determinants of Modal Choice." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. Today the massive use of the car in the cities generates a wide range of problems such as traffic congestion, mobility constraints to pedestrians due to illegal parking and high speed traffic, air pollution and noise. Departing from the idea that it is possible to influence modal switchers, studies are needed to access the motives that lead people to chose the car instead of public transport, so that programmes can be drawn to change modal choice. The results presented here are supported by two field studies, where over 300 people were interviewed. The interviews were based on a questionnaire, and were performed by trained psychologists. In order to choose respondents, a first step concerned a selection of the areas under study, which included places with apartments and houses both located at less and over 200 meters far from bus stations. A second step required a random choice of respondents inside those areas. The total sample included the same number of car and bus users, with equal distribution of apartment and house residents, and males and females. Both car users and bus users were questioned about their perceptions towards the travel mode they use, and the other mode. This study presents a psychological explanation of modal choice, emphasising the factors that contribute to the preference for the car. The model is based in the results and literature review. Particular attention is paid to the relationship between stress process and traffic congestion for bus and car users, in order to explain why traffic congestion caused by cars induces car use. So, traffic congestion promotes itself. Besides, comparisons are drawn between stress felt by car commuters and bus commuters, as well as stress attributed to commuters using the opposite mode of transportation. Two patterns emerge in favour of car use. The first concerns the evidence that car commuters’ stress is lower than bus commuters’ stress. The second refers to the fact that while bus commuters perceive stress associated to car commuting as similar to car commuters stress levels, car commuters perceive stress levels of bus commuting as higher that bus commuters’ stress levels. A correlation was also found between stress and perceived travel times. People showing higher levels of stress perceive travel times as higher than people showing lower levels. Not only bus users are more affected by this (as they show higher levels of stress than car users), but perceived times overcome the real travel time measures which are already higher when compared with car. Moreover, considering that when stress is higher, the desire for mode switching is also higher; it can be said that there are more bus commuters interested in changing for car than the opposite. Even because car is perceived as less stressful than the bus. This perception arises due to the role played by other factors. For instance, while during traffic periods car commuters only have to deal with traffic jam, bus commuters also have to deal with crowding. So the last are exposed to a stress that the first don’t have to face. Besides, the coping strategies available for each group are different. While car commuters can have a direct control on their surroundings (choose the music they hear, their travel companions, control the odour and the air temperature, and choose the route for their trip); bus commuters can only develop strategies to avoid less desirable situations, over which they don’t have total control (e.g. hold a bag in a way to avoid physical contact with others, or put a bag over the next seat to prevent others to seat there).A factor related with control is risk perception. Again, an imbalance emerges between car and bus commuters. For car drivers risk perception mainly concerns risk of having an accident, which is underestimated considering the behavioural control of driving and the self overvaluation of driving abilities (most drivers consider themselves as having driving abilities over the average). Bus users are in disadvantage, as they can’t apply self illusions to reduce risk of having a traffic accident, even though it’s perceived as low. But this group also has to face risk of being mugged or risk of aggression, which are considered higher for specific areas of the city and times of the day. Finally it is important to focus that car commuters justify their choice as a matter of comfort and travel time, while bus commuters say that the only reason why they use the bus is because it’s cheaper and they can’t afford to have a car. Implicit to these reasons is a perceived status of car and bus users, which contributes to distinguish users socially and keep car users away of buses and makes bus commuters to desire for a car.
Devine-Wright, H, and P. Devine-Wright. "From Demand Side Management to Demand Side Participation: Tracing an Environmental Psychology of Sustainable Electricity System Evolution." Journal of Applied Psychology [Special Issue 18th IAPS Conference] 6, no. 3-4 (2004): 167-177. "This paper evaluates demand side management (DSM) practices from an environmental psychological perspective, with a predominant focus upon the domestic sector. It discusses how DSM practices have begun to evolve into practices known as demand side "participation" (DSP). DSM and DSP practices are situated within four innovative contexts: the generation and supply of renewable electricity, distributed local scale "community" (or co-operative) energy initiatives, new information-technology interfaces (e.g. smart meters) and new economic structures (e.g. spot pricing). Finally, a range of potential research questions are proposed in order to generate a multi-faceted perspective (views of different stakeholders) of demand-side practices (as either DSM or DSP) that may facilitate sustainable development of the electricity system by fostering greater user involvement in energy service provision."
Lee, Yi-Ling, and Yung-Jaan Lee. From Local Identity to Explore the Preservation and Reuse of Historic Buildings: a Case Study of Pinetum Hostel, Hualien (Taiwan) In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. Historic buildings, which carry collective memories of Taiwanese, have gradually disappeared. The preservation and reuse of historic buildings have become Taiwan’s new paradigm of architectural discourses and practices. The preservation and reuse of historic buildings, suggesting emancipation and transformation of public spaces, have become the dominant trend of socio-cultural development in Taiwan. They are not only the transformation of the spatial functions, but also an important perspective of socio-cultural development. They are the spatial practice process of the “lived conservation” mechanism. Moreover, they are the linkage between local identity and residents. This works uses the “Pinetum Hostel” in Hualien, Taiwan as an example and adopts related discourses of historic buildings, reuse, and local identity to explore the preservation of historical buildings with regard to the transformation of future spatial reform. The Pinetum Hostel used to be the office of the Naval Administration in the Japanese colonial period. This site was taken by Taiwanese government in the wake of the end of WWII. It is the only Japanese military remains preserved in good condition in Hualien. On July 13, 2000, Hualien County Government officially classified the Pinetum Hostel a “Special Historic Attraction Zone.” This work will use literature review, in-depth interview, and iconographic approaches to investigate the relationships between local identity and historical building preservation. Furthermore, this work will explore cultural image behind the preservation and reuse of historic buildings. Finally, this work suggests a reflexivity movement for the preservation and reuse of historic buildings.
Carrasco, Pia. From Micro-Space to Social Housing Policies in Latin America. for the Better Integration of Women in Formal Urban Planning In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. Research problem In the last few years the link between gender and development has become a major element of the public debate at the national and international level (UNDP, UN-Habitat, WB, CIDA, SIDA). Gender urban planning considers the differential roles of women and men in a neighborhood, a City and/or a given territory. This planning approach has the explicit goal to ensure that every citizen, irrespective of its gender, has the same set of opportunities and the same level of control over the resources and services provided by the urban development. Hence, formal urban planning must be engendering, (i.e., going beyond the traditional neutral and gender blinded schemes and frameworks for policy and decision making). In fact, modern urban planning must consider not only the social and economic dimensions of the city dwellings, but also their cultural and gender differences as the appropriate way to ensure efficiency and equity of policies and interventions. Yet, in most developing countries social housing policies do not consider gender as a focal variable. This situation calls for more research in order to better understand the difficulties, as well as the enabling mechanisms to integrate the gender perspective in the formal urban planning process. By doing so, full urban citizenship for the most vulnerable women could be guaranteed. Cultural/urban/architectural context in which study is conducted. We took Chile as the case study because of its potential of transferability for the Latin-American context. First, the social transformation that took place in the last three decades and, second, the innovativeness of the social housing policy applied during the 1990s and based on the so called enabling approach are seen as a model for the region (Rojas, 2001). Theoretical framework/relevant literature. This research is aligned with and inspired by Moser’s framework for gender mainstreaming (Moser, 1993). This framework is based on three main concepts 1) women’s reproductive, productive and community gender roles 2) practical and strategic gender needs and 3) WID/GAD categories for policy approaches (Chant et Gutmann, 2000; Moser, 1993; 2002; Moser et al., 1999). Moser framework intends to provide a solid base for policy intervention in order to balance the women’s triple role and to empower them to change their subordinate position. Latin-American policies in general and Chilean social housing policy in particular, do not consider the asymmetries between women and men (Mac Donald, 1992; Saborido, 1996). This lack of intervention from the State not only affects the most vulnerable of society, but also avoids enabling social policies to be as performant and efficient in fighting inequalities, poverty reduction and housing deficit as they could be. Research questions, objectives and/or hypotheses. The aim of our research is to focus on the importance of women specific issues related to the household survival strategies and difficulties imposed by a gender-blind urban planning and policy making process. The goal of our general question is to understand how and to what extent government intervention influences, builds, modifies and legitimizes gender relations in urban settings. Our specific interest is to study the most recent Chilean social housing policy while documenting and nuancing how and to which degree a social housing policy based on a particular gender ideology impacts on living conditions of poor women. Research strategy/methodology developed for tackling research. Our research strategy is a case study (Chile). Data was collected between 1999-2000. Three methods were used: semi-structured face-to-face interviews with key informants (n=20), semi-structured face-to-face interviews with women from a marginal neighbourhood (La Pintana) having applied to a social housing program (n=13) and a focus group addressed to men in the same situation (n=10). Data was recorded, transcribed and managed with NUD*IST software package. State of development of thesis: research proposal (theoretical framework, literature review, hypothesis), data collection,The theoretical framework, literature review, research questions (hypothesis), and data collection are all completed. Analysis is in progress. Findings (preliminary or advanced, if available)Not yet available (they will be ready for the workshop). Conclusion (if available)Not yet available (they will be ready for the workshop). Avenues for research findings applications (if relevant)To point out the added-value of gender mainstreaming into formal planning and decision-making for social housing policy in the context of developing countries.
Rodriguez, G.. "From the Catalog House to the Architectural Competition House: How do Architects and Developers Characterize the Ambience of the Single-Family Detached Hous." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. In France, 53% of dwellers live in single family detached houses, which are considered to be the ideal home by almost 90% of the population(1). The construction of this type of houses has progressed 12% in the last few years, representing, for the year 2000, 61% of all residential buildings. In spite of an increase in building and land costs, the construction of suburban houses has progressed 9,6%(2). This market is almost completely controlled by building contractors and developers leaving only 5% in hands of the architects(3). The reason why architects can be sidelined is legal: only constructions above 130 m&sup2; (approx. 1300 sft.) require the signature of an architect. But this is not the only reason, according to Monique Eleb(4), the majorities of the French are «frightened» by the architect and prefer to deal with a building contractor or developer, they dread a possible conflict between their desires and the propositions made by the architect. The differences go beyond aesthetic and stylistic considerations, previous research(5) has pointed out the importance of the factors of ambience for the clients specially for the living-room space. We refer to “ambience” or “ambient environment” as the ensemble of perceptions that a person can have of the interactions between the built space and the natural phenomena (sunlighting, solar loads, air flow, heat transfer, humidity, noise transmission, etc). This research is interested in the differences between architects, building contractors and there clients. The studies that compare architects and clients take two main directions: one analyses their preferences and perceptions of architectural styles and aesthetics, the other studies how they interact during the conception process. Our research takes a different approach by analyzing house plans produced by architects and building contractors for a specific client and for architectural competitions (no specific client) and we focus on the characteristics of the ambiences produced by each group for each kind of client. The sample consists of two groups of affordable medium-sized detached houses located in northwest France near Nantes. The first group is a real-estate development of 225 houses with independent clients of which 72% (162 houses) were produced by developers and 28% (63) by architects. The second sample is the result of two architectural competitions – one of which was patronized by a real-estate developer – it includes 74 projects for affordable houses but with no specific client. The research studies the spatial features of the sample in order to characterize the living-room space according to: 1) size, form, proportions and plan organization; 2) solid/void ratio of closing elements; and 3) orientation of openings. The results show little difference between the ambience produced by architects and developers when there is a specific client. On the other hand, there are great differences between the ambience of project presented at the architectural competition and the real-estate development, the former seem relegated well after formal and stylistic considerations. A typology of the ambience of the living room is advanced.
Hsieh, Tsai-Shiou. From the Old Fish-House to the New Fish-House - Exploring the Transition of Human-Place Relationship by a Case Study In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. "The research aims at exploring the transition of human-place relationship. A case study of relocation helps to examine how place identity and place attachment are formed in the process of interaction among individuals, community, and their environment, and how they rebuild the identity and attachment after the physical environment changed. "Fish-house" was a cozy, independent one-story house a free space for students of Zoology Department in National Taiwan University. The students used to spend their leisure time there. However, all students had to leave their familiar place and move to a new building of twelve stories, namely "Life Science Hall". Although there is a room preserved for students, existence of disparate spatial qualities between both, such as inner space, outdoor space, and location, induced negative and resisting reactions of interviewees. Thereafter, the alienated room was transformed into a meaningful "fish-house" through continuing process of shaping the sense of spatial continuity, coordination among groups, and creating new experience. Data collection included in-depth interviews pre- and post-relocation as well as archival studies in order to realize the meaning-building ways and process of "fish-house", and the impact of the moves. The process of the relocation was related to the disruption and regeneration of place attachment. New place identity is due to the accumulation of new interaction and the interactional potential provided by new space. "Fish-house" is regarded as a behavior setting, and the life cycle of the setting is described in the research. The transition of the human-place relationship has much to do with the life cycle of the behavior setting. Generally speaking, if a setting is in its growing phase, the members can create new experiences and generate new meanings more easily, therefore they can rebuild place attachment and place identity more readily in a new place."
Sadan, E.. "Gender-Environment Issues." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. The purpose of this symposium is to discuss the environment from the perspective of gender. The symposium will present issues regarding the daily life of women and men. It will discuss work, housing and the public space from the point of view of gender. The aim will be to share knowledge about how to include gender in environment research. Contributions: Working Bodies: Understanding nursing work from a feminist perspective; The work family conflict of R & D; Women and Housing: Methodological Dilemmas in Research; Collective Housing for the emancipation of men; Everyday urban life in the global landscape: The gendered experience of cycling public space. Papers will be presented by Karen Keddy, Orna Blumen, Dick Urban Vestbro, Zeynep Toker, Julia Nevarez.
Berglund, Ulla, and Kerstin Nordin. "Gis-Mapping as a Tool for Including a Children's Perspective in Urban Planning." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. The importance of including a children’s perspective as a basis for urban planning is made clear by studies pointing to discrepancies compared to adults’ views and to an unwillingness/inability among decision-makers to take children’s interests into account. There is much support from practice and research that children, even young ones, have knowledge of their neighbourhoods relevant to physical planning, and also that many children want to communicate their experiences and ideas to planners and managers. Children’s participation in planning is advocated in the UN Convention on Children’s Rights and in Agenda 21 documents. There is a need for child-friendly methods to facilitate the participation of the young ones as well as a need for planner-friendly results in projects involving children. Practical experiences of the work in Norway with the “Children’s tracks” method and of some studies in Sweden and Finland point to the need of using real maps in communication with planners. The aim of our study is to develop a method, which facilitates the process of bringing children’s information of their local environment into the official planning process, working with children and their teachers at school. We are investigating how children can store and present knowledge about their local environments into a computerized geographic information system (GIS), the same system that constitutes the basis for spatial planning in Swedish municipalities. We are looking into the demands by planners for basic planning information concerning accessibility and reliability with the intention of finding a way for the children and their teachers to put the information into a GIS-system without help of GIS-experts. Following up the experiences from “Children’s tracks” our method will include also the teachers mapping of the school’s use of the local environment. We are developing our method in close contact with active planners and connecting to a tool for analysis of free spaces – the Sociotopical method - constructed within the Stockholm City Administration. At this stage we can present and discuss early results from two schools in outer districts of Stockholm (Sätra, Bredäng) and one from the inner city (Kungsholmen) where in all 70 pupils in the fifth/sixth grade and six teachers have tested GIS-mapping. We want to demonstrate and discuss the design of our GIS-application as well as our techniques for testing the reliability of results. How can we get the method to work in both ends – for the children/teachers as well as for the planners? This study is part of the interdisciplinary research project “Children and Open Spaces in the City. Accessibility, Use and Influence” that runs from July 2002 until December 2004.
Vestbro, Dick Urban. "Globalisation and Communal Housing for Sustainable Lifestyles." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. "In the paper three Swedish collective housing models and the experience of eco-village development, are analysed first in relation to globalisation, defined as movement of capital, migration of people, transfer of advanced technologies, and changing values, and then in relation to their potential to promote sustainable development, especially behavioural change. The paper is a pre-study, based mainly on existing literature, meant to form a basis for further research. The three collective housing models are: a) the service unit based on employed staff, b) the self-work model based on the residents’ own work, and c) the small commune, where a group of 5 to 10 people share facilities in a housing unit without a division into individual apartments (Vestbro 2000). Based on an analysis of existing literature a conceptual framework is presented. It is argued that the type neo-modernism in architecture, gaining momentum today, complies well with globalisation resulting in deregulation, privatisation, individualism, and consumerism. It is furthermore argued that although consumerism was an integral part of classical modernism, Scandinavian “functionalism” in architecture and town planning contains strong elements of efficient use of resources, which makes it more compatible with the paradigm of sustainability than with neo-modernism (Vestbro 2002; Nawangwe & Vestbro 2003).The classical collective housing unit (the service model) can be seen as a product of modernism. This type was developed during a time when environmental concerns were not on the agenda. Nevertheless some examples exist where private apartments have been reduced in order to get more communal space. This is even more the case in the self-work model. Reduction of space per person has gone furthest in the youth communes, where the residents may share a TV set, a video, a car, electric tools, newspaper subscriptions etc (Vestbro 2000).Some research point to the fact that the self-work model of collective housing and the small communes, as well as eco-villages, are inhabited by so called post-materialists, i.e. people who reject consumer society (Woodward 1989; Meltzer 2000; Vestbro 2000; Palm Lindén 1999). In the paper it is argued that collective housing is likely to facilitate the organisation of composting, waste separation, ways to save energy at home, and other aspects of sustainable lifestyles. Such assumptions are supported by the author’s own experience from living in collective housing (the self-work model). An important question is whether the post-materialist tendency is strengthened or weakened in the rich part of the world, and whether collective housing and eco-village living can maintain its resistance to consumerist lifestyles. Such lifestyles seem to be challenged by tendencies towards individualism, hedonism and consumerism, being part of the neo-liberal ideology. Another challenge is coming from innovations made in the field of eco-technology. These innovations make politicians and citizens tend to lean back, waiting for the factor 4 or factor 10 society to emerge. There are strong indications that the global growth race continues unabated and that real changes seem to take place only at the "edge of chaos" (Samuels 1997). Samuels maintains that changes in lifestyles are more important for sustainable development than ecological constructions and that some kind of self-organisation is required in order to achieve necessary changes in lifestyles. Such self-organisation exists in collective housing as well as in eco-villages."
Priestley, G, M Montenegro, and S. Izquierdo. "Greenspace in Barcelona: an Analysis of User Preferences." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. A study of green space in Barcelona was undertaken during 2003 within the framework of a European research project involving various cities. The research objectives for the case of Barcelona, within the overall objectives of the project were: to study user preferences and interests related to green spaces in the city; to identify user needs and the deficiencies existing in different types of green space available in Barcelona; and to propose innovative measures, in the hope that this might have an influence on future policy decisions on green space provision in this city. In the densely populated city of Barcelona, there is an evident premium on space. Most green spaces are peripheral and it is almost impossible to increase the total area of greenspace within the city. Emphasis had therefore to be placed on analysing and making proposals related to existing spaces. As a result, the analysis focused on user preferences, and the provision of amenities in consequence. More specifically answers were sought to questions such as: variations in the perceptions of different user groups to the various types of greenspace; variations in the patterns of use of green space by them, in order to identify preferences and pinpoint deficits; and the evaluation that different groups of people in different contexts made of existing greenspace.The methodological tools applied in order to accomplish these objectives were: a preliminary qualitative research inquiry based on focus groups; followed by a questionnaire survey including questions on preferences and patterns of use; and several scenarios of choice experiments where people's preferences on specific issues - design, facilities, security - were explored through photographs of existing parks in the city. Thirteen focus groups were created, and this research led to the establishment of a list of suitable attributes for analysing Barcelona's greenspaces and identified the main uses of greenspaces. In view of the size of Barcelona and the uneven spread of greenspace, the main questionnaire was carried out in three districts of the city were diverse options of greenspace existed and hence users had a real opportunity of making a choice. This criteria was combined with that of the most frequent green space user groups based on the age variable: young people, adults with children, elderly people. Both the questionnaires and the choice experiments were administrated among these user types.The various research tools revealed different patterns of use: daily, regular and occasional users, depending largely on the availability of greenspace and the type of facilities people had near their homes or to which they had easy access. The principal needs that people identified in relation to green spaces were: better maintenance and cleanliness (in which dog excrement was considered a major problem); surveillance; basic infrastructure provision (i.e. toilets were seen as necessary by all groups); and activities for different age groups (especially for teenagers). At a more general level, people considered that greenspaces were important for the city and for the quality of life, as the tranquillity and contact with nature they afford were seen as a major advantage -to combat pollution and for well-being- although they considered that the number of such areas in Barcelona -and investment in their upkeep- was insufficient. The large number of cemented squares in the city was heavily criticised, so it would appear that more spaces with natural elements would be required. Notwithstanding, the space which was most highly valued does not conform to this description, as it is a tree-lined pedestrian street precinct with benches and children's playgrounds. It was highly valued for its social functions at neighbourhood level.In Barcelona there are some emblematic parks that most people know and visit but the frequent use of small open spaces (such as squares and pedestrian zones) to which people go because they are close to their homes, was also a constant. This fact has led us to conclude that the widespread provision of some form of open space throughout the city is essential for the well-being of the population. Barcelona's beaches also constitute an important component of open space in the city. They were considered of great value not only for individuals and their neighbourhood, but especially for the city.Finally, the choice experiments revealed that the aspects which people most valued in park design were the presence of natural elements, such as grass and trees, combined with activity facilities. While recognising the need to insert such parks in a densely built-up environment, they would prefer some form of screening to isolate the parks from these surroundings, for aesthetic reasons, tranquillity and safety.
Ishii, S, and S. Yan. "Group Living as Home for People with Dementia from Long-Term Point of View." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. The purpose of this study is to illustrate the living environment of people with dementia. Results from analysis on relations between people living at one group living and surrounding environmental factors with viewpoint to five year’s longitudinal and continuous survey will be noted. In Japan, group-living for dementia people is defined as a residence containing five to nine residents with professional care staff around the clock. The type of living has been applied as an alternative measure to the traditional institutional form from the mid of 1990s. This type of residence is spreading all over the Japan, and nowadays it is estimated that there are approximately 5,000 residences and about forty-five thousand people living in them. Our concern is to consider the environmental changes of group-living during the transaction consideration for the surrounding environmental factors over long periods, and how to change a “house” as a container into a “home” (Dovey 1985). A series of surveys was carried out on a well-designed group-living residence opened in 1997 in Japan. It is one-storied wooden house with nine private-rooms, and several common spaces surrounding a courtyard. With applying Western culture’s design theory of group living residence, it is also rich in originality with Japanese ways of space designing and method (Toyama 1998). Behavior mapping surveys were performed from 1997 to 2001, three times per year in the first two years and once a year after. In total, the surveys were conducted nine times and the mapping data was collected in 26 daysAn observer stayed in the residence and observed residents and their surrounding environments carefully. Then behavior maps were made on layout seats every 10 minutes from morning to night to record where respective residents were and what they were doing and in case of conversation with whom they were talking. As for the attributes of the residents, each ADL and dementia status was recorded by the staff. Analyzing the data obtained from these maps, we saw patterns of individual livings, e.g. where individual residents prefer to stay, with whom they have relations, and what kind of care they receive and how they receive it. Furthermore, continuing the survey over a long term, changes caused by the physical or mental condition of the residents were made clear. In addition to the main survey, two residents who moved to traditional institutions after living three years in the group-living environment were followed up to examine the impact on their living and changes in the quality of their livings. The main results of the research are mentioned below. (1) After a half-year with guiding living by staff, residents adapted to their living and began to make their individual living pattern“Usualness” in the daily life and settings helped their adaptation. (2) What and how many meaningful “things” to their private bedroom at the residence affected the usage. In particular, for people with severe dementia, it sometimes helped their recognition and usage of their own room. (3) People with slight dementia relatively soon grasped new environmentOn the other hand, they were so sensitive to the change, soon after moving to group-living, they often shut themselves in their bedroom. After adapting to the new environment, they shifted their main places of living to common spaces and life patterns became stable. (4) Group-living showed obviously that residents had their own life patterns and preference way of using spaces even residents had dementia. Various types and sizes of common spaces or rooms such as tatami-living room with Japanese fire place, small tatami space, lobby space attached to private room, entrance hall with fixed bench, kitchen, dining room, comfortable corridors, courtyard and so on that met personal needs assisted in the adaptation and it supported individual living. (5) The style of living and the appearances of common spaces were categorized into three types; living alone without direct contact with others (Type 1), happening to be the space or voluntarily gathering with a few people (Type 2), and gathering together for program activities like eating (Type 3). Preparation of spaces that made possible of various living styles is significant in the design of the residences. As a general tendency, Type 1 patterns were often observed with people in the middle stage of dementia, Type 2 with slight dementia and Type 3 with severe dementia. (6) Changing of physical or dementia conditions that each person had and outer factors influenced the group and individual living. The process of changing a “house” into a mature “home” by factors that changed in a long time was made cleared. (7) The patterns of living and space usage of two residents who had lived at the group-living for three years had totally changed after moved to traditional institutions. When living at group-living, two residents could orient themselves to the environment and manage their living without much support by staff. After moving to the institutional environment, they soon lost the initiative in their living, the sense of time and space. At the same time, that had brought changes of relation with staff and contents of care offered. Changing of physical environments and the quality, differences of care principle and the quality had brought the radical change and great impact on their living. (8) The longitudinal survey showed significant points for designing spaces and operation of those spaces that could be difficult to see with in the short term or a sectional survey. Taking into account the axis of time is significant, when considering group-living as a home for people with dementia. (9) Environmental factors related to each other and that organized and supported living of the home. Compared with an ordinary dwelling, the cycle of living is short and the change is rapid as a result of the changing members and their physical condition. These changes and the relations in the group dynamics support living for people with dementia and the form of group-living as a home.
Kellett, P, S Coleman, P Collins, J Macnaughton, G Purves, A Suokas, and M. White. "Health, Art and Design: Evaluation of a New Hospital Environment." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. There is a growing literature exploring the linkage between health and healthcare environments reflecting a range of concerns about the quality, efficiency and design of hospitals and related health care environments. In the UK the National Health Service (NHS) is advocating the principle of ‘high quality care centred on patients’ and integral to this is the quality of the environment in which that care is delivered. In the north east of England a new large hospital is being created on a single site through the amalgamation of three existing smaller hospitals. The hospital Trust is committed to delivering high quality ‘patient-centred’ care and hopes, despite the large scale of the building, to achieve a sense of intimacy for individual patients, and to encourage a sense of ownership of the hospital amongst the local community. The hospital planning team believe that the solution to these challenges lies in high quality architectural design and the integration of public artworks into the health care environment. The project brief has paid special attention to building design, therapeutic colour schemes, materials, lighting, space, and acoustics. The design features and colour schemes are intended to individualise departments within the hospital to help create a sense of intimacy and identity within the whole. Part of the budget was used to commission artwork for the hospital and a ‘Healing Arts’ Committee has been set up to oversee this work, to seek further funding and to fund artists’ residencies creating works appropriate to this hospital environment. The theme of the voyages of Captain James Cook (who was born locally) has been introduced to link the hospital with the local area and to give the hospital a sense of coherence as a single building. NHS Estates, the organisation responsible for overseeing quality in NHS buildings nationally, is funding a multidisciplinary research team (Architecture, Anthropology, Medicine and Art) from the Universities of Durham and Newcastle upon Tyne, to evaluate this new hospital environment. The research objective is to evaluate the extent to which a planned approach to architecture, art and design in a major NHS Hospital has a beneficial impact on patients’ and visitors’ experience of the hospital and on patient and staff well-being. A range of methodological approaches are being employed for different parts of the research. To elicit information regarding the briefing process and explore how concepts such as ‘patient centred care’ were operationalised throughout the design and construction process, interviews were conducted with key players in the planning and design of the hospital: architects, managers, planners and clinicians who advised on the design of individual departments. To facilitate comparison of responses to the contrasting environments, the study includes pre and post-build phases using semi-structured interviews and a questionnaire survey with patients, visitors and staff. These are being carried out in four inpatient units, six outpatient units and in selected general areas in one of the component hospitals as well as the new building. This paper discusses the methodological approaches adopted in the research project and draws selectively on parts of the large data sets which are currently being built up. In particular the paper will examine how abstract aspirations for high quality health care are realised in the design of the building; how key users (patients, visitors and staff) experience differing health care environments, how conscious they are of the quality of the buildings and how they react to particular places and artwork projects.
Romay, J, R García-Mira, Eulogio J Real, and G. Blanco. "Healthy Work Environments: Evaluation of Health Programmes in a Worksplaces." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. IntroductionThis paper deals with the theme of healthy work environments from the perspective of health programmes in large scale organisations. It is assumed that protecting and promoting health in the workplace is a key element, if we take into account the consequences that these aspects has on well-being and quality of life at work, as well as the important role in productivity and competence of organisations (Pelletier,1991). This approach is being supported by increasing research about the subject. The work is came up to the light of the new concept of health as it was proposed by the OMS, which considers health not only as a simple absence of illness but also as a state of psychosocial well-being. From this view, the concept of quality of life takes place as a primordial element in the organisations (Sonnenstuhl, 1988; Follick,1987; Kizer, 1992; Peiró & Salvador, 1993; Schreurs, & Winnubst, 1996). So, health programmes in organizations will be considered as an essential instrument of quality of life at workplace.ObjectivesWith all these aspects in mind, our objectives are:i. To analyse the type of health programme carried out in a important organization of our country (Galicia, Spain)ii. To identify key points of this programme (medical, risks control, psychosocial, stress, ergonomic aspects) related to the workplace environment.iii. To find out levels of satisfaction with the programmeMethodA case study methodology was used. The medical services staff, as well as other people from the human resources division were interviewed about the health programme of the company. Several relevant aspects for the objectives of this programme, as well as the level of satisfaction and expectations were discussed with the staff. For this purpose a questionnaire specially designed for this study was used. In order to achieve our objectives, we carried out some descriptive analysis in order to know basic features of the health programmes in the organization. From this data several ideas to make easier the quality of life and well-being of employees are suggested. DiscussionAccording to the great value of work in our lives, as well as to the time that people spend at work, workplaces are important settings for evaluating and promoting health. In spite of the high level of unemployment in the European Union, workplace is the second more important place in the life, after the own house. The aim of healthy work environment programmes is to achieve healthy styles of life and improving work environments through: a) The control of illnesses and professional accidents; b) The improvement of structure and settings of work posts; c) The aid with personal problems that affect well-being of employees.
Maris, E.. Highly Annoyed: One Mark, Multiple Meanings In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. Are (social) nonacoustical factors a contributory cause of noise annoyance? Cultural/urban/architectural context in which study is conducted The problem of noise annoyance is omnipresent. Abatement programs and policies to reduce annoyance focus mainly on acoustical measures: sound insulation, changing flight paths, and the like, implicitly assuming that the proportion of residents indicating to be Highly Annoyed only reflects their response to acoustical aspects situation. Still, there is more to noise annoyance than acoustics alone. Several nonacoustical factors (sensitivity, attitudes, fear) have been identified in mostly correlational studies. Could it be useful if abatement programs would also address the nonacoustical side of noise annoyance? This could only be effective when nonacoustical factors have a causal relationship with noise, and only where nonacoustical factors influence people on a group level. Theoretical framework/relevant literature. In this project, annoyance is regarded as a stress response to an environmental stressor: noise. A cognitive stress model is used, in which on the stimulus side both the sound and the social context are included. On the response side the evaluation between perceived disturbance and perceived control results in a stress reaction (annoyance) (relevant literature: Stallen, 1999). Social context is operationalized according to findings from the field of Social Justice Theory (Tyler & Lind, 1992).Stallen, P.J.M. (1999). A theoretical framework for noise annoyance, Noise and Health, 3, (2), 69-79. Tyler, T. & Lind, A. (1992). A relational model of authority in groups. In: M. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Psychology, Vol. 25, 115-191, New York: Academic Press. Research questions, objectives and/or hypotheses1) Which is the role of social nonacoustical factors in the causal mechanism of noise evaluation?2) Is the influence of social nonacoustical factors moderated by sound level?Research strategy/methodology developed for tackling research Hypotheses are tested in a laboratory experiment. Several sound conditions (high and low sound level) are crossed with conditions in which the fairness of procedures is manipulated (Fair, Unfair). Subjects are exposed to sound (50 or 70 dB(A)eq.) while completing a task. Before starting their task, they either are, or are not, let to believe they are involved in the decision making process regarding their own sound exposure. Dependent measures are: noise annoyance, perceived disturbance and perceived control regarding the sound exposure, perceptions / evaluations of the procedure. State of development of thesis: research proposal (theoretical framework, literature review, hypothesis), data collection,The project is in the state of data collection. Findings (preliminary or advanced, if available)The meaning of being annoyed by sound differs for the two social conditions tested in the experiment. For subjects who believe they do not have a say in the decision making process, we find a strong correlation between sound level (acoustics) and reported annoyance. Subjects who do believe to have had a say in their exposure situation also report annoyance with the sound, but for this group the correlation between sound level and annoyance is not significant. Ancova analyses show a causal effect of social setting on annoyance for the higher sound level. Conclusion (if available)As the findings have not yet been replicated, no hard conclusions can be drawn. Avenues for research findings applications (if relevant)Not relevant within the scope of the project.
Oswald, F, and J. Sixsmith. "Home and Health in Very Old Age Across Europe: Preliminary Findings from the Enable-Age Project." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. The main aim of the ENABLE-AGE project is to examine the home environment as a determinant for healthy ageing, i.e. autonomy, participation, and well-being in very old age using a longitudinal perspective, involving five European countries. This symposium presents results from three different data sources. The first presentation overviews the project objectives and methods, showing that a wide range of well-proven measurements from various disciplines (e.g., psychology, occupational therapy) is administered in the ENABLE-AGE Survey Study at home-visits with randomly sampled N = 1919 very old people (75-85 or 80-90 years old respectively) living alone in their private urban homes. The design is longitudinal, comprising two measurement points with a one-year interval. For the qualitative ENABLE-AGE In-Depth Studies, 200 in-depth interviews (n-40 per country) were completed with older men and women in their own homes. A macro level update on housing policies, the ENABLE-AGE Update Review integrates the knowledge generated by the Survey and the In-Depth Studies. The second presentation will focus on the quantitative approach, emphasizing the relation of objective (e.g., accessibility) and subjective aspects of housing (e.g., meaning of home), as well as on psychological aspects (e.g., control beliefs) and their impact on healthy ageing. The third presentation will highlight data from the qualitative approach, exploring the role of gender on home and well-being. The fourth presentation will emphasize the role of different welfare regimes and their impact on the design and implementation of housing policies. A final presentation will attempt to integrate the different perspectives in order to analyse, within a wider perspective, person-environment interactions in very old age. Combining a macro level policy update with quantitative as well as qualitative empirical data collection has potential to contribute to research and application in order to enable elders to maintain independence for as long as possible.
Iwarsson, S, F Oswald, H. W. Wahl, A Sixsmith, J Sixsmith, Z Szeman, and S. Tomsone. "Home and Health in Very Old Age: New Perspectives on an Old Topic?" In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. The main aim of the ENABLE-AGE project is to examine the home environment as a determinant for autonomy, participation, and well-being in very old age in a longitudinal perspective, involving five European countries. This contribution presents the conceptual ideas and the research design of the project, emphasising the different methodological approaches as well as the goal to integrate data from different sources. A macro level update on housing policies (the ENABLE-AGE Update Review) supports the project process, integrated with the knowledge generated by the ENABLE-AGE Survey Study (N=1919) and the ENABLE-AGE In-Depth Studies (ca. N=200). A wide range of well-proven measurements is administered at home-visits with randomly sampled very old people (75-85 or 80-90 years old respectively) who live alone in their private urban homes. The design is longitudinal, comprising two measurement points with a one-year interval. For the qualitative ENABLE-AGE In-Depth Studies, 200 in-depth interviews followed by consultation interviews with a sub-sample (n=60) will be effectuated. The World Health Organization’s conceptual framework on disability and functioning (ICF) and Lawton’s ecological model on ageing constitute the basic conceptual and theoretical frameworks of the project. Concepts such as meaning of home, activity, functional health, accessibility, and usability are constructs necessary to define in this kind of research, especially since the project involves a substantial number of different disciplines. Basically it is assumed that personal and objective as well as subjective environmental factors contribute to autonomy, well-being, and participation in a differentiated manner. The experiences gained from the ENABLE-AGE project design, combining a macro level policy update with extensive quantitative as well as qualitative empirical data collection with a substantial sample of very old persons in five different countries, has potential to meet the research challenge inherent in elaborating links between macro and micro level in comparative research. Methodological challenges in terms of country-specific difficulties experienced so far, and issues related to analysis design will be outlined and discussed.
Moore, J.. "Home, Community and Work: Women's Working Lives in the North East of England and the Work-Life Balance." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. The relationship between people and their neighbourhoods has generated extensive research (Galster, 2001). However, little is understood about the ways in which employment and working life interacts with these components. The neighbourhood can play an important role in people’s personal and social identity and social position. (Kearns & Parkinson, 2001). This paper examines the role of home and community in shaping women’s working lives. This study will focus upon the ways in which local places, particular geographical communities, can act as both opportunities and constraints for women’s work attainment and progression. How might a sense of place and identification with local communities affect women’s job searches? How important are mobility factors in limiting areas of job search? This paper will present findings from a one-year interdisciplinary study of women’s employment and progression in the North East, funded by the European Social Fund. The research seeks to explore the relationship between working and domestic lives, working and home-based patterns as part of the wider debate on work-life balance. Case studies of three communities and a seven employers will explore the role of place and community as supports and barriers to employment and progression (Bridge, 2002; Jarvis, 1999; Russell, 1999; Weiler and Bernasek, 2001).
Sixsmith, J, and C. Kucsera. "Home, Gender, and Well-Being: a Qualitative Approach." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. The home environment can be one of the most important factors influencing elderly people's well-being. Men and women have different ways of using their home for well-being, to feel secure and to maintain everyday meaningful activity. The qualitative data collected within the ENABLE-AGE international research project (that serves as a source for this paper) focuses on elderly people living alone. These people may be highly sensitive to psycho-social meanings and experiences of home in relation to their declining health, increasing frailty and changing social networks and supports. In the UK and Hungary, 80 older participants (aged 75-89 years) took part in semi-structured, in depth interviews (40 per country). The current paper is based on the analyses of this qualitative data. It explores the gendered ways in which older people develop their sense of well-being within the context of the home environment. Initial findings point to interesting similarities and differences in the relationship between home, health and well-being as experienced in these Eastern and Western European countries. For instance, in terms of home based care provision, there appears to be a relatively larger emphasis amongst the UK sample concerning the control and acceptability of technical supports within the home while the Hungarian sample stressed the important role of personal assistance. Well-being also seemed to be linked to ability to independently negotiate everyday life amongst the older women and to make decisions, carry out duties and engage with household tasks amongst the older men. Moreover, being able to develop interests and practice creative skills enabled the older people to place themselves outside of the physical constraints of ageing and emphasise their own feminine/masculinised identities. The meaning of social participation and its link to well-being was also highly gendered and organised around home visits. This preliminary work underscores the need to understand well-being within the gendered context of the home environment.
Abrahamse, W., E. M. Steg, and C. A. J. Vlek. "Household Energy Conservation. a Study into the Effectiveness of Tailored Information, Goal Setting and Feedback via the Internet." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. Various behaviours we more or less take for granted in our everyday lives account for a steady increase in global energy use. With respect to household energy use, an increase can be observed in both amount and use of household appliances. There is evidence to suggest that household energy use is a major contributor to the greenhouse effect, and therefore households constitute an important target group when it comes to reducing energy related problems. In addition, household energy use has increased rather than decreased during the last decade. When it comes to resolving energy related problems, technological innovations (such as the development of energy-efficient appliances) are important, but behavioural changes are of equal importance. Household energy use can be divided into two broad categories. Direct energy use is related to the use of gas, electricity and fuel (e.g., heating, air conditioning, gasoline use). Indirect energy use can be described as energy use related to the production, transportation and disposal of consumer goods. To illustrate, the production of meat and vegetables requires energy, because these products need to be transported from the farm, or the greenhouse, to the supermarket. In fact, the impact of indirect energy use is rather substantial. Therefore, research on reduction of household energy consumption should focus on direct as well as indirect energy use. Many social psychological studies have investigated the effectiveness of interventions to encourage households to reduce their energy use. A commonly applied strategy is giving households information about their energy use, and/or ways to reduce it. It appears that information is definitely necessary for brining about behavioural changes, but that it works best when used in combination with other strategies, such as feedback. Providing households with feedback appears to be effective, especially when the feedback is given frequently. This way, households can see whether their efforts to reduce energy use have been worth while. A third intervention that has been investigated is goal setting, which provides households with a reference point. This intervention also proved to be most effective in combination with other interventions. Environmentally significant behaviour, such as energy use, can be characterised as a social dilemma, because of the conflict between individual and collective interests. Individual advantages of energy use are often immediately visible (e.g., comfort), whereas the consequences for the collective (e.g., emission of greenhouse gases) are only visible in the long run. Moreover, outcomes of individual behaviour depend to a large extent on what other people will do (interdependency). The following variables were included in the study, for they may influence behaviour in a social dilemma: collective interests (e.g., problem awareness), individual interests (e.g., attitude towards energy conservation), social norms/trust in others’ contribution to the problem (what do other people do when it comes to conserving energy), and self-efficacy (perceived possibilities to reduce own energy use). The present study has a multidisciplinary focus: the research team consists of psychologists, environmental scientists and computer engineers. In this applied social psychological study, households were encouraged to reduce their energy use by at least 5% by means of giving tailored (viz., highly personalised) information through the Internet. Against the background of a social-dilemma model, a combination of strategies for behavioural change (viz., tailored information, goal setting and feedback) was tested in a quasi-experimental design. Half of the participants only received feedback about their own energy savings (individual feedback), the other half also received feedback about how the participants as a group were performing (comparative feedback). A control group did not receive any information, goal setting or feedback. In addition, it was investigated which psychological factors underlie household energy use and energy savings. Results indicate that households who received tailored information and feedback saved more energy than the control group did. Furthermore, results suggest that especially informing people of relevant energy saving options caused this effect. More detailed results will be presented at the conference.
Lay, M. C., and A. Reis. "Housing Quality: Differences on the Role of Communal Open Spaces According to Dwelling Type." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. The study investigates the relationships between physical attributes of communal open spaces, spatial behaviour and sense of community, in order to measure to what extent quality of communal open spaces supports community formation across different dwelling types. It focuses on physical attributes, such as spatial definition, accessibility, territorial control, perception of security, adequacy of spaces for child's play and for large-scale socialising. According to the literature (e.g. Canter, 1970), one of the most significant effects of design on behaviour is that of facilitating or discouraging interaction among people. This study is based on the premise that communal open spaces provide residents with the opportunity to perform social, recreational and functional activities that promote contact between people. As Gehl (1987) remarks, such community activities, which make outdoor residential environments particularly attractive and meaningful to be in, are the most sensitive to the quality of the physical environment. Mostly unsuccessfully, designers and planners have been attempting to foster a sense of community in people through physical design since the early 1920s. A body of research (e.g. Coulson, 1980; Darke, 1984; Cooper Marcus & Sarkissian, 1986) indicates that most of the qualitative problems that affect performance of housing schemes are originated by inadequacy of design, limiting performance and affecting use opportunities and community formation. Moreover, evidence (e.g. Lay, 1998; Lay, 2001) suggests that sense of community might not be merely related to physical attributes of site layout, but to physical characteristics of dwelling type, which establish expressive variations on how dwellings and spaces are located and related to each other, consequently affecting the intensity of contact among residents. Performance evaluations have been carried out during the last decade in Brazil (e.g. Lay, 1998; Reis & Lay, 1996; Reis, 1999), bringing together an organised awareness of the interrelations that affect the perceived quality and consumption of the produced housing schemes by the users in the Brazilian context. In this study, in order to measure the extent to which physical attributes of communal open spaces might adversely affect or contribute to a sense of community among residents living in different dwelling types, further performance evaluations were carried out, providing opportunities for longitudinal analysis. The means and methods of measuring the variables were investigated through post occupancy evaluation of twelve housing schemes composed of four storey blocks of flats, terrace houses, and detached/semi-detached/row houses, located in Porto Alegre, Brazil. The multi-methods techniques used for data collection consisted of a combination of physical measurements, observations of behaviour, observations of physical traces, interviews, questionnaires and GIS. Results indicate that, when satisfactory, physical attributes of the schemes investigated positively affected residents' attitudes and motivation to use communal spaces, consequently affecting social and user-environment interaction, despite dwelling type. Accordingly, discontent with the spatial arrangements on the site, conflicting uses, lack of territorial control, poor maintenance and perception of insecurity, were some of the factors identified as adversely affecting residents' emotional attitudes toward the residential environment and other residents. Variations on the adverse effects of physical characteristics of outdoor spaces were identified among the housing schemes formed by the different dwelling types, suggesting that the role of communal spaces varies among schemes formed by each dwelling type investigated, both in terms of physical and social performance.
Tenngart, Carina. How do People Use and Experience Healing Gardens? In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. Public health has been given a lot of attention in Sweden lately. One of the reasons is the rapidly growing number of people that are put on the sick list for very long terms. Many of these people are diagnosed as having burnout diseases, i.e. a number of stress disorders such as burnout syndrome, neurasthenia, STFR (stress-triggered fatigue reactions) etc. (Klingberg Larsson, 2001), (Stigsdotter & Grahn, in press). The interest for treatments which include parts of nature or garden is flourishing. In a Healing Garden at Alnarp, at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, people diagnosed as having had burnout disease are offered a horticultural therapeutic treatment program. A patient stays approximately 20 weeks, 4 hours and 4 days a week, and there are two groups a day with 8 patients in each. An interdisciplinary research program will study how horticultural therapeutic treatments like this works in comparison with ordinary treatment programs, how the garden itself functions for these people and how different forms of horticultural therapy works. For landscape architects it is of interest whether there are better and worse garden designs for people with burnout diseases, and if so, what constitutes the differences? Can we get any clues by looking at how people use and experience the healing garden? This is dealt with by both participatory observational studies, interviews and by comparing different gardens and characters with pictorial studies using existing scales, e.g. the PRS (Hartig et al, 1997), (Purcell et al, 2001). Both for the sake of the patients and for the sake of research the garden is designed with several theories in mind. The Healing garden school suggests that health effects derive from the experiences in the garden room as such. It includes theories of restorative environments such as Ulrich?s psycho-evolutionary theory and Kaplan & Kaplan’s functional-evolutionary theory (Ke-Tsung, 2001). In the Horticultural Therapy School the health effects are derived from the activities in the garden and the theories are collected from horticultural therapy and from occupational therapy. The Instorative School combines both schools above and health effects are derived from both experiences and activities in the garden. It is also stresses the importance of the visitors own background and character. Earlier research at the Department of Landscape Planning at Alnarp has shown that eight main garden room characters constitute the fundamental building blocks of parks and gardens. In other studies at the department it has been shown that experiences of nature affect people differently, depending on their situation in life and on how much they are able to absorb from the environment. All of these theories have been taken into account in the design process and the transformation into physical elements and design hypotheses is described in two articles. (Stigsdotter & Grahn, in press), (Stigsdotter & Grahn, 2002). These design hypotheses are now being tested. Participatory observational studies during spring and early summer 2004 will tell how patients use the garden. The observations focuses on where people go, what they do, the time they spend and on whether it is an activity that is voluntary or proposed by therapists. The results will concern the following issues:?Do the patients tend to use the more restorative parts of the garden during the beginning of their treatment and the more demanding parts of the garden the healthier they get? ? Do the patients respond to the eight garden room characters like the hypothesis suggests??What characterises the less or more demanding garden rooms??Is there a relationship between active and demanding garden rooms??Are there specific garden rooms or characters that patients use in specific ways, like always alone / always in group etc.? Semi structured interviews with some of the patients will follow the observations in order to deepen our understanding of the experience of the healing garden and why it is used the way it is.
Nordström, Maria. "How is Environment Reflected in Children's Notions of Child-Friendly Environments? Comparing the Notions of Children Living in Different Environments." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. Children living in big citiesThe city is where most children in the world will grow up and live in the future. Cities all over the world grow fast and in particular very big cities. Cities differ considerably one from another and therefore the living conditions for children living in different cities are difficult to compare as has been shown recently in the comprehensive UNESCO study on environmental conditions for children in different parts of the world (Chawla 2002). Our study of children’s use and value of their outdoor nearby environment in Stockholm, Sweden, is made so that comparisons can be made with similar studies in Helsinki, Finland and Rome, Italy (Horelli & Prezza, 2004 forthcoming). We will also be able to compare with studies in Amsterdam, the Netherlands (Karsten 1998) and in Paris, France (Depeau 2003).In our study we stress two things, assuming them to be particularly important to understand how children value their environment; one being the age of children and the other being the local environments where children live. We believe from other studies that we have been doing ourselves (Nordström 2000a and b, Björklid 1992, Cele 2001, Berglund & Jergeby 1989) and from studies by other researchers in environmental psychology (Moore 1986, “Children, Cities and Psychological Theories” 1998) that these two are interdependent, suggesting that what is the environment of interest to and daily use by children depends on their age. The development of open space in the city of StockholmWe work together with 12 year-old children in three school classes in Stockholm. Two of the classes attend inner city schools and one class, with the children living in a suburban area, attends a school at the outskirts of the city. Stockholm, Sweden’s biggest city, has approximately 700.000 inhabitants in the inner parts of the city and approximately 1.5 million people in the greater metropolitan area. In Stockholm there has not been a tradition of building densely since the late 19th century. Nature has been important when designing housing areas in Sweden during most of the 20th century, which is evident even in housing areas not far from the very city centre. This is why outdoor spaces for children in the city centre differ depending on the age of the districts where they live. Like most big cities Stockholm is growing and all of the inner city of Stockholm is under pressure for new housing. This means that housing will be considerably more dense in the future. The city planning model is changing from that of relating housing to the natural environment to a model with outdoor neighbourhood space consisting mainly of streets and urban parks. For many Swedish parents as well as for politicians engaged in matters concerning children, the ideal of child rearing has been to give children easy access to the nearby environment facilitating at an early age for their moving around on their own. These commitments now seem to change as has been observed in other big cities on the European continent (Karsten 2002). Studying 12 year old city childrenIn this situation of change it is interesting to find out how children experience the outdoor environment in the inner city as compared to the spacious suburban environment. The reason for choosing 12 year-old children is because at this age young people generally are well acquainted with their outdoor environment and are good at communicating their experiences. They are capable of moving around quite freely on their own but are still dependent on their nearby environment and on the support and protection of their parents. Children this age show a physical orientation to reality, meaning that they are dependent on the environment to find their way around. This is an age of the young people studied in the projects with which we intend to make comparisons, i.e. those by Horelli & Prezza (2004). Using a stepwise methodologyWe have chosen the inner city and a suburban area of Stockholm to see what differences there might be as to the children’s uses of their nearby environment. As the spatial conditions for inner city differ a lot between areas we have chosen to study two areas in the inner city but within the same district. We started our study by sending a questionnaire to all parents of 12 year-old schoolchildren in the chosen areas, asking the parents questions about their children’s and the family’s uses of outdoor areas and about their attitudes towards the qualities of these areas as environments for their children. We then contacted three schools to work with one school class in each area. Our work with the pupils started by asking them to write down what they consider good places in their neighbourhood, on their way to school, on the school-yard and around the school. We then asked the children to write down bad places in the same specified environments. The pupils were then asked to take photos on their own or with a class-mate of these places. At a third step we interviewed the children about the places shown in their photos, about the qualities of the places and about what was good or bad about them. Finally we arranged walking tours with some of the pupils to these places to have them show us the places and tell us more about them. Concluding our collaboration with the school classes, we asked the pupils and their teachers to write down what makes a city good for children their age to be like. Analysing dataAt the moment we are in the process of analysing data. So far, it seems that of the methods used for collecting information from the 12 year old-children, the richest information given seems to come from the photographing activity of the children along with the walking tours. This indicates that the children’s non-verbal ways of relating to the environment might be of greatest importance to them. At the symposium we will present further results obtained from the analyses of the data from the school children in their different environments along with reflections on the methodology used.
Nordström, Maria. "How is environment reflected in urban children’s notions of child-friendly environments? Comparing the notions of 12-year old children living in different residential areas and with different cultural background." Journal of Applied Psychology [Special Issue 18th IAPS Conference] 6, no. 3-4 (2004): 62-70. The focus of this study is on how environment is reflected in 12-year old school-children’s notions of child-friendly environments by comparing the notions of school-children living in different urban residential areas, in the inner city and in a suburb, in Stockholm, Sweden. The school-children in these areas have different cultural backgrounds. Their notions are interpreted from analysing their written answers to the question “What would you want a city to be like where it is nice to be a child?”. The analysis of their written answers shows differences in how they value their physical environment. These differences seem clearly connected with differences in the school-children’s cultural backgrounds as well as in their experiences of and access to physical environment. Developmental psychology can help describe how these conditions are connected and shed light on the differences found in the schoolchildren's notions.
Ohta, H.. "How People Relate to their Residential Environment." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. The author has inquired natural landscape cognition (Ohta, 2001) as part of the phenomenological approach to our cognition of living world. The present study is to expand the domain of investigation toward the cognition of residential environment. The participants were 12 women and 4 men. They ranged in age from 30 to 50 years old (mean 40.0, SD 6.3 years). Their places of origin were widely dispersed throughout Japan, from the north (Hokkaido prefecture) to the south (Miyazaki prefecture), although the largest group (9 participants) were born in Kanto district, i.e., in or around Tokyo. At the time of the study, they were all living in the Kanto district, i.e., 5 participants in Tokyo prefecture, 4 in Chiba, 3 in Kanagawa, 2 in Saitama, 1 in Ibaraki, and 1 in Tochigi. They lived in single-family houses (10 participants) or in apartments (6 participants). The living period in the dwelling house was from 0.5 to 26 years (mean 7.8, SD 5.8 years). The number of family members including the participant was from 1 to 5 (mean 2.5, SD 1.4). The author called at each participant between April 2000 and February 2001, and inquired by means of in-depth interviews how they think or feel about their residential environments. The interviews were carried out in participant’s home in order to let participants think afresh about their residential environment both inside and outside of home with their everyday life situation. The interview style was semi-structured, and questions were put mainly about the following: houses and places where he/she had lived from after birth to the present, structure and relationships of the family, the plan of the house, impression and evaluation of the house and the neighborhood, characteristics of the house and the region, behavior range in the region, hope or dream for house or residential place in the future, etc. The author also asked him/her to guide to the certain spots mentioned in the interview about where he/she held any special feelings, e.g., pleasing, hateful, nostalgic, and so on.After qualitative analysis, several main categories of cognitive aspects were extracted; Things, House, Family, Region, Memories, Landscape, Animals, Plants, Participant’s idiosyncrasies, etc. And a common structure in the cognition of residential environment was identified. That is, based on memories and experiences of each participant, he/she constantly compared the present home and region with those where he/she had lived or known. Through such comparison, participant’s feelings, impressions, and evaluations, etc. about his/her house and the region were developed. Participants had made more close relationship with their house or with the region through their various actions upon the house (e.g., reforming, cleaning, gardening, etc.) or in the region (e.g., jogging, walking, shopping, cooperative works with neighborhood, etc.). It was also found that the relationships with his/her family or the viewpoints of family members greatly affected the very participant’s evaluation of dwelling. Special spots in the region enabled each participant to make sense out of the region, and also to deepen the relationship, for good or bad, with the region. Moreover, landscapes that could be seen at the outside or from inside of the house gave certain influence on the impression and the evaluation of dwelling. While participant’s garden tended to be stressful existence because he/she must keep them in good condition under pressure, the beautiful or preferable gardens in the neighborhood made him/her feel happy. Animals, especially dogs and cats kept as pets in the house, played an important role to help him/her feel more at home, like as reported by Smith(1994). On the other hand, old dogs kept in the neighborhood were often recognized as a symbol of the changes of town as time passes by. Norberg-Schulz (1971) proposed an idea of the levels of existential space from ‘the thing’ to ‘geography’ through ‘the house’, ‘the urban’, and ‘landscape’. The result of the present study also indicated that the cognition of residential environment consists of such several levels, i.e., from utensils or furniture to artificial or natural landscapes. Additionally, from the present result ‘home’ should be set as an upper category upon those categories extracted in the present study. That is, the concept and meaning of ‘home’ in participants could be interpreted as liquid that may exist across those subcategories, from thing to landscape, as pointed by Sixsmith (1986).
Carrus, G.. "Identity Processes and Support for Biodiversity Conservation." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. The designation of natural protected areas is one of the main avenues followed by governmental authorities to cope with the global loss of natural and cultural biodiversity around the world. Natural protected areas are meant to be a tool for ensuring the continuity of fragile ecosystems and the future availability of limited natural resources. A major barrier to the institution of natural protected areas is often represented by the specific opposition of local residents and local communities, for whom a protected area may represent a concrete loss of “freedom” or an obstacle to daily economic activities (Bonaiuto, Carrus, Martorella & Bonnes, 2002; McNeely, 1995; Pretty & Pimbert, 1995; Stoll-Kleeman, 2001; West & Brechin, 1991). Therefore, the need for local community participation in order to achieve “sustainable” uses of biodiversity has been frequently stressed by natural scientists, environmental managers and intergovernmental agencies (Eisto, Hokkanen, Ohman & Repola, 1999; Alfsen-Norodom & Lane, 2002). The psychological processes driving people’s response to the designation of natural protected areas are then a worthy issue in the environment-behavior domain. Nonetheless few empirical contributions addressed it in the environmental psychological literature (Bonaiuto et al., 2002; Stoll-Kleeman, 2001; Corraliza, Garcia Navarro & Valero, 2002). The aim of the present paper is to investigate the relations among environmental concern, local identity, and support for newly instituted natural protected areas. Basing on Social Identity Theory (Brown, 2000) and on recent empirical evidence showing a positive relation between place-identity and environmentally friendly conducts (Uzzell, Pol & Badenas, 2002; Stedman, 2002; Vorkinn & Riese, 2001), it was hypothesized that both pro-environmental attitudes (general and specific) and local identity should predict people’s support for new natural protected areas. Two field studies were conducted in Italy to test this assumption. In study 1 (N = 316) Hierarchical Regressions were performed to assess the role of general environmental concern, attitudes towards protected areas in general, regional identity, and socio-demographic variables in predicting support for a specific protected area. In study 2 Structural Equation Modeling (N = 157) was used to replicate in a different regional context the findings of study 1. Results of both studies confirm the expected positive role of pro-environmental attitudes (both general and specific), as well as the expected positive role of local identity, in predicting people’s support for the protected areas considered. Implications of the results for policy-making strategies aiming at enhancing public levels of consensus in the designation and management of natural protected areas are discussed.
Pol, E, S Valera, and T. Vidal. "Identity, Proximity and Connectivity: Barcelona-Paris." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. Within of the set of local studies on urban proximities, appropriation and identities, coordinated by the “Laboratoire de Psychologie Environnementale” of the University René Descartes-Paris V, the “Grup d’Estudis Psico/Socio/Ambientals” of the Universitat de Barcelona applied the common questionnaire to an exploratory sample of the centre and the periphery of the city.In addition to the criteria settled by Paris, an additional independent variable was considered: the connectivity to public transport of the residential neighbourhood. The introduction of this variable tries to support new hypotheses in relation to the French sample: the low connectivity will reinforce the territorial identity in the neighbourhood, increasing the sociability and the perception of homogeneity of its inhabitants. It was assumed that these hypotheses will test independently of the high-low strategic capacity of people (operational defined in the general research as having or not private vehicle), and favoured-not favoured neighbourhood variables.Nevertheless, for those of low strategic capacity living in underprivileged neighbourhoods, the low connectivity will be experienced as an offence and a deficiency on resources and services. On the other hand, for those of high strategic capacity living in favoured neighbourhood, the low connectivity is a form of defence of the penetration of their territory by strangers and, therefore, a protection of their homogeneity.The appropriation will be superior in the underprivileged neighbourhood with low connectivity, while in the neighbourhood with high connectivity, both favoured and not-favoured, the appropriation will be more by identification processes with shared symbolic referents than identification generated by the daily life interchange.Data was obtained applying the common questionnaire of the international research to a sample of 100 women in personal interviews. Sample selection was intentional and followed the same criteria of the general study. They consisted of differentiating between well connected neighbourhoods -through public transport and urban streets/avenues- and zones with low level of public transport and difficult connectivity. The chosen neighbourhoods pertained to the centre and the periphery of Barcelona and represent high and low socio-economic level. Even though the obtained results are slightly different form those obtained in the other French cities, a tendency to confirm the hypotheses was observed.
Motta-Moss, Ana. Immigrant Services in New York City's Neighborhoods: Evaluating Access, Responsiveness and Coverage In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. New York City gained more than 1,100,000 residents in the two decades between 1980 and 2000, and its neighborhoods experienced substantial demographic and social change. Evidence of the changing service needs is demonstrated by the growth of the Latino population by 770,000, Asian-Americans by 550,000, African-Americans by 270,000, and other immigrants by 300,000, while the white population declined by 790,000. An increase in economic disparities has accompanied these population shifts that is strongly in evidence at the neighborhood level. The city’s neighborhoods of concentrated poverty, for instance, grew by almost 200,000 during this period, including 50,000 additional children below 13 years of age. These neighborhood changes have very much altered the demand for services in the City, especially the demand for immigrant services. Why does it matter how immigrant services are distributed within cities like New York? Three factors are emphasized in this paper: access, responsiveness, and coverage. Accessibility or proximity of these services is vitally important to users, contributing to the development and maintenance of social network and social support systems. Organizational responsiveness to neighborhood diversity, disparities, and evolving service needs is especially relevant where neighborhoods are socially and ethnically distinctive, as in New York. Finally, analysis of neighborhood coverage, including service gaps and saturation, is essential because nonprofit service providers function independently without an overall framework to ensure matching of service provision to needs. Access, responsiveness, and coverage matters a great deal to immigrant service organizations as well as to users and funders of their services, including government agencies, foundations, businesses, and private donors concerned with equity and effectiveness in service delivery. Yet, many nonprofit organizations do not provide direct services to local immigrant residents, but serve citywide, national, or international constituencies or carry out primarily administrative and fund-raising activities in their city offices. Issues of access to local users and adequate neighborhood coverage may be less important for these organizations. However, their concentration or dispersal within the city is still highly significant because many of these facilities (e.g. museums, universities, and hospitals) have important “spill-over” benefits on their neighborhoods, especially on immigrant neighborhoods. This paper examines these location issues for New York City’s immigrant service sector in the context of the city’s diverse neighborhoods. The intention here is to relate the city’s complement of immigrant service organizations with the characteristics of neighborhoods where nonprofits have their facilities, i.e., to take an ecological approach to the presence of nonprofit immigrant services within the city. Our task is to assess nonprofit coverage of New York City’s immigrant communities and evaluate the added current challenge to nonprofits of responding to the rapidly changing demography, social structure, and service needs of the city’s neighborhoods. The information about immigrant service organizations in this paper comes from the U.S. Internal Revenue Service’s Core File based on returns (Form 990) filed for the year 2001 by New York City nonprofits and processed by the Urban Institute’s National Center for Charitable Statistics. Supplementary information about these organizations was obtained from the survey of over 3,000 nonprofits in New York City carried out by the New York City Nonprofits Project, City University of New York. Street addresses of these service organizations were transformed into x and y coordinates for the GIS analyses of the geographic patterns and to locate the organizations within New York City’s 59 community districts. Demographic, social, and other information about the city’s neighborhoods comes from InfoShare data maintained by Community Studies of New York, Inc.How well are the city’s immigrant service organizations matched with the immense variety of neighborhoods and communities in this complex city? The location analysis requires development of methodological tools, including functional classifications of both nonprofit service activities and types of neighborhoods, as well as indicators of goodness of fit of immigrant service facilities to neighborhood needs. Preliminary findings point to service gaps in rapidly changing low-income ethnic communities and outlying residential neighborhoods, and an over-concentration of facilities in downtown commercial areas. The geographic pattern is not ideal, even after allowing for land use zoning and neighborhood variations in factors affecting service demand. The findings have imperatives both for nonprofits and public officials through remedial efforts they can carry out to improve the fit of services to needs. The study and its methodology may provide some guidance for analyses of service location and proximity issues in other cities, regions, and states. In this paper, special emphasis will be given to the importance of:_ formulating a classification of immigrant services relevant for the specific locale;_ developing a classification of neighborhoods or other sub-areas based upon commonalties in expected service needs;_ using Geographic Information Systems (G.I.S.) for mapping and analyzing the geographic location of facilities;_ using econometric methods for testing the relationships between facility location and neighborhood contexts; and_ devising suitable measures of the goodness of fit of types of service activities to types of neighborhood conditions.
Després, C, A Fortin, and G. Vachon. "Implementing Transdisciplinarity: Lessons from Research and Practice." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. This communication is about implementing transdisciplinarity in Environment-Behaviour studies. The work of the Interdisciplinary Research Group on Suburbs (Groupe interdisciplinaire de recherche sur les banlieues, GIRBa, in French) at Laval University (Canada) is presented to illustrate the theoretical premises and methodological strategies that define the group’s work and orientations as transdisciplinary. GIRBa is a group of academic researchers in the fields of architecture, urban design, planning, as well as human and social sciences; it includes professors, post-doctorate and doctoral candidates, Masters’ students in sociology, urban design and architecture, as well as undergraduates in architecture. All members share an interest for retrofitting post-war suburbs and the conviction that knowledge about people-environment relations is essential to support design and planning. Over the last five years, GIRBa has been conducting research along three main lines to inform and orient the future of Quebec City’s post-war suburbs: 1) suburbs’ morpho-genesis, urban morphology and architectural typologies; 2) residents’ uses and meanings of dwellings, neighbourhoods and broader metropolitan area; 3) policies, regulations, ideologies, as well as planning theories and practices. GIRBa’s program consists of an iterative process between scientific research, action research and design research. Research mandates from various government offices contribute in feeding the team with pragmatic research questions and favour action research. Architectural and urban proposals emerging from this process lead to new theoretical reflections that can, in turn, modify them. In this respect, GIRBa’s research problems, objectives and strategies are in constant redefinition, taking advantage of an action-retroaction process. Our research program and collaborative planning process both produced a rich and unique knowledge. Combined, they have led to a better understanding of the complexity of suburban settings, of the challenges facing them and, most of all, of avenues for action. GIRBa’s work also exemplifies how universities can play a critical and essential role in training professionals and researchers to work together providing beyond their specific disciplinary competencies. Based on five years of trials and errors in implementing transdisciplinary research, this communication reports on its difficulties and successes, on the strengths and weaknesses of such research programme, as well as on the type of research agenda, research process and team composition favouring such research. A discussion of the limits and challenges of transdisciplinarity concludes the presentation.
Rodiek, Susan. "Improving Outdoor Access at Assisted Living Facilities." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. "Although spending time outdoors is known to have potentially therapeutic benefits for older adults, facilities continue to be built which do not adequately address resident needs for outdoor access. Two studies were conducted at assisted living facilities to explore resident preferences for outdoor activities and environmental features. Fourteen facilities were selected randomly from all facilities having more than 50 residents in a 12-county region of east Texas, which included the city of Houston. The first study used focus groups and written surveys, and found high levels of interest in outdoor access. The study found preferences for specific activities, such as walking and sitting/watching, and for environmental elements such as fresh air, greenery, and comfort features. Residents indicated they typically felt better physically and psychologically after being outdoors, but that the facility environment typically presented several barriers to outdoor access The second study generated photographic comparisons based on the findings of the first study, to further test some of the main constructs that emerged which fell into the general categories of 1) relief from the indoor environment, 2) connecting outdoor with indoor spaces, and 3) activity as a factor in outdoor usage. The photosurvey tested each of these theoretical categories, with two "environmental patterns" showing how it might be actualized in the built environment, using four diverse examples of each pattern, which yielded 24 pairs of photos. Digital techniques were used to manipulate a single element in each pair, to isolate the variable of interest - otherwise the photos were identical. Significant levels of preference were found for the hypothetically preferred image, in all 24 pairs. The findings of both studies will be compared, and discussed in terms of the potential for specific design application."
Rohracher, H, and P. Späth. "Improving the Public Perception of Bioenergy in Europe." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. Bioenergy (wood, biogas, biofuels etc.) has the biggest potential to contribute to European targets regarding the proportion of renewable energy or greenhouse gas reductions. However, compared to energy carriers like wind or solar energy the image of bioenergy appears to be lower and broad public support is often lacking. To harness the potential of renewable energies it is of crucial importance to understand why this is the case and how the public image of bioenergy could be improved. Although there is only a small patchwork of regionally oriented surveys available, there is evidence that the public awareness of benefits from bioenergy in Europe is rather low and bio-energy is one of the more unknown forms of renewable energy for the general public. However, it is doubtful that bio-energy in general has a negative image among European citizens. As surveys, for example in Austria, turn out, there are even strong local differences depending on who promotes the use of biomass, previous experiences with bio-energy and local politics. In many regions there is even a very positive perception of bio-energy, while in other cases the perception is more negative (see Sustainable Bio Energy: A vision on socially acceptable bio energy (Bio energy forum, 2002). Thus there are good reasons to believe (and there is indeed evidence) that important aspects of the perception of bio-energy differ between European regions and between different groups of citizens (while other aspects, such as the low profile among other renewable energy sources, may be more homogeneously distributed). The paper which we will present is based on approximately 40 semi-structured interviews with representatives of bioenergy organisations in Europe, which have a focus on promoting bioenergy and improving its public image, as well as on a secondary analysis of existing quantitative surveys. The aim of the analysis presented is to- gain a better understanding of the public perception of bio-energy, and the factors that influence this understanding;- to map the key stakeholders and present efforts to promote a more favourable attitude of European citizens towards bio-energy at a European, national and regional level, the strengths and deficits of these campaigns and the requirements for a coherent European promotion strategy;- to suggest new approaches to promote bio-energy in the public's perception, based on existing best practices of promotion activities and strategies to integrate and complement existing programmes and activities. Guiding questions of the paper are: What are the reasons for differences in the public perception of bio-energy in different European countries? In which elements does the perception of bio-energy differ between groups of citizens and regions (regarding the benefits of bio-energy use, or the perceived consequences of an increase in bio-energy usage; regarding past experiences, or the trust in organisations and actors who promote bio-energy; regarding the arguments used to support bio-energy)? In which respect are strategies to promote the use of bioenergy different in different regions in the EU (who promotes bioenergy, which action plans / programmes do exist at a national/regional level) and in which respect do these strategies overlap? Which of these approaches to promote bio-energy are transferable across Europe? What is the potential role of the European Union – what would national / regional organisations and promoters expect and hope for? Which new approaches could be taken to promote bioenergy and have there been experiments with new approaches elsewhere? Exploring such questions will provide a sound basis for the design of improved communication strategies and action programmes to promote bio-energy in the EU.
Dogge, P. J. C., and Jos J. A. M. Smeets. "In Search of Customer Loyalty - a Research on the Relation Between Tenants Satisfaction and Behaviour." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. AimDuring the last decade competition for landlords in the Netherlands has increased. Increasing competition between landlords has forced them to become more costumer oriented. For that purpose they concentrate on the enhancement of customer satisfaction. It is assumed that satisfaction immediately leads to customer loyalty. (See also Heskett et al 1997). By improving housing conditions and services (so called ‘housing package’) they hope to enlarge ‘tenants satisfaction and loyalty. Our research tries to find out which aspects of this housing package influence tenants satisfaction and which relation exists between the overall satisfaction and costumer loyalty.The overall satisfaction with the housing package is conceived as a complex aggregation of satisfaction with the separate attributes of the dwelling estate, the physical and social environment and the services. But what is loyalty? Loyalty in housing is often seen as reflected by the tendency to move house. The relation with the overall satisfaction shows to be very weak (Dogge & Smeets, 2002) In this paper is searched for other variables: The length of stay the tendency to recommend ones housing situation to others. Both satisfaction and these tree indicators for ‘loyalty’ are measured in a survey among tenants of social landlords.MethodsStructural Equation Modelling was used to estimate the relationship between satisfaction with several attributes of dwellings semi-public spaces, living environment and services and the overall satisfaction with the housing package and to estimate the relationship between overall satisfaction and loyalty (Byrne, 2001).In a survey, among 7066 tenants of housing association SWS in Eindhoven, 137 variables were used as indicators for satisfaction with the housing package of the housing association (Dogge et al, 1999). By using four confirmatory factor analyses the indicators where grouped into factors that explain the satisfaction of the dwelling, the semi-public space, the living environment and the service. Next, the indicators that formed the different factors in the results of the four confirmatory factor analyses were aggregated into new constructs (like size of dwelling, layout of dwelling etc. See figure 2). Those new constructs are used as the observed variables in a second order factor analyses. In the first order the relationships between those observed variables and the satisfaction with the dwelling, the semi-public spaces, the living environment and the services (all latent variables) are estimated. In the second order the relationship between satisfaction with dwelling, the semi-public space, the living environment and the services and the overall satisfaction with the housing package (latent variable) is estimated. Besides these two orders also the relationship between overall satisfaction (latent variable) and the tendency recommend ones housing situation to others (observed variable) is estimated. ResultsIn the second order factor model the aggregated construct that resulted from the confirmatory factor analyses and the tendancy to recommend ones housing situation to others are used as observed variables. The standardized regression weights are interpreted as indicators for the relationship between the various variables in the model. All these relationships appear to be significant.Overall satisfaction with the housing packageThere is little variance in the weight of the satisfaction with the dwelling , the semi-public spaces, the living environment and with the services in the overall satisfaction with the housing package of the landlord. The weight of the satisfaction with the dwelling is a little higher than the weight of satisfaction with the living environment and with the services. The weight of the satisfaction with the semi-public spaces is a little lower that the satisfaction with these aspects. - Satisfaction with the dwellingSatisfaction with the availability and quality of conveniences in the dwelling and the maintenance condition of the dwelling appear to be most critical constructs in the overall satisfaction with the dwelling.- Satisfaction with semi-public spacesThe variance in the weight of the satisfaction with the used constructs in the overall satisfaction with the semi-public spaces is not very high. - Satisfaction with living environmentSatisfaction with the (absence of) nuisance in the neighbourhood and satisfaction with the other residents in the neighbourhood appear to be most critical in the overall satisfaction with the living environment.- Satisfaction with servicesThere is little variance in the weight of the satisfaction with the used constructs in the overall satisfaction with services. - Overall satisfaction and loyaltyThe research shows that there is a weak relation between overall satisfaction and tendency to move house or length of stay. However the overall satisfaction with the housing package increases the tendency to recommend ones housing situation to others also increases.
Dogge, P.J.C, and Jos J. A. M. Smeets. "In Search of Customer Loyalty. a Research on the Relation Between Tenants' Satisfaction and Commitment." Journal of Applied Psychology [Special Issue 18th IAPS Conference] 6, no. 3-4 (2004): 111-120. Housing managers see customer loyalty as one of the major sources of sustainable competitive advantage. Several marketing theories assume that satisfaction leads to customer loyalty. A deeper look into literature, however, shows also that concepts like value and commitment are relevant. The relationships between these concepts have hardly been researched in the context of housing. The main objective of the research presented is to get an insight into the relationship between satisfaction and tenant commitment. After describing these concepts and their relationship, we will look into the results of our research. We will discuss the factors behind satisfaction and the relationship to commitment. We consider commitment in two ways: the tendency to move house and the tendency to recommend one’s neighbourhood. Using Structural Equation Modelling, we will estimate the relation between these forms of commitment and satisfaction in two models. We will conclude with the managerial implications of our research.
Depres, C, A Fortin, and G. Vachon. "Inclusive Participation in Collaborative Urban Planning: Difficulties and Challenges." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. This communication is about collaborative planning. The first part presents the large participatory process designed and coordinated by the Interdisciplinary Research Group on Suburbs (GIRBa, in French) to orient the future of Quebec City's first ring suburbs. Completed in December 2003, the 18-month process involved key actors at three levels of political governance and intervention: 1) the Macro level: the decision-makers and planners involved at the regional, metropolitan and municipal levels and whose decisions could impact the future of first ring suburbs; 2) the Meso level: Borough Office directors, local elected officials, as well as Local Development Center, School Board and Local Center for Community Services representatives; and 3) the Micro level: representatives from neighborhood associations and the population at large. It consisted of three main overlapping phases: the Diagnosis phase to reach a shared understanding of the challenges involved in the future of Quebec City's first ring suburbs; the General Orientations and Objectives phase to identify shared goals for retrofitting this portion of Quebec City's territory; and the Redevelopment Plan and Strategy phase to elaborate a master plan for postwar suburbs, as well as policies, regulations and programs to implement it. At the Macro and Meso levels, the two first phases involved a two-day design charrette, nine one-day colloquium and workshops and a dozen half-day brainstorming meetings. These gave all involved actors the opportunity to identify and define together the problems and needs of these suburbs. Beyond being time-consuming, bringing these actors together has been relatively easy, and the results rich and fruitful. Most participants showed enthusiasm and were happy to come back to the next meeting. Actors from different sectors have learned to know each other and to forget the authority they were representing. The process was enriched not only by the contribution of the various participants but from their co-presence, producing a unique and distinct knowledge. During the process, GIRBa facilitated the circulation of information: each meeting led to a detailed report which, when completed and approved by all participants, was made available to all to follow the reflection as it moved toward a progressively shared understanding. All documents produced were made available to the public on GIRBa's Web site ( http://www.girba.crad.ulaval.ca). At the Micro level, phase 1 and 2 were conducted in an almost parallel manner. Given the time frame and the money we had, we had difficulty identifying and mobilizing various key citizens and leaders from neighborhood associations early enough in the process to have them work with Macro and Meso representatives. With the exception of a leader from a suburban African association, GIRBa's detailed socio-demographic analysis and extensive survey of suburban residents (Fortin et al, 2002) were used to integrate citizens' concerns for various aspects of their environments during the two first phases. To reach out to specific subgroups of the population, we conducted a dozen focus groups with elderly, teenagers, immigrants and single-mothers to discuss the future of their neighborhood and community. In addition, we conducted over 70 semi-structured interviews with suburban tenants and proceeded with an evaluation of the quality of rental apartment buildings, for which we had no information to start with. Finally, in an attempt to reach out to more families with children, as well as to people less active in their community organizations, we launched an Internet survey. As they were made available, these findings were reported to Macro and Meso actors during the colloquia. The second part of the presentation will highlight the successes and the failures, strengths and weaknesses, limits and the challenges of the participatory process, in respect to the theoretical underpinnings of collaborative planning. Our difficulty in giving a voice to regular citizens in the process will specifically be discussed in relationship to the size of the territory covered.
Fresteiro, R.. "Influence of Different Illumination Systems in Static and Dynamic Spatial Perception of People with Subnormal Vision." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. 1- INTRODUCTIONThe paper consisted of three experiments made in order to evaluate the spatial perception of the involved persons; two static and one dynamic. All experiments took place in the “Ciudad de la Luz”, in Madrid, Spain, in various environments. We had a total of 34 participants, classified by sex, age and pathologies: 14 had retinal degeneration disease, 7 had optic nerve pathology, 7 had degenerative myopia, 2 had diabetic retinopathy and 2 had other pathologies. All pathologies were congenital, or with more than 10 years, all went through visual rehabilitation, ages between 25 and 70 years old and a visual acuity lower than 10%.1- Perception of space with different illumination systemsObjectivesFinding out how people with visual disabilities perceive the space with various illumination systems, so that it can be used as an aid for their displacements. Experimental design We applied the psycho physic technique of magnitude estimation, in which every subject values the space with different illumination systems comparing it with a control system.The subjects did an estimation of the size of the room illuminated by one system; after valuing this system in an arbitrary scale, they evaluated the other 3 systems, comparing them with the control system and giving a higher or lower value according to their space perception. 2- Object detection and identification with different illuminances and colour temperaturesObjectivesTo evaluate the influence of the various illuminances and colour temperatures in the recognizing of close and far objects by visually disabled people. Experimental Design We used two illuminances combined with two colour temperatures (with 3000K, 50 and 1000 lx; with 6000K, 85 and 1000 lx), which were our independent variables. To avoid the ‘learning effect’, we tried not to repeat the test with the same subject with more than one illuminance and colour temperature. Therefore, the subjects were divided in groups, each one passing through one of the experiment situations. The dependent variables were: the number of detected/identified objects and the colours of the detected or identified objects.ObjectsThe detected and/or identified objects were chosen between the most usual ones, divided in congruent and incongruent with the use of the room, with high, medium and low contrast. The colours of the objects were regulated (UNE 48-103-94) and their luminances and their contrasts were measured with each of the illuminances and colour temperatures.Experimental Design As the subjects entered the room, illuminated in one of the conditions, we asked them how many objects they could detect and identify, if they could see colours, and with which of the illumination systems they felt more comfortable. Three parameters were considered: detection, identification and object colour. The objects considered as ‘detected’ were the ones that, without being named, were recognized by its shape and/or colour. The ones considered as ‘identified’ were those which were named and whose shape was recognized. The colour was considered as recognized when it corresponded with the object colour. Those objects that weren’t detected were scored with 0. 3- Displacements with different illumination systemsObjectivesWith this situation, we tried to evaluate the behaviour of people with subnormal vision when over passing architectonical barriers, measuring the required time and the task accomplishment with the different illumination systems. Experimental DesignThe performance of the test was measured by the required time with the different illumination systems and if the task was accomplished or not. We also evaluated the comfort with which the subjects carried out the displacements. The chosen systems were: the punctual system, the general system and the lineal system, all of them using lamps of 3000K of colour temperature. After explaining the procedure to the subjects, they were asked to do two tasks. Obtained resultsFor the people with subnormal vision, the spaces in which the wall surfaces are illuminated will appear smaller than the ones that have a centralized illumination. This perception is exactly the opposite of the people with normal vision. This conclusion is extremely important in architecture when evaluating elements that can be perceived by visually disabled people. In the object-recognizing test, no significant differences were found in all situations. The object detection is always higher than the object identification. The illumination system didn’t cause significant differences in the performance of the displacement test, measured through the time required to finish the task. In the accomplishment of the tasks we didn’t observe significant differences in any of the illumination systems, for what we deduce that the illumination levels were sufficient to carry out those tasks.
Henderson-Wilson, C.. Inner City Highrise Apartment Living in Australia: Can Access to Nature Make It Healthier? In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. There is a growing body of research which suggests that life in the inner city may be detrimental to human health (Parsons, 1991; Rohde & Kendle, 1994). Highrise apartment living has been found to impact negatively on residents, being associated with lower physical activity, behavioural problems, respiratory problems and social isolation (Evans, Wells & Moch, 2003; Jackson, 2002). Despite this awareness, highrise apartment living in the major cities of Australia is increasing rapidly. Since 1996, the growth in Australia’s urbanisation has accelerated, with the City of Melbourne estimating that between 1996 and 2000, the number of inner city apartment dwellers increased almost three-fold (City of Melbourne, 2000). Similarly, Sydney’s Central Business District population tripled between 1991 and 1997 (Dean, 2000). Such trends are expected to continue in Australia’s major cities. Contact with nature, for example, parks and gardens, has been shown to alleviate some of the negative effects of living in the inner city. Research suggests that nearby nature (eg. ‘green’ common spaces) can result in positive human health benefits ranging from: enhancement of mental well-being (Kaplan & Kaplan, 1989; Wells, 2000), to improved social integration (Kuo, Sullivan, Coley & Brunson, 1998) to reduction of crime (Kuo & Sullivan, 2001), and to promotion of individuals’ ability to deal effectively with daily life challenges (Kuo, 2001). According to Jackson (2002), greenery and access to it both visually and physically, are key determinants of health. Such elements could be incorporated into high-density inner city neighbourhoods to increase residents’ physical activity and to enhance neighbourhood quality. It has been suggested that urban dwellers may develop a sense of identity with place and community from their involvement in urban nature areas. Such people may benefit from access to nature in four different life areas: emotionally, socially, physically and intellectually (Johnston, 1990). Recent research conducted by Kuo (2001) in the United States of America demonstrates a positive link between ‘green environments’ in highrise developments and the effective management of challenging life events. In addition, Kuo (2001) has also found a connection between contact with nature for highrise residents and their strengthened ability to cope with poverty and the hardships of life in public housing. The present study investigates the association between differing levels of access to natural environments, and the health, well-being and effective functioning of highrise residents in inner city Melbourne and Sydney. This study extends the work by Kuo (2001), to include participants who vary in socioeconomic status, tenure and geographic location. This paper presents preliminary findings from Phase 1 of the study: administration of a self-completed questionnaire, comprised of psychometrically validated self-report measures, to a sample of 600 highrise residents. Results of this study should provide urban planners, park managers, and government bodies with evidence to ensure future Australian urban development enhances inner city public health and well-being, particularly inner city populations under stress (eg. public housing).
Hartmuth, G, D Rink, and K. Huber. "Integrated Communal Monitoring of Sustainable Development." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. "The increasing complexity of problems in towns and municipalities demands for a comprehensive assessment. Local politicians and administration staff therefore need integrated reporting systems which overcome the boundaries of departments and competences. Only the use of meaningful sets of indicators allows to assess the attainment of political objectives continuously, to recognise adverse effects in time, and to adjust measures to changing conditions. Existing communal information systems, as for example in the area of environmental and social reporting, rarely meet the criteria of integrating departments or themes. Rather, communal reporting normally is split with respect to both content and organisation. Administration spanning access as well as integrated data analysis is hampered by this. But even if an integration of data is feasible in a technical way, the absence of an integrative conceptual background works as a barrier to the derivation of consistent sets of measures. Despite often being criticised as too vague, too global and too arbitrary, the model of sustainable development offers such a background. Building on the idea of both intra- and inter-generational equity and covering - at least - ecological, economic and social aspects, the model provides an adequate framework for the proposed combination of communal reporting systems. Compared to linking information systems in a mere technical way, aligning with the model of sustainable development allows for an integrated perspective on communal problems. In addition, the normative content of the concept provides standards for evaluation. But for all of this, an adequate operationalization of the model with regard to the communal level is crucial. Currently, an integrated reporting system for sustainable development is designed, assembled and tried out in close collaboration with the municipalities of Halle (Saale) and Leipzig. The objective is to establish an intranet-based, geo-referenced information system that builds upon existing reporting systems and can be utilized in a department spanning and user-friendly way. The project is based on an integrative conceptualization of sustainable development that was developed by scientists of the Helmholtz Association of National Research Centres (Coenen & Grunwald, 2003; Kopfmüller et al., 2001). The Helmholtz concept starts from three constitutive elements of sustainable development: Equity (within and between generations), global orientation, and the central role of man (anthropocentricity). From these elements, three general goals are derived in a systematic way, followed by 25 so-called rules of sustainability. Representing minimum requirements of sustainable development, this set of rules forms the core of the concept. Beyond the relatively differentiated "spelling" of sustainable development, the Helmholtz concept is of interest for a second reason. Originally developed with respect to the national level, it aims, among others, at the identification of indicators. To do so, the rules are linked to core problems of sustainability that have been extracted in an inductive way, e.g. by analysing studies and strategies referring to sustainable development. The combination of the normative, rule-oriented approach with the inductive approach results in a system of indicators that addresses real problems, thus adapting the rules to the national context. In order to contextualize the model at the communal level the same procedure can also be executed here. Hence, in a first step department spanning working groups of both municipalities determined core problems which their cities are facing. As a result, among others, high unemployment, demographic change, vacancy of housing space and the dramatic financial situation were seen as especially serious problems. In a second step the reference to the Helmholtz concept was established by assigning the problems issued to corresponding rules of sustainability. Thus, links could be established between the abstract, global model of sustainable development and the real, concrete problems on the spot. Connecting rules of sustainability and communal problems resulted in a series of so-called rule-problem-sets, for which indicators were identified and filled with data systematically. To increase the explanatory power of the reporting system, spatial differentiation at the level of municipal districts was introduced whenever possible, resulting in a cartographic presentation of the data. To make the information system easily available to a broad circle of actors, it is realised as an intranet-based Geographical Information System (Web-GIS). Thus, department spanning access on essential data regarding communal sustainability should be afforded. If, however, the conclusions of the analyses enabled will find their way into communal politics, is part of another story."
Romice, Ombretta. "Integrated Neighbourhood Development - a European Perspective." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. For their size and impact on daily life, neighbourhoods are ideal units to study and assess quality of life, social ties, identity, well-being and territoriality (Moudon, 1994; Castellas 1997; Healey, 1998). As such, they have over the recent years become object of study from a multitude of disciplines and areas of interest: economists, sociologists, planners, politicians etc. have recognised that neighbourhoods are affected by national trends as well as local factors – spanning from very general concepts such as welfare structures and the related attitudes towards housing, social services, employment etc, to ones specific to individual localities. This research, and the acknowledgement that the various national answers to urban development since WW II have often failed in adopting planning processes capable of addressing coherently such a multitude of factors, seem to point out that integrated and coordinated actions are (potentially) the most opportune way to achieve successful urban management and regeneration. Governments across Europe are realising the need for policies to be based upon a better understanding of people's expectations and experiences within neighbourhoods (Madanipour et al 1998).NEHOM studied, through 26 significant experiences in 8 countries, how different figures (governments, local activists, housing companies etc) recognised the need for such integration and coordination, and the planning and management tools they devised to achieve them. The focus of the research are socially excluded neighbourhoods in different political and welfare systems, urban settings, affected by a multitude of problems – social, physical, economic, vandalism and crime, abandon etc. The method adopted in the research included a) in-depth interviews of residents, those responsible for the neighbourhood management and other figures with interests at stake in the various cases; b) the investigation of national housing contexts and procedures to combat social exclusion; c) field trips, and d) national conferences and debates. This cross-cultural study is not meant to draw comparisons that – for the nature of the problems and their different manifestations - would be hardly meaningful, but to learn from practices at the national, regional and local level, performing strategic, tailored and targeted intervention.Social fragmentation weakens social bounds and in many of the NEHOM cases this is evident in the problems affecting the neighbourhoods, in the difficulty in planning and delivering intervention. But fragmentation of the institutional sector is also responsible for the difficulty in organising and delivering intervention. What is clear is that both institutions and neighbourhoods need to learn new practices of work, and that coordination, efficiency and effectiveness can no longer count on traditional attitudes and instruments.The paper will look across the 8 nations to identify viable macro and micro initiatives or strategies that have proved successful or have initiated a process of regeneration - which will be long term, involving, self-generating, clearly coordinated, and possess certain degrees of flexibility. The various experiences will highlight, in general, how regeneration processes can be successful only when they link overall goals to local dimensions.There are important lessons to learn in order to improve the conceptual and managerial approaches to neighbourhood regeneration; examples from the cases studied will illustrate the point listed below and a concluding discussion will comment upon the replicability of such experiences across different contexts. Amongst the lessons learned: - Creating an overall view of neighbourhoods for regeneration, their characters and commonalities/differences can help building partnership, fund applications and allocation, coordination and ultimately effectiveness.- Placing the neighbourhood in the wider context, never considering it as an issue ‘per se’. Problems depend also on the context, and so do solutions.- Assessing the social and economic viability of any initiative before committing to it. - Building a team which is inclusive, multi-specialist, and develop new tools and work relationships. - Involving the (local) politicians in the initiative, assuring their continuous commitment to it. - Gathering detailed local knowledge, involve local partners and support the creation of local networks. Make sure that people ‘matter’. - Developing a strategy of economic, social and physical local growth and reinforcement. Planning ahead, linking strategies to each other for mutual support.- Thinking big, acting small: root initiatives for the neighbourhood to the neighbourhood by continuously reinvesting in achievements at any scale. - Making delivery agencies locally visible.- Bringing in ‘third parties’ between the neighbourhood and the institutions involved; they are neutral common ground that combines interests on the basis of shared knowledge, intentions, language.
Green, S, J Sixsmith, S Tomsone, Dahlin S Ivanov, and A. Sixsmith. "Integrating Accounts of Person-Environment Action in Old Age: European Perspectives." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. The theoretical model of person-environment-occupation (PEO) fit (1), provides a transactional view of the interplay between such issues as the health of an individual, home environment and occupational pursuits. Over a lifespan the balance between these elements shifts, so that environmental and occupational changes may occur in response to declining health. In very old age it becomes increasingly important to understand the interactive relationship between these issues. Little however is known about the daily lives of very old people living at home, about how their health or well-being is affected by their home environments (2), or about ways to meet occupational needs when health may be poor and the home no longer “user-friendly”. The international, interdisciplinary Enable-Age project team, is well placed to address such deficiencies. It uses a multi-methods approach, to explore the complex relationship between home, health and occupation, and locates the findings within international policy directives. This paper demonstrates how integrated methodologies are addressing three major questions: (1) Is there a relationship between the home environment, personal health and occupation amongst very old people? Survey results are highlighted from approximately 400 people per country, all aged between 75 and 89 years. (2) What role does occupation at home play in the everyday lives of older people? Initial findings from 120 (40 per country) in-depth semi-structured interviews, point to the important role of home-based activity in later life. (3) How might policy initiatives support home-related occupations amongst older people? Case examples from UK, Latvia and Sweden will be used to illustrate the early project findings, and locate these within the theoretical framework of the PEO model.
Moser, G.. "Integrating Cultural and Temporal Dynamics in Environmental Psychology for the New Millenium." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. Defining sustainable development as a development capable of satisfying the needs of the present generation without compromising the possibility of future generations satisfying their own needs, opens the way to concerns related to quality of life. The reference to needs allows for the inclusion of not only the necessity that development be harmonious towards and respectful to the environment, but equally for recognition of the individual's own well-being. Furthermore, at the edge of the 21st century, globalisation and its corollary, global trade and communications, creates pressure towards cultural life-style uniformity and brings along fear of a the standardisation of values and a increased anonymity. In this context, globalisation is considered by many of our citizens as threatening their identity. Environmental psychology is able to analyse, explain and furnish information capable of identifying the conditions involved in well-being and thereby help formulate decisions in environmental matters. In order to meet these requirements, environmental psychology needs to take increasingly account of two variables which have, until now, been inadequately considered: intercultural difference and the temporal dimension of our relation to the environment. The cultural factor cannot be ignored in our societies which are increasingly intercultural, and our relation to the built as well as the natural environment needs to be analysed in terms of temporality. The introduction of temporal variables could contribute to better understanding of some fundamental processes. Most of our perceptions and behaviours in the environment are imbedded in historical references and related to individual perspectives. This paper will analyse the impact of intercultural factors and the time perspective on four levels of analysis (the micro-environment, the proximate environment, urban environment and the global environment). The paper further considers how environment psychology needs to come to terms with the fourth level of analysis - the global environment and sustainable development.
Ornetzeder, M, and H. Rohracher. "Intelligent and Green? Smart Homes and Sustainability from a User Perspective." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. Discussions about 'buildings of tomorrow' mostly follow one of two separate routes. From the perspective of energy-efficient or sustainable buildings, issues such as resource efficiency and use of renewable energies are raised, whereas the perspective of 'building automation' and ‘Smart Homes’ makes extensive use of information and communication technologies (ICT) with a smart response to user requirements. However, even Smart Homes are often advertised because of their positive effect on energy efficiency. The contribution of ICT applications to energy efficiency certainly depends on the availability of particular functions but perhaps even more on the way such applications are used and accepted by users and on the availability of services building on these technologies. The energy performance of smart homes is not so much a question of developing appropriate technologies or of providing sufficient information to potential users but of evolving contexts of usage and associated learning processes of users and suppliers.The main question posed in our contribution is whether the development of Smart Home technologies and developments should be given more consideration from an environmental point of view and subsequently how applications could be promoted that harness the potential of smart homes to improve energy efficiency. After sketching applications of smart-home-technologies that could reduce energy consumption we will discuss preconditions to establish new product uses and strategies to induce social learning processes between users and producers of smart homes. Finally we will present results from an Austrian 'Constructive Technology Assessment' project on smart homes, where user acceptance, existing practices of use and the expectations of designers and suppliers were investigated and brought together in a series of stakeholder workshops and focus group discussions.The aim of the Austrian project was to develop perspectives for the use of IT in sustainable buildings which better meet both, the needs of users and sustainability criteria. A process of 'constructive technology assessment' should allow designer and user perspectives to engage with each other - by conducting a series of focus groups with dwellers in sustainable buildings, analysing 'user scripts' - the intended way of technology usage by designers - and the practical use of these technologies in existing buildings. Based on such a socio-technical analysis a series of workshops with the participation of different groups of stakeholders (utilities, technology producers, environmental experts, building companies and user representatives) was set up to interactively develop services and initiatives geared towards a user's point of view.Based on technical and socio-economic scenarios, interviews, workshops and focus groups one can say that from an environmental perspective the promotion of smart homes should not be given priority. Resource efficiency may be reached by other means (building insulation etc.) in a more effective and cost-efficient way. The aim should rather be to shape the developments in the smart home sector in an ecological way, e.g. by exemplary implementation of smart home technologies in sustainable buildings and by giving support to develop plausible ecological applications.The main difficulty for smart homes is to convince residents of the use-value of such applications. Applications that can only be provided by smart homes and are perceived as highly useful are still lacking. Moreover, the organisational and institutional context of applications (e.g. what are the practical consequences of automatic fault detection and information of the user) and a sufficient plausibility of widely advertised applications (e.g. smart fridge) are often not paid enough attention to.The research presented in this paper aims to contribute to the evaluation and understanding of the present situation of smart and energy-efficient homes and to outline perspectives how to better reconcile Smart Home developments with requirements of a more sustainable development.
Herrera, José Gomez. Internal Habitability of the House and Its Relation with the Cycles of Life of Families In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. "In this work the physical characteristics of the house and their influence are analyzed from the internal habitability; taking account the cycles of life of families. We find the experimental theoretical basis in the works on habitability of S. Mercado and collaborator (1991,1994,1995; 1998; 2003); and in the theoretical contributions of Moser (1998; 2000; 2002; 2003), through the analysis of the relation of the individual with the environment, specifically analyzing what the author denominates "private spaces".Demographic explosion in the world and preoccupations with the sustainable development (Altman, 1981; Archea, 1977; Fitch, 1978; Gifford, 1997 y 2002; Jiménez, y Aragonés, 1986; Lefth, 1998) generate the necessity to adapt the design of the houses and to improve the quality of life of their inhabitants. So it seems relevant to study the characteristics of the house (Kaplan, 1983 y Werner, 1987), responding to the necessities and style of life of its occupants, and that at the same time must be adapted to the different cycles of life of families.HABITABILITY is defined as the intrinsic quality of the constructed spaces, in the sense that they contribute to the conditions that allow the healthy biological, psychological and social development of the inhabitants. In the analysis of the habitability, it is necessary to consider social and temporal aspects, and specific spaces (Moser, 2000, 2002 y 2003); and to relate them with the different qualitative levels of activity, conscience and commitment of the individual (Altman, 1981; Wapner, 1991).In this study, we analyse the habitability from the systemic structural theory (Andolfi, 1977; Minuchin, 1983), where family is considered like a system that operates within other ample systems, and presents three characteristics: a) Family system is an opened structural system, always in transformation process; b) Family system is developed in a series of stages marked by "crises", which change their structure, without losing its identity (vital cycle). Where each one of the members behaves like a same differentiated unit and to the interdependent one; that is to say that individual behaviour, at the same time influences and is influenced by the other members of the system. c) Also, the family is a relational system connected to the individual with the rest of the society. Different cycles of life of families are (Carter and McGoldrick, 1989): 1) Engagement-establishment of the pair; 2) Birth and raising of the children; 3) Game of the children of the home, and 4) Separation or death of some member of the pair.In the daily life, vital cycles of the family and use of the house are juxtaposed and interacted permanently. For example, while the children with ages between 20 to 25 years old live the stage of falling in love and form couple or get married; the parents more likely have between 45 to 55 years, and are in the loosening stage or "nest drained" (Alberoni, 1994); and the grandparents, if they are still living, are in phases like greater adults (oldness), with minimum ages of 65 years; the most of the time with medical treatments and just retired. Obviously, the necessities of use of the house for each one of the members of the family are different at different moments of their life, because each one needs vital spaces agreed to her age, sex and stage of personal vital cycle.In this work, we propose the following levels of Inter and intra psychological transactions: Level I Satisfaction of personal necessities; Level II Transactions by explicit familiar agreements; Level III Transactions that connect the activities and values of the family with those of the community. Level IV Familiar transactions that connect the familiar activities to universal values. Each one of these levels of activity, conscience and involvement takes control by each individual, depending on the values of the culture of the social group to which it belongs; the scene is the house and the origin the family.Finally, it is tried to conclude in proposals that allow to design and to construct houses that take into account the values, necessities and style of life of the users."
Devine-Wright, P.. "International Perspectives on Sustainable Energy and People-Environment Studies." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. This symposium will address the unique processes and challenges of moving towards a sustainable energy approach that reduces carbon emissions and spans social, economic, environmental and technical issues. Despite the pressing environmental, political and economic importance of such an approach, there has been comparatively little work within the domain of people-environment studies that has attempted to appraise our current knowledge and theory in this specific area. To address this, the symposium will being a diverse array of speakers and perspectives together, presenting latest research findings concerning human aspects of both energy efficiency and renewable energy – focusing upon issues such as public understanding, environmental attitudes and intentions, social acceptability and community participation. The over-arching goal of this symposium is to better understand the personal, socio-cultural and political factors that are important in shaping sustainable energy development and practices, drawing from different theoretical fields, including political science, psychology and sociology. The symposium will showcase a number of international research projects and case studies, drawn from research teams in the United States (Prof. Steve Hoffman and Dr. Angela High-Pippert at University of St. Paul, Minnesota in collaboration with Mr. Michael Noble (Minnesotans for an Energy Efficient Economy), the UK (Dr. Devine-Wright et al. at De Montfort University, Leicester), the Netherlands (two teams: firstly, W. Abrahamse (MSc) and Dr. Linda Steg at Univ. of Groningen and secondly, Dr. Gundula Huebner and Dr. Annaloes Meijnders at Eindhoven Technical University) and Germany (J. Prof. Petra Schweizer-Rees , J. Jagszent and V. Linneweber at Otto-von-Guericke University, Magdeburg). Each will focus upon how sustainable energy projects or interventions in diverse socio-economic and cultural contexts are influenced by a range of personal, socio-political and cultural factors. In doing so, the symposium aims to identify common theoretical factors and processes across various technical (e.g. energy conservation and renewable energy) and economic (energy demand and supply) contexts investigated by presenters. In this way, the symposium aims to appraise current theoretical and methodological approaches to sustainable energy research and recommend new directions for development.
Milfont, Taciano Lemos, and John Duckitt. "Investigating the Structure of Environmental Attitudes." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. As a result of an increasing interest in environmental issues, many scales have been developed to measure environmental attitudes. However, no agreement exists in relation to their dimensionality. They have been traditionally viewed as a uni-dimensional construct ranging from unconcerned at the low end, to concerned at the high end. Conversely, others argue that they have three correlated factors, these are concern for the self (Egoistic), other people (Altruistic), and the biosphere (Biospheric). Using combined factor analyses of items from previous environmental attitudes scales, and further factor analysis with the first-order factors that emerged on the first analysis, Wiseman and Bogner (2003) found two uncorrelated higher-order factors. They presented this as a Model of Ecological Values (MEV). This model has two orthogonal factors, Preservation and Utilisation. The former reflects conservation and protection of the environment, and the latter the utilisation of natural resources. This paper addressed two questions: (1) Do environmental attitudes form a two second-order structure as proposed by Wiseman and Bogner (2003)? If so, (2) Do these two factors differentially predict self-reported ecological behaviour and economic liberalism? A questionnaire-based study was conducted to test this higher-order structure, incorporating other environmental attitude measures into the model. Subjects were 455 undergraduate students (319 females; 136 males), with age ranging from 17 to 48 years (M = .19; SD = 4.31). Support for the higher-order model was accessed by factor analytic techniques through two procedures. First, 99 items from established measures of environmental attitudes were forced to a two-factor solution. Second, first-order factors were established, and then another factor analysis was performed to found the second-order factors. Goodness-of-fit indices from confirmatory factor analyses (using LISREL 8.54) indicated that a correlated two-factor solution, consisting of an Utilisation factor and a Preservation factor, provides the best fit to the data (_2 = 809.73; df = 393; _2/df= 2.06; RMSEA = .048; SRMR = .052; GFI = .89; CFI = .97). Additional results demonstrated that, after controlling for demographic variables, the Preservation factor predicted self-reported ecological behaviour (_ = .53, P
Weiss, K.. "Investigations of Isolated and Confined Environments." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. "Isolated and confined environments (ICEs) studied in this symposium are man-made situations, constituted for human specific requirements such as scientific research or the exploration of new environments. One of their functions is to face hostile conditions for human living (for instance, extreme cold or weightlessness). ICEs then show socio-spatial characteristics that make them a particularly rich field for psycho-environmental research. Indeed, the small groups, which live in this kind of environments for more or less long periods, have to face many constraints with few available resources (in terms of space or social diversity, for instance). The term of "natural laboratory" has already been used (Suedfeld, 2000) in order to highlight both the constraints and interests of such a man-made but not always experimentally induced situation. In this symposium, we will investigate four very different situations: analogues and simulations for space habitats, Royal Navy’s ships, scientific stations in isolated oceanic sites, and polar stations. These four presentations will insist on the methodological aspects in order to highlight how the research in environmental psychology can take into account these kinds of social and environmental constraints. These investigations could also show how it is possible to make a parallel with other original situations and to highlight some psychological and/or behavioural processes, particularly important in the case of coping strategies."
Weiss, K.. "Investigations of Life in Polar Stations: for an Intervention at the Beginning, During Or at the End of the Mission?" In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. A mission in a polar station holds a particular place for people who chose to experience this situation. It not only constitutes a rupture compared to the “usual life”, but it also often corresponds to a transition in the life course. For example, the young scientists who operate in the French bases generally prepare to face for the first time their professional life at the end of their mission. In the same way, the other categories of workers often use this experience of isolation for a professional or personal questioning. To this long transition are added shorter ones, at the beginning and at the end of the winter-over. During these periods, people have to adapt to new situations: at the beginning of mission, they have to learn how to live in this new environment, and sometimes they need to change their ways of living and their behavioural norms. At the end of the mission, the approach of the return to the “real life” necessitates a psychological reorganisation of their relationships with the environment. Thus, we can identify three great periods during a winter-over, each one corresponding to a particular relationship with the social and physical environment. This is why the data collected at these three times can provide very different results. In the four French polar stations, we attempted to study these three periods and to consider how people manage both available space and interpersonal relationships that take place in it. These factors could constitute some indicators of adaptation in this situation. The most important methodological difficulty is related to the situation itself since we tried to preserve its socio-environmental characteristics, and to work with qualitative data, thus privileging the psycho-environmental approach. The choice of the methods is linked to the choice of the time when the data are collected: an external researcher can only intervene before of the real isolation period (i.e. the austral winter), and/or afterwards, and thus collect only either expectations, or the perception of a reformulated reality. In this case, we then worked using semi-directive interviews. On the contrary, the collection of data during the winter can be considered only with the assistance of a member of the wintering group, which causes usual problems of a participant observation. From this point of view, and in order to preserve objectivity, we choose to systematize this observation, and joined it with questionnaires during the mission. A three moments comparison gives interesting results by confronting perceptions (a priori and a posteriori) of wintering people with their behaviours during the mission. This communication will be based on two studies privileging one or the other of the methods (interviews at the beginning and at the end of a mission; and on site observations). We will show how it is possible to analyse, through the investigation of psycho-environmental aspects, different modes of adaptation to this type of “extreme” situation. At the beginning of winter-over, the analysis of perceptions and representations of the life in the station makes it possible to stress an utopian vision. It also gives information on the way in which information is transmitted from a mission to the next one. This transmission of information can also be put in obviousness during post-winter interviews. This kind of interview can also provide information on the way the situation has been lived by the subjects. It underlines for instance some kinds of environmental appropriation such as perceived by the subjects. The way they lived the situation is then, in the speeches, spontaneously confronted with their fears and waiting face to the end of the mission and the approach of the return to the “ordinary” life. It is then a way of tackling the possible problems associated with transitions in their life. Last, observations during the winter make it possible to have some specific behavioural information, and more specifically when and where (and with who) behaviours take place. It is then possible to stress usually non-declared elements during interviews: interpersonal and intergroup conflicts, privileged uses of certain places, and especially evolution of these behaviours during the mission. We then hypothesize that observed behavioural changes could be an indicator of a “rupture” or reorganization in the isolated life.
Borgogni, A, M Balzani, E Cavicchi, and S. Trevisani. "Involvement of Informal Groups of Young People in Territorial Planning." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. Many previous actions of the project “The Body goes to the City”, supported by the UISP (Unione Italiana Sport Per tutti) Ferrara in collaboration with the Department of Architecture of the University of Ferrara, have been aimed at involving children and elderly people in the planning of urban spaces. Lately, however, the attention has been focused on teenagers and young adults, the “great absents” of social and educational policies, who have been involved in territorial planning actions by means of manifold participative strategies and methods which were differentiated according to diverse working situations. The richness of these methods results from the interdisciplinary nature of the work groups, which consist of young architects, educationists, sociologists, psychologists and physical educators. The components of the work groups participate together in drawing up the operational project, adapting it to the circumstances and mutually learning from each other. Each operational group is composed of members with different professional education and backgrounds, and they all participate together in the work with the youth. The observational, didactic and operational tools are chosen by each single group together, under the supervision of the project co-ordinators. In the action carried out within the Local Agenda21, the interventions involved high school students and were aimed to re-plan the schoolyards. Boys and girls from several classes even participated in constructing the tools for the sociological and town-planning surveys and took part in workshops of creative planning regarding the spaces of a school. In the action carried out in the Barco neighbourhood of Ferrara, characterised by governmental working-class housing projects, the informal territorial planning carried out with young people on the spot was included in a larger research, whose aim was to investigate the mutual perception between the old and new inhabitants of the neighbourhood. The four-family houses and small blocks of flats in the neighbourhood are currently being demolished according to a governmental programme and new, multi-apartment buildings are being built instead. The neighbourhood is going through radical urbanistic and social changes, as only a part of the old residents has chosen to return in the new houses assigned to them and as the arrival of the new inhabitants, middle-aged families and young people with low income, is modifying the demographic composition of the neighbourhood. The research was followed by street workshops with young people and by planning workshops with specifically chosen adults, started by a meeting with the young. The project was financed by PROMECO, a service aiming at social prevention and promotion. The third action was promoted by the Municipal Administration, many of the offices of which were involved, and it was carried out in the north-western district of Ferrara, composed of many small centres at the distance of a few kilometres from the city.In this case the focus was laid on involving youth in the planning of meeting places in the centres where they live and on inventing initiatives which would connect the different small centres with the biggest one, Porotto, closest to the city and centre of the district. In the last two projects the method, consisting in “hooking” and involving young people, is based on surprise, on intentional “wrongfooting” and on a mixed use of “poor” tools and materials together with advanced technologies. These projects were carried out in collaboration with the activity leaders of the “Area Giovani”, a service for the young people of the Municipality of Ferrara. The planning together with young people is done outdoors, in places where they normally meet each other: on the benches, under the trees, on the boundaries of public parks. The initial phase of sensitisation, based on street focus groups, is followed by an urbanistic survey, which starts from the method of “mental maps” of Kevin Lynch and from the system of perceptive qualitative survey developed by the Department of Architecture of the University of Ferrara; the latter allows to construct maps based on the senses and sensations (security, discomfort, pleasure…).Together the two approaches offer information impossible to obtain with the normal working methods and may provide the planners with radically different points of view for drawing up town plans. In brief, the method of all the above described actions includes the following phases: a preliminary observation of the territory; a sociological research-action; the laboratories. The results of each phase allow to draw up the final project.These strategies of planning urban spaces, based on school and street workshops, reached the triple objective of - offering metaproject models to public administration, committed in the realisation, - helping young people to trace paths of protagonism/citizenship, involving them also in the presentation of the results of the action to the authorities and to other inhabitants of the neighbourhood,- training new professional figures (so-called “operatori diffusi”, i.e. “broad actors”), which emerge (in the sense used by E. Morin in his book “The Method”) from sharing different knowledge systems.The results consisted in sensitising young people to their living environments and in the planning and realisation of some of the urbanistic interventions proposed.The project strategy can be transferred to other contexts under the condition that there is willingness to cross the borders between different disciplines on the field of research-actions and to create synergy between the different stakeholders (public administration, universities, associations etc.) on the territory.
Kirsan, C.. "Is It a Greek Or a Turkish House? a Comparative Morphological Enquiry into the Domestic Spaces of Coexistence in the Island of Cyprus." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. The traditional vernacular houses in Cyprus as houses of ethnic co-existence had witnessed all the tension and sympathy between Turkish and Greek Cypriots, the two natives of the Island. Leaving aside the fact that little is known about these houses, the ethnic conflict which had generated between the Turkish and Greek Cypriots seem to have hindered studies aiming at identifying differences and/or similarities between houses of two communities objectively. In parallel with this, the terms “Greek house”, “Turkish house” or “Ottoman house” are widely used to categorise these houses according to their ethnic occupation at a specific time irrespective of their spatial characteristics. Similarly the description of these houses as “courtyard houses” is another cliché among the architects and scholars who do not explain what that really is other than being “organised around an internal courtyard” and what it is that makes it a “Greek” or a “Turkish” house.This study specifically seeks answer to “how and to what extent ethnic divisions were reflected in their domestic cultures of these groups?” The research sets out exploring similarities and dissimilarities between houses considered as Greek and Turkish and to clarify what makes a house “Turkish” or “Greek”. For this purpose it attempts to give a morphological account for these houses rather than pointing simply to surface characteristics. In doing so it refers to spatial characteristics specifically the relation of internal spaces to each other and the relation of internal spaces to the outside of the dwelling. The study has been grounded on an analytical theory of architecture, which provides tools to represent domestic space and quantify those properties in relation to social variables for a better understanding of the relation between house form and culture. This theory and sets of tools it encapsulates are named as Space Syntax and is based on the idea that cultural information is embedded in the deep abstract structures underlying the actual spatial organisations of the houses named as configuration. With its methodological devices Space Syntax retrieves these underlying regularities that relate directly to the social and cultural functioning of the house. The concepts of spatial configuration and genotype, as invariant properties of these underlying structures are the key concepts adopted in this study. This paper utilises these theoretical and methodological ideas and tools, provided for the analysis of spatial morphology of the built environments and conducts a comparative analysis of traditional domestic spaces to explore the cultural influences. It sets out grasping the spatial themes and/or genotypes as they are called and investigates the way and the degree configuration differs across ethnic groups and finally interprets these for their social implications to throw light whether ethnicity has had any implications on domestic space. The empirical side of the study is based on a comparison of the spatial genotypes discovered, representing a number of rural houses of Greek and Turkish origin selected from one specific region in Cyprus; the Mesarion. These houses, of degrading cultural heritage, were randomly selected based on the availability of identifiable cases. Due to the absence of substantial architectural records, the spatial layouts have generally been reconstructed retrospectively from their present situations through a field study, so as to reflect conditions of the specific period of physical coexistence. This would cover the period dating back to 1900’s until 1974 when the two communities had been separated physically from each other. In total, 60 house layouts have been obtained with 30 Greek and 30 Turkish identity. The plans have then been abstracted according to the principles of the simulation tools, which form the basis for the analysis conducted by using the computer programs developed for this purpose. These abstractions are based on the permeability relations within the house and between the house and its outside world. The paper describes the findings of this empirical study along with the brief explanations of the techniques used and interprets them so as to answer questions of ethnic variations. The analysis has shown that, the terms Greek and Turkish houses are created artificially with political and nationalistic concerns. The houses, as good examples of vernacular, rather than designed, provide us with the necessary information that shows/emphasises the role of peoples’ lifestyles in driving the spatial formations of their dwellings. Ethnicity seems not to have any significant implications for these particular houses at their spatial constitutions at domestic space level. It will be argued once more that, these structures need to be defined in terms of their configurational properties to arrive at a full understanding of the nature of the system which enables the essence of spatial meaning to be understood and to form the basis for comparisons and for further understanding of space use. Surely surface appearances are informative as well, but rather as a ground where tastes and fashion are displayed not as a mirror to cultural structures.
Kirsan, Ciler. "Is It a Greek Or a Turkish House? a Comparative Morphological Enquiry into the Domestic Spaces of Coexistence in the Island of Cyprus." In Designing Social Innovation: Planning, Building, Evaluating - Proceedings of the 18th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Hogrefe & Huber, 2005.

This paper presents a comparative syntactical analysis of 30 Greek and 36 Turkish Cypriot village houses selected from the Mesarion Region in Cyprus. Space Syntax theory and methods are employed to investigate, ‘how and to what extent were ethnic divisions reflected in the domestic cultures of these, ‘cohabitating’ and ‘conflicting’ nations?’ The analysis has shown in a concrete way that the domestic cultures of both ethnic groups have been essentially driven by their similar agricultural economy and way of life and that both are the variations of a single dominant theme called ‘courtyard-integrated’. The analysis also suggests that ethnicity does not have clear, significant implications at their spatial constitutions for these particular houses and that the terms ‘Greek house’ and ‘Turkish house’ are likely to have been created artificially with political and nationalistic concerns resulting from the ethnic conflict situation.

Scopelliti, M.. "Is Restorativeness the Same for All? a Lifespan Perspective on Restorative Experiences." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. The concepts of “restorative environments” and “restorative experiences” emphasize the recovering aspects of places, which allow people to distract, to relax, to take some distance from ordinary life and which promote positive moods and feelings (Kaplan & Talbot, 1983). According to the model proposed by Kaplan & Kaplan (1989), four components of environments account for their restorative quality: being away, extent, fascination and compatibility. Past research on restorativeness often aimed at analyzing the restorative value of different typologies of environments: results show that natural environments regularly score higher than built ones on the four components rating scales (Laumann, Gärling & Stormark, 2001). However, it should be emphasized that stimuli used by researchers are photographs in which natural environments shown are frequently beautiful landscapes, while built ones are often unattractive scenes. Nonetheless, Scott & Canter (1997) argue that a different perspective is assumed in environment evaluation tasks, when the focus is directed on the physical attributes of the environment or, on the other hand, on the place experience. In accordance with this distinction, the aim of this study was to promote a deeper understanding of the complex experience which turns an environment into a restorative place. A life span approach was also adopted in this research: people at different stages of the life span are hypothesized to have divergent restoration needs, as a consequence of the different developmental tasks (Erikson, 1968, 1982; Levinson, Darrow, Klein & McKee, 1978) they have to deal with. In a preliminary study based on this theoretical framework (Scopelliti, 2002), it was found that meanings of restorativeness may change at different stages of the life span; results also emphasize the importance of social interaction and activities performed in restorative environments among the “experience variables”. In the present research, the role of the two experience variables was investigated by manipulating eight scenarios, in which four natural and four built environments which emerged as highly restorative in the previous study were described: we obtained four different versions for each scenario, by manipulating the variables “social interaction” – presence vs. absence of social interaction – and “typology of activity performed” – active vs. passive behaviours –. As a consequence, each scenario was presented in a different version to four independent groups of respondents. It was hypothesized that perceived restorativeness of environments may depend on the stage of the life span and on the two experience variables. Participants were 576 people stratified by stage of the life span (young adults, adults, elderly people) and gender. For each gender and age group, subjects were randomly assigned to one of the four experimental conditions. They were asked to evaluate each scenario using an Italian version of the Perceived Restorativeness Scale (Hartig, Korpela, Evans & Gärling, 1997). Results show that natural environments are generally more restorative than built ones. Nonetheless, some natural and built environments are not significantly different in their restorative value. Perceived restorativeness was found to be influenced by the stage of the life span: elderly people often consider environments as less restorative than the other two age groups. Social interaction showed to affect the restorative value of some place experiences, even though in a divergent way for people at different stages of the life span. As for the typology of activity performed, both active and passive behaviours were found to promote restorative experiences. Finally, the relative weight of being-away, extent, fascination and compatibility in predicting the restorative value of environments was evaluated. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Pinheiro, José Q.. "Isolated Groups in Ecologically Protected Oceanic Environments: Personal Diary as Data Collection Technique." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. "Our objective was the analysis of the process of social and environmental adaptation of sojourners to two isolated oceanic sites far from the Northeastern coast of Brazil. Both the Biological Reserve of Rocas Atoll and the Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago (an Environmental Protection Area) offer harsh conditions for human survival: no fresh water, humid tropical heat, sunny outdoors, remote oceanic location with very limited help for any sort of emergency, among others. A four people simple wood shelter (~ 45 m2) was built in the Atoll and a scientific station in the Archipelago to offer as much comfort as possible under design principles based on similar buildings used in the Brazilian Antarctic Station, adapted to tropical oceanic conditions. The buildings were planned as refuges amidst the mildly hostile conditions for humans, and had to comply with the demands of minimal ecological interference with the many species of oceanic life, depicting a reassuring silhouette within the otherwise desolate landscape. For periods of 20-30 days teams of 4 persons are sent to those places by boat, being replaced by their substitutes at the end of that time. They are scientific researchers, graduate and post-graduate students typically of areas such as Marine Biology, Oceanography and the like. Our preliminary efforts of studying the adaptation of the sojourners to those places had to deal with the lack of literature about that type of isolated and confined environment, distinct from spacecraft simulators, polar stations or nuclear submarines. After overcoming effects of the social inflation of risk in our own work, we have been able to recognise: 1) the importance of the social atmosphere of the group of sojourners, and not only of the physical environment by itself; 2) the need of knowing specific determinants of each team context, in personal, professional and social terms; 3) the operational difficulties to interview all participants; 4) the limitations of a questionnaire as data collecting instrument employed in the first stages of the project; and 5) our expectations about information that could express visitors' life as it was lived in those places, and not as remembered/reported in later interviews performed after their return to the continent. Video tape recording and/or live interviews through telephone or internet would have allowed for interesting possibilities of data collection in those circumstances. Material and financial constraints, however, led us to employ personal diaries, a paper-and-pencil simple yet insightful alternative. The diary kit personally supplied by our research team to the groups of travellers hours before their departure on the boat trip contained: a 15x25 cm notebook specifically prepared with project identification and instructions about the type of information sought for; 12 colour pencils, a ball pen, a pencil-with-eraser, and a return self-addressed envelope; everything packed within a plastic re-sealable bag. Some sojourners were reluctant about registering information on their diaries; we received several back entirely blank, others with just a few lines written. During the post-trip interviewing, some of these told us about their self-censoring, for "not knowing what to write about", or for fear of furtive glances by group members. Others adopted a colloquial writing style, producing detailed texts, typically more about their peers' conduct than themselves, with more references to behavioural consequences than to behavior, with few accounts of feelings or emotions explicitly expressed. Also mentioned were personal transformations felt as consequence of experiences lived there, and special events leading to accounts such as "I don't like to write, but today something happened that you guys ought to know". Drawings and poetry were not rare and some such instances provided valuable data difficult to be conveyed through verbal report. This illustrates the unstructured nature of the technique, which allows for an open participation of the researched and low control of the researcher. An analogy seems appropriate here. When evaluating environments, researchers usually start with less structured techniques, such as trace measures or behavioural mapping, progressing later on towards more sophisticated instruments, planned in accordance with results provided by the early ones. Such heuristic value also holds true for our experience with data from the diaries. The content analysis of personal journals entries has provided important clues for later stages of our work. Although in general referring to professional or scientific objectives of people's mission there, such data included accounts on administrative and ideological profile of the two organisations managing the areas, functional virtues/deficiencies of the shelter and the scientific station, hard/good times in work or in relation to group members, group dynamics and social climate, social and ecological adequacy of personal manners, maintenance activities and domestic tasks division, preservation vs. conservation, territoriality and space appropriation and many other relevant themes. AcknowledgementThe author acknowledges the partial support from Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico - CNPq (Proc. 350501/2000-9)"
Petritsch, Wolfgang. "Keynote: Eastern Europe as New Old Environment." In Designing Social Innovation: Planning, Building, Evaluating - Proceedings of the 18th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Hogrefe & Huber, 2005.

I am honoured to have this opportunity to address such a distinguished group of experts, researchers and practitioners alike, who, according to IAPS’ Mission Statement are in the business of facilitating “communication among those concerned with relationships between people and their physical environment.” Your invitation, however, presented me with something of a dilemma: as I am an expert in neither physical nor environmental matters, I wanted both to clearly understand these terms and to respond to you in substance on matters related to my expertise. My questions included, what does environment, more specifically, “physical environment” mean in the context of this gathering? And what could I as a diplomat and former crisis manager in the Balkans contribute?

Forsthuber, T, and A. G. Keul. "Kids and Youth Center Salzburg-Liefering - Project and Poe." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. In Liefering, a poor district of rich Salzburg City with three times more unemployed, one out of three people is under 19 years, creating a “street corner scenario”. A private initiative saw the problems, organized solutions and raised funds to create a Kids & Youth Center. The construction site was a neglected but central playground of 1050 sqm. The winner of the architectural competition was Thomas Forsthuber, Salzburg. His project created a cubage of 3144 cbm, a floor area of 720, a built-up area of 530 sqm and was built in 2000-2001. The building symbolically transforms the neighboring “boxes” into an amorphous, exotic body meant as a “shovel” to scoop kids from the street into it and as a protected, multipurpose activity space. With its stainless steel surface, the body reflects day- and streetlight. Exterior space is usable, the rooftop accessible and with a basketball court. Several entrances lead in, an outside tunnel and basin, an inside network of ramps, stairs and rooms encourage activity – individual and social. The organic floorplan is an antithesis to rectangular schools and housing. All age groups, boys and girls have their territories, ample glass panels offer vistas and social contact. Following user participation in the planning phase, the realized building is long-lasting (steel, aluminium, reinforced, fair-faced concrete), but open for user ideas, not overfurnished or functionally fixated. A full-time social worker and volunteers run the house which provides open access afternoon to evening. In the winter semester of 2002-2003, a group of Salzburg psychology students did a post-occupancy evaluation (POE) of the building under the supervision of the second author. For the POE, eight user observations (time samples) and nine interviews (with children/juveniles, staff and neighbors) were done in November with a seasonal focus on indoor activities. It was found that every second user was over 14 years old, one third were in the age group 10-14, 15% 6-10 years. Visiting girls prevailed under age 10, fell under 50% at 10-14 and nearly vanished over 14 years. The spatial diversity offered appropriate niches for different user interest groups. For the primary school visitors, the climbing wall was most popular (with two girls for every boy). Visitors over 14 preferred the central recreation room, the “bar” and the computer corner. The 10-14 age group was found both in the kids and youth areas. Most activities were social and interactive with the exception of a few bystanders and computer users. Four interviewed children/juveniles said they had found the institution by word of mouth and knew some of the visitors here. Friends were met both here and somewhere else. The weekday program was preferred, the weekends were “dull” because of few other visitors. Compared to their time out sitting on supermarket trolleys or with homeless people in the park the center did make a difference. Three staff members said that the local schools were important for first contacts with the clients. Special interest groups were the girls and the computer fans, the rest was “moving through the house”. Social problems were minimal (minor vandalism and damage, verbal conflicts). Parent contact was more intense with children under 12. Neighbor problems about noise had calmed down over time. An unsolved problem was the “hanging around” of kids outside the official opening hours of the center. Two neighbors were asked about their opinions. They found the design of the house “provoking”, but approved of its social function.
Robin, M, and E. Ratiu. "Life Course Perspective and Socio-Environmental Contexts." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. The aim of this symposium is to regroup research centred on the relationships between people and environment in the life course perspective (Bengston & Allen, 1993 ; Elder, 1998). This perspective involves a contextual, processual and dynamic approach to the study of changes in the lives of individuals over time. The notions of transition and adaptive process (Warner & Craig-Bray, 1992) are the core of the studies of this theme since they are focused on individual’s adjustment to transitory events which change their perception of social and family roles, their social network and their social identity. The person is considered as active in the regulation of life events by developing coping strategies. A major concern is to evaluate environmental conditions which contribute to promote individual well-being and positive adaptation to changes and aggressions. Some transitions are related to life-cycle such as becoming elderly, others are specific stressful events which lead to a critical life experience such as a relocation or having a disabled family member at home. In some studies, the societal and historical contexts of the individual event play an important role such as passing a precariousness period or living away from family due to socio-historical troubles. Research regrouped into this symposium consider the environment as the life context of individuals. As suggesting by the ecological model of human development (Bronfenbrenner, 1977), all of the interdependent life contexts (work, family, social network, home, institutional house) are taken into account in studying the adaptation process of persons to their environment.
Gatersleben, B, C Clark, and L. Tite. "Limitations and Strengths of Participation in Environmental Policies." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. Environmental problems are often described in terms of a resource dilemma (e.g., Van Vugt & Snyder, 2000; Steg, 2003). People may not be inclined to make pro-environmental decisions because they do not feel personally responsible for the problems or solutions and they do not feel they are in control. Moreover, they do not trust others to co-operate to solve the problems. One of the solutions to this dilemma could be participation. Active participation can increase feelings of responsibility and efficacy and the visibility of behaviour of others can increase trust and provide some sort of social pressure (Petts and Leach, 2000; Daniels and Walker, 1996). As part of an EC funded project on a participation exercise was organised and evaluated. The initiative aimed to encourage householders to increase their purchase of ecological products. Seventeen randomly selected householders and three stakeholders participated in a discussion during which they agreed on a purchasing target which everyone would try to implement: a target of replacing 25% of household products with ecological alternatives products was agreed. Another group of householders (n = 29), who did not participate in the discussion, was given the same target. Before and after the discussion questionnaires were distributed measuring purchases as well as perceptions and attitudes. Results indicate that all respondents increased their purchase of ecological products after the targets were set. Moreover, respondents who participated in the discussion set higher targets and were more likely to reach these targets. However, these effects did not last very long. Moreover, no changes were found in attitudes and perceptions. It appeared that the short-term effect on purchasing behaviours was not related to factors such as attitudes and perceptions. Instead the mere setting of goals induced behaviour change, but only for a limited time after which people reverted back to their previous habitual purchasing behaviour. The findings challenge the usefulness of one-off labour intensive participation exercises as tools for developing more sustainable household consumption patterns. Repeated exercises might be necessary in order to brake through habitual purchasing behaviours.
Rao, Nandini Bhaskara. "Living and Working: the Function and Design of Housing for Low-Income Home-Based Workers." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. The dichotomy between home and work is well delineated in urban, non-agrarian economies. Housing and workspaces in urban areas are designed to reflect the specific functions society defines for them. While a majority of the workforce maintains the socially prescribed separation between home and work, a significant portion of the workforce works from their house. This research looks at the spatial and social impacts of home-based work on the function and design of housing, for low-income households. The two important components of poverty alleviation programs implemented in developing and developed countries by states and international aid organizations are shelter provision and schemes for income-generation. While considerable attention has been paid to the shelter aspects of housing and housing as the site for reproductive activities, less importance has been paid to the economic aspects of housing and to the house as a site for work. This has resulted in the planning of urban neighborhoods that lack the necessary spatial linkages to support income-generating activities, and the design of houses that are inconvenient for multifold functions. This lack of importance given to the house as a site of economic activities is paradoxical, considering that the income provided from work done in the house is the very basis for survival for many households; especially those living near the poverty level. It is also paradoxical, considering that many of the microenterprise loans provided by states and international aid organizations, as part of their schemes for income generation, are for entrepreneurial activities carried out in the house. Data for this paper comes from in-depth interviews and ethnographies of low-income women engaged in home-based, wage earning and entrepreneurial activities to generate income in Hyderabad, India. Given that low-income households have limited spatial resources, the findings show that the manifold uses for space within home-based workers’ houses result in the creative usage of space. Home-based workers resort to temporal and spatial segregation of household and work activities to increase efficiency and create a psychological separation to maintain a dichotomy between living and working. The size of the house and household and the characteristics of work such as, the size of the operation, income generated, number of employees, among others, have an impact on the utilization of space within the house. The spatial characteristics of the house, such as its location within the urban area and neighborhood, and its linkages to public infrastructure and civic amenities impact the characteristics of home-based work and the usage of the house for income generation. The analysis also shows that power and entitlement issues at the household and the community levels influence the ability of women to use the house as a site for economic activities. The paper discusses how findings from this research can broaden policymakers’ knowledge of the manifold functions of housing, especially among low-income households and to plan for housing to meet the diverse needs of households.
M Franco, Ferreira, G Rodriguez, and D. Siret. Living-Room's of Suburban Houses in Western France: a Study of Configuration of Openings and Comfort In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. The focus of this research is the single-family house as it is the architectural object most soughed-out by the French families (56% are owners). It is considered to be the ideal residence, (1), because it incarnates all the comfort desired by the French as well as their will of ownership. The single-family house has mostly been studied from the socio-economical point of view, the notion of comfort been less studied. In this sense, our research studies the comfort related to the openings of the living-room. They are qualified as luminosity, sunlighting, exposition, visual quality and sense of intimacy. All these notions can be reported to the openings. They are bound to the relationship between the interior and the exterior, as well as to the sensation produced by the form and orientation of the openings in the room’s wall. Our objective is to understand the role of the shape of the openings, as well as to study if the users willingly control the variables during the design process. The research studies 1) how different living-room configurations affect the luminous and thermal comfort; 2) how these were perceived and felt by the dwellers; 3) as well as the mechanisms and techniques used in order to control the comfort produced by the openings. All this based on the supposition that users decide the size and position of the openings of their living-room during the design process in order to attain comfort and that they use several devices to control these comfort openings. The research studies the openings of the living-room of a suburban real-estate development near Nantes, France composed by 350 houses. It analyses the shape, size, localization and orientation of the openings as well as the layout of the living-rooms. 25 owners were interviewed in order to understand their awareness and use of openings to improve comfort. The results allow us to establish a “rule of preference” for the configuration of openings for the living-room. It proposes a space with three orientations and three openings – one for each orientation – as users preferred disposition. The street set-back and the garden orientations are imposed by the plot, so the only choice for the third orientation is the lateral set-back. The living-rooms oriented north-south offer a possible choice between east and west, resulting in a preference for an opening to the west as well as the garden to the south. The interviews of the owners showed that users wish for more and more sunlight, they look for a living-room that has sunlight all day long, all year long. They want a space that is clear and luminous even in winter. And their preferences demand a lot of light and direct sunlight during winter even though this means an excess during the summer which must then be controlled or filtered – using several types of devices – in order to attain comfort. These results rejoin the notion about “mastered comfort” (2), which proposes that users are only completely satisfied and comfortable when they have the sensation and the possibility that they participate to there well-been by an action. (1) Eleb Monique Le Bayon Francois et Soyer Chantal, La maison pour tous, 1999. Documentaire vidéo, coproduction La Cinquicegraveme/Lieurac Production. Centre National de cinématographie, Paris.(2) Chelkoff Grégoire, Les acteurs du confort et crit&egrave;res qualitatifs, 2001. Cours de confort en DEA Ambiances Architecturales et Urbaines, Grenoble.
Johansson, Maria. "Local People's Motives for Biodiversity Conservation." In Designing Social Innovation: Planning, Building, Evaluating - Proceedings of the 18th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Hogrefe & Huber, 2005.

The biological diversity is threatened, largely by human activity. Public support seems critical in the efforts to halt the loss of species. Based on Stern, Dietz and Guagnano’s (1995) hierarchical model of environmental concern the objective was to identify the public’s environmental values and personal motives for biodiversity conservation. In a questionnaire survey, including 271 persons, three motives were identified: human-well being and recreation, human survival and respect for nature. In multiple regression analyses a biospheric value orientation could partly predict respect for nature, an egoistic value orientation to some extent predicted human survival, whereas only a tendency to explain human well-being was identified. In turn the three motives predicted 39% of the attitude towards conservation of the local biodiversity. It is suggested that the promotion of policies and actions for conservation of individual biotopes and species could benefit from being formulated according to the identified motives.

Ozaki, R.. "Loft Apartments: New Spatial and Psycho-Social Boundaries." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. There are boundaries throughout our social environment; and houses are no exception. The distinction between the front and the back is one of the salient boundaries. The front region of the house is a place where a performance is given. It is relatively well-decorated in order to show social status and claim prestige. It is a place for display, maintaining and embodying certain standards. The back region, on the other hand, where informal behaviour and activities take place, is for domestic affairs. Bathrooms and bedrooms are located at the back of the house or upstairs so as not to be disturbed by people who are not family (Goffman, 1959). My own previous research on the English house (Ozaki, 2003) reported how the design of a person’s house has acted as a systematic marker of social status and social relations. It showed people’s strong status consciousness is reflected in the presence of space for ‘front’ activities (e.g. dining and entertaining), separated from space for ‘back’ activities (e.g. cooking, washing and sleeping). This ‘front-back’ distinction in the internal layout and domestic activities is linked to social relations within the household (e.g. between men and women, adults and children, and family members and servants). The use and configurations of domestic space have changed in accordance with changes in domestic social relations and family structures. Since the middle of the 1990s, a new house type, called ‘loft’ (or ‘loft-style’), has gained popularity in a certain section of the UK housing market. Industrial building conversion projects and urban developments typically have an all-in-one style of the living room (where the kitchen and dining space are integrated into the living room). This means the traditional boundaries in domestic space (e.g. the front vs. the back) and cultures which create these boundaries are no longer present in this type of housing. These new trends would mark a significant break from the traditional suburban middle-class ideal of the UK. Suburban housing had become a symbol of a distinction from housing in dirty and poor districts in the city and also of traditional family values with the separation of home and work and separate conjugal roles over a century ago; and its design still remains a model of contemporary house design (Burnett 1986).Zukin’s (1982) detailed analysis of loft apartments in New York City has shown that living in a conversion flat was a reflection of changing tastes and lifestyles of the American middle class, along with other factors like finance and policies. Loft residents in New York City tend to be highly educated, professional people and their socio-economic status comes in the top 20-25 per cent of the city’s population. They tend to be singles and couples without children. They found the loft, previously occupied by poor artists, attractive due to its artists’ ambience, authenticity, historic aura, and the space because it could be appropriated as an expression of individuality. Furthermore, the open plan has eliminated the hierarchy within the household; the kitchen has evolved into an integrated living room that expresses greater equality in the home. Thus, cultural and demographic factors akin to those identified by Zukin (1982) may explain the popularity of loft-style flats in the UK. Also important is urban locality of these flats. Literature shows that being urban has to do with centrality, diversity, reflexivity, and material/cultural consumption; there are people who attach importance to these factors and choose to live in the urban area (e.g. Butler, 1995, 1997; O’Connor and Wynne, 1996). Thus, it appears that urban locality affords certain physical and social functions that are different from those found in suburban living. In this regard, urban locality challenges the suburban middle-class ideals, as does loft-style housing with the open floor plan. This paper will report on findings from a research project which explores the meaning of this new housing form in the urban setting, with particular reference to social relations and social identities. The research is conducted using the concept of boundaries – i.e. exploring spatial and psycho-social boundaries, and cultural codes that create such boundaries. By examining boundaries in urban loft dwellers’ everyday life (e.g. the way in which people draw, or do not draw, boundaries in their daily activities, and how they use their space in and around their home), the meaning of living urban loft will be investigated. The fieldwork focuses on loft-style (both conversion and new) flats in inner London. Thirty loft dwellers will be interviewed. In the interview, life history technique is applied so that people’s social relations and identies, which lie behind their choice of living in urban lofts and of having different lifestyles, will be identified (see Bertaux-Wiame, 1981; Thompson, 1988). In the analysis, a particular form of thematic approach, Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA; Smith, 1991), will be used; this is to enable the acknowledgement of dual perspectives of this research – i.e. ‘the phenomenological worlds of the participants and the conceptual framework of the researcher’ (Speller et al., 2002, p.47). In addition, the outcomes will be reported back to the industry through the production of ‘practitioner briefing leaflets’ to provide a better understanding about consumer trends in the urban area and to make some recommendations to contemporary urban housebuilding.
C Thompson, Ward, C Findlay, and K. Southwell. "Lost in the Countryside: Developing a Toolkit to Address Wayfinding Problems." In Designing Social Innovation: Planning, Building, Evaluating - Proceedings of the 18th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Hogrefe & Huber, 2005.

This research used forest recreation sites in Britain to investigate problems for visitors in finding their way to such sites and knowing where to go on arrival. It particularly focuses on signs, as one of they key elements in wayfinding. Methods included semi-structured interviews and questionnaires for visitors and on-site observation. Environment-behaviour mapping and role-play techniques contributed qualitative data to understand the key problem areas and to elucidate issues not readily amenable to statistical analysis. A four-stage model is proposed that captures the countryside recreation experience, identifying the key factors in wayfinding: informational consistency; route connectivity; entrance reassurance; and arrival legibility. Innovative tools were developed to analyse wayfinding problems and point to solution types.

C Thompson, Ward, C Findlay, K Southwell, and P. Aspinall. "Lost in the Countryside: Techniques to Address Wayfinding Problems." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. This paper presents research initiated by the UK Forestry Commission in response to visitor dissatisfaction with aspects of signage in relation to some forest recreational sites. Other organisations, such as the English Countryside Agency (1998), have expressed concerns over the lack of adequate signage and navigation aids for countryside visitors in general, suggesting that a lack of signs and directions is a significant barrier to potential users of the countryside. People use a number of different strategies to find their way in unfamiliar surroundings (Prestopnik and Roskos-Ewaldson, 2000). In order to explore problems which people may have with finding their way to a recreation site, it is necessary to investigate the landscape as experienced, i.e. the interaction of the user and the landscape (Bechtel, 1997). Since wayfinding is dynamic – involving movement through space and a continuous involvement in reading, interpreting and representing space (Passini, 1992) - techniques for harnessing time and space in terms of capturing the user’s movements in data collection, processing and analysis, are very useful tools. The original techniques presented here were developed through studies on a range of forest recreation sites across Britain to investigate what the real problems are for visitors in finding their way to such sites and understanding the options available to them on arrival. The research particularly focuses on road configurations and on signs, the key elements available to site managers to help visitors find their way. Visitor behaviour was observed and visitors and site managers were interviewed using semi-structured interviews and questionnaires. The interview survey data were combined with road structure mapping, behaviour mapping, spatial analysis and role-play techniques for gathering qualitative data to understand the key problem areas. Spatial-behaviour analysis is a technique developed by Southwell (2002) and used to analyse the landscape in terms of how well it enables a visitor to satisfy their purpose for being it – in this instance, to navigate their way through it, find a forest place and find out how to use it on arrival. The research demonstrates that most wayfinding difficulties experienced by first-time or infrequent visitors can be attributed to one of four factors: informational consistency; route connectivity; entrance reassurance; and arrival legibility. Innovative tools have been developed to clearly identify the nature of wayfinding problems and point to solution types. The tools cover survey techniques and analysis methods to address pre-arrival information and visitor expectations, the experience of the approach route and entrance to the site, and arrival on site. These tools are currently being trialled as part of ongoing work to test their effectiveness for use in practice by countryside managers. The techniques enable site managers to identify the inherent nature of particular sites, e.g. road configuration, and the problems with existing wayfinding provisions, such as road and footpath signs and information leaflets. They can help predict and avoid problems with proposed new provisions, maximising the effectiveness of investment in time and resources.
Higuchi, M, and I. Gasparetto. "Making Sense of the Dwelling Place: a Psycho-Sociocultural Study Among Urban Amazonian Children." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. This presentation discusses the process by which children in a low-income neighbourhood in Manaus, Brazil, constitute their ideas of what they understand as their dwelling place. Through the analysis of data gathered using participant observation and psychological techniques this study reveals that children's ideas of dwelling place vary in physical extension of the areas, from limited, narrow milieus to larger ones. The regularities that emerged from children's data show a developmental sequence of ideas in which the child integrates a certain set of subject/object relations. The drawings of dwelling place and children's commentary on them show a distinct pattern of spatial organisation which begins with the house, then includes gradually de garden/patio, the street, the cluster of neighbouring houses and finally the larger neighbourhood. These physical features coincide with the type of relations, which occur in that particular place, from more intimate and domestic realms to more collective and public The findings suggest that children do not form their ideas of dwelling place based only on material referents but also on the type of social relations they embody. It is in this way that the understanding of the significance of places has a bearing on the understanding of social relations. What follows then is that it is difficult to see how far the dwelling place is related to the child's relationships with others and how much it is about the place per se. The process by which children put all these aspects together to form their ideas of dwelling place is not of a linear one, rather it takes time for the child to form ideas with regard to the dwelling place that are similar do those held by adults. Ideas of dwelling place also provide grounds for the child’s understanding of self, in the sense that by knowing more about the place they can know more about themselves. It also becomes evident that the children’s ideas of dwelling place are in part a function of the child’s age and gender.
Svane, Örjan, and Carina Weingaertner-Kohlscheen. Mammut - Managing the Metabolism of Urbanisation Pilot Studies in Stockholm and Dar Es Saalam In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. Urbanisation is people moving to cities – resulting in a need for new buildings and infrasystems, new institutions, often a new way of life; but also in leaving something behind. How does this relate to the sustainability challenge? If migration is unavoidable, urbanisation gives opportunities for addressing the long-term objectives of sustainable development. At KTH, Stockholm, a cross-disciplinary research project is presently initiated, that explores the urbanisation process of Dar es Salaam and Stockholm. In this process, stakeholders face different options while seeking to shape the city’s urban development. The analysis of these options show the extent to which - guided by objectives of sustainability - the urbanization process can be managed. Environmental impacts originated by the exchange of resources between the city and its hinterlands - the metabolism - will indicate to what extent sustainability is attained. As a preliminary part of the project mentioned above, this paper discusses pilot studies developed through workshops and information gathered from existing literature. The last 50 years in the urbanization process of Stockholm and Dar es Salaam are briefly studied. The concept of Situations of Opportunities is used as a research tool for delimiting and defining the relevant units of analysis of the case studies. A Situation of Opportunity is a moment in the process of urbanisation, when stakeholders have a greater possibility than average to influence its future development.For each city, one Situation is described to exemplify the possibilities and limitations with this research strategy. In historical situations like the ones discussed here, there is a factual outcome in physical form, institutional framework, new ways of life and environmental impacts. There were, however, also alternatives to the factual outcome. These alternatives combined with the factual outcome shape the Field of Options that was available to the stakeholders. In this study, the Field of Options is illustrated through the factual outcome and one contra-factual scenario. Thus for each Situation and each Scenario there is a brief description and analysis of its resulting physical urban structure, the institutions needed for development and operation and the resulting ways of life of the households as well as a brief qualitative assessment of its main environmental impacts. The environmental impacts of the actual solution and the scenario will then, to some extent, be compared.For Stockholm the chosen Situation of Opportunity is the development of the Underground system in the 1940’s. Discussions about the need for an Underground system in Stockholm got momentum in the early 30’s due to major traffic problems in the city. The decision was taken in 1941 and construction started in 1945, reaching its near-mature state in 1978. The Underground influenced the physical urban structure of the city not only due to construction of rail network and tunnels, but also because near its stations new housing areas and local centres for shopping and public services developed. Social implications of this public transport system included: facilitation of commuting mentality (living in one part of the city and working in another) and imposition of time restrictions to users because the Underground shuts down at night. Institutions that played important roles in the development and implementation of the Underground were Stockholm City and the company Stockholm Tramways (SS), which in 1967 became Stockholm Lokaltrafik (SL). SL remains the main company running the Underground, although since the 90’s operation activities have been subcontracted to a separate company (Connex). Environmental impacts related to the development of the Underground result from the changes in the city’s physical configuration, as well as the influence of the institutional structures and changes in the ways of life. Some of the impacts are briefly accessed and described. The alternative scenario is based on the use of private cars and buses instead of commuting with the Underground. In this case, physical implications such as the construction of highways and roads, more of urban sprawl and large parking areas can be expected. Institutions like regional and local planning offices and road authorities as well as car owners are likely to play important roles. Among changes in the ways of life are longer commuting distances and higher individual mobility. Just as in the factual case, environmental impacts will derive from the changes in the physical, institutional and social structures of the city, and in this case they are expected to be more severe than in the factual situation.The Situation of Opportunity analysed in Dar es Saalam is the urban public transport system. In 1949 a private company (Dar es Saalam Motor Transport Company - DMT), subsidiary from a British company, started providing urban public transport in the city. In the 70’s, after Tanzania’s independency, DMT was nationalized and restructured, but it continued holding monopoly-rights for public transport in the city. In the 80’s and 90’s the urban transport system went through reforms including deregulation, trade liberalization and policy changes. These led to the current public transport system which is predominantly based on “one-man one-bus” (Daladala buses). Physical, institutional, social and environmental implications of the existing transport system in Dar es Saalam will be further discussed in the paper. The alternative scenario will also be explored.
Svane, Ö, and C. Weingärtner. "Mammut - Managing the Metabolism of Urbanisation Pilot Studies in Stockholm and Dar Es Saalam." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. Urbanisation is people moving to cities – resulting in a need for new buildings and infrasystems, new institutions, often a new way of life; but also in leaving something behind. How does this relate to the sustainability challenge? If migration is unavoidable, urbanisation gives opportunities for addressing the long-term objectives of sustainable development. At KTH, Stockholm, a cross-disciplinary research project is presently initiated, that explores urbanisation through the cases of Dar es Salaam and Stockholm. As a preliminary part of that project, this paper discusses two pilot studies developed through workshops with experts as well as information gathered from existing literature. The last 50 years in the urbanization process of Stockholm and Dar es Saalam are briefly studied. The concept of “Situations of Opportunities” is used as a research tool for delimiting and defining the relevant units of analysis of the case studies. For each city, a few situations are described to exemplify the possibilities and limitations with this strategy. For Dar es Salaam, situations will be the 1990s development of the concept of “Strategic Planning” based on the “Sustainable Cities Programme” from the UNCHS, or households moving into the city from rural area, resulting in extensive changes in their ways of life. For Stockholm, one situation will be the regional adjustment and implementation of the national “Million Programme” – a large-scale housing development project carried out during the 60’s and 70’s. Another potential situation to be analysed is the negotiations and conflicts around the introduction of waste separation and recycling policies in the early 90’s Stockholm. Situations such as those described above shape the urban development of a city, influencing not only its physical configuration, but also the institutional and social structure. Thus besides identifying and describing two or three situations of opportunity for each city, this paper aims at analysing these situations in the light of three sub-processes: the changes in the city’s physical structure, the role of its institutions and the social implications such as changes in the ways of life. Researchers from the fields of architecture and planning, political science, and sociology will be asked to cooperate in the assessment of those sub-processes. The extent to which urbanisation can be managed – guided by the objectives of sustainability – is analysed as the field of options accessible to its stakeholders. Metabolism – the exchange of resources and waste between the city and its hinterlands – will indicate to what extent sustainability is attained. From discussions with experts a field of possible options/solutions for each of the mentioned situations of opportunity could be produced. The environmental impacts of the actual solution and the possible options could then, to some extent, be assessed and compared.
Pol, E, M. R. Bonet, A Dimasso, T Vidal, and J. Espi. "Map of Environmental Loads of Catalonia." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. In the modern western societies there is, every time, more conscience of the necessity to improve the environmental behaviour of people, companies and institutions, oriented toward a sustainable development model. However, nowadays, the phenomena of social movements by rejection of hazardous facilities and services are more frequent. Although these facilities are considered necessaries, it is difficult to find locations or drawn up accepted by the population. This is what is known as NIMBY phenomenon or effect (Not-In-My-Back-Yard). Several case studies done in the United States of America and in Europe have show that the rejection has to do with the perception of inequity and the attribution of risk by the population. This phenomenon, very common to the western countries has taken a special presence and even virulence in Catalonia (independently of the company or the public administration implied). This makes the environmental management and the decision making very difficult and conflicting, both at the national and local level as well as in all the intermediate layers. The fight of individual and group interests, and political perspective often uses these facilities as point of confrontation, independently of the objectivity of the argumentations adduced by one or another part. The management and the decisions on facilities and services of environmental issues have to be done in an integrated way, following the European legislation (the ‘IPPC Directive’, 96/61/EC on Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control) and considering the principles established by the European Union, such as the subsidiariety and to approach the resolution of the problem to the site where it takes place. However, principles -as the mentioned above- usually hit with the ‘general interest’. This generates a situation of difficult management. The present proposal (of creating a map of environmental loads of Catalonia) tries to provide an objective scale of loads and environmental responsibilities that the territory already holds. It also contemplates registers the environmental vulnerability of the territory that, by definition, means both ecological and social fragility. Thus, the study consisted of a coordinated analysis of agrarian and industrial activities, of what have been restrictively considered until now ‘environmental activities’, the territorial planning, with all of its repercussions on the demographic flows, the population settings and the load capacity of the ecosystems. The proposal of having a Map of Environmental Loads of Catalonia wants to be a tool of objective data about the territory that could contribute to a more equitable and transparent decision making, weighing the different mentioned aspects, and reducing the associated conflict to the environmental management. In this paper we present a first analysis of the data gathered about the more visible environmental conflicts of the last 15 years. It also includes the results of 110 questionnaires applied to an interdisciplinary panel of professionals (using the Delphi technique). The objective was to define by agreement an operative definition of ‘environmental load’ and the construction of a set of indicators that allows mapping the environmental problems in Catalonia.
Edge, M, A Craig, and A. Conniff. "Mapping Research on the Social Value of Architecture." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. The authors were commissioned by the Scottish Executive to carry out a mapping survey of ‘non-technical’ research related to the social value and benefits of good architectural design. In this context the Client’s use of the term ‘non-technical’ implies the exclusion of research based in the physical sciences and engineering. Although the study was primarily concerned with research in Scotland, it also involved limited comparative study of research in the rest of the UK and elsewhere in Europe. The Scottish Executive, the newly devolved seat of central government in Scotland, has recently introduced a ‘Policy for Architecture’. This is the first time that anywhere in the UK has had such a policy and the Mapping Survey is their first attempt to investigate how well the relevant research is, or could be, supporting the delivery of that policy. They were also interested in making the connection between the Policy for Architecture and policies on sustainability, which are of increasingly central importance in Scotland. Within central government architecture resides in a portfolio which includes ‘culture and sport’. Significantly it is separated from the departments responsible for planning and for the technical standards governing building. Both the policies on architecture and sustainability in Scotland have very strong social dimensions and their measures of success tend to stress socio-economic criteria more than physical resources and ecological considerations. For the purposes of the project the authors sought to define the terms of reference of relevant research as that which: Is primarily focused on aspects of quality in the built environment; Seeks to investigate the relationship between people and the process or product of architectural design; Uses measurable criteria to evaluate architecture and built environments. As such there is a close match between the terms of reference of this project and research by IAPS members which is concerned with architecture. The main product of the first, funded phase of this exercise has been the creation of a prototype, searchable database giving details of relevant projects. Currently the database, which is intended as an ongoing, developing resource to be used by researchers and others, contains details of 141 research projects. The format is such that any researchers can enter the details of their projects remotely. Data was gathered by targeted email questionnaire, web searches and interviews with selected key individuals. At this stage the database is by no means exhaustive, but will form the first research information on a new National portal for information on architecture at www.scottisharchitecture.com. The nature of the study is such that statistical inferences cannot be drawn from the data, but a number of findings which will be presented in the paper pose interesting questions about schools of architecture as centres of research, the relationship between social scientists and architecture and how people perceive the relevance of their research to the social value and benefits of good architectural design. Whilst there is a large amount of interest in the idea of research on the social value and benefits of good design and a lot of social science research which touches on the built environment, there is a relative dearth of research tackling such issues directly. The research community in this area in the UK is small and scattered and must compete for funds with larger centres focusing on process rather than product. That is on the construction industry and on the physical sciences. Relatively little socially oriented research is carried out in departments of architecture. In well funded university departments representing built environment professions, most social science research is concerned with aspects of the procurement process rather than with design and the end user. Public participation and research on participation are neither popular in mainstream architecture nor particularly encouraged by institutional systems in the UK compared to some other European countries. However new policies on architecture and sustainability mean that the construction industry and designers are increasingly being encouraged by Government and others to concentrate on the realisation of objective, process-driven assessment criteria. Such criteria extend to defining design quality in terms of social objectives. There is therefore a great opportunity for the people-environment studies research community to take a more central role in helping to realise and measure the success of built environments in relation to that policy. Achieving this will involve enhanced communication between the design and research communities and Government. The prototype on-line database produced by this research project is a first step in this direction in Scotland.
Buchecker, M, M Hunziker, S Kianicka, K Gehring, C Meier, and S. Forster. "Measuring the Effect of Consensus Building Processes on the Basis of the Methodology of Intervention Research." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. "In recent years environmental policy and also environmental research emphasized the importance of involving the public in decision making. This push for more participation is driven by considerable optimism about its ability to improve the quality of decisions and developments (Rowe & Frewer, 2000). There is, however, a lack of empirical research which could confirm this assumption. In the last years efforts have been increased to evaluate participatory processes, but the research focused on the procedural quality of the processes (Beierle & Konisky, 1999; Jackson, 2002). The few studies that attempted to measure the success of public participation are of limited validity, as they were based on ex-post data mainly gained by expert assessments or document analysis (Hunziker & Buchecker, subm.). This paper reports on a recent study which had the objective to measure and compare the effect of two consensus building processes in a systematic and reliable way. Consensus building processes are moderated large-group workshops, in which stakeholders of a common resource try to find an optimal solution for using this resource on the basis of mutual understanding (Cormick et al., 1996). In the two consensus building processes evaluated in the project, the local stakeholders of two different Swiss Alpine valleys (characterized by infrastructure oriented respectively landscape oriented tourism) developed guidelines for the future development of their landscape. The methodology of evaluating these consensus building processes was based on the achievements of two research traditions: participation research and intervention research in environmental psychology. In participation research, various frameworks for evaluating consensus-building processes have been developed (Halvorsen, 2001, Beierle & Konisky, 2000; Rowe & Frewer, 2000; Godschalk & Stiftel, 1980). These frameworks, however, are only designed for ex-post evaluations without measuring the situation before the experiment and without direct data collection. In environmental psychology, field-experimental intervention research has been developed and applied, and various forms of interventions, aiming at changing of attitudes and behaviors in environmental matters, have been tested (e.g. Mosler & Tobias 2000; Dwyer et al. 1993). In order to achieve reliable evidence whether an intervention was effective, an experimental "A-B-A"-design (measurement-intervention-measurement) with a treatment and a control group is applied in general, often accompanied by a social monitoring of the process. A consensus-building process can also be considered as a kind of intervention, which could be evaluated with a similar kind of experimental design.There are, however, two major differences concerning the design of the experiment to be taken into account. (a) This kind of intervention has primarily an effect on the social and only indirectly on the physical environment, i.e., the effect cannot be determined, at least not in short term, with objectively measurable environmental data, but only with quasi-objectively measurable reconciliation of formerly conflicting positions of the social groups concerned. (b) The consensus-building intervention does not directly address all the individuals belonging to the affected social groups, but only their representatives, which are attending the consensus-building process. Therefore, the effects can only be measured among these representatives (treatment group). A measurement of the effect in the wider public will only be possible when the consensus-building process will have diffused to larger parts of it. However, as such diffusion is a slow process, this cannot be performed within the duration of the project. Accordingly, the effect and the efficiency of the consensus building processes were measured in the following way. As the main method of data collection, a standardized questionnaire was handed out to the participants shortly before the start and immediately after the end of the process. In the questionnaire three kinds of items were included: a)items concerning the assessment of landscape scenarios, (b) items concerning the subjective perception of the actual situation in terms of consensus and conflicts in the region (c) items on the personal attitudes concerning regional collaboration and the sense of local responsibility. Additionally, in the second questionnaire items concerning the procedural criteria and success criteria of participatory processes developed in former studies (see above) were incorporated. Furthermore an extract of the most important items was included in a questionnaire sent to a representative sample of the regional population. This allowed us to assess the regional representativity of the participant's attitudes at the initial state of the process. Furthermore it will provide the necessary prerequisite, if a measurement of the (above-mentioned) diffusive effect on the wider public as well as control-group comparisons with untreated regions at a later time (possibly as a follow-up project) should be performed.In order to understand the effect of the process, the behavior of the participants was observed during the whole consensus building process and recorded in a journal. At the same time some few selected participants were regularly asked to give a few short statements about their personal experiences of the process (social monitoring).The paper shows the research design of the project, presents the results gained in the two case studies and draws the conclusions for practice and research."
Day, K, M Alfonzo, and M. Boarnet. "Measuring Urban Design and the Built Environment Related to Physical Activity." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. In response to the rapidly increasing rates of obesity and sedentary lifestyles in the US, researchers are now examining relationships between the built environment and physical activity. With funding from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, we developed a valid and reliable survey instrument to objectively measure urban design features that have been linked to physical activity. The observation instrument allows researchers to measure over fifty aspects of the built environment, at both the micro scale (block) and macro scale (neighborhood). A graphical user interface within a Personal Desktop Assistant (PDA) allows for simultaneous data collection and data entry. This paper presentation discusses the goals of the instrument, its organization, its intended uses, and its reliability. The instrument includes four separate scales: accessibility, pleasurability, perceived traffic safety, and perceived crime safety. Items include primarily those that can be measured through direct observation (e.g., presence of sidewalks to make walking accessible, presence of active facades to create pleasurable streetscapes, etc.) A limited number of items are obtained from GIS databases. The instrument includes approximately 75 items overall. The instrument is designed for data collection by trained, non-expert observers who will observe a systematic sample of blocks in the defined neighborhood-scale setting(s). We estimate that an average setting can be observed in approximately five hours. Items were identified for inclusion in the instrument through a review of the relevant design guidance and research literatures, through items identified by participants in three focus groups, and by field-testing draft versions of the instrument in 20 settings that varied from rural to urban, and from residential to industrial and mixed use. The instrument emphasizes urban design features that may be modified through policy changes (e.g., housing density) rather than factors over which decision makers have limited control (e.g., weather). Researchers are presently testing the instrument for inter-rater reliability.
Bechtel, Robert. Meet the Editors In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. An hour long workshop where budding and ripe authors can question and discuss publishing in the IAPS related journals. Bob Bechtel will chair, editor of Environment & Behavior, while various other editors who attend IAPS will also be present such as Andy Seidel (JAPR), Bob Griffith (JEP), Marie Cackowski, Peter Hecht (DRN) and Jack Nasar if they attend the conference.
Saegert, Susan, and Gary W. Evans. "Mental Health Consequences of Low-Income Housing Niches." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. Wealth, income, racial segregation, social networks, cultural knowledge and public policies affect entry into any particular housing niche (Saegert & Evans, 2003). Particular niches affect health exposure to environmental threats and resources. The effects of living in a particular niche over time affect the resources available across generations for entering new niches. An ecological model of the relationship between housing and health directs attention to nested levels of analysis (individuals within households, within buildings and blocks, within neighborhoods, within towns and cities, within larger social units). It also suggests the use of cumulative risk models and the investigation of mediation and moderation of more distant factors by those that are more proximal. Housing quality has direct effects on physical and mental health (Evan, Wells, & Moch, 2003; Saegert, Klitzman, Freudenberg, Cooperman-Mrozek, & Nassar, 2003). In addition, the housing niche model highlights how the non-housing components of particular niches affect individuals within a household and how the family dynamics related to living in stressful or hazardous niches affect child development and well-being. Thus housing policies can affect health through affecting housing quality, but also because of economic and social consequences of a particular housing situation, with further implications for family dynamics and health. Two studies are used to illustrate how the model may be employed in analyzing implications of different housing niches for health and development. The first study of New York City Housing Authority (NYCHA) developments which have been shown to be better maintained than other low-income housing in the city (Schill & Scafidi, 1996) included 40 families. It confirmed that housing quality did not contribute to psychological distress or stress for NYCHA families in this sample. However, the social and economic conditions experienced by NYCHA families had negative consequences for their well being. Among the forty participant households, the most salient stressors for children and parents differed. For children, community violence was the most stressful. About 75% of the children had seen people beaten and drug deals, and heard gunshots. These experiences were significant predictors of scores of psychological distress. Lower cardio-vascular activation, a symptom of post-traumatic stress, also related to exposure to violence. Economic strain was the most salient negative factor in mothers' levels of psychological distress and also related to the harshness of parenting. Violence exposure interacted with harshness of parenting in predicting diastolic blood pressure. Children exposed to both harsh parenting and violence had lower diastolic blood pressure than children in any other condition. When the interaction was taken into account, no main effects remained significant. In the second study 113 poor families in rural upstate New York, housing quality was often low, and significantly predicted both children and mothers’ psychological distress, and mothers’ reports of harsh parenting. In this sample as well, exposure to community violence and economic strain were negatively associated with children and mothers’ mental health. Mothers’ reports of more economic strain were also associated with higher systolic blood pressure in children. Analysis of the rural sample confirmed the critical role played by maternal psychological health in protecting children from environmental stressors. Mothers’ psychological distress was significantly related to children's distress. The effects of both violence and housing quality on children's psychological distress were fully mediated by maternal distress. Mothers’ psychological distress partially mediated the effect of economic strain on systolic blood pressure. These studies confirmed that economic strain, exposure to violence, and poor housing quality contributed significantly to stress levels of mothers and children. As expected, the niches differed in which stressors were experienced as most problematic. Mothers’ mental states and parenting were sensitive to external stressors and mediated or moderated the effects of stressors on children. Public policy implications of these studies and of an experiment in randomly assigning public housing families to better, worse or the same neighborhoods are discussed. Social structural barriers that undermine the effectiveness of many health and housing interventions are considered.
Saegert, Susan, and Gary W. Evans. "Mental Health Consequences of Low-Income Housing Niches." Journal of Applied Psychology [Special Issue 18th IAPS Conference] 6, no. 3-4 (2004): 81-89. The housing niche model describes: 1) forces that lead people to locate into the residential environment; 2) the bundle of assets, threats, hazards, and opportunities associated with living in a particular location; 3) implications for health, asset accumulation and future mobility and health (Saegert & Evans, 2003). As a result of U.S. housing markets and policies, low income people often inhabit housing that is of poor quality, in hazardous neighborhoods, and too costly for their resources. Poverty contributes to poor housing, and to poor health directly. The housing niche affects physical and mental health indirectly as a result of environmental hazards, the psychological stress associated with hazards and poverty, and the burden stress places on family relationships. Housing niche dynamics are illustrated by two studies of exposure to stressors and their relationship to psychological and physiological stress, and family dynamics among poor residents of urban public and rural rental housing.
Hatakeyama, A.. Methodological Comparison Between Questionnaire Survey and Web Contents in Residential Environmental Research In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. "Recently, the simulation of physical environments using computer graphics has become a widely applied and considerably refined technology. The capacity to generate highly realistic simulations has prospered with increasing computer power and sophistication in rendering algorithms. Consequently, computer simulations of environments (subsequently abbreviated as CSE) are now indispensable tools for environmental researchers etc. The more CSEs are utilized, the more important a critical assessment of its validity becomes. However, while technical research on the creation and application of simulation is thriving, studies on the perception and appraisals of CSEs are still rare. There is considerable knowledge regarding conventional means of presentation such as drawings, photographs and video. On the other hand, the use of simulation means and their psychological impacts are far less researched. This refers to the CSE approach in general and to the effect of particular visualization techniques. A review of previous studies indicates that the greater the degree of realism in the simulation, the more effective it becomes. However, the relevance of specific features such as colors, light and shadows is not yet well understood. As far as sound is concerned, there is some evidence that acoustic attributes influence the perception and evaluation of a visual environment such as landscapes. Thus inclusion of sound becomes an issue for designing and applying simulations. A remarkable advantage of the use of computer graphics in this context is that controlled experiments can be conducted in which the researcher can easily define and design the perceptual (such as visual and acoustic) stimulus in order to clarify the impact of particular CSE attributes. In other words, to improve our understanding of complex issues, we researchers should utilize the electric stimulus such as web contents, etc. It is very useful for us to manipulate physical environmental stimuli such as visual and auditory ones easily, and to measure subjects‚ consciousness and behavior dynamically and explicitly e.g. how they change what they think, manipulate, and see them in a CSE. By the use of Information Technology (IT) in CSE research, we are supposed to understand quantitative and qualitative aspects more easily than usual (Hatakeyama, 2003). The author researched the assessment of residential environment using the questionnaire. It is so useful to grasp verbal and conscious aspects of residents‚ response to their residential environments. However, using the results of the questionnaire survey, it is difficult for researcher to understand the other aspects e.g. the process of thought related to the response, and behavior. For they seem to be dynamic ones of response to some residential environments as stimuli. That is, we can only understand the phenomena at one moment. And also, even if the questionnaire contains some items about a "behavior", it means that it is only measured the cognitive aspects. That is, we can not measure the actual behavior directly. In this study, the main purposes are as the following: (1) The comparison between assessment of reality and that of computer presentation techniques using different levels of sophistication in rendering of still image (e.g. illumination, shadows, depth of reflection etc); (2) The comparison between assessment of reality and that of questionnaire survey; (3) The comparison of respondents‚ assessment between computer presentation techniques and questionnaire survey. Based on results, the author will discuss how the applications to real-life‚ problems such as an information program for its users should be designed and investigated.ReferenceHatakeyama, A. (2003). The Methodological Characteristics and Perspectives of Questionnaire in Housing Research. Proceedings of International Conference „Methodologies in Housing Research, Stockholm: IAPS, ENHR and KTH, in press."
La Garce, Melinda. "Methodologies for Assessing the Impact of Environmental Lighting on Physiological and Behavioral Changes of Participants in the Built Environment." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. This study examines the use of empirical environmental behavior observations and scientific medical measurement assays as research methodologies for assessing the impact of environmental lighting (daylight and electric light) on physiological changes and behavioral changes of research participants in the built environment. Research protocol calls for participants to include male and female subjects of ranging ages and varying cognitive abilities. The methodologies specifically employ 1) observational assessments of participants with disruptive behaviors of the Alzheimer’s type, of participants with disruptive behaviors of the attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) type, and of participants without disruptive behaviors who are approximately the same age as those participants with disruptive behaviors; and 2) medical assays of neuro-endocrinological activity in all research participants before, during, and after exposure to experimental environmental lighting. The determination to perform scientific medical measurements of physiological changes was instigated by the findings derived from empirical studies of observed behaviors of Alzheimer’s patients in control and experimental environments (La Garce, 2002; La Garce, 2004; Moos and Lemke, 1994; Rubin, 1994). The importance of determining inter-rater reliability in behavioral observation studies and methods for improving inter-rater reliability are discussed (Gwet, 2002; Landis and Koch 1977; Fleiss, 1971; Heiman, 1998). Empirical research can often be the stimulus/instigation for further research questions and hypotheses and present the opportunity for scientific validation by measurable assays (Ciminero et al., 1986; La Garce, 2002; La Garce, 2004). An analysis is made of the benefits of both empirical and scientifically measurable methodological approaches to studying the impact of the built environment on human behaviors (Rubin, 1998; Zeisel, 2001; Zeisel and Raia, 2000). Based on findings derived from empirical studies of observed behaviors and on analysis of the literature regarding scientifically measured medical assays, arguments are presented for the integration of empirical environmental behavior assessments and scientifically measurable assays, and a model for integrating the methodologies is presented (Marsden, et al., 2003; La Garce, 2002; La Garce, 2004; Lawton, et al., 1997). The importance of designed interventions for improving the well-being of people in the built environment; the critical need for practitioners to read and understand research; and the likelihood of using design prescriptions written by environmental design researchers for design practitioners are discussed (Locke, et al., 1998; Rubin, 1997; Tetreault and Passini, 2003; Zeisel, 2002). Studies integrating empirical environmental assessments and scientifically measurable assays have the potential to impact public policy with regard to setting design standards for healthcare and special population environments and may suggest that a more direct link between environmental behavior research findings and public policy makers could be possible (Clavel, 1994; McCormick and Shepley, 2003).
La Garce, M.. "Model for Integrating Therapeutic Environment Research, Education, Best Practices Design, and Public Policy from Within the University." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. A model is presented that demonstrates: 1) integration of best practices for therapeutic environments in a life care community associated with a major research university, that, thereby, provides the platform for research studies relating to all gerontological issues including environmental behavior impact studies; medical, health care, and pharmacological studies; and psychological and sociological studies;2) incorporation of the research findings by the research professors/instructors into classroom presentations and discussions for the purpose of impacting future practitioners;3) inclusion of the research findings into the development of continuing education courses for the practicing professions with the purpose of impacting current best practices; and 4) direct dissemination of the research findings to the university's Public Policy Institute that has direct communication and interaction with state and national legislators and government agencies for the purpose of impacting public policy standards for the built environment.
Van Poll, Ric. "Modelling (Perceived) Environmental Quality." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. Introduction(Perceived) Environmental Quality ((P)EQ) plays an important role in many of the Dutch government’s national policy notes on the local environment. Although the purport of the concept is reasonably clear, its meaning is not. This is probably due to the abstract and complex nature of the concept. AimThe main aim of the present study was to explore the meaning of (P)EQ of urban residential environments’. Specific goals were to inventor relevant attributes of the liveability of urban residential environments, to assess their hierarchical relationship, and to quantify their relative importance. MethodIn face-to-face interviews 59 public servants (municipal, provincial and national) were asked to perform a multi-attribute evaluation of the concept. Following a bottom- up approach the respondents 'build up' the concept from its underlying attributes. In an inventory task residents provided all relevant residential attributes they could think of. In an importance-selection task respondents indicated on a prepared list which of 73 residential attributes were important and which were not. In a next task respondents were asked to group residential attributes separately. As a grouping criterion (dis-) similarity between attributes was used. Finally, groups and residential attributes within groups were rank-ordered with respect to importance to (P)EQ. Rankings were transformed into standardised interval scores, the relative importance scores. Results. Six respondents (10%) named additional attributes, i.e. attributes not on the prepared list by the investigator. Altogether they named 14 attributes that could be summarised as ‘cohesion’ and ‘atmosphere’ of/in the neighbourhood. The importance selection task revealed that a large number of attributes was considered important by the respondents. Sixty-one out of 73 attributes were considered important by more then 50% of the respondents. From the importance selection data a measure of importance of an attribute at group level was obtained: the relative frequency of importance. This measure correlated reasonably high (r: .53) with the results of the more sophisticated ranking method. The individually obtained groupings of residential attributes were aggregated across residents and served as input for a cluster analysis. The results revealed that relevant underlying residential attributes could be categorised into a limited number of factors, that could be labelled as follows: Reside, Buildings, Traffic, Social safety, Social environment, Accessibility & Facilities, Physical environment, and Nuisance. On the basis of the transformed rankings the most important residential attributes were (in order of importance): dwelling size, prevalence of hold-ups or robberies, contact with neighbours, facilities in the dwelling, prevalence of burglaries or theft, insecurity due to youth, junkies or prostitutes, maintenance level of the neighbourhood, social environment, dwelling costs, quality of the indoor environment, child friendly neighbourhood, and the maintenance level of the dwelling. Conclusion. In general it may be concluded that (P)EQ may be fruitfully modelled as a hierarchical multi-attribute concept. Firstly, the specific attributes inventoried appear to be a good account of relevant residential quality attributes: a majority of the respondents considered two-thirds of the attributes as important. Secondly, the structuring of attributes led to a readily interpretable hierarchy thereby representing the concept of (P)EQ at various levels of specificity. Finally, various, different (social, spatial and physical) attributes determine the (P)EQ of urban residential environments.
Johansson, Rolf. "Modes of Generalisation from a Single Case." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. The idea with an evaluation is to learn from what has been done in order to be able to do it better next time. The object of an evaluation is some kind of a complex functioning unit. Most often the evaluation is conducted in a naturalistic setting and with a multitude of methods. It is an evaluative case study. The transference of knowledge from an evaluative case study to other cases is done through some kind of generalisation. In my paper I will elaborate on the different modes of generalisation from a single case. Generalisations from cases are not statistical, they are analytical. They are based on reasoning. There are three principles of reasoning: deductive, inductive and abductive. Generalisations can be made from a case using one or a combination of these principles. When a generalisation is based on the deductive principle, the procedure is similar to an experiment: a hypothesis is formulated, and testable consequences are derived by deduction. By comparing the expected findings, which are deduced from a theory and a case, with the empirical findings, it is possible to verify or falsify the theory. As a result it is possible to define the domain within which the theory is valid more exactly. Cases that are pivotal to the theory are selected. The testing of the theory is comprised of the emulation of experimental method in a naturalistic setting. From a theory and the facts of a case, generalisations are drawn concerning the domain of the theory. This kind of generalisations from a case are favoured by Robert Yin. A second mode of generalisation is achieved through induction. In case studies this is done through inductive theory-generation, or conceptualisation, which is based on data from within a case. The result is a theory normally consisting of a set of related concepts. This is how generalisations are done according to Grounded Theory. The third type of generalisation depends on the principle of abduction. The concept of abduction was coined by the pragmatist philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce. Abduction is the process of facing an unexpected fact, applying some rule (known already or created for the occasion), and, as a result, positing a case that may be. There is also another kind of abduction, says Peirce, “where we find that in certain respects two objects have strong resemblance, and that they resemble one another strongly in other respects”. Now, returning to the topic of generalising from a case, these two kinds of abduction indicate two more possible types of generalisation. One is when a case is created (reconstructed) by a process of abductive reasoning from a few facts; for instance, historical data or clues. Carlo Ginzburg, historian, refers to this kind of generalisations as the “evidential paradigm” in social sciences. The other kind of generalisation, based on abduction, is operative when generalisations are made from known cases and applied to an actual problem situation by making appropriate comparisons. This is also called naturalistic generalisation by Robert Stake. Designers practise naturalistic generalisation when they refer to their repertoire of familiar cases in implementing new designs. I will conclude by summarizing the characteristic features of the different modes of generalisations, which can be used in evaluative case studies.
Johansson, Rolf. "Modes of Generalisation from a Single Case." Journal of Applied Psychology [Special Issue 18th IAPS Conference] 6, no. 3-4 (2004): 215-221. Evaluations are case studies from which knowledge is transferred to other cases by some form of generalisation. There are several types of generalisation. The aim of this paper is to discuss the different types of analytical generalisation. Besides the hypothetico-deductive model and inductive theory generation there are two further forms of analytic generalisation, both based on abductive reasoning. One constructs or reconstructs a case from an unexpected observation by applying some kind of principle or theory. The other is based on comparisons with known cases. In the case study methodology literature this kind of generalisation is called naturalistic generalisation. This is similar to the way in which practitioners confront problem situations by making references to their repertoire of cases. Through exerting an influence on the field of design through reflection on case studies, this last mode of generalisation has the potential to bridge the gap between research and practice.
Kepez, O, and E. Demir. "My Home Or My Shared House: the Housing Preferences of Students Who Share their Houses with Roommate(S)." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. Sharing a house with one or more roommates is very common in college life. Roommates are generally neither friends nor family, but strangers matched to share the rent. Privacy needs of a house shared with a roommate are different from a house shared with friends or family. Moreover, the territorial behaviors that roommates can demonstrate in a shared house are distinct from the territorial behaviors of students who share rooms in resident halls. According to Altman (1975), privacy is an interpersonal boundary-control process, which paces and regulates interactions with others. The balance and equation of desired and achieved privacy can be maintained by territorial behaviors an individual perform in space. Although, starting from 80s, there is a growing literature on territorial behavior and privacy needs of college students who live in shared spaces in university residence halls (Mercer & Benjamin, 1980; Kaplan, 1982; Kastenbaum, 1984); house as a shared space for students is quite untouched phenomenon. Housing complexes close to universities generally act as a magnet for students and serve as student housing neighborhoods. Apartments are designed in a way they are expected to be shared and generally offer equal outdoor spaces. The rents of the units are parallel indicating the similarity of the housing quality. Aim of this study is to investigate the effect of privacy needs on housing preferences of college students living with roommates. The subjects of this study are 60 students who live in the student housing neighborhoods along school’s busline. All houses can be described as row houses offering either one or double story apartments. This study utilizes correlational research as methodology with the use simulation in the tactical level. A visual data set is designed and the respondents were asked to prefer among each set of visuals with the reasons behind their choice. The visuals designed for this study is as follows in order of application: First, plans and axonometric perspectives of the types of one or two story apartments, second photographs of different row houses, third photographs of different entrances to units. Plans of the housing units in the selected student housing neighborhoods were collected and categorized in multiple ways in terms of spatial choices they offered. They were redrawn to offer same utilities and formatted in the same scale and quality. To enrich the understanding of the spatial configuration perspective views were prepared. Representative types of the houses were selected from other parts of the city in order to defeat the tendency to select the pre-experienced one. The selected houses were photographed all from the same angle and later some edited in computer environment to eliminate outside effects (like cars, trees, etc.) that can influence preference. For the entrance photos similar method was followed. Respondents were told that all of them offer same rent, utilities and outdoor spaces and asked to prefer houses using the sets of visual data provided. The reasons for their selections and eliminations were asked and the answers were recorded. Each subject was separately open interviewed. Two story types were preferred more than one story apartments. General aims of selecting two story types were explained as having two different environments for different functions. Some respondents defined this as separation of the entertainment part from living part. The highly preferred type of plans were neither open nor closed but the ones that had continuity of space that gave enough privacy for each function without isolation in the spatial configuration. The results showed that there was a strong desire for home like appearance even though it was to be shared. Thus, two-story types were selected for their individual unit entrances and facade organizations. This study is significant in terms of understanding the spatial configurations that are formed by privacy requirements of individuals. Simulation as a method is preferred instead of conducting research in real life situations due to the feasibility and manageability of the study. The tool for gathering data from respondents was more controlled in terms of other influential factors that may occur in real life situations. Even though the results from a sample size of 60 people provide moderate statistical significance, findings are expected to enrich design guidelines for future projects. The methodology followed is appropriate for participatory design process.
Budd, Christopher. "Narrative Analysis: the Psychology of Work Environments." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. Language is integrally tied to our internal systems of logic and how we process the world around us. Narrative analysis uncovers the values and beliefs that influence behaviors, form the framework for social structures,and affect interpersonal relationships. In this presentation, we will learn how to analyze narratives in order to identify tacit and implicit expectations about how we work in particular work environments and the roots of those expectations.
Wells, Nancy M.. "Nature as a Buffer: Moderating Life Stress Among Older Adults." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. To examine whether having a view of nature from one's window buffers (i.e., moderates) the impact of life stress on older adults' psychological well-being, survey data were collected from 758 participants living in a variety of residential settings (mean age =76 years) in the northeastern United States. Results indicate that after controlling for age, income and location, views of nature moderate the impact of life stress on the psychological well-being of older adults. The moderating effect was particularly pronounced among elders who had experienced the greatest stressors in the prior two years.
Maller, Cecily J.. Nature in the Schoolyard: Investigations into the Potential of 'hands-On' Contact with Nature in Improving the Mental Health and Wellbeing of Primary School Children In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. Recent work on the health and well-being benefits of contact with animals and/or plants indicates the natural environment may have significant psychological and physiological effects on health and well-being of children (Wells, 2000; Taylor et al, 1998). These studies demonstrate that children function better cognitively and emotionally in green environments (Taylor et al, 2001; Wells, 2000) and have more creative play in green areas (Taylor et al, 1998). Other work has demonstrated that children have an abiding affiliation with nature, even in economically impoverished urban communities (Taylor et al, 1998; Kahn, 1997). Direct experience of nature could play a significant role in children’s affective, cognitive, and evaluative development (Kellert, 2002), but further study is needed.The literature indicates increasing concern about the lack of time humans, particularly children, spend in outdoor environments (Kellert, 2002; Orr, 2002; Pyle; 2002; Stilgoe, 2001), the increasingly limited opportunities to encounter and interact with the natural world (Orr; 2002; Frumkin, 2001), and the fact that modern society insulates people from outdoor environmental stimuli (Stilgoe, 2001; Simpson, 1994). For children, concerns focus on the detrimental effects on cognitive and emotional development (Kellert, 2002), the paucity of opportunities to develop an ethic of care for the environment and empathy for other living creatures/fellow humans (Kahn, 2002), a lack of understanding about the interconnectedness of all life forms, and many other valuable lessons to be learned from nature (Orr, 2002; Capra, 1997). In Australia, many schools are incorporating nature-based activities into their curricula. Although most programs appear successful, few have been evaluated, particularly in terms of the health-promoting role played by the nature-related elements. This paper will report on preliminary results of a research program investigating the health benefits of contact with nature for primary school children. The potential benefits to the mental health of children from hands-on contact with nature (i.e. those activities that enable children to personally have contact with key elements of nature, such as plants, and animals) via environmental education and/or nature-based programs are investigated in a Western cultural context via urban primary schools in Melbourne, Australia. The aim of this research is to explore the potential of ‘hands-on’ contact with nature, via nature-based environmental education activities encountered during primary schooling, to promote the mental health and well-being of urban Victorian primary school children. Specifically, this study examines nature-based activities such as school gardens and/or those activities run by the environmental education organisations, where children have the opportunity to directly engage with the natural environment. Research Questions include: 1) To describe the extent and type of ‘hands-on’ nature-based programs implemented in urban Victorian primary schools; 2) To determine the perceptions of principals, key staff members, and parents as to the effects on mental health and well-being of children participating in those programs and the effects on the school community as a whole; 3) To determine the health promotion potential of ‘hands-on’ nature-based programs, and the enablers and barriers to the implementation of these programs in urban Victorian primary schools. The research program comprises a survey of primary school principals, detailed case studies, and examination of the literature. Preliminary results from the survey will be presented along with an outline of the later stages of the program (not yet commenced) and an overview of the literature. It is anticipated that findings will be useful for validation of many nature-based programs already initiated by schools, and provide greater incentive to governments, educators, and researchers to develop these programs further.
Romice, Ombretta. "Neighbourhood Regeneration – from Integrated Development to Local Capital." In Designing Social Innovation: Planning, Building, Evaluating - Proceedings of the 18th International Association for People-Environment Studies Conference. IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Hogrefe & Huber, 2005.

For their size and impact on daily life, neighbourhoods are ideal units to study and assess quality of life, social ties, identity and territoriality. Based on a study of 29 European neighbourhoods involved in initiatives to counteract social exclusion, poverty and physical degradation, the EU-funded research (NEHOM) indicates that integrated and coordinated actions are the most opportune way to achieve successful urban management and regeneration of disadvantaged neighbourhoods. The paper examines neighbourhood initiatives and housing policies to identify macro and micro initiatives/strategies that have proved successful or have initiated a process of regeneration. The experiences highlight how regeneration processes can be successful only when they link overall goals to local dimensions. A parallel with the 'Theory of Small Worlds', developed in mathematics and physics, alerts on the limits that these strategies could encounter in relation to long-term sustainability and limited resources.

Turgut, H.. "New Housing Trends in Istanbul: Caught Between Global and Local." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. Over the last two decades, Istanbul’s socio-cultural and urban identities have been transforming radically. Turkey’s globalization, internationalization, and rapid flow of information have played a significant role in changing this grand old city and her people. As in the rest of the world, the multidimensional outcomes of this transformation have manifested in peculiarities of activity patterns, behavioral relationships, and social and cultural norms, as well as architectural and urban patterns. This rapid economic and social change demands continual redefinition of urbanization and housing concerns. Especially for newly emerging urban areas, it is essential to define what a “good quality environment” means to users today. Istanbul traditionally is described either as a bridge between East and West, Islam and secularism, or an arena of strife between these. In reality, the city is much more complex and confusing than the clichés suggest. It is a place in which a struggle for the spirit of the city and the identity of its residents has been taking place. “Istanbulites” are insisting on an Istanbul transformed by globalization. Consequently, the city has been developing with intense heterogeneity, especially in its urban housing, as never before. Istanbul’s recent housing projects, representing new ways to organize social and cultural differences, might be read as creating segregation and producing housing inequalities while transforming the character of public life in undesirable ways. Do users really want this kind of spatial isolation? To know, it is necessary to pinpoint their objectives—physical, social, environmental—and define a “good quality” environment for urban housing. Creating quality living environments requires both physical/objective and psychological/personal input. In conclusion, we believe it Based on these above arguments, this paper will investigate impacts of the globalization process in the city of Istanbul regarding to “housing preferences” and “quality of life”. We aim to analyze and discuss the transformation in the new housing developments in Istanbul in the context of quality of life issues. This paper is mainly based on ongoing research, and the observations, media and literature analysis of the authors that have had experience on the housing subject as an architect, researcher and educator. In the paper, an introduction part will examine the latest housing trends in Istanbul with the subjects of economical, cultural and political conditions that Turkey is already in and related. Second part includes the conceptual framework, which explores the definition of “life quality” and components, and also the inter-relationships among these factors. New residential patterns catering to the upper classes, which have been emerging in Istanbul since 1980 will be considered. We will, therefore, discuss the emerging patterns of social and cultural differentiation in Istanbul through the examples of the exclusive suburbs in the third part. At the end, we argue that recent housing projects and trends represent new forms of organizing social and cultural differences, and could be read as urban forms, which create segregation and reproduce inequalities while transforming the character of public life.
Casal, A.. "Nimby Around Water Treatment Plants: an Applied Study." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. Water treatment plants, which are important installations holding a mission of public health, activate nevertheless important reactions of the inhabitants, disturbed most of the time by the olfactory annoyance. In addition to the phenomena of harmful effects (odors, noise, visual and fear of medical risks), water purification and energy or agricultural recovering refer to values of sustainability. The concept of sustainability implies a long-term projective concern which is often in contradiction with individual interests. In this respect, annoyances linked to waste purification plants question the dilemma between collective benefit and local individual interest refering to the NIMBY effect (Not in My Back Yard), when inhabitants exposed to industrial annoyances tend to disregard advantages, and consequently also the benefits of industrial installations for one’s environment, pointing only at the inconveniences that they experience in everyday life. This study was impelled by a public organization, whose request consists in obtaining applicable tools and recommendations to deal with potential oppositions of residents and to facilitate environmental integration of three water treatment plants in the suburbs of Paris. The three sites of investigation present a specific problematic: a first water treatment plant is going to be enlarged, the second one has projects to double its treatment’s capacities, and the third one doesn’t exist yet. Environmental psychology showed that the process of evaluation refers to a complex field of attitudes, representations and evaluations not only related to the harmful effects. Expressions of discomfort are to be put in perspective with the relation of the individual with his environment, of which the accused harmful effect forms an integral part (Moser, 2003). First, one cannot understand residents’ reactions without apprehending the representation of the source identified like polluting. Moreover, beyond the objective conditions of perception, beyond the supposed or real embarrassment caused by the presence of the source, it is important to include how the harmful effect is lived in everyday life and the threat that it represents for residents’ quality of life. It is important to observe the relation maintained with the harmful object, through the variable of implication, defined from the following dimensions: the degree of personal identification relative to the object (feeling to be concerned or not by the problem), the value system attributed to the object (values concerned, environmental and human consequences involved for example) and the perceived possibility of action (feeling to be able to control or not the harmful effect) (Rouquette, 2003). More one is implied, more one will need to solve the tension generated by the exposure to the harmful effect. Behavioural and cognitive strategies aim to reduce this tension and the restitution of a satisfying level of congruence, modifying for example the initial judgements on the object. Presence of harmful effects can generate stress and give way to emotive reactions which could lead to behavioural or cognitive, passive or active adaptation (Moser, 1995), based on forms of individual or collective control. The construction or the expansion of a structure has psychological, social and environmental impacts. It is the analysis of the interactions between these three aspects, which can provide answers adapted to each situation. Indeed, as Pol. (2003) declares: the immediate objectives, the strategies and the orientation of the actions have to be specific to places. Each site presents specificities that need different solutions. The communication will consist in introducing the methodologies adapted to specificities of the sites and problematic. It will be presented a model gathering the whole factors, which can have an influence on the environmental assessment and individual reactions. More particularly, we propose: 1 - to recount the requirements for quality of life ; 2 - to highlight representations of water treatment and the of the factory ; 3 - to measure the degree of implication with the harmful source ; 4 - to identify the cognitive and behavioral strategies to face the harmful effects. The data analysis will aim to develop a model aiming at apprehending phenomenon NIMBY. Furthermore, it will take into account personal variables that have been identified in the literature as having an impact on the process of environmental assessment, as well as physical measurements recorded in situ.Moser G. 1995. Stress, réactions cognitives et comportementales : Une analyse en termes de psychologie sociale. Thérapie comportementale et cognitive, 5, 3, 69-75.Moser G. 2003. Pollution atmosphérique et atteinte; la qualité de vie. Priméqual: Ministere de l’écologie et du développement durable, février 2003.Pol E. 2003. De l’intervention; la gestion environnementale; méthodologies et développement pour une psychologie du développement durable, in : Moser G. et K. Weiss, Espaces de vie, Aspects de la relation homme-environnement. Paris : A. Colin, p. 307-331.Rouquette M.L. 2003. dans : Flamand C. & Rouquette M.L. Anatomie des idées ordinaires : Comment étudier les représentations sociales. Paris : A. Colin.
Oswald, F, S Iwarsson, C Nygren, S Tomsone, and H. W. Wahl. "Objective and Subjective Aspects of Home in Old Age: the Survey Approach." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. The aim of this contribution is to emphasize quantitative data on home and health from the ENABLE-AGE Survey Study. The contribution presents first results on (1) the interplay of objective housing circumstances as accessibility, and subjective evaluations of the home (e.g., usability, meanings of home), and on (2) the impact of psychological control beliefs on the relation of housing on the one hand and autonomy (e.g., functional capacity and dependence in ADL) as well as well-being (e.g., purpose in life, affect) as indicators for healthy aging on the other hand. Data was drawn from the survey sample at T1 including N = 1151 very old adults living alone in their private homes in Swedish, Latvian, and German urban regions, stratified for age (75-79, 80-84, 85-90) and gender (75% women). Results from precursor studies show that especially in old age housing-related control beliefs measure a considerable amount of unique variance of objective and subjective housing aspects beside general control belief measures. It is assumed that beside environmental factors, housing-related control beliefs contribute to healthy aging in very old age, however, to a different degree in different countries. As first correlative analyses reveal, only weak relations exist between control beliefs and the number of barriers inside and outside the home, whereas especially external control beliefs are negatively related to objective accessibility in all research sites. As outcomes are concerned, control beliefs are related to behavioural, cognitive and emotional aspects of healthy ageing. Further analyses are needed to detect moderating effects of psychological measures on the relation of home and healthy ageing in very old age in different countries.
Dominguez, P.. Occupation of Space and Uses of the Natural Resources in Berber Agro-Pastors of the High Moroccan Atlas: the Case of the Agdal in the Tribe of Aït Oucheg of the High Plateau of Yagour In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. "General problem and frame of the investigationThe official management of the access to sylvopastoral resources is currently questioned in the Maghreb countries, in particular in the mountainous and underprivileged zones which undergo through strong anthropic pressures. Moreover, recent evolutions place the natural inheritance of these areas at the heart of sustainable development (ecotourism, national parks, etc.). Starting from the rise of the environmental concerns and durable development (Conference of Rio), several disciplines were interested in the modes of common property of forest and pastoral spaces; such modes can be found in the Moroccan Atlas under the Berber name of AGDAL. Such problems are developed by a franco-moroccan research program (The "agdal" of the High Moroccan Atlas: Biodiversity and communal management of the access to sylvopastoral resources) which is supporting continuously my PhD. This program is mainly carried out by the Laboratory "Population-Environment-Development” (IRD – University of Provence) and several moroccan partners (Faculty of Science of Marrakech, Agronomic and Veterinary Institute Hassan II, the National school of Mekhnes). Within this multi-disciplinary framework (associating life sciences and social sciences), my PhD project is interested on the systems of interactions between rural communities and their natural environments at the same time as in the research of modes of natural stock management (specially biodiversity) reconciling environmental safeguarding and socio-economic development for a better reorientation of the forest and pastoral policies. Place of investigation. My work will be concentrated on one of the sites identified by the team, the high plate of the Yagour, located in the High Atlas (zone of Ouazarst), between 2000 and 2600 meters of altitude. - Geological substrate: secondary sandstones- Altitude-vegetation gradient: forest and cultivated stage (up to 2000 meters); a stage of course and extensive cultivation of cereals between 2000 and 2400 meters; finally a stage of high mountain up to more than 3000 meters. Research problem, questions and objectives1/ Identification of the principal ecological spaces exploited by the community and types of uses (irrigated cultures, rain cultivation of cereals, breeding, cut of wood, etc.)2/ Identification of the appropriation modes of spaces and the natural resources (concept of territory, private / collective appropriation, etc.)3/ Establishment of a typology and situation in space of the different agdal, according to the uses (forest, fodder, pastoral, crowned, etc.) and their levels of organization (Community, inter-fractions, inter-tribale). Methodologies and research strategy1/ a bibliographic and documentary search,2/ ground work which is being undertaken in the area of Ouazarst since June 2003 until mars 2006 with periods of alternation between Morocco and France of three, six, or nine months,3/ anthropological surveys and qualitative inquiry carried out on semi-directing interviews,4/ statement of vegetable resources in the various ecological spaces put in exploitation, 5/ assistance to courses of the Berber language in order acquire a certain knowledge to do my ground work. 6/ Last generation cartographic treatments under the direction of the geographers of the team AGDAL: Use of GPS, aerial photos, GIS, « sylvopastoral » maps of vegetation and uses of the territory, etc."
Sixsmith, A, Z Szeman, V Kennedy, D Naumann, C Nygren, and S. Tomsone. "Old and New Welfare Regimes in Europe: Effects on Housing Policies for Older People." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. PurposeHousing and living conditions of older people in Europe have been determined by different welfare regimes, historical circumstances and housing policies. However, recent economic and political changes may have important implications for the status of older people in the future. This paper reports on a comparative analysis of trends in welfare and housing policy for older people in five European countries.MethodThe paper draws on national policy reviews carried out during 2003 in four welfare regimes (Nordic – Sweden; liberal – UK; continental – Germany; transformational – Hungary, Latvia) within the ENABLE-AGE project funded by the European Commission. Method involved systematic review of current and historical policy documents, guidelines, standards, etc. based on common data collection template, covering general health, social welfare and housing policies and policies relating to older people specifically.ResultsThe comparison showed there are differences in welfare and housing policies for the elderly according to the different welfare regimes. It is evident that the transformational countries have undergone considerable development since systemic change in the 1990s, and have made efforts to “catch up” with the existing Member states. The well-being of older people is an explicit aim of policy, with an emphasis on helping people to remain independent in their own homes. While policy in existing EU states suggests a highly developed role for housing in facilitating independence and well being in old age, recent economic and demographic trends may undermine policy objectives.ConclusionsThe ENABLE-AGE project suggests that a levelling process has begun among the countries, which over the medium and long term will have a political influence on both macro and individual levels.
Thompson, Catharine Ward, and Peter Aspinall. "Older People, Outdoor Access and Quality of Life." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. This is part of an ongoing, multidisciplinary, collaborative project – Inclusive Design for Getting Outdoors (I’DGO) - aimed at identifying the most effective ways of ensuring the outdoor environment is designed inclusively to improve quality of life for older people. It takes a user-led approach to exploring the perception and importance of outdoor environments and the design features of landscape and natural elements, in particular. Initial findings from focus groups and semi-structured interviews will be presented, working with older people from ethnic minorities, those aged 75+, and those with visual impairment, hearing impairment, and mobility impairment. The approach uses projective techniques and draws on work by Canter (1977), Ward Thompson (1998) and others which have demonstrated that there are three important aspects to engagement with place: physical qualities of the place, activities and behaviour in that place, and beliefs, emotions and perceptions about that place.
Gatersleben, B.. "On Yer Bike for a Healthy Commute." In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. Current transport policy is aiming to persuade car drivers to reduce car use and use alternative and more sustainable forms of transport. The bicycle is one of the most sustainable forms of transport for most sectors of the population. Cycles have an efficient use of space and low energy consumption. They bring health to their users and do not damage the health of others. Cycles are relatively fast over short distances, and they provide a reliable and affordable form of transport. However, cycling is not considered an alternative by many, especially in countries such as the UK, where routes are often hilly and there are few segregated cycle paths. But despite these issues some people do cycle. They do not appear to be troubled by a lack of safe cycle lanes. They will cycle in rain and sunshine, up and down hills along cycle paths as well as badly congested roads. This paper examines who cycles to work and why and how more people can be persuaded to cycle in an area of the UK where cycling is fairly uncommon. Two studies were conducted: a survey study among university employees and a small scale qualitative study in which people, who did not usually cycle, were asked to cycle to work for a period of two weeks. Cyclists and non-cyclists agreed that cycling is healthy and good for the environment and that improvements to cycle facilities are needed. Cyclists were a very small group of mainly men who liked the exercise, the sense of achievement that it brings them and the feeling of smugness when overtaking stationary traffic. For the majority of commuters cycling was not a serious alternative mode of transport. They perceived a variety of barriers. Using the transactional model of behaviour change (Prochaska & DiClemente, 1984), it was shown that the majority of people never contemplated cycling; they simply felt that cycling was not for them. Those contemplating cycling said they did not cycle to work at the moment because they lived too far, did not own a bike or were not fit enough. Those who indicated they were ready for action, were especially likely to say they were not cycling at the moment due to the weather, or because they needed their car to support their current lifestyle (e.g., needing the car for work, to carry things, or to escort others). It is suggested that many changes, infrastructural as well as cultural, are necessary to get more people on their bikes in the UK and that more effective behaviour change strategies can be developed by focusing on the motives and perceived barriers of people in different stages of change.
Bengtsson, A.. Outdoor Environments for Older People in Healthcare Facilities; a Case Study on the Experience of Accessibility In Evaluation in Progress - Strategies for Environmental Research and Implementation (IAPS 18 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, 2004. The circumstances of healthcare facilities in Sweden have changed a lot during the last ten or twenty years. The need for care has increased at the same time as conditions to give care has diminished. This have resulted in overworked caregivers and a lot of older people not being able to get the help they need. The loss of places at healthcare centres for older people results in very sick and disabled persons getting the places. Therefore the burden upon the caregivers is constantly growing. In a general perspective the need for healthcare arise at the age of 80 years. The age between 85 and 90 is the most comprehensive. In Sweden the share of people in this group is expected to double in 30 years. It is important to meet the needs of this growing population also in matters concerning outdoor environments. The knowledge of accessibility in outdoor environments is motivated by theories that imply that being outdoors benefits health. According to one theoretical aim health benefits are due to environmental impacts by for example daylight (Küller & Wetterberg, 1996) or air (Söderström & Blennow, 1996). Other theories suggest that a natural environment promotes 1) restoration of mental capacity (Kaplan & Kaplan, 1989) and 2) physical restoration after stress (Ulrich, 1999).Research problemThe environmental aspect of accessibility comprises both a physical and a psychological dimension. Physiological accessibility in an environment concerns distances, inclinations, benches, ground covers, thresholds, doorsteps, kerbstones etc.(Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska & Werner, Perla, 1999). Psychological accessibility in an environment is a more unexplored phenomena. For example, when using an outdoor environment, the first step of psychological accessibility is to know that there is an outdoor environment possible to use. To be able to see this environment from inside the building might further enhance the psychological accessibility (Cooper Marcus, Clare, 2001). Als