Keywords Abstract
Uzzell, David, Rachel Michels, and Tara Singh. "A Co-Orientational Approach to Understanding Perceptions of Water Scarcity in Bhopal, India." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. This study reports on research undertaken to explore the perceptions of water scarcity of residents from the middle and lower class and members from the Municipal Corporation in Bhopal, India. Drawing on a co-orientational approach the study focuses on the analysis of multiple perceptions and cognitions which are held towards the problem by members of the local Municipality, Aid Agencies and middle- and low-income residents. Co-orientation asserts that people's behaviour is not based solely on their individual cognitions of the world, but is the result of their social understanding of the perceptions and attitudes held by others around them. The analysis focuses on the three co-orientational concepts of similarity, congruency and accuracy of perceptions and attitudes of these different groups in relation to shortages in safe drinking water. While co-orientation traditionally has focussed on communication differences; it is no less effective in highlighting differences and conflicts in interests and priorities with regards to the ways in which access to safe drinking-water can be ensured for all. The methodology involved a questionnaire survey with over 100 respondents representing the Bhopal municipality, Aid agencies and public health engineers as well as a cross section of the inhabitants of Bhopal. This was augmented with in-depth semi-structured interviews with members of the same groups. The co-orientational technique identified accuracies, miscommunication and misperceptions between the groups towards the improvement of water supply and barriers for change, as well as differences in attributions of responsibilities and interests. As a consequence different perceptions, cognitions, and behaviours of the different groups and organisations towards water scarcity could be found.
Nishimura, Shin-ya, and Akihiko Iwasa. "A Collaborative Activity with Students and Inhabitants for Re-Building Wooden Arcades in Japan." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006.

"We have been developing an exercise program named "architectural planning and design" (for 55 3rd grade students for one year) in Niigata University. In this practical program, students get experience as architectural professionals by designing and actually building the traditional wooden arcades named "Gangi". This is a sustainable and collaborative activity for preserving a traditional environment in this city. "Gangi" are the traditional arcades for snowy districts covering the pedestrian spaces against the falling snow. They are also one of the important elements in city landscapes in Tochio Nagaoka city. In Tochio Nagaoka city, there are a lot of "Gangi" that are broken and have not been repaired. They are owned by all of the inhabitants whose properties face the front road and are open for the use of all the inhabitants. This is the traditional way of life for the inhabitants in snowy districts. Because that most of the inhabitants are old, they do not afford to repair and re-construct them. We are building the "Gangi" in the collaboration with the inhabitants of Tochio Nagaoka city. From 2000, we started to re-build the "Gangi". The processes and the activities changed to some degree according to the condition of the construction site and circumstances. The main process is as follows. 1) Town planning orientation in April, 2) Team making with the students and inhabitants in May, 3) Researching the planning site and Omotemachi in June, 4) Discussing the design with the inhabitants in July, 5) Competition for the design in September, 6) Practical design control in October, 7) Construction of the new "Gangi" from November to February. In order to continue our activities, we have managed to clear many difficulties and create many new and characteristic structures as follows. 1) Supporting activity: we create competitive conditions. Inhabitants make the final decision. 2) Sustainable activity: All of the local media inform each activity to the inhabitants. We manage sustainable budgets by the government and local authority. 3) Environmental quality control: We maintain the diversity of our works by not keeping to the ordinary criteria for design. The "Gangi" are constructed with natural materials and utilizing local traditional industries. In Tochio, our new works are superimposed on the traditional landscape. I think these kinds of educational programs have a new possibility to preserve and develop the small town environment. Our activities got some prizes of the government of Japan. "

Gulersoy, Nuran Zeren, Ahsen Ozsoy, and Ozge Atalay. "A Comparative Study on Post Disaster Settlements Established After the Earthquakes of 1999 in Marmar." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. "Aim of the paper: Turkey experienced two major earthquakes in the provinces of Kocaeli and Bolu within three months in the second half of 1999. These were the most destructive earthquakes in Turkey, as they affected the most highly industrialized and densely populated region of the country. The objective of the study is to focus on the permanent houses that are established for the earthquake sufferers after the disaster and evaluate the social and physical situation of the settlements. Context of the paper: The earthquake in August 1999, measuring 7.4 on the Richter scale, devastated a very large area including _zmit (Kocaeli), Adapazar_, Yalova, Sakarya, Bolu and Duzce in the Marmara region. Another earthquake took place, with the magnitude of 7.2 on the Richter scale, which affected Duzce, Bolu, and Kaynasli in November 1999. According to official figures, over 18,000 people died, about 49,000 people were injured, and over 300,000 housing units were damaged or destroyed. Nearly 100,000 (92,839) households were left homeless due to the total destruction of their residences. Designated to be "entitled" to receive housing were 110,050 families. The Turkish government, with the support of the World Bank and some other organizations, built permanent houses for a large amount of the earthquake survivors. However, it is observed that, some people have not preferred to move to their new houses. Some problems related to the distance from the city center, lack of urban facilities, settlement layout, stereotyped plans, etc. show the necessity to examine and make post occupancy evaluations for these post earthquake settlements. Method of inquiry: The Turkish government, with the support of the World Bank and some other organizations, built permanent houses for a large amount of the earthquake survivors. In the scope of the research, a field study is conducted and data are reported from nearly 150 participants by the help of questionnaires and interviews in 5 different permanent housing settlements (Hereke, Yalova-Cal_ca, and Yalova-Sogucak, Duzce settlements of The Ministry of Public Works and Settlement and World Bank). The data obtained from 5 post disaster areas, intends to understand the physical and social life conditions of the inhabitants, examines the characteristics and problems of the area from settlement to building level, and discusses the satisfaction of residents about the physical and the social environment. Findings: After the focus and discussion on the results obtained from the settlements mentioned above, it is seen that the social and physical conditions and the problems are nearly the same. It is observed that, some people have not preferred to move to their new houses. Some problems related to the distance from the city center, lack of urban facilities, settlement layout, stereotyped plans, etc. show the necessity to examine and make post occupancy evaluations for these post earthquake settlements."
Witt, Tom. "A Conceptual Framework for Sustainability." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. "A successful product of design addresses the needs of all those who are affected through out the entire life cycle of the product: users, designers, and service providers (Morelli 2002). As the range of products expand from mere physical artifacts to such ethereal matters as sustainability, lifestyle, status, systems, services, and experiences, the more difficult it becomes to identify the end-user and the needs that ought to have been addressed in the design process. "Ultimately, design is about values. Designer values, user values, societal values and so on (Giard 2000)." It is the consensus of society that ascribes the cultural meaning of sustainability, significance of sustainability and value of sustainability upon a product, and not the designer, client or manufacturer. “In addition to the classical tenants of structure, function, and aesthetics, a more socially responsible design must acknowledge and engage the complex relationships between individuals, society and their artifacts. ...The challenge lies not in dictating meaning but perhaps in developing an object's capacity for meaning (Tharp 1999).” The intent here is to explore the relationship between the design process and design research and the social and cultural context for which a designed artifact is intended with regard to “framing” (Lakoff, 2004) sustainability in meaningful terms. Further, to see if a successful, sustainable product creates its own social circle and cultural adoption, or if the society and culture acts as a rigid dictating force. In this paper, I consider the design process in the light of a wicked problem environment -- problems that cannot be defined without simultaneously solving them (Rittel and Webber 1969). Then, I proceed to a review of research methods intended to identify end-user needs and aspirations relative to the sustainable artifact produced by the design plan. Finally, I conclude with an examination of cultural meaning of artifacts as a product of design, whether meaning is directed by designers or dictated by society and culture and whether research supports or inhibits the success of the artifact in the market place. Metaphorically, what variable is the chicken and what variable is the egg, and which comes first."
Eduardo, Cañas López Jor, and Pérez Rincón Fe del Socorro. "A Glance at Children's Drawings for Urban Renewal." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. "The Form of Cultural Meaning and Social Representation: This work stresses organic participation as a constructive process that allows new territory readings and the restructuring of urban space renewal programs. The work takes advantage of methods of feedback within the community through diverse aesthetic and spatial expression (children's mural) where the intermediary in urban design assumes a "facilitator position" allowing the collective imagination to have multiple ways of expression. Approach to Intervention Context: Xochimilco's urban structure is based on the character of the old town of pre-Hispanic origin, the economy of which mainly depended on agriculture. In the present time, Xochimilco is faced with an accelerated urban growth that is having major impacts on the areas forestry and agricultural soils (chinampa and mountain). The case study was undertaken within the district of Xochimilco, a heterogeneous territory incorporating rural areas within the metropolitan processes. Here diverse layers coexist: firstly strong identities based in pre-Hispanic origin, broken into fragments by the emergence of a second layer; the dynamic productive demands imposed by the modern city; and, a third, composed by immigrant flows from other, mainly rural territories with different symbolic languages. Community Feedback: The process began with the motivation of the professors and later on of the students of 5to and 6to degree. The selected topic: "The context, culture and history of San Luis' town Tlaxialtemalco", with the one which, the realization of the shops begins (first of drawing and later in painting murals). The methods undertaken included; documented investigation, guided visits, work tables with the columnist of the town, oral tradition approaches and sessions of supervised drawing. Used Conceptual Categories in the Practice: The children's creative process always appeals to different kind of expression community symbols and projection of time. The "present time" that is related with the needs for action-transformation and their near landscape, integrating individual and collective perceptions. In second instance, the "last time" allows to reaffirm a community feeling and symbolic representation. The children play with different times to resume memory layers of their reality through plastic expression mixture with internal and external values, that his artistic action is synthesis of individual and collective experience. The representation is a composed element between the cultural processes and the urban interventions as relationship among: urban image, renewal the public space, the urban social identity, the social participation and representation. The conceptual categories: .Urban image. As representation inhabitants, actual state landscape and one wanted. The renewal as symbolic appropriation place process. .Urban social identity. Individual's subjective relationship with their environment. .Social Participation. Canalization or induction of social needs, join project in one objective. Finally, .the representation like the projection and materialization of diverse imagies on the space. Social and Space Results of the Intervention: The practice of children's mural helps us to understand the cultural relationships as visual register of daily facts, where it has translated in images The subjective interpretation of the natural-cultural environment and where it has integrated collective's needs and projected identitary values, this will make us understand the children's drawings as text or language of social representation. The graphs make dynamic talkative between their creators and observers. This dynamic allows to compose elements: community features and territory as contact points among environment, interpretation and image. The creative forms and active methods for social participation allows to systematize and consensual different actors and actions that intervene in the problem, It give us different ways to perform the space; to manage the process for producing cycles that defines the feedback in improvement process, synergies and multiple positive processes. These articulation are determined by attributes system, variable interrelation, like: symbolic space, cultural mixture and social cohesion."
Andeane, Patricia Ortega, and Cesareo Estrada-Rodriguez. "A Model of Environmental Stress in Waiting Rooms at the Care Health Institutions." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Objectives: A model of structural equations of existent relationships between socio-environmental, physical and medical consult variables as stress generators in a public general hospital ward patients was the purpose. Background: Literature mentioned there are multiple factors in hospital environments that could precipitate new health problems include stress originated by noise (Evans & Lepore, 1997), lack of control over the social interaction of patients and visitors (Conell, Sanford, Megrew & Thesing, 1997), lack of signaling and consequent disorientation (Atef & McCormick, 1995, Boelter & Torgrude, 1997), the symbolic image giving negative messages to visitors or relatives such as not being welcome, or ambiguous messages interpreted as not belonging to a certain part of the hospital or health center (Ortega-Andeane, 1993), as well as the effects of medical attention and socio-environmental factors as stress generators in hospitals (Ortega, 2002). Method of inquiry: Three different waiting rooms at a General Hospital and a sample of 253 women were evaluated: the physical variables measured were: sound, light, temperature, humidity, air velocity and suspended particles in air. Valid and reliable psychometric scales were developed to measure each social environmental variable: functionality, negative physical valuation, spatial perception and equipment and safety and confidence in medical service, stay in ward evaluation, human quality of attention, environmental meaning and way finding. The kind of illness, waiting time and type of waiting room, were considered as part of the medical consulting variables. Findings & Conclusions: The results allowed developing a valid predictive model based on structural equation statistics which links theoretical relationships among stressors such as: physical comfort environmental meaning and way finding, with empirical data obtained from this study; including the observed variables such as waiting time, temperature and social density. Applicability to the field: We discussed the results in term of the importance of the model. The model we were able to generate offers the possibility of identifying environmental stress sources with their several social environmental and physical components, as well as the direct and indirect sources that generate it. Such a model offers us the possibility to eliminate stress sources in the construction of hospitals or at least to minimize them, by giving information which, translated to design guides, offers great opportunities of primary prevention, eliminating possible risks on users’ health.
Adly, Emad. "A Model of Partnership to Provide a Clean Energy for the Poor." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Introduction• The GEF Small Grants Programme (SGP) in Egypt has been actively promoting the process of Sustainable Development since launched in 1992• The Country programme strategy of the SGP emphasizes as linking the Global benefits to the Local needs and priorities.• In the area of Climate Change SGP was able to provide Solar Heaters for the poor in the Urban and Rural areas to minimize the economic burden on the dwellers and to diminish the CO2 emissions by using an alternative to fossil oil or other conventional energy sources • In this paper we are showing the process of initiating and implementing a sustainable project to establish a model of Sustainable Development in El – Tayeba Village in Minia Governorate.Methodology• The process was developed on a model of partnership between the Communities, NGOs, Private Sector, Government Authorities and SGP• Enhancing a financial mechanism that could deviate the private sector of only dealing with those who can offered to buy the technology to the poor who are not able to acquire it.• Capacity Building for all the activities in the project to ensure a smooth dialogue, affective partnership and a sustainable project.• Investing in the model with a clean objective to replicate the project and to expand the number of beneficiaries.• Adopt a financial mechanism (A Revolving fund) to ensure the sustainability and ownership at the first place.• Deriving the lessons from which we could learn how to develop more projects to help more beneficiaries and to achieve more Global Benefits.
Ajiang, Chen, and Shi Guoqing. "A Social Integration Study of Involuntary Resettlement Chen." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Abstract: The construction projects carried out in China since 1949 have caused the involuntary resettlement of over 50 million people. Given that the resettlement was involuntary in nature, social integration has become the key issue in social restructuring and development for the people involved. Social integration of involuntary resettlers means integration of interests, including those with reference to the macrostructure, the adjustment of land use, access to infrastructure, and so on. Next is social integration of society and culture, including its effects on village and administrative organization, clans, religious beliefs, and ethnic traditions. Currently, promotion of relocation legislation and mass participation is enhancing the social integration of involuntary resettlers.
Carr, Valerie Lindsay. A Socio-Ecological Model of Relationships Between Stress and the Healthcare Working Environment In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Aims and Objectives: This paper aims to present a critical review of socio-ecological models of work stress as related to healthcare staff alongside a parallel review of literature relating to satisfaction with office work environments. A model is then presented which attempts to synthesise research from the sociological and architectural disciplines to provide an integrated evaluation tool for analysis of the impact of the built environment on stress and coping mechanisms of healthcare staff. Context and Background literature: Schaefer and Moos proposed a theoretical model of work stressors in healthcare settings indicating relationships between self schema, organisational culture, work stressors, coping mechanisms and wellbeing with reference to Karasek (Schaefer & Moos 1993; Karasek 1979). Jones and Johnston amended this model to address the transactional association of the variables (Jones & Johnston 2000) still identifying their model as socio-ecological while making little reference to the impact of the built environment. Workplace evaluation theories have been largely developed in office environments by Becker, Brill and Sundstrom among others (Becker, 1981; Brill, 1998; Sundstrom 1986). Archea addressed the relationship between the built environment and social behaviour, although not specifically behaviour in the workplace (Archea, 1977). Studies of the healthcare environment have largely focussed on patient facilities or on the organisational culture and working practices of staff. This paper is an attempt to interpret and apply theories from the various domains to understand the impact of the built environment on staff wellbeing in healthcare environments. Method of Inquiry or Argument: An extensive literature review examining models of work stress and satisfaction in nursing, sociology, psychology, environment and behaviour and architectural domains was undertaken. Over 500 nurses in ten different locations throughout UK were given self report questionnaires with questions relating to wellbeing, satisfaction, perceived stress, control, working environment, staff facilities and organisational culture. Data was analysed for evidence supporting an amended model of the relationship between work stress and the built environment. Conclusion: Statistical analysis revealed significant correlation between satisfaction with staff facilities and job satisfaction. Access to staff rest areas was ranked closely behind air quality and lighting as a factor contributing to personal health problems. In open comments, interviews and focus groups the provision of appropriate staff rest areas was highlighted as indicative of the value management placed on nursing staff.
Carr, Valerie. "A Socio-Ecological Model of Relationships Between Stress and the Healthcare Working Environment." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. This paper aims to present a critical review of socio-ecological models of work stress as related to healthcare staff alongside a parallel review of literature relating to satisfaction with office work environments. A model is then presented which attempts to synthesise research from the sociological and architectural disciplines to provide an integrated evaluation tool for analysis of the impact of the built environment on stress and coping mechanisms of healthcare staff. Schaefer and Moos proposed a theoretical model of work stressors in healthcare settings indicating relationships between self schema, organizational culture, work stressors, coping mechanisms and wellbeing with reference to Karasek (Schaefer & Moos 1993; Karasek 1979). Jones and Johnston amended this model to address the transactional association of the variables (Jones & Johnston 2000) still identifying their model as socio-ecological while making little reference to the impact of the built environment. Workplace evaluation theories have been largely developed in office environments by Becker, Brill and Sundstrom among others (Becker, 1981; Brill, 1998; Sundstrom 1986). Archea addressed the relationship between the built environment and social behavior, although not specifically behavior in the workplace (Archea, 1977). Studies of the healthcare environment have largely focused on patient facilities or on the organizational culture and working practices of staff. This paper is an attempt to interpret and apply theories and models from the various domains to understand the impact of the built environment on staff wellbeing in healthcare environments. An extensive literature review examining models of work stress and satisfaction in nursing, sociology, psychology, environment and behavior and architectural domains was undertaken. 228 nurses in ten different locations throughout UK were given self report questionnaires with questions relating to wellbeing, satisfaction, perceived stress, control, working environment, staff facilities and organizational culture. Data was analyzed for evidence supporting an amended model of the relationship between work stress and the built environment. Statistical analysis revealed significant correlation between satisfaction with staff facilities and job satisfaction. Access to staff rest areas was ranked closely behind air quality and as a factor contributing to personal health problems. In open comments, interviews and focus groups the provision of appropriate staff rest areas was highlighted as indicative of the value management placed on nursing staff.
Shaojun, Chen. "A Study of Poverty Risks Based on Rural Involuntary Resettlement of Chinese Village Dwellers." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Involuntary resettlement is an important problem that is unavoidable in certain engineering projects and must be properly handled. Approximately half of the rural villages that have been subject to involuntary resettlement in China have found poverty to be the primary risk they faced during the migration process. The poverty risk that accompanies involuntary resettlement has become a focus of concern for the Chinese government, and academic circles are carrying out in-depth explorations of this issue. Articles dealing with this matter take as their point of departure the characteristics of resettlement-related risk faced by villagers, differentiating between aspects of poverty risk such as economic, political, social, and environmental risks and analyzing the categories of poverty, such as absolute and relative poverty, narrowly and broadly defined poverty, and primary poverty (yuansheng pinkun) as opposed to secondary poverty (cisheng pinkun). They treat subjective and objective causes of poverty, including the migrants’ cultural gaps, gaps in psychological predisposition, loss of material needed for production and life, a weakened economic base, difficulties in settling in, unreasonable patterns of resource allocation, and so on. They further propose minimizing migration to the greatest extent possible, improving the abilities of those resettling as well as the opportunities offered to them, devising plans for resettlement that are really feasible, including antipoverty measures as integral parts of these plans while making sure to apply antipoverty policies that ensure that conditions among the resettlers for living and for production are no worse after the move than before.
Nakamura, Mai, and Kazuhiko Mori. A Study on Places Affording Communication Between Children and the Elderly (Cce) In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Aims & Objectives: The goal of this study is to clarify Place-models, which are sets of behavioral scene and place, affording “Communication between Children and the Elderly (CCE)”. And also we analyzed the condition to afford CCE. Context & background literature: Recently, It is difficult to find scenes with CCE in Japan, because many households became nuclear family, and people are not so much interested in the community. On the other hand, there are a lot of complex facilities such as an elementary school joined to a nursing home. On this background, we must clarify the planning method to design places where people of different generations can be together and having communication inside of complex facilities. Method of inquiry or argument: We asked people about the most impressive memory being with the elderly in their childhood. And they sketched and explained their image of communication they have. Then we analyzed the behavioral scene, places, and condition from them. Major kind of behavioral scenes could be classified into 5 types, talking, and skilling, shopping, playing, and dinning. The places affording CCE are tend to be broadly ranging from private to public. We find ‘small-scale shops’ and ‘Engawa’, Japanese traditional porch, can afford CCE. Findings & Conclusions: We find out 5 place-models that afford CCE. “Engawa-model” is intermediate place between living and garden. “Family room-model” is living space where people being together and dinning. ”Train-model” is setting on that people sit side by side naturally. “Shop-model” is a small-scale shop along the way in the school zone. “Alley-model” is a narrow way preventing from car traffic. The condition to afford CCE could be classified into 2 types. “Program-affording” is led by communication programs of elementary schools or children groups. This type is seen in public spaces usually. “Incidental-affording” comes out in their daily life. This type tends to be seen in private spaces.
Horelli, Liisa, Pia Björklid, Jaime Berenguer Santiago, Geza Fischl, Marina Mura, Lenelis Kruse, Marianne Lindström Kyttä, Maria Nordström, Elena Sautkina, and Sergi Valera Pertegas. "A Workshop on Virtual Teaching of Environmental Psychology." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Background and aim of the workshop:As the Bologna process is spreading in the EU-countries, the teaching in Europe will be harmonised in terms of content and techniques. It will mean that more teaching will take place via the internet. It might also mean that there will be more space for teaching environmental psychology, especially through the net. Marketta Kyttä and I have recently created a course on Environmental psychology in Finnish which is being taught as a virtual course with exercises run by the Helsinki University of Technology. The students receive 6 (new) credits. The “lectures” are based on 15 thematic sets of power point slides with small texts, covering different topics of environmental psychology. For example: history of EP; theoretical approaches; methodology of EP; basic process; people and places etc. etc. The aim of the workshop could be: a. to exchange experiences of virtual teaching of environmental psychologyb. to discuss the need and interest of further development of shared EP courses either as an enrichment to ordinary teaching, as a special course or as an EP programme leading to a degreec. to discuss the opportunities for funding virtual EP courses and teachingd. to take further steps to the realisation of our shared project
Eriksson, Louise, Jörgen Garvill, and Annika M. Nordlund. "Acceptability of Travel Demand Management Measures: the Importance of Problem Awareness, Moral, Freedom, and Fairness." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Car use causes severe environmental problems. Different travel demand management (TDM) measures aim to change travel behavior toward more sustainable travel. The aim in this study was to identify factors important for car users’ acceptability of TDM measures. In a proposed model, the acceptability of specific TDM measures is explained by a hierarchical set of beliefs. First, pro-environmental orientation and problem awareness are related to a personal norm, which in turn is associated with willingness to reduce car use. Second, willingness to reduce car use is linked to beliefs about to what extent a specific TDM measure is perceived to influence freedom to choose travel mode, own reduction of car use, effectiveness, fairness, and subsequently acceptability. In this study, factors influencing the acceptability of three different TDM measures were analyzed; an information campaign, raised tax on fuel, and improved public transport.Data was collected through a mail survey to 4000 randomly selected citizens in Sweden and the response rate was 31 percent. Pro-environmental orientation was assessed with the New Ecological Paradigm scale (NEP). Problem awareness was measured as perceived global, local, and personal threat of air pollution from private car use. Personal norm was assessed as the perceived moral obligation to reduce personal car use. In addition, willingness to reduce car use was measured. The TDM measures were described as short scenarios. In relation to each TDM measure, the respondents evaluated to what extent the measures were perceived to influence their freedom to choose travel mode, how much they would reduce car use and, as a measure of effectiveness, how much they thought other car users would reduce their car use if the measures were implemented. In addition, the respondents stated to what extent they perceived the measures to be fair or unfair, and as a measure of acceptability, to what extent they were in favor or against the TDM measures. The proposed model was first tested and modified in a randomly selected sub-sample (N = 462) for the three TDM measures, then the modified models were validated in the remaining sample (N = 460). After minor modifications, the proposed model was supported. Moral and fairness concerns were found to be specifically important for the acceptability of raised tax on fuel, while freedom aspects were of importance for the acceptability of improved public transport. The importance of various factors for the acceptability of different TDM measures may be used when designing measures that are perceived acceptable by car users. In forthcoming studies, factors important for the acceptability of different economic as well as regulatory and voluntary TDM measures ought to be studied within a theoretical context. In addition, it is important to further examine respondents’ perceptions of a fair TDM measure.
Tezel, Hamide Elçin. "Access Problems of Elderly in Bathroom Use." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Aim of the Study: The aim of this study is to find the perception of difficulty and dependency (PDD) of elderly people in bathroom use in relation to age and disability type. Perception of difficulty-dependence (PPD) corresponds to the personal level of perception when doing an activity without taking any support or the amount of support to be needed. Aging and Impairment: Aging is a process that restricts the human activities through appearing physical disabilities in time. Impairments that accompany the aging are resulted by the lost or decreased body functions. Studies in ergonomics and gerontechnology try to improve the relationship between the physical environment and the elderly people. Because of the increasing number of elderly people and life expectancy, there is an interest to search and rehabilate the conditions in their own living environments of the elderly people. Beyond being a physical shelter, house is a private living environment that elderly people spend majority of their time while finding personal security and privacy there. Bathroom is one of the major places of a house where people always seek for privacy and independency. Method of Inquiry: A questionnaire was distributed to 63 elderly people aged between 50 to 80. The results of this research represented the findings about aging and impairments, which are accepted as part of being elderly, in relation to bathroom activities. Since getting older and accompanying impairments are accepted as the determinants of the aging process, these two factors which were investigated for their influence on perception of difficulty-dependence in bathroom activities of elderly people formed the main hypotheses of the research. Findings and Conclusions: Though the perception of difficulty-dependence (PDD) in bathroom tasks is generally low in the participants aged between 50-60, the distribution in PDD is getting wider in the participants aged between 70-80 (e.g. p=0.002 for fixing shower head). A sharp increase was found in PDD in the ages above 80 (e.g. p=0.002 for entering bath-tube). It was also found that PD is getting higher depending on the number and variety of the disabilities. Visual disability is found to be prevalent to all ages but not to be influential as much as the others on PDD in bathroom tasks. Because of the privacy expectation in the bathroom, all ages and disability types refrain receiving help when having the bath. Further Study: The study will be developed by increasing the sample size. Depending on the increased sample size, it is possible to question the influence of specialized bathroom details such as grasping bars for the accessibility. Measurements and style differences of the bathroom equipment on PDD are other issues of research with the increased sample size. In bathrooms, various sources of accessibility problems can cause serious health problems and threatens subjective well-being of the elderly people.
Barlet, Aline, and Françoise Chartier. "Acoustic Comfort in Workspaces: Health in Call Centers." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. The research aims to design and to develop a system of active reduction of the background noise as it is perceived by the operators of call centers, with a headset similar to the ones usually used in the team workspaces. The proposed environmental study will make it possible to grasp the global context of the functioning of the call centers. For that, this study brings together researchers of different laboratories, the one as specialist in the physical approach of the noise environment, the other as specialist in environmental psychology. Indeed, noise represents a major nuisance in many occupations. In certain cases it even can cause, in the long run, an irreversible deafness. Among all the techniques aiming at reducing the noise level in the workspaces, the active noise control is an innovating method which can prove to be effective, in particular when the low frequencies prevail. For making this method efficient, it is essential to study the acoustic comfort. The definition of acoustic comfort on the workplace, as well as its ways of implementation, require to take both, the sound reality and the perception of the noise by the users of these spaces, into account. Thus, if our subject is really the noise environment of workspaces, it is nevertheless necessary for its study, to approach it at the same time recontextualized and articulated with the different aspects of the physical and social environment of the place concerned. We prepared two standardized questionnaires, the first addressed to the operators, the second to the supervisors. The survey among the operators allows us to collect all the data relating to their opinions, representations and expectations as for their work environment. It gives us the opportunity of collecting, in an accurate way, the perceptions and evaluations of topics concerning the different parameters of this acoustic dimension as well as the adopted behaviors towards these sound characteristics. Additionally, the data provided by the supervisors concern the objective aspects of the work environment and as such, allow us to put the subjective data into perspective. It is a question of studying several call centers which are rather representative for the different existing centers. In the choice of the centers, we applied two predominant criteria: - Type of service (externalized or internalized), - Density of operators per team space (high, average, low). The so collected data processing will allow a fine and detailed analysis of the specific work environment of each center. The sample study will provide a base of information which will be useful for the work of our partners in this project, but also for the call centers themselves as it gives a global vision of their occupational work environments.
Nicolas, Michel, and Karine Weiss. "Adjustment to Stressful Situations: Coping and Defense Mechanisms." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Stressful situations are linked to both individual and environmental characteristics. Specific populations, who have to face repeated stressful events might be able to develop specific strategies or may be at risk regarding health issues. The analysis of their coping capacities implies to understand different psychological constructs related to psychological adjustment. Currently, from a theoretical and empirical point of view, two concepts give best the account of psychological adjustment: coping strategies (CS) and defense mechanisms (DM) (Cramer, 1998). It should be determined whether coping strategies and defense mechanisms predict the adaptation. The main goal of this study is to better understand the relationships between these two psychological constructs in a specific stressful situation: sport competition. The objectives were to examine the adequacy of the traditional distinction based on the adaptative or maladaptative characteristics of each process and to investigate its contribution in the prediction of performance adjustment. 36 French international athletes from 15 to 18 years of age (M =16.5, SD =1.93), participated in this study. They answered two questionnaires : the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ) purports to assess individual's conscious derivatives of DM (Andrews et al., 1993), and the Ways of Coping Questionnaire (WOCQ, Folkman & Lazarus, 1988) assessed CS applicable in numerous stressful settings. The index performance (IP) was the performance indicator used for this study. IP scores were obtained for each participant by subtracting standard performance from the time performance realized during the competition. Correlations between performance adjustment, CS and DM indicated that among the six factors, (1) mature defenses and seeking social support (r = .52), (2) immature defenses and distancing / avoidance (r = .44) were significantly correlated. Concerning the contribution of CS and DM in prediction of performance adjustment, multiple regression analyses were performed. Mature defenses, problem solving and distancing/avoidance were significant predictors of performance adjustment. R² = .57, F(6,19)=6,4954, p<.05 the="" results="" reveal="" that="" both="" cs="" and="" dm="" are="" related="" to="" performance="" adjustment.="" classical="" view="" based="" on="" adaptive="" maladaptive="" is="" not="" supported.="" concepts="" involved="" in="" psychological="" adaptation="" process="" have="" their="" specificity="" shared="" characteristics.="" further="" studies="" should="" investigate="" respective="" role="" of="" order="" better="" understand="" differences="" similarities="" between="" these="" two="" specific="" situations="" different="" stressors.="">
Nawangwe, Barnabas. "Agricultural Practices in Urban Setting in Kawempe Division of Kampala." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Urban agriculture has become a dominant phenomenon in many cities and urban centres in the less developed countries, especially in Africa. In Kampala, it is characterized by the growing of crops in the open spaces of the urban centres and rearing of animals in and around homes. Urban agriculture is prohibited by the current town planning byelaws. Nevertheless, efforts by the authorities to ban urban agriculture in the city have met with resistance and the practice has persisted. This paper seeks to explain why urban agriculture has continued to persist in urban centers, particularly in Kampala and its effects on physical planning. The paper attempts to evaluate the benefit and effects got from urban agriculture by the people who practice it, as well as the environmental problems that the practice causes. The paper analyses the role played by women in urban agriculture and its effect on the socio-cultural spectrum in Kawempe Division where the study was conducted. Recommendations are made for the sustainable integration of urban agriculture in the urban setting of Kampala as a tropical city in a low-income economy.
Ghandoor, Hatem El. "Air and Water Pollution Detection Using Laser Speckle Photography Technique." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Most surfaces are considered to be optically rough when the heights or depths of their features are compared to the wavelength of the light used. When a laser light (highly coherent) is allowed to be incident on such a rough surface, the scattered coherent wavelets will mutually interfere constructively and destructively to form a random distribution of bright and dark spots called “Laser Speckles”. The optical system used in speckle photography technique will be presented in this project with the different applications of laser speckles in several fields. The speckle displacement will be generated by the light deflection within the polluted air as our phase object under investigation. The relation between speckle displacement and the integrated deflection angle along the optical path length in the polluted area will be measured by analysing the interference fringes obtained within the experimental work of the project. Also the optical tomographic imaging using laser speckles photography technique will be used. Tomography refers to the cross – sectional imaging of an object from either transmission or deflection data collected by illuminating the object from many different directions. Reconstructions are often done using a procedure known as back projection. Here a filtered projection is smeared back over the reconstruction plane along lines of constant slope. The three-dimensional refractive index profile and the density distribution for different cross sections of the phase objects under test have been presented by using the Fourier slice theorem. This theorem relates the Fourier transform of a projection to the Fourier transform of the object along a single radial. Thus given the Fourier transform of a projection at enough angles the projections can be assembled into a complete estimate of the object inner distribution. In this project the experimental verifications of the presented techniques were discussed and the final conclusion will be presented .The experimental results obtained for the three-dimensional refractive index profile and the density distribution of polluted air along different cross sections will be presented and compared with that for pure air. A comparison between the results obtained in the two- dimension analysis technique and the three-dimensional technique will be presented. To explore the optical properties of materials, for example gases and liquids, one should search for a non-destructive method. This method (technique) should be handy, easy, and of course non-costly. Interferometric material analysis using laser techniques is one such method. It has become extremely useful in many fields because of its high coherence, brightness, high power, and monochromaticity. This leads to a non-destructive form of analysis, with the capability of analysing very minute specimens, achieving a fingerprint of multi-element compositions, and measuring temperature and refractive index variations with a very high level of accuracy. Many laser techniques, such as holography, holographic interferometry, speckle-techniques, and fluorescence yield are used extensively in various fields.
Castro, Paula, and Margarida Garrido. "Ambivalence and Decision Making in the Recycling of Domestic Waste." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Aims & Objectives: In the context of both resource conservation and pollution management, as imperatives for sustainable development, a better understanding of the factors involved in people's decisions to recycle their domestic waste is crucial. This is even more so since it is known that the level of concern with the environment is usually higher than the level of actual involvement with environmentally relevant behaviors. This can be taken as a indication that decision making in this domain is happening in a dilemmatic context - the ideas that circulate through society regarding what is best for our future in what concerns waste management are various and contradictory, thus implying that we face dilemmas of choice when considering recycling. In this context, the main aim of this paper is to examine how ambivalence impacts upon the attitudes, intentions and pro-ecological behaviors of the private sphere, since it is now well known from previous research in other areas that attitudinal ambivalence plays an important role as a moderator of the links between attitude and intention and intention and behavior. Context & background literature: More specifically, we studied a particular component of domestic waste recycling - the separation and deposition of metal cans, a material for which the deposition rates were low in our country. Conducted by resorting to the Theory of Planned Behavior, we explored whether a set of both distal and proximal predictors of attitudes, intentions and self-reported behaviors showed the same predictive capacity when two groups of respondents with high and low levels of ambivalence (as assessed with a direct measure) were compared. Some of the distal and proximal predictors try to tap the contradictory nature of beliefs regarding environmental protection, recycling of domestic waste and of metal cans. Another of the predictors employed - personal identity - was recently added to the theory of Reasoned Action, and still little is known of the role it plays in the area of ecological behaviors.Method of inquiry: A sample of 339 residents in the two main Portuguese cities answered a questionnaire containing questions developed from three previous focus groups and the literature review.Findings & Conclusions: Results show that for the high ambivalence group proximal beliefs play a more important role, as compared to the low ambivalence group, and that personal identity plays a relevant role in both groups. The conclusions discuss the importance of pursuing the study of ambivalence and contradiction when analyzing decision making regarding environmentally relevant behaviors.
Edge, Martin, and Jenny Metcalf. "Amphibious Living – Changing Perceptions of Radical New Forms of Housing in Flood Risk Areas." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. A study was carried out of perceptions of different types of house amongst people with and without experience of damage to their homes caused by large scale flooding. The study looked at how experience of environmental events can change people’s perceptions of the value of different housing environments.The study relates to two issues at the forefront of debate on the interface between built and natural environments in the UK at the moment. One is meeting the large projected demand for more and more new housing. The other is combating – or more often living with and ameliorating the effects of – climate change.A large part of the housing debate centres around where we should build our new houses. Whilst there is a drive to utilize brownfield sites there is also an acceptance of the need to develop on some greenfield sites. Typically, many such developments in the recent past have taken place on river floodplains and other low-lying areas of relatively low agricultural value and subject, of course, to periodic flooding. The engineering approach – supported by both the demands of insurers and the attitudes of house buyers - has been a ‘fortress’ one aiming, often unsuccessfully, to exclude the possibility of flooding. Often the subsequent loss of natural flood plains has led to accentuated flooding problems downstream.In northern UK in particular a significant focus of the climate change debate has been on extreme weather events – particularly the predicted increase in winter flooding and other storm related events. This debate and a series of highly publicized major flooding events in recent years has concentrated attention on the advisability of building new housing in areas subject to potential flooding.Meanwhile, elsewhere in the world, design initiatives have sought to challenge the idea that the only acceptable solution in flood risk areas is the exclusion of water by hard engineering. The more radical of these have proposed the idea of living more closely with water, often in houses designed to float, either permanently or during flooding episodes.This paper reports on a study carried out in December 2005 amongst householders in Carlisle, a city on the north of England which, in August 2004, had been the scene of a major, high profile flooding event which caused loss of life as well as widespread damage to property.A study was carried out of 21 householders with personal experience of flooding and 26 without such experience. Respondents’ views were sought on the desirability of a number of different types of design for floating houses set in an aquatic environment, as well as some more conventional houses. The results of this pilot study demonstrate the effect of environmental experience on the perception and value of different living environments.
Reis, Antônio Tarcísio, Maria Cristina D. Lay, and Julia Freitas. "An Analysis of Privacy as Social and Cultural Dimension of Well-Being in Residential Environments." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Objectives: This article investigates the adequacy and the importance of visual and acoustic privacy inside homes from people in the open spaces of housing estates, and of visual privacy from people in neighboring homes. Through GIS software it is identified the number of people in the open spaces and of openings in the buildings, as well as the distance between them. It is also explored the relationship between these data and residents' attitudes concerning privacy, and the method of analysis used. The context and background literature: Privacy can be understood as social and cultural dimension of health and well being, and says about the possibility of control of interactions, be among people inside a building, among people in the interior and those in the exterior, or, still, among people in the open space. Privacy has been revealed as an important aspect for people, together with the basic needs of living in a house, affecting residents' satisfaction with their homes. Nonetheless, there is a need to better understand the relationship between people attitudes regarding internal visual and acoustic privacy, external people movement in the open spaces of housing estates, and distance between openings of housing units, specially, in Brazilian social housing. Methodology: Data were collected in 12 estates through questionnaires applied to residents of 374 units and through structured interviews. Behavior maps were used to register people in the open spaces of estates, and physical measurements, to indicate the buildings, other visual barriers and existent openings. Non-parametric statistical analysis was carried out, besides the analysis through GIS in four housing estates characterized by four storey blocks of flats.The findings: Among the main results are the adequacy of the analysis method through GIS and the inadequacy of the distances between the openings of the housing units and the external people movement routes in several estates. Moreover, it was found a relationship between degree of satisfaction with internal visual privacy in relation to neighboring blocks of flats, the mean distance between openings and the mean number of openings through which is possible to visualize each opening of the estate. The quantitative analysis, through GIS, of openings and people behavior, combined with quantitative and qualitative analysis of people attitudes, allow a better understanding of privacy as social and cultural dimension of well-being in residential environments. Applicability to the field & work to be done next: This may be applicable to the environment and behavior field of studies by promoting social sustainable planning and design. A further exploration of privacy, considering urban contexts with distinct social and cultural characteristics, may be a work to be done next.
Reis, Antônio Tarcísio, Maria Cristina D. Lay, and Adriana Portella. "An Analysis of Way Finding as Part of Well- Being in Residential Environments." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. The objective of this paper is to analyze way finding as part of well being in residential environments. It is explored the existence of way finding problems in social housing in the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre, the importance of way finding, and the relationship between way finding and signage, layout configuration, and the existence of landmarks. Twelve housing estates characterized by typical Brazilian social housing types, namely, houses, terraced houses and four storey blocks of flats were selected. The communal open spaces of estates constituted by blocks of flats tended to be illegally occupied, mainly, by garages. Background literature: Way finding has become an important area of focus within environment-behavior research and implies knowledge about where one is and how to make one's way from an origin to a destination. Way finding involves cognition to identify formal and symbolic attributes, locations, and direct sequential movement based on these aspects. Hence, the interaction of people and the environment is a key aspect in way finding. There is a need to understand this interaction concerning way finding in the context of Brazilian social housing. Methodology: As data gathering methods were used questionnaires, applied to 374 respondents in these housing estates, structured interviews, physical measurements and mental maps, apart from layouts of the housing estates and maps of the regions where the estates were located. Data was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively through non-parametric statistics. Two housing estates characterized by four storey blocks of flats were further analyzed, through software Axman 4, considering the configuration measure of integration of axial lines representing pedestrian and vehicular routes. Findings and Conclusions: Results show that way finding in many estates is made more difficult by low legibility, as a consequence of the great number of repetitive units, inexistence of landmarks, and unclear layout configuration. This was as a consequence of illegal occupation of communal open spaces by garages in the estates characterized by four storey of block of flats. Signage as represented by lack of identification of inner streets, missing buildings numbering, no standardization of houses numbering, and division of the estate in categories such as sectors and sub-sectors, negatively affected way finding. These appear to be important aspects related to way finding and to be considered in the design and implementation of residential environments, as part of well being of users. Applicability to the field and work to be done next: Additionally, the fact that mental maps were mainly based on system of streets and on practical meaning, suggests that these findings may have wider implications for the urban environment, what reinforces its applicability to the field. A work to be done next is the further exploration of wayfinding through virtual environments, by testing the effects of related aspects.
Moustafa, Yasser. "An Integrative and Cross-Culturally Valid Theoretical Framework." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Aims and Objectives: The paper proposes a theoretical framework for the study and better understanding of the potential impact of environmental design on neighborhood sense of community. The framework is specifically formulated to address the major problems impeding the progress of this area of research.Context and Background Literature: Based on the theoretical development of the concept of psychological sense of community within the field of community psychology, research has confirmed a significant relationship between neighborhood sense of community and psycho-social dimensions of mental health and levels of subjective well-being. However, to date, despite a growing general interest in the use of environmental design as a tool for the enhancement of neighborhood sense of community, relatively few studies have investigated the relationship between physical characteristics of the residential environment and sense of community. Furthermore, in the absence of appropriate conceptual frameworks, these studies have remained exploratory in nature, largely a theoretical, conducted without a clear articulation of the possible mechanisms through which designed aspects of the environment may affect sense of community. In addition, operationalizations of sense of community in these studies have tended to be based on idealized notions of neighborhood community and have generally failed to take into account the specific socio-cultural characteristics of the particular referent community with which it is associated.Argument – The Proposed Framework: The proposed framework relies first on an explicit conceptualization of neighborhood community that integrates the different models of local community which dominate the ongoing debate about its nature as a socio-spatial entity. It is thus proposed as a solution to the problems related to the current lack of definitional consensus. It is also cross-culturally valid. It is not based on a normative, idealized notion of community. Rather, it emphasizes that the specific nature of a neighborhood community is a product of its socio-cultural context. In addition, the framework proposes explicit conceptual linkages between the construct of psychological sense of community, as defined in the community psychology literature, and the specific characteristics of the referent local community with which it is associated. It thus permits and promotes the context-sensitive operationalization and measurement of neighborhood sense of community. The framework also identifies and articulates two mechanisms through which physical characteristics of the residential environment may impact neighborhood sense of community: the instrumental and symbolic roles of the built environment. The “instrumental role” refers to the capacity of the built environment to enable or facilitate the occurrence of culturally appropriate or desired patterns of behavior. The “symbolic role” refers to the capacity of the built environment to affect perceptions about one’s social environment and about the cultural and social characteristics of the individuals and groups of which it is composed.Findings and Conclusions: Support for the proposed framework is provided through an analysis of the relevant theoretical and research literature as well as two empirical case studies conducted in Cairo, Egypt. In its conclusion, the paper discusses implications of the framework for future research and design applications.
Shallash, Khalid S. Al, and Mohamed. M. Shereif. "Analysis of Air Pollutants at Some Selected Areasof Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006.

Due to the rapid development of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, particularly in urban areas like the capital city of Riyadh, a deterioration of air quality could be accompanied as a direct consequence of the massive increase in land transportation and the associated growth in the emission of air pollutants. In addition to these mobile sources of air pollution, there has been the growth in stationary sources of air pollution, such as industrial factories, desalination plants, power stations and oil refineries. A mobile lab was used to track air pollutants along with some meteorological parameters at selected sites in Riyadh city representing residential, industrial, urban, and urban/road areas. The concentration levels of particulate matter (PM10), nitrogen oxides (NOx), ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cr, Ni) were measured through summer and winter seasons along with the climate parameters (temperature, relative humidity, pressure, rainfall, wind speed & direction). Air pollutants were found at the permissible limits. However, the concentration levels of nitrogen oxides, (H2S) and (SO2) at the industrial and urban/road areas exceeded the safe limits during summer season. In addition, there was a relationship between the climate of Riyadh city and distribution and concentrations of air pollutants.

Kaiser, Florian G.. "Anticipated Feelings of Guilt and Shame Depending on Individualism in Planned Environmentalism." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Objectives: In a further attempt to expand the planned behavior theory, we apply its general version (based on compound measures) that is less sensitive to incidental influences and more trait-like in its concepts' definition. Our primary goal was to test an extended model, in which anticipated guilt and shame feelings are included as additional determinants of intention. A secondary goal was to explore the differential nature of this expansion. So, depending on people's socio-cultural background, we expect them to differentially respond either to guilt or to shame threats. While individualists are expected to be more sensitive to anticipated guilt, collectivists are predicted to respond to anticipated shame. Theoretical Background: While guilt feelings and anticipated future guilt have already proven to be effective, anticipated future shame has not been explored yet. In the present research, we test a modified planned behavior model in which anticipated guilt and shame feelings are differentially effective in promoting people's intention to act in a more conservational manner depending on how individualistic their cultural background is. To my knowledge, such a differential hypothesis has not yet been tested. Methods: Using four cross-sectional surveys of 801 university students from four different cultures (high vs. low on individualism, and English vs. Spanish-speaking), we expected anticipated guilt feelings to be relevant as an additional determinant of intention in cultures high on individualism, whereas anticipated shame was expected to be crucial in cultures low on individualism. Findings: Our differential hypothesis was tested and falsified by means of structural equation analyses. Surprisingly, anticipated shame had virtually the same effect as anticipated guilt across all four cultures. Including either anticipated guilt or shame universally increased the explanatory power of people's intention to act conservationally.
Kowaltowski, Doris C. C. K., and Raquel R. M. P. B. Pina. "Architectural Design Analysis as a Strategy for People Environment Studies: Finding Spaces that Work." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. This paper describes a study of concepts of environmental psychology and their presence and representation in architectural designs. Architectural journals were used in the analysis of design iconography (drawings and photographs). Different architectural typologies of temporary and prolonged use were investigated to exemplify specific architectural elements in relation to the concepts of security, privacy, personal space and territoriality. The purpose of the study was to gain a better understanding of these concepts and their appropriate physical settings. This understanding is seen as essential in a quality design process and should be incorporated into design studio teaching methods. Architectural journals are often devoid of human figures and concentrate on formal aesthetic aspects. This makes the study of appropriate settings difficult. Building performance assessments have long shown that physiological and psychological feelings are essential for high satisfaction rates by users. Furthermore, from environmental psychology we have learned that protection and interpersonal communication are important concepts for user well-being. A number of design solutions were identified in the design iconography investigated. Some examples are shown in figure 1. Spatial dimensions define personal distances and influence a sense of crowding and protection. Orientation of views may isolate users, contribute to their sense of privacy and create personal space. Nooks are settings that users prefer for a sense of protection and to isolate interpersonal communications, but must be used with caution where feelings of security and safety are essential. Movable furniture gives users the possibility to adjust their territories and personal spaces. Visual and acoustic barriers and the use light can define space, as do level changes. Furthermore, color and textures may be applied to identify territories and orient or inform users. The results of this study showed that personal space is the least evident element found in design journals. Also as a whole, typical examples found in this type of literature do not easily exemplify psychological concepts. Since these journals influence both the professional and student design processes special efforts should be made to amplify architectural criticism with demonstrations of spaces “that work”.
Mogren, Abdul Aziz S. H.. "Architectural Learning: Evaluating the Work Environment and the Style of Teaching and Management in Design Studio." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006.

Three variables play a key role in architectural design education: the studio environment, style of teaching and studio management, and the type of interaction between the instructor and his/her student. As a contribution towards improving the quality of design education, this study aims at evaluating these three variables as well as identifying the most influential factors on the design grading system. The study adopts a descriptive and analytical approach, including a large scale survey questionnaire of 36 instructors and 380 students of various studio levels in the Department of Architecture at King Saud University, in Saudi Arabia, as well as observations of studio behavior and interviews with some of the participants. Recommendations call for the importance of reviewing the style of teaching and management in design studio to meet the objectives of architectural education. Several suggestions for improvement are presented. The most prominent ones are differentiating between studio levels in terms of teaching style, splitting the large studios into more than one section to increase the interaction time, providing intensive lectures, introducing elective design workshops dealing with similar design cases, and providing a qualified teaching assistant in addition to the design instructor.

Lane, Rosa. "Architectural Practice of Sustainability: a Question of Worldview." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. "Historic Shifts in Worldview: Sustainability challenges the predominant mechanicalparadigm rooted in 17th century science and calls forth a new ecological worldview. In this way,sustainability may be to the 21st century what humanism was to 15th century Europe and itshistoric movement toward mechanism. This study examines changes in attitudes, values, andbehavior indicative of the shift from the mechanical to the ecological worldview particular toarchitects and their practice. Studying these two worldviews offers a unique way to inform andreorient the process of design to achieve more sustainable versus less sustainable builtenvironments.Architects and Worldview: According to Horst Rittel (1930-1990), a pioneering theorist ofdesign and planning, "the course of designing depends decisively and at every step of reasoningon the worldview of the designer” (1963). Rittel questions the ability of "occupational styles thatwere refined in the first half of this [20th] century, based on Newtonian mechanistic physics..." tomeet contemporary social needs (1969). Carolyn Merchant, environmental historian and theorist,establishes the ecological and mechanical worldviews operational in today's Western Society andtheir underlying premises as presented in her work, The Death of Nature (Harper San Francisco,1980). The dichotomy between Merchant's mechanical worldview and ecological worldview issummarized by the diametric emphasis each places upon object (product), process, relationships,and context.Research Strategies: Two empirical research strategies were used to describe and analyzehow the worldview of the designer leads to sustainable or less sustainable built environments: 1)case comparison of known architects and their work; and 2) two pilot surveys of architecturalstudents and their rank order of design input/considerations. By the "constant comparative"method of data analysis (Glaser and Strauss), distinct patterns of similarities and differencesemerged from the data consistent with Merchant's worldview premises. SPCA (systemic andprospective sustainability analysis) was used to evaluate sustainable development achieved bydesign (Bell and Morse, 2003).Worldview and Sustainable Design Practice: Research findings inferred that a design approach that prioritizes process over object, relationships over autonomy, and context dependence increased the possibility of a sustainable outcome. Alternatively, the reverse,indicative of the mechanical approach and traditional design practice, inferred a tendency towardsless sustainable outcomes. The shift from the mechanistic "cognitive and occupational styles"(Rittel) towards sustainability and the new ecological worldview necessitates a revolutionarychange in how architectural design is practiced and taught."
Mikellides, Byron. "Architectural Psychology 1969-2006." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Theory, practice and education: The aim of this paper is to critically evaluate the impact that research in architectural psychology has had in the teaching and practice of architecture over the past 35 yearsTeaching architectural psychology: Looking at how conferences, symposia, PhDs, books and articles, international journals on the subject matter have communicated this knowledge to students and practitioners of architectureContent analysis of IAPS conferences: Quantitative and qualitative approaches RIBA and ARB Directives as well as legislation on accessibility, disability crime prevention human rights and sustainable development.Critical evaluation: Some schools of architecture have been more successful than others in communicating this knowledge; some success in legislation and directives. Good practice is illustrated by some architectural practitioners. It is argued that this multidisciplinary knowledge had contributed to a change in attitudes towards a more humane environmentCommunication: IAPS members need to communicate this research better in digestible form to the potential consumers.
Kellett, Peter, and Peter Collins. "At Home in Hospital? an Exploration of User Responses to Contrasting Hospital Environments." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Large institutions housed in large buildings are frequently regarded as the antithesis of personalized, small scale, domestic, home environments. However the attribute of ‘homeliness’ appears to be used more broadly to describe places where people feel a sense of attachment, control and identification. In a large multi-disciplinary study of a hospital re-building project in northern England a range of users were interviewed to ascertain their responses to the original older buildings and later the new purpose-built hospital. We found both staff and patients retained a strong sense of affection for the older buildings and frequently used the language of home to describe their responses. In contrast, the newer buildings were generally recognized as efficient but impersonal, lacking many of the positive qualities they were familiar with. In addition some respondents suggested that despite efforts to include art projects, the new architectural language was inappropriate for healthcare, believing that small scale, home-like environments were more conducive to health and well-being. The authors will draw on a range of anthropological and architectural frameworks to analyze the data which consists of extensive interview transcripts complemented by photographs. The paper aims to understand the conceptualizations which underpin the various user responses and to offer a critique of the design language of the current healthcare building program.
Mouro, Carla, and Paula Castro. "At the Crossroads of Identity, Sustainable Practices and Public Participation." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Aims & Objectives: This presentation is part of a research which focuses on how sustainability interventions for biodiversity conservation in rural communities are planned by the technicians, received by the populations and implemented as a joint achievement. More specifically, our presentation aims at contributing to clarifying the relationship between social identity and social representations and they are linked to the community involvement in local environmental issues. Context & background literature: This study was developed to follow-up a biodiversity protection project implemented by a NGO concerning habitat conservation. In this context, it is important to identify the different stakeholders of the involved rural community and how they have access to and frame different symbolic and tangible resources. Therefore, our presentation will address the association between identities, social representations and actual practices (Campbel & Jovchelovitch, 2000; Dewulf, Craps & Dercon, 2004). In connection with this we want to contribute to clarifying a contradiction that emerges in the literature concerning the role of identity on local involvement in environmental dilemmas: some studies show that higher local identification hinders participation, other than it fosters it (Bonaiuto, Carrus, Martorella & Bonnes, 2002; Buchecker, Hunziker & Kienast, 2002; Lima & Castro, 2005). Namely, it will help to disentangle the role of identity on sustainable practices and public participation, exploring also possible moderators of this relationship. Method of inquiry or argument: A questionnaire was developed based on the literature and the contents of in-depth interviews with the main stakeholders. 120 telephonic interviews were performed to members of a rural community living in the studied area. Findings & Conclusions: The results examine the relationship between the social identities, the evaluative positioning concerning habitat conservation and the behavioural intentions towards sustainable practices of this rural community, linking their representational systems with identities and public involvement. The discussion will interconnect the results of the questionnaire with the problems raised by the development of data-based intervention programs and the monitoring of stakeholders’ attitudes and practices, highlighting the different ways the symbolic and tangible resources are used by these actors. Applicability to the field & the work to do next: The NGO project accompanied here has several repercussions at the ecological and socio-economic levels, which will be followed-up through a longitudinal design. Therefore, the present field study is a baseline for the monitoring across time of the transformations brought about by the project, furthering our understanding of data-based intervention programs and the monitoring of changes of stakeholders and land users attitudes and practices.
Bonnes, Mirilia, Giuseppe Carrus, and Paola Passafaro. "Attitudes and Behaviours Towards Fresh-Water Resource Conservation in Four Countries." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. The results of qualitative and quantitative studies, conducted in Italy, France, India & Mexico with the aim of exploring the relations between attitudes and behaviours towards the conservation of domestic fresh-water resources are presented. The studies are part of an International research Project on “Human perceptions and behaviours in sustainable water use” conducted with the financial support of ICSU & IUPSyS. At a general level, the project considered different contexts of water scarcity and supply restrictions (permanent, periodic, or accidental), across different physical-geographical, socio-cultural, and situational conditions. Specifically, two different locations were selected in each country according to their national “typicality”. The qualitative studies used semi-structured interviews and focus groups in order to assess participants’ attitudes and conducts towards fresh-water resource conservation in daily domestic activities. On the basis of these qualitative studies, a structured measuring instrument was set up, composed by various self-reported measures related to perception, attitudes and behaviours towards fresh water resource conservation. The questionnaire was administered to about 500 participants in Italy France, India & Mexico. Among others, the following measures were included in the questionnaire: 1) attitudes towards water-saving behaviours; 2) self-reported personal water-saving behaviours; 3) perceived water-saving behaviours among other people; 4) perceived barriers to effective water-saving behaviours. Results show the existence of some similarities across the different countries involved in the study, but also the existence of differences among the different sites considered in each single country. The theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed.
Lindström, Marianne, Sergey Umansky, and Natalia Shvyreva. "Attitudes Towards Water Issues in Russia and in Sweden." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Background and aim: Pollution of seas, rivers and lakes are large problems all over the world. In order to understand the global problems it is important to raise awareness on the local level (WSSD 2002). Global sustainable development issues are often ranked as more important than local ones (Lindström 2003a; Uzzell 2000). People perceive the protection of water as very important and most urgent to deal with (Lindström and Küller submitted 2006). The present study discusses attitudes towards global and local water issues in Russia and in Sweden. A comparative study was performed among people living close to one river in Kaliningrad and one in Sweden. Eutrophication is a problem in the Baltic Sea as well as in the rivers chosen for this study (Umansky et al 2003). UNEP-GIWA (Baltic Sea report 2005) emphasizes the importance of implementing the EU Water Framework Directive also in Russia. The main aim of the present study was to analyze attitudes, self-reported behavior, knowledge and participation. The study is part of the EU project ‘Seagull’ aiming at contributing to social, economic and environmentally sustainable development throughout the south-eastern Baltic Sea Region. Method: A questionnaire used in previous studies (Lindström 2003b; 2005) was translated into Russian. It included statements on global and local water issues, behavior and knowledge. Questions on perceived information and willingness to participate in projects were also asked. People living close to the Gurievka river in Kaliningrad and the Lyckeby river in Sweden replied.Findings: Global water issues were more important than local ones. There were differences in attitudes between the countries in separate local items and also in self-reported behaviour. The river in Sweden was more often used as a recreation area. People in Kaliningrad were more willing to participate in projects. Information and education about water issues was performed through newspapers, schools and in Sweden also through the association ‘the Lyckeby River Water Management Association’. People were not satisfied with the information. Conclusion: There is a need for further information, education and local projects in both countries in order to raise awareness on water issues. The willingness to participate in projects in Russia should be supported. One suggestion is to investigate the possibilities for creating an association (like the one in Sweden) in Kaliningrad in order to facilitate the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive in Russia.
de Kort, Yvonne, and Wijnand Ijsselsteijn. "Beauty Or Branches? Exploring Rapid Affective Processing as a Function of Preference and Naturalness." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Aims & objectives: Natural scenes are frequently associated to positive emotion, e.g., in both restoration research and recent research in affective priming. In the majority of this research, naturalness and preference go hand in hand. In the present research an affective priming paradigm was employed to explore whether these effects should be attributed to the beauty of the scenes, or rather to the naturalness of the scenes. Background: In two recent studies, Hietanen and colleagues (Hietanen & Korpela, 2004; Korpela, Klemettilä & Hietanen) demonstrated that natural environmental scenes triggered automatic affective reactions. However, for the environmental scenes used in their studies naturalness and preference covaried (i.e., were either both high, medium or low). Also in other literature, the distinction between aesthetic qualities and naturalness often remains unclear when studying restorative effects of natural scenes. The central focus of the current study was to explore the independent contribution these two factors to beneficial effects of nature. This investigation is interesting, both from a theoretical viewpoint (which psychological mechanisms are responsible for restorative effects of nature?), and from a practical one (could beautiful yet non-natural scenes produce similar effects?). Method: The present study closely followed the affective priming paradigm employed by Hietanen and colleagues. Twenty-eight participants viewed environmental scenes of either urban or natural environments, varying on rated beauty. These prime stimuli were followed by pictures of faces from MacArthur Face Stimuli set (Coltheart & Palermo, 2004), representing males and females, expressing joy or anger. Response times of the recognition of affect were measured and used as dependent variables. Findings: Results showed that preference has no influence on the recognition of facial affect, whereas natural environments do facilitate the recognition of happy faces and even more strongly inhibit the recognition of negative affect. This corroborates the findings of the earlier priming studies, but in addition seems to indicate that automatic affective reactions to natural scenes should be attributed to the naturalness of these scenes rather than to their aesthetic qualities. Implications and directions for future research will be discussed.
Moore, Robin, Nilda Cosco, Evrim Demir, and Zaki Islam. Behaviour Mapping: a Tool for Investigating Associations Between Built Environments and Healthy, Outdoor Activities In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. "Procedures, measures, and applications: The aims of this poster are, a) to describe procedures for administering behaviour mapping (BM) in a variety of urban sites at different scales serving a range of populations, b) to introduce measures and analysis using GIS coding, c) discuss applications of results to urban design practice and land use policy for public health.An unexploited, powerful tool: There is surprising lack of recent literature related to behaviour mapping as it provides a powerful tool for measuring patterns of actual use of an urban site (user types, activity types, location, etc.), compared to cost and amount of space occupied. Children's Environments Quarterly 1(4), 1984/85 contained several early behavior mapping studies at neighborhood scale, including the first using a computerized relational database by Joost van Andel. GIS now enables multiple, effortless manipulations of BM data to analyse multiple aspects of actual site use in all types of urban space.An objective measure: Because data are gathered by direct observation, BM provides an excellent objective measure of actual use of a site, described as a set of calibrated behavior settings and related activity types. BM may also be applied to individual behavior by "tracking" movement through a site, analysed using The Observer analytical software package (Noldus). Tracking also enables analysis of affordances connecting behavior to specific features of environments.Intra- and Inter-site analyses: BM data can be used within and between sites to understand built environment-behaviour patterns and thus to evaluate the effectiveness of different design solutions or financial investment in different site treatments. BM also can establish use patterns by social characteristic (age, ethnic background, etc.), activity types (stationary, moving, solo, group, etc.), activity levels (sedentary, moderate, vigorous, etc.) by behaviour setting type. Measures include use/space ratio (USR), gender ratio, and setting density.Multiple applications: Poster will show examples of BM applied to a variety of different sites, including: a) "new urbanism" neighborhood design; b) community park post-occupancy evaluation (POE); c) urban museum behavior setting design and outdoor early science learning; and, d) preschool outdoor behaviour setting design and physical activity."
Zedan, Hamdallah. "Biodiversity and Sustainable Development." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. If life on this planet is to thrive we need to come both to an understanding of the changes occurring on a global scale, as well as an understanding that unsustainable human practices are the drivers of these changes. Global changes are visible, but the root causes may not be immediately apparent. The sources of global changes are rooted in patterns of land, freshwater and ocean use practices, for a variety of ends, but particularly for food production. These practices produces tangible impacts on abiotic and biotic resources and hence on the productivity of ecosystems and our food supply. Of those changes, the loss of biodiversity is both the most dramatic and the least appreciated. It is generally accepted that the current loss of ecosystems, species and gene pools is faster than any time since the extinction of the dinosaurs 65 million years ago. Even greater losses are expected in the future if we continue our present unsustainable use of natural resources. What is not recognized is how much is at stake. The loss of biodiversity as a result of human actions has dire consequences for many critical constituents of well-being including material wealth, food security, health, and social relations. For much of the world the realization of the basic conditions of human well-being are but a dream. Hundreds of millions are hungry, suffer the effects of preventable diseases and do not have the opportunity to live their lives to the full. For this reason, the international community agreed to achieve by the year 2015 a number of essential development goals. These goals, known as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), address a variety of development, equity and environmental issues. Achieving many of these goals requires the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the use of these resources. Biodiversity contributes to MDGs related to eradication of poverty and hunger, improved health and environmental sustainability. It contributes to increase agricultural productivity in a way that it contributes to ecosystem health. It also contributes to dietary diversity and the conservation of food cultures which in turn has a positive impact on agricultural productivity and human health.Biodiversity plays a fundamental role in the provision of medicines to people around the world. A number of ecosystem services upon which we rely are crucial to human health. Medicines derived from animals, plants and microorganisms represent an important element of primary health care for most of the world particularly the poorest. Billions of people of the world depend partly or fully on products collected from ecosystems for medicinal purposes; the magnitude, distribution and direction of infectious diseases are influenced by ecosystem changes; and, ecosystems provide a means to cleanse the environment of wastes and pollutants. In 1992, the Convention on Biological Diversity emerged from the Rio Summit as a comprehensive framework for action to reverse the tide of destruction of biodiversity as the biological foundation on which all human societies depend. In 2002, the Governments at the Word Summit on Sustainable Development committed themselves to reduce substantively the current rate of biodiversity loss by 2010. The Convention sets out broad commitments by Governments to take action at the national and international levels for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity and, the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the use of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge. It has already resulted in a number of achievements but progress in implementation still requires additional financial resources, technology transfer, better integration of biodiversity priorities in sectoral and cross-sectoral policies particularly economic and trade policies and effective coordination among multilateral agreements at the national and international level.
Fouda, Moustafa M.. "Biodiversity Conservation in Egypt: Achievements of a Decade." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. One of the main challenges facing Egypt today is how to balance the needs of development with the conservation of its biodiversity. The Government of Egypt is conscious of the value of biodiversity resources and their importance for the future well being of the country. As part of the national commitment to biodiversity conservation, Egypt ratified the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) in 1994.Over the past decade Egypt has made great strides towards the sustainable management of its biodiversity resources. The challenges facing nature conservation in Egypt are numerous. Ensuring sustainable self-financing for biodiversity conservation is a critical step which should be realized.Protected areas have been the backbone and the main instrument for the implementation of nature conservation action in Egypt over the past three decades. A National System Plan for Protected Areas was developed with the aim of protecting a representative sample of all of the nation’s natural habitats and most important biodiversity hotspots. The plan proposed a network of protected areas of 180,000 km², or about 18% of the total land area of Egypt. The recommendations of this plan have being adopted and implemented, and have been integrated into national strategies and plans. The state of the art management tools have been applied in managing protected areas, including zoning, patrolling, moorings, law enforcement, monitoring and research, and evolution. The social-economic dimension and the integration of local communities have emerged as issues of high priority in the management of protected areas in Egypt.Hunting and harvest management has been given high priority in Egypt. The assessment of conservation and sustainable utilization of biodiversity resources during the least few years has shown that measures taken (e.g. habitat and species rehabilitation) have resulted in reasonable increase in the number of target species and in improving their habitats. However, the situation outside Protected Areas is still unregulated for the most part. Building a knowledge base of the biodiversity resources, including both species and habitats is essential for meaningful and effective planning. Taxonomic knowledge of our biodiversity is still modest. Actions in line with the Global Taxonomic Initiative include the documentation of local collections, and the establishment of a national taxonomic database, with more that 300,000 records. Invasive species are the second leading cause of biodiversity loss world wide. A total of 49 invasive species have been identified in Egypt. Innovative approaches were applied, such as community-based management of some invasive species (e.g. Prosopis juliflora). However, existing capacities and legislation are still very limited. NCS recently performed a management effectiveness evaluation of protected areas, which has shown that the protected areas system has good representation of habitats with high biological, economical and social values. However, management effectiveness has been hampered by a highly centralized NCS structure, lacking well-defined policies and limited resources. Limited capacity is a root cause contributing to biodiversity loss in Egypt. Capacity deficiencies in biodiversity conservation and management are found in all sectors and fields. In response, training needs survey and strategy was prepared.Immediate actions taken included; institutional reform of NCS into an autonomous authority and a policy framework for managing protected areas. Communication, Education and Public Awareness Strategy and Action Plan (CEPA) was prepared, followed by updating the existing Clearing House Mechanism (CHM) in Egypt, preparing numerous presentations to train managers and public, and participation in many conferences and meetings related to biodiversity conservation.
Pavel, Paloma M., Carl Anthony, and Rosa Lane. "Building Sustainable Metropolitan Communities: Case Studies Using a Regional Approach." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. "Social Equity and Sustainable Development for Metropolitan Regions: This paper presents six case studies, which exemplify best practices in smart growth and social equity from a regional metropolitan perspective in the United States. A brief multi-media presentation offers onsite footage of the communities and key spokespeople in the regional equity movement. Each of these demonstration projects has been part of a four-year collaboration with grantees of the Ford Foundation (Sustainable Metropolitan Communities Initiative). This learning action network began in 2002 and is a partnership composed of grassroots community advocacy groups, policy analysts, and leading researchers in urban sustainable development.Regional Interventions: The community sustainable development literature has focused on neighborhood level interventions, including advocacy and policy development (Pastor). However, other researchers (Orfield, Rusk) have advocated the importance of a regional perspective in sustainable urban development including state-based interventions (Katz), federal regionalism (Powell), and community-based regionalism (Glover-Blackwell). Bottom up regional strategies in this study include: community benefit agreements for large-scale building projects, adaptive reuse of existing buildings with LEED certification, community-initiated regional transportation planning, vacant properties initiatives with land banking, farms-to-schools healthy food projects, environmental justice through brownfield restoration, and university/community collaborations. This presentation is timely given the level to which Hurricane Katrina catapulted the issues of race and class into the realm of sustainable urban land use planning.Best Practices: Best practices were chosen from a national sample based on selection criteria. A national selection panel consisted of representatives from philanthropy, business, social justice organizations, educators, public sector, and policy researchers. Criteria included: geographic representation, collaboration across rural, suburban, and inner city rings. Metrics for Regional Equity (Rusk) were used to measure the level of social equity within the study. Social Justice and Smart Growth: Among the three "e's" of sustainability (economy, environment, equity), findings confirm that economic and environmental dimensions have dominated sustainable practices with little attention to equity. These triple bottom line projects demonstrate the efficacy of social justice working in partnership with economic viability and environmental sustainability in the current geopolitical context. A community-driven regional metropolitan approach was found to be most effective. Specific community-led strategies included: GIS mapping, community organizing, litigation, and leverage of media. "
Abdel-Hadi, Aleya, and Hend Elazhary. "Centripetal Gated Communities." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. The general deterioration of urban spaces in Cairo – high density, street traffic congestion, air and sound pollution, heterogeneous building heights and styles, all forms of trespassing - the decrease in services performance (Abdel-Hadi, A.; 1992), and the very low ratio per person of green and open space (40cm2/pers.) (Serageldin, M.; 1990), were the centrifugal forces that drove away some residents to suburban new areas around the Capital.The expansion of gated communities in Egypt began in the 1980s with Egypt’s transition to capitalism. Villages were constructed along the beaches of the northwestern coast (Meyer, G.; 2000). Since mid-1990s, similar developments proliferated around Cairo where luxurious settlements surrounded by high walls sprang in about 63 projects annexed to the satellite cities of El-Shorouk, Al- Obour, Al- Kahira- Al- Gadida, Alex.-Cairo desert road, El- Sheikh Zayed and October City (Mostafa, O.; 2004).The study is an appraisal of - El Mohandesseen- a district in Giza west of Greater Cairo, and the affluence of its residents to the gated communities of El-Sheikh Zayed further to the west on a desert land. The objectives were to highlight the reasons behind this move, and to further investigate the present situation within those gated communities at the urban, architectural, economic and social levels, and define the related positive and negative aspects.The method used for data gathering was based on the urban and architectural designs obtained from the owner company of each project; on participant observation and photographs from the field. A structured interview of the residents of two GCs: El-Rabwa (villas), Zayed 2000 (villas and apartments) was exploratory in nature (30 in each GC).The results proved that there were some similarities in design at the urban level which was environment friendly, the architecture did not reflect local heritage and appropriateness to desert areas. At the economic level, it was successful in providing employment opportunities, about 40 crafts related to building activity were revived, but at the same time, a vast capital was invested to serve 3.5% of the Egyptian population. At the social level, the residents’ satisfaction stemmed from their rather limited participation in the modification of their architectural interiors, and the new, healthy, quiet and safe environment they now live in, and mainly the beauty of the extended green areas. However, there was always the raised question about: ‘what will happen when these communities get older?’ This question addresses directly the issue of sustainability. The study needs to be further investigated using POE, and focusing on the opinions of all parties involved including residents outside the gates in the surrounding neighborhood with the objective of finding a kind of integration of the other socio-economic levels with a good provision of services and maintain an adequate population density in the area.
Berg, Van den, and Rob Davis. "Challenges for Evaluating Sustainable Development Achievements." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. The paper will look at the major challenges for measuring and evaluating impacts in sustainable development, as evident through the evaluations of GEF funded activities. The identification of results is the first major challenge. Political compromises, and the need for bridging the gap between convention guidance, donor wishes and country needs cause the GEF to be more or less open and vague about the actual results that are going to be achieved. Because the prevailing philosophy in international cooperation is that of managing for results, the tendency is to treat the identification of the targets and indicators as a “technical” or “professional” problem, rather than that political negotiations would take place on these issues. It will be a challenge to identify indicators that will be meaningful on a global scale as well as in local interventions. This leads to the challenging area of unrealistic expectations. The need to satisfy all stakeholders leads to promises of “win-win” solutions to existing problems which almost always fail to materialize. If the project promises too much, the evaluator is left with the unsatisfying task of delivering negative judgments, even if substantial results were achieved on other issues. However, even if clear results would be targeted and trajectories laid out through which stakeholder conflicts could be resolved, still the GEF is facing methodological problems to measure these results. To measure impact a counterfactual is needed, yet in the evaluation of environmental processes the counterfactual can only be established indirectly, through natural experimentation or modeling. Without a rigorous counterfactual, incremental cost calculations have tended to become highly tentative or very pragmatic. Secondly, current methodologies to establish causality in a rigorous way are often mono-disciplinary, whereas the interactions that many interventions undertake are multi-disciplinary, non-linear and contributory rather than causal. And finally, the last difficult challenge that the GEF is facing in evaluating its results, is the perspective of the recipient countries and local communities. The promotion of global environmental benefits and the sustainability of development throughout the world is often an ad hoc marriage of local considerations, which may or may not be the most beneficial to the international community, and global concerns, which may or may not be relevant to the recipient country. The GEF evaluates its interventions from the global perspective and thus faces the challenge of incorporating the national and local perspectives when measuring for results.
Tolba, Mostafa Kamal. "Challenges in Achieving Sustainable Development. the Premises for Building a Sustainable Society." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. This Address will cover the following points: 1- The evolving perceptions on the relation between Environment and Development : from Stockholm, through Rio and Millennium Development Goals, to Johannesburg / 2- Understating global system / 3- Challenging facing achieving sustainable societies / 4- Formulating strategies for Sustainable Development.
Gokmen, Gulcin Pulat. "Change of the Gated Communities in Istanbul." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Aims & Objectives: Housing choice of people becomes part of lifestyle choice. The gated communities offer to people a new form of housing, lifestyle and expectations in the big cities in the recent years. The aim of this paper is to discuss the change in the phenomenon of gated communities in Istanbul and their impact on the city. The paper will consist of three sections. In the first one, the concept of “Gated Community” will be introduced and its situation in the world and in Istanbul will be explored. In the second part, the differentiation between the Gated Communities /settlements in Istanbul during Eighties and Nineties will be explained. Their situation in the city today and the change process during 20 years the condition they generated will be examined. In the last (three) part, change in the gated community with their site and house plans and number of houses and their population, their social and physical properties will be examined to discover how they have changed during in the new millennium. With this aim in mind, literature review and observation will be the tools of methodology. They will support the physical and social characteristics of settlements. Context & background literature: The “gated community” concept has originated in the USA and gated communities have been built all over the world including Europe. These settlements have caused spatial and social segregation in the cities where they exist and thus degenerate the heterogeneous structure of the society. Having been specifically located outside the city, these gated communities are not accessible to citizens living elsewhere and therefore they create “new castles” in the city, disturb the social integrity and cause alienation among the people who live in the city.Method of inquiry or argument: The paper will consist of three sections. In the first one, the concept of “Gated Community” will be introduced and its situation in the world and in Istanbul will be explored. In the second part, the differentiation between the Gated Communities /settlements in Istanbul during Eighties and Nineties will be explained. Their situation in the city today and the change process during 20 years the condition they generated will be examined. In the last (three) part, change in the gated community with their site and house plans and number of houses and their population, their social and physical properties will be examined to discover how they have changed during in the new millennium. With this aim in mind, literature review and observation will be the tools of methodology. They will support the physical and social characteristics of settlements. Findings & Conclusions: In Istanbul, “gated settlements” have emerged in the 80’s for the first time as “housing blocks” which are closed to outside by surrounding boundary wall of the site. The first examples in the city have been located close the city centre and were constituted out of 4-6 storey houses which have designed in international style. In the 1990’s, these settlements were moved to outside the city to be located in the forest areas with 2-3 storey villas which have built in post-modern style in a garden (Pulat Gokmen and Ozsoy, 2002). In parallel to the change in the settlement and houses, the user profile has also changed. In the 2000’s these settlements transformed to apartments because of increased demands.
Tamas, Andrea, and Hans-Joachim Mosler. "Changing Unhealthy Habits - the Effects of Prompts and Public Self-Commitment on Drinking Safe Water." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. The aim of this study is to reduce the consumption of contaminated drinking water of a periurban population in Bolivia. Providing information about a simple alternative to clean water before drinking and using different strategies, namely prompts (reminder) and self-commitment (voluntary, public commitment), we studied and tested the effects of these interventions on people's drinking water behavior and habits. One major psychological barrier for people not to carry out a new behavior is their already existing habits contradictory to the new behavior. The implications of this rather general assumption we applied to the problem of contaminated drinking water and the connected drinking water habits in Bolivia. The need to change has arisen from problems that supplied water in Bolivia is microbiological contaminated or in no central drinking water supply system at all. Especially children below 5 years of age are at high risk of diarrhea and infant mortality (acc. to WHO Report 2005 Bolivia 6-7%, compared to Switzerland 0.5%). We concentrated on a simple household level solution, where focus was laid on capacitating people, so they themselves take care of improving their situation. The strategy we promoted is based on the principle of Solar Water Disinfection (SODIS). In short, it means putting a plastic bottle filled with water into the sun for 6 hours and UV-rays and temperature inactivate the microbes. The method used was a 3-point panel questionnaire study with different interventions between the measurements. Investigation was realized in 5 areas in Bolivia, 1 being control area with no intervention. Intervention period in total was 2 months. The panel questionnaire included demographic and social characteristics, current water use, intervention relevant questions and a set of psychological factors. Main analysis focus was the impact of prompts (reminder to use SODIS) and/or public self-commitment (voluntary commitment to use SODIS) in changing the existing behavior. Further analysis was conducted to identify psychological factors (such as intention, attitude, personal health norm, affect, perceived difficulty or cost-benefit-consideration) influencing behavior when being exposed to a certain intervention or not. Results show strong effect of no intervention versus prompt versus prompt and self-commitment in rising use of SODIS over time. For analysis of differences in time and behavior a Multivariate Analysis of Variances was calculated. With the use of a regression model differential influence of the above mentioned psychological factors on behavior were found for the different intervention strategies. One general finding to the field of behavior change is, that simple and non-costly interventions can have more effect than one may suspect. But a lot more important is to understand how those interventions function in terms of influence on psychological factors which in turn determine our behavior. This study has taken an essential step in this direction and the findings will improve effective design of further intervention campaigns.
Joo, Yongsun, Yasushi Nagasawa, and Jin-Ho Park. "Characteristics of Ward Spaces in Psychiatric Hospital: the Pattern of Psychological Space." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Aims & Objectives: In order to create the best environment for a psychiatric treatment facility, it is important to understand how psychiatric patients recognize their environment and what factors influence their cognition. In this study, we try to find out the essential features in a physical environment that could influence the well being of the patients by examining the spatial preference and environmental behavior of patients with varied psychiatric illnesses. Context & background literature: The relationship between the staff area and the patients’ private area is the key factor in designing the structure and the environmental characteristics of ward spaces in a psychiatric hospital. Recent research has found that for the purpose of treatment and securing privacy, psychiatric patients need to be in an open space of relief rather than closed confined environment and under the watch of nursing staffs. It is considered that the characteristic of spaces in psychiatric ward is closely related to relationship between nursing staffs and patients and psychological territories that they possess. Thus, the characteristics of spaces in a psychiatric ward, which arise from psychological dominant structure, are closely related to the environment of treatment and relief for psychiatric patients.Method of inquiry or argument: We conducted a survey at three kinds of wards in a private psychiatric hospital in Japan in October 2002. These wards include an acute ward, a psychiatric convalescence ward, and a stress care ward. All three kinds of wards have the same structure. At each ward, spatial preferences of the 145 psychiatric inpatients were surveyed and data concerning the patients diagnostic category, symptoms, and activities of daily living were recorded.Findings & Conclusions: The patients in the stress care ward prefer to stay in private spaces than public spaces. On the other hand, in the acute ward the patients seem to have a preference between managed public spaces where are monitored by nursing staffs and their private rooms where the nurse station is close. In addition, the patients in the psychiatric convalescence ward spend most of their time in the public space, such as the hallways or the day room. Base on our research, we concluded that spaces that could be monitored by the nursing station serves effectively as a safety space for patients in the acute ward. However, in the stress care ward, the patients may perceive the monitoring by the nursing staff as interruption or nuisance to their relaxation. In order to design an ideal healing environment for psychiatric patients in psychiatric ward, it is important to consider how environmental characteristics of space affect the environmental sense of patients in each ward.
El-Haggar, Salah, and Eiman Hamdy. "Chemical Recycling of Aluminum Plastic Composites." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. The problem of solid waste generation is a threatening problem that is continuously increasing worldwide, and the ability to recycle wastes instead of being dumped in landfills is considered of high necessity. Among the contents of these wastes are waste products made out of aluminum and plastic layers or those in the form of metallized plastics that are widely used in the pharmaceutical and food industries for the purpose of packaging. The recyclability of these products is considered a challenging task. In this study, the ability to chemically separate the aluminum material from the plastic layer(s) were investigated. Four different experiments were carried out using alternative chemicals; these chemicals were: hydrochloric acid; sulphuric acid; sodium hydroxide; and toluene or xylene. In the cases where hydrochloric acid, sulphuric acid, or sodium hydroxide were used, the chemical reacted with the aluminum content leaving the plastic content suspended in the resulting aqueous solution. In the cases where toluene or xylene was used, the plastic content melted and separated from the aluminum content. Finally, methods to benefit from the resulting products out of the chemical processes were investigated.
Björklid, Pia. "Child-Friendly Cities – Sustainable Cities? a Child- Centred Perspective and the Child's Perspective." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. In recent years interest has arisen in developing ”child-friendly cities”. Research into this area has so far not taken place in Sweden, though it has occurred in other countries (cf. Chawla, 2002; Bartlett, 2003; Horelli 2004). The Convention on The Rights of the Child and Agenda 21 are invoked in today’s call for a child-centred perspective and children’s right to participate. Children are regarded as knowledge-producers and bearers of different competencies (cf. James and Prout, 1990). The child-centred perspective of children has many aspects. It is not synonymous with the child’s perspective. The distinction can be made in terms of who constructs the perspective. Is it the child or is it an advocate of the child? The child’s perspective means that children themselves have made their own contribution. A child-centred perspective places the focus on trying to improve children’s living conditions and looking after their best interests. How are these two perspectives expressed and differentiated with regard to views of child-friendly cities? The research project ”Children’s outdoor environment – a reality with different interpretations” (Björklid & Nordström, 2003) examines not only children’s (11-12 years) and parents’ perceptions of children’s outdoor environments, but also earlier generations’ views of an ideal child-friendly city along with the views of different professional groups. This paper describes views of child-friendly cities partly through interviews with children and partly through interviews with professionals who have a child-centred perspective. Comparisons are made with results from studies of children’s urban environments carried out by research groups in Rome and Helsingfors (Haikkola and Horelli, 2005; Pacilli et al, 2005), where the same methods are used. Horelli (2005, forthcoming) defines environmental child-friendliness as “a complex multidimensional and multilevel concept. It refers to settings and environmental structures that provide fit or support to individual children and groups who take an interest in children’s issues so that children can construct and implement their goals or projects”. By studying and comparing children’s environments in big cities, we aim not only to point out the risks associated with different environments but also the possibilities for sustainable development that different environments can contribute towards.
Nordström, Maria. "Children's Different Views on Child-Friendly Urban Environments." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Socially sustainable development from the point of view of children means a long term perspective on time, backwards as well as forward and with focus on the relationships between individuals and their physical environments in the context of socio-cultural processes. The slow long-term changes in children’s gradual environmental understanding unfold in interaction with parents, family and their broader social and cultural belonging, suggesting the importance of intergenerational exchange, as well as children’s own interactions with and experiences of physical environment (Görlitz 1998). That these long-term socio-cultural and psychological changes are slow, does not mean that they don’t change, lending a dynamic character to sustainable development (Reed-Danahay 1996). The acceleration of urban development today affects children differently due to age, gender, social and cultural background as well as local environment (O’Brien et al 2000; Chawla 2002; Depeau 2003). Efforts recognizing differences in children’s environmental experiences and evaluations are important when communicating with children and their parents and a condition for successful participation in urban planning projects (Hart 1997; Tonucci & Rissotto 2001; Horelli&Prezza 2004; Simkins 2005). Making children participate in environmental planning processes is one way to give the term “child-friendly environments” substance ( Another way is to analyze statements on child-friendly environments. This paper will analyze from the perspective of access to and use of the local environment well as socio-cultural background, statements expressing what 12-year old children in urban and suburban Stockholm, Sweden, generally great users of outdoor environment, value as child-friendly environments. Notions of environmental child-friendliness by parents and other adults concerned with the children in their everyday life will be presented, analyzed and compared to those by the children, in order to show children’s dependence on adults in forming their notions about environment but also to stress the fact that environment is understood and valued differently by children and by adults but important in their interaction with each other (Bjurman 1981; Sebba 1991; Lidén 1997; Karsten 1998, 2005; Cele 2005; Nordström 2005).
Herrera, Luz María Flo. "Children's Play: a Sequential Analysis and Personal Factor." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Empirical study: Objectives and planning: The study aims to identify the personal factors that affect transitions in children's play, in order to assess which of these factors influence more intensively type of play evaluated. .Children spend several years in spontaneous play, from solitary to social play, from no pretend activity to pretend play, and within an episode of pretend play, from setup to enactment to negotiation phases (Doyle et al, 1992; Rubin y Coplan, 1998). In the present study it was hypothesized that, social play enactment would be more complex than literal social activities (e.g. language and I.Q.). The empirical study, subjects were 23 preschoolers observed playing in group, during 30 min sessions. They were assessed with WIPPSI, and continuous recording was made of the activity of play in the group (e.g. social - solitary, negotiation of pretend and the social interaction). Results of solitary-social play: After video and in vivo training on coding behaviors according to operational definitions, inter.-observer reliability was calculated; percentage agreement average Kappa (Cohen, 1960) was .83. In order to isolate the important dimensions of the numerous observational predictor variables and the personal factors, each set of variables was analyzed. The pattern of transitions between prior and subsequent activity modes was of principal interest (Gottman & Roy, 1990). The transitions that occurred significantly more frequently than expected are social play. That is, negotiation and social interactions of social play (F(2, 15) = 5.493, p = .01, R2 = .423, Durbin-Watson = 2.225). The personal factors I.Q. (5 subscales Information, vocabulary), and social play of frequent pretenders was more often that of solitary play (F(4, 17) = 2.979, p = .049, R2 = .412, Durbin-Watson =1.829). Conclusion: The varied social interactions we have described in this study illustrate the social interactions and I.Q. as a fundamental ingredient of pre schoolers' play. Thus, negotiations and interaction social of social play was important precursor of pretend enactment.
Wang, Joseph C.. "Chinese Gardens as Sustainable Environments." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. In this proposal, I would argue that the Chinese garden is an eco-sensitive architecture that much can be learned from it in the design of sustainable environments of the future. Discussions will follow these four parameters:Human Comfort and Health: The Chinese garden in essence is a “house + garden” entity where the owner and family enjoyed the comfort and privacy in this microcosmic world of their own. Literary narratives of such a good life are abundant and will be freely quoted. A documentary research into the lives of some of the well-known garden owners will be undertaken. Preliminary studies show that not only did these owners/families live a happy life but also enjoyed relative longevity and productivity in arts and literature. Design with Nature: A noted scholar once commented that “the Japanese garden imitates Nature while the Chinese garden IS Nature.” This assertion will lead to a discussion of the difference between the two, and, more importantly, how Nature is ubiquitously “used” in the design of a Chinese garden The two primary elements in a Chinese garden are rocks and water. The rock (often referred to as the “artificial mountain”) forms the skeleton of the eco-system while the water (in the form of a pond or lake) permeates throughout the system as the blood of a living organism. The Chinese garden honors and follows Nature’s way of shaping the land. Straight lines and symmetry are rarely found in the garden. Siting and Orientation: To a large extent, Feng Shui principles played an important role at this important stage of design. As architecture is a major constituent part of the garden, important buildings (such as the Main Hall, or “living room”) were placed in the north facing south. This golden rule of a Feng Shui orientation coincides with the climatic design principles of sustainable and ecological design in today’s world. Conservation, Urbanization and Economy: Aside from its initial construction cost, the Chinese garden required minimal maintenance in both labor and materials. There was no need to regularly prune the plants, rake the fallen leaves, or to clean out the ponds where ecological energies will take its own course and performs Nature’s cycles. For residential buildings, there was no heating and air-condition bills to speak of, nor any expenditure in electricity, natural gas and water/sewage. Pollution, as a result, was never heard of. Over all, a Chinese garden is a natural product of a passive solar design in modern terms. Although walled in as a little private “paradise on earth,” these gardens dotted the urban cores of traditional Chinese cities and contributed greatly in the green-space management of those otherwise high- density human settlements. A conclusion will summarize the core design principles of Chinese gardens as a viable approach to sustainable environmental design.
Larsson, Marie. "Citizen-Initiated Gardens in Public Space – Fertile Ground for Developing New Ways of Acting Towards Sustainable Development." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. The objective of the paper is to discuss local gardening initiatives where citizens jointly design and use public space in a socially and ecologically sustainable manner. Particular focus is placed on the driving forces within the initiative and the underlying processes identified in the contact between citizens and the local authorities. What can we learn from these citizen-initiated gardens in public space? The main focus is on an aspect of society that is of profound importance to the achievement of sustainable development, namely the relation between structural forces (top-down policies) and local practice (bottom-up initiatives). Local practice, in this context, is regarded as the more or less invisible patterns of social behaviour taking place in everyday meetings between people. In one approach to development towards a sustainable society public authorities and organizations try to change people´s patterns of behaviour through interventions in their everyday life. In another approach people themselves take the initiative and develop ways of acting towards sustainable development. The research issue is highly interdisciplinary and the research field covers several subjects and fields of knowledge. The theoretical framework revolves around the citizen and public space with a focus on participation and deliberative democracy. Further it deals with urban planning and sustainable development, where collaborative planning, capacity building and facilitators are concepts of interest. Of equal importance are the local context, the specific situation and the inherent contradiction between the concepts of space and place and the implications it has on planning, community-making and sustainable development. For aiming at social movements and sustainable development sociological theories concerning for example lifestyles are also interesting. The approach is mainly qualitative. Following an initial survey to identify interesting cases, case studies were carried out in three municipalities. Each case have been subjected to in-depth interviews, participatory observation, photographing, interviews with visitors and the collecting of written original sources. The treatment and analysis of the collected material is in progress. Obtained results are related to an international object of reference. The garden is a resource in the town district, providing an opportunity for meetings between people of different backgrounds and generations and between various individuals and groups in society. The garden is not the goal in itself, but rather it works as a means of creating involvement, social solidarity and an active local community. A common practice is developed through people’s acting together in a place, and may compose the fertile ground for the trying out and establishing of new ways of acting towards sustainable development. The project is expected to contribute to the understanding of conditions of social interaction and, the ability to communicate in connection with the planning and management of urban public space, which may contribute to a renewal of municipal planning practice
Cavalcante, Sylvia, and José Galba de M. Maciel. "Clients Perceptions of Dentist Waiting Rooms in Fortaleza Ceará Brazil." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. "The objective of this work was to investigate perceptions of dentists' waiting rooms and relate these perceptions with the knowledge of being judging dentists waiting rooms and fear of dental treatment.Context: Waiting rooms are important spaces for medical and dentist personnel for they can influence the patient emotional state and his (her) willingness to submit to treatment. On the other hand, the emotional state of the patient can influence the treatment outcome. In the case of dentists, there is a generalized fear of the dental treatment as it is, generally, associated with great pain. So, waiting rooms must be comfortable and agreeable in order to counteract the anguish related to the proximity of treatment and probably, pain. However, the patient past experiences, anguish and fear of dental procedures are intervene variables capable of influence the patient perceptions of the rooms, in spite of the effort to have pleasant and comfortable rooms and, consequently, influence the relationship between patients and the professionals.Method: Thirty six photographs of 12 waiting rooms of private dentist clinics, arranged in 12 sets of 3 photos of each room, were judged by 152 participants in 15 semantic differentials of rooms attributes. The photographs were shown collectively and the subjects respond, in a formulary, his (her) impressions of the rooms. The attributes used were: "cold/warm", "interesting/boring", heavy/light", "attractive/repulsive", "sad/gay", "significant/trivial", "nice/ugly", "monotonous/variable", "light/dark", "old/modern", "restful/exciting", "simple/sophisticated", "insecure/secure", "neat/messy", "open/closed". These adjectives were chosen in a previous investigation were a series of similar photographs were shown to a group of judges who have to describe attributes of the room."
Tolba, Mostafa Kamal. "Climate Change and the Need to Act Under Uncertainty." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. The assessment by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate change (IPCC) has provided a detailed and authoritative analysis of what we do know and what we still are uncertain about regarding the ongoing change of the global climate . The global mean temperature has increased by 0.6±0.2 °C during the 20th century , which can not be explained unless the contributions due to human emissions are included . A large majority of the scientific community therefore accepts the notion that a human induced climate change is on the way. Some still maintain an apposite view, but their scientific arguments are generally inconclusive. There is , however, still a significant uncertainly about the sensitivity of the climate system to the disturbances that human activities on earth bring about, nor are we able to spell out in more detail what the characteristics of the change might be, how quickly and where. This is particularly true of the potential regional Climate Change. Similarly, the impacts of a forthcoming climate change are also uncertain. It is of course most essential to analyse these uncertainties more carefully. But there are reasons that justify early actions. The main theme of this paper is to bring home the message that: even if the climate change issue is fraught with uncertainty, a number of quite firm conclusions can be drawn. These should serve as a basis for action. Uncertainties should of course be fully recognized, but must not be the main message. The final judgment about the urgency remains a political issue and will necessarily, to some extent, be subjective.
El-Shahawy, Mohamed.. "Climate Change Challenges Sustainable Development in Egypt." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Climate variability often leads to dramatic events. During the last decades, there have been flood, severe droughts crop failure and, severe famine. Most of these events brought considerable loss of life, much suffering and economic losses.Climatic fluctuations in the global atmospheric circulation are perhaps best highlighted by analyzing deviations from normal surface air temperature and normal precipitation. Therefore, Climate change could be regarded as the long-term increase or decrease of atmospheric surface temperature, precipitation, wind and all other elements of Earth’s climate. There is considerable certainty of the following signs of climate change; -The global- mean surface air temperature has increased by 0.3-0.6_C over the last 100 years. - Recent reports of a rise in mean sea level give about 30 cm over the last 100 years. This would roughly be expected from 0.5_C raise in temperature. - An increase of unusual weather events was reported over numerous localities. This could be explained according to the simple concept of the induced by global warming increases in atmospheric entropy. This enforces disorder and vibrations around the normal state. Egypt is one of the highly vulnerable countries to climatic changes. Several mitigation and adaptation policies should be implemented. Among the important challenges that Egypt is facing during due to climatic changes are the shortage in crop production, deficit of water resources and raise of sea level. Strategic plans and much effort should be devoted to overcome the projected disasters and to conserve the process of sustainable developmentAmong the important activities that have been recently achieved regarding climate change in Egypt is the implementation more than nine projects in the fields of Greenhouse Gas Abatement, National Strategy Study on the Clean Development Mechanism and GHG Inventory Strategies and Emission Reduction from Solid Waste Sector in Egypt. In addition, further efforts are devoted to implement projects on Utilization of Solar Thermal Energy in Resorts and New Villages in Reclaimed area sand to start activities of the second national communication 20 letters of no objections to projects under CDM umbrella have been issued by Egypt’s DNA . Their PDD are now in preparation. These identify some of the mitigation activities in Egypt.
Samarasekara, Ganga N., Kiyotaka Fukahori, and Yoichi Kubota. "Cognitive Distance Affected by Urban Vegetation." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Aims and Objectives of the paper: Sustainable development initiatives encourage more greenery in urban space. Visual and psychological impacts caused by such changes to urban form could result in cognitive spatial representations that are different from their objective equivalents. Subsequent utilization of such misrepresentations could have undesired results in terms of usage of space or even human frustrations. In the process of understanding such possible misrepresentations, our work was aimed to clarify how the introduction of vegetation could affect cognitive distance, one important aspect of spatial representation. We further investigated on the sensitivity of cognitive distance to the differentiation four vegetation design parameters.Context and background literature: Previous researchers have identified vegetation as a probable contributor to good spatial representation. Human preference and cognitive systems are proved to be affected by presence and design of vegetation. Feature accumulation theory and Route segmentation theory explains how environmental features cause differences in cognitive distances. Considering street trees as the environmental feature we try to establish how the variation of this feature could affect cognitive distance.Method of inquiry or argument: By varying the vegetation design parameters growth stage, spacing, tree species and canopy condition 36 vegetation designs were obtained. The cognitive distance judgments of the subjects` using each of 36 photo-simulated streets both in vegetated and non-vegetated condition were evaluated and analyzed. Findings and conclusions: While proving the effect of vegetation on cognitive distance, results showed that subjects overestimated the distances in the vegetated settings in comparison to the non-vegetated settings. The spacing of trees was found to be affective on cognitive distance judgment. Applicability to the field and work to be done next: Longer cognitive distance representation such as due to the introduction of vegetation could result in unused spaces. Realization about the mismatch between objective values and subjective judgments could lead to user frustrations. Designers and planners should consider how the presence of vegetation could affect the human cognitive representations and treat possible misunderstandings such as through improved information. In the next stage other aspects of spatial cognitive representations would be investigated in a virtually simulated environment allowing navigation.
Abdel-Kader, Fawzy. "Combating Environmental Degradation in Egypt: Strategic Axes of Action." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Land degradation, desertification and environmental deterioration are threatening sustainable development in Egypt.. The driving forces are population growth, poverty, water and land resource stress .The pressure variables are aridity, sea-water intrusion, demands for water uses, urban encroachment and soil scrapping. The state of land degradation is shoreline erosion, sand encroachment on the fringe areas, salinity, water logging, pollution of soil and water resources, wind and water erosion and flash floods. The land degradation impact is land productivity decline, loss of biodiversity and water quality deterioration.To cope with these challenges and in the context of the World Summit on Sustainable Development , the Millennium Development Goals ,and the Egypt Human Development Report , the Government of Egypt worked out sect oral National Action Plans for land, water and environment.. Agricultural Policy Reform Program 1996-2002 was successfully conducted to increase production, productivity & incomes in the agricultural sector while a Water Policy Reform Program was conducted to control both the supply and the demand side of the water resources. The Ministry of State for Environmental Affairs meet the challenges by an immediate focusing on the reduction of pollution and the conservation of Egypt’s natural resources through effective environmental management. These sect oral National Action Plans complement and integrate with the national plan for economic growth and social development in Egypt up to 2017. It set up appropriate strategic axes of action to promote and ensure the implementation and sustainability. These strategic axes of actions are feasible through following challenges: • Development of Resources, • Strengthen Information Society, • Strengthening Community Involvement,• Enforcement of Laws and Legislation Reform • Implementing Effective Economic Instruments, and • Promotion Bilateral and Multilateral International Cooperation The objective of this report is to present the different strategic axes of action implemented at different sect oral governmental and non- governmental institutions that aim to combat environmental degradation in the support of sustainable land and water management in Egypt.
Soliman, Mona H.. "Comfortable Home for Mentally Retarded Individuals." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006.

This paper argues that the neglect of the body and emotions has impoverished the architectural and psycho-emotional study of disability. This critique is relevant at a time when, although emphasis has been placed on examining the phenomenology of the impaired body psychology and emotions, and its impact on architectural designs in developed countries, it is still neglected in developing countries. This paper aims at determining the impact of physical and psycho-emotional needs on comfortable home significance for mentally retarded individuals who live at, their parents’ houses or at the residence of specialized associations.This paper argues that structuralist and positivist accounts of disability are inadequate. It suggests that a fuller and non-reductionist understanding of the structure of disablement could be ascertained by engaging with the emerging of the human physical and psycho-emotional needs of the body. The paper also argues that rather than being seen as a social pitiful individual, impaired people should be considered within their constructed situation. This is because, residence (association home or parents’ home) has historically been implicated in the regulation of impaired bodies and psycho-emotions. A field survey was conducted to evaluate the students’ behavior towards each other, towards their teachers/supervisors and parents, and towards the built environment while performing their daily and night activities. This paper focuses only on evaluating the behavior and needs of mentally retarded individuals with a low degree of impairment, since each mentally retarded individual with severe or middle degree of impairment totally varies in his needs and behavior than all his colleagues, and this case could never be generalized as for mentally retarded individuals with low degree of impairment.Most importantly, this paper is conducted to determine the most appropriate and suitable place for the residency of mentally retarded individuals (parents’ houses, or residence of specialized association), the place that provides them with a real sense of comfort and belonging, and makes them deeply feel of being at home.

Garcia, Jaime Hernandez. "Community Participation in Low Income Settlements in Colombia." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. "Well organized and executed community initiatives build capacity create important relationships between people and their environments and between the people themselves. Poor urban areas in Colombia are normally boundary sectors that are characterized by great shortages of resources; such as the lack of urban infrastructure, decent housing and social services. These settlements originate in one or more of the following ways: . Purchasing of plots by public or private companies - the "standard way", . Plots that are bought by illegal developers "clandestine" or . Land invasion - communities of settlers that later achieve full development thanks to self build and/or self help practices. The impact of these sectors in Colombian cities is huge. In Bogotá more that 50% of the urban fabric has been developed spontaneously by the inhabitants without the "interference" of any private or public planning institution. People themselves have built and improved their own habitat often using informal participation channels to achieve their goals. During the research work, 28 different projects in Bogotá were studied to analyses how community participation works in community creation. The study of community led neighborhood development projects highlight a number of important issues: Public spaces are very important in low-income settlements. The houses are basic therefore the urban space replaces those facilities. Often it is the public spaces that give identity to the neighborhoods. Community organization is crucial to the success of a development project. Strong communities were found to be more able to develop better projects; on the other hand, when community links were not very developed, projects were more likely to fail. External technical and organizational support is essential to success. Building capacity is perhaps the most important accumulated resource for these initiatives. It is the "know how" that allows the community to engage in other projects that improve their urban, architectural and social life. "
Stewart, Isobel, and Dorothée Marchand. "Complex Relations Between a Population and Its Urban Environment: Representation of the Town of Le Creusot." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. This research uses the case of Le Creusot to examine the relations between a town and its inhabitants. Le Creusot is a French town with a rich industrial past but which finds itself today in a situation of reconversion and industrial diversification.Through a study of the representation of the town, three interdependent aspects of the relation between the population and its urban environment are investigated: a temporal aspect which aims to examine how the population articulates the relation between the industrial past, a present-day situation of reconversion and an uncertain future; an identity aspect interested in how the population identifies with the town and how it represents the image of the town presented to others; a structural aspect which focuses on the appropriation of urban space in a town which has no unified town centre, the consequence of its construction around the factories.It is hypothesized that the social position of the inhabitants as well as their place and duration of residence in the town will have an impact on the relations they sustain with their urban environment, and thus on their representation of the town.The representation identified reveals complex relations between the population and its urban environment with social differentiations concerning the three aspects studied. For example, it tends to be workers and low education-level employees who accentuate the scale and wealth of Le Creusot in the past and who represent Le Creusot today in decline and with unemployment. However, the future of Le Creusot for these categories of the population is more ambivalent – between optimism, uncertainty and pessimism.
Erem, Ömer, and Elmira Gürener. "Complexity Versus Sustainable Cityscape: a Case Study in Taksim Square, Istanbul." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Architecture has shaped in the past and is still shaping now and will shape the cities in the future. Especially in historical towns people can perceive different layers of architectural concepts of different architects from past to the future. In the past, the number of layers that influences cognition of man was fewer than that of nowadays. Today we see lots of environmental elements that interfere with man’s reading the milieu. As these elements increase people become much more selective to find out what they need. This selection procedure becomes “baiting” data from a chaotic sea of information. In addition to this chaos we as architects mostly try to give different messages and feelings to citizens. In such a milieu, people try to find easier way of selection, so mostly the innocent environmental shaping effort of the designer is ignored. But to get rid of this oblivion, for a sustainable city life and comfort of man’s mind, this flow of information must be organized by associative work of architects, urban planners and politicians. Aim must be the organization of the legibility of environment. In macro city scale the legibility of the environment is related to the geometrical formation of cityscape such as landmarks, nodes, districts, roads and borders. But in micro scale for example; in a part of a city such as a downtown square, the factors that affect the legibility changes according to space. Also in addition to these factors cultural and social symbolic elements and the complexity of stable and mobile elements can affect the cognitive map of that place in man’s mind. The sustainability of a city is only possible with the revitalization of the main centers. Istanbul is the biggest metropolis in Turkey. Its cosmopolite citizen’s structure is reflected to building pattern. This confusion is mirrored to the most important square: Taksim, Istanbul. Complexity is a dominant legibility factor and must be handled immediately for the future image of the New Millennium City of Culture: Istanbul. This paper aims to find out complexity factors affecting the legibility of Taksim Square with a case study and try to find out some suggestions for a future work studying in accordance with citizens of Istanbul
Sherif, El, and M. Doaa. "Confronting Urban Deterioration Through Achieving Millennium Developmental Goals." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. " The paper deals with the concept of sustainability when applied to planning and development. It focuses on the perception of the concept of sustainable development; how it is discussed all over the world, and what does it mean when applied to Urban Development. It also gives a background about the eight Millennium Developmental Goals (MDGs) which were issued by the United Nations in the year 2000. The paper presents an actual Egyptian case study dealing with the upgrading of a deteriorated urban environment in an informal area. The paper shows how it is possible to confront urban deterioration through adopting one or more goals from the eight Millennium Developmental Goals. The case study will be analyzed with focus on the approach used to enhance the urban environment of the area, besides the activities devoted for poverty alleviation and other activities for improving the living conditions of the residents. The analysis of the case study will be related to the perception of two main goals from the eight Millennium Developmental Goals; these two goals are: the first goal "Poverty Alleviation" and the seventh goal "Environmental Sustainability". "
Garikipati, Supriya. "Consulting the Development-Displaced: Methodology Issues and an Experiment in the Narmada Valley, India." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Involuntary resettlement of people displaced by large dams, as by several other development projects, is largely considered a failure. Increasingly, researchers have shifted focus from trying to improve welfare outcomes for the affected to questioning the involuntariness of resettlement schemes. The idea of voluntary resettlement, under which the displaced are consulted regarding their resettlement, is often suggested as a preferred alternative. This approach can in principle ensure that compensation reflects the true losses incurred by the displaced and can also guarantee that the process of displacement and resettlement does not adversely affect the displaced. The problem of ‘incentive incompatibility’, however, suggests that, if asked for an evaluation of their losses, the affected have an incentive to exaggerate. In this paper the author explores the possibility of using the contingent valuation method (CVM) – a method often used to make decisions about environmental issues – to consult the affected without capitulating to this problem. This experiment is carried out in nine villages affected by the construction of the Sardar Sarovar Project (SSP) in the Narmada Valley.The CVM involved offering a set of four hypothetical compensation packages to the affected. The packages contained varying amounts of cash explicitly in exchange for three important aspects of their pre-displacement lives: commons, community and irrigable lands. They were designed to capture the monetary value that the affected place on each significant dimension of their losses. This in turn was used to estimate their willingness to accept cash in exchange for these qualitative aspects, since reproducing them elsewhere is difficult if not impossible. The findings of the study suggest that CVM can prove to be a very useful technique to elicit the true losses suffered by the displaced populations. The elicited preferences were to a large extent explained by the socio-economic circumstances of the respondents. More specifically the results indicate that the SSP resettlement scheme is flawed in some of its pivotal features.
Moser, Gabriel. "Consumption, Sources and Quality of Water in Four Different Countries." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. In each of the four countries involved in the research (Italy, France, India and Mexico), two specific “local contexts” are considered, based on contrasting geographical, climatic, cultural and access condition. The questionnaire investigated the different uses of water during a typical day, the perception of quantities of water used by the respondent and by others, and the perceived quality of water. Contrasting pattern of perception/representation/uses emerges between the different sites considered, and environmental conditions and type of supply seem to strongly affect people’s perception and action concerning fresh water resources. Beyond seasonal differences, water use seems primarily determined by the opportunities: status, type of housing and life style. Basically, consumption depends on economical status and expressed needs. People tend to use the quantities necessary to what they consider to be their needs, without depriving. In India, as well as in Mexico, poor people limit their daily consumption since, for instance in Mexico, they are forced to walk a number of blocks in order to get water from the only faucet they have for the settlement. On all the sites, the more water is available, the more water is used, without any concern for its wastage. Contrary to Europe, where water quality is overall good, it is of bad quality in India and Mexico. In Mexico middle and high-class individuals distrust water quality, stating that drinking water directly from faucets is risky for health. Poor people instead, see their water quality as good, and consume it directly from faucets. They are pessimistic about the future due to perception of scarcity in the past. The perception of the quality of the water seems to be function of knowledge and objective information. People think that others, not they themselves, waste water. Practically everybody knows one or more neighbours that are water wasters: Only people in the Sardinia Island (Italy), who experience poor water supply, explicitly declare themselves as actively engaged in water saving action in their daily lives. Water perception and consumption is widely dependent on the people’s condition of access to water, which in turn is largely dependent their economic faculties in the developing countries. People are more concerned about the local and immediate environmental problems such as water scarcity, garbage being or not being collected and traffic jams rather than depleting water resources, global warming, or other problems of the earth system.
Codina, Nuria, Jose Vicente Pestana, and Merce Rosich. "Contribution of Sports Activities in Sustainable Development. Social Influences and Motives for Sports." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. This paper considers some aspects that characterize launching and continuing sport activities at gym. In concrete, we study the role of some influences in starting sport activities, as well as several motives for maintaining this leisure practice. One concern about sustainability deals with the idea of promoting long-term health behavior. However, some confusion has been showed in approaching health promotion interventions (Swerissen & Crisp, 2004). Consequently, social researchers have been looking for factors and contexts in which sustainable health behavior could be achieved. In this sense, features related to sport activities performance may suggest some ideas about analyzing, stimulating, and sustaining health-related behavior. No doubts about sport activities benefits in health maintenance (e.g., Lake, Stratton, Martin & Money, 2001); even more, in some cases sport as a leisure activity can be an indicator of life and environment satisfaction (Codina, Rosich & Pestana, 2002; Pestana, Rosich & Codina, 2003). A specific questionnaire developed by Codina, Rosich & Pestana (2003, 2004, 2005) was administered to 1,483 participants (799 men, 684 women; mean age 33.21 yrs., SD = 13.64), who attended gyms located in Barcelona metropolitan area. Participants rated on a 4-point scale their perception about how own beliefs and environmental influences (health professionals, family, friends, school) induce sport activities practice, and their reasons for being satisfied with this practice. Results show significant associations among: different perceived influences in starting sport activities; the motives that produce satisfaction in practicing these activities; and these motives and those perceived influences, according to variables such as sex, age, and sport implication. Our outcomes are valued from a psychosocial dimension of health behavior sustainability. Specifically, we consider some conditionings in intervention procedures oriented to make people begin and keep on practicing physical activities. In a more general sense, future directions address us to take into account psychosocial processes like space and time appropriation, and free self-oriented behavior to contribute in explaining health-based sustainable practices.
Adedayo, Adesina. "Correlates of Environmental Value and Social Class in Nigeria Cities." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Context & background literature: Environment and behaviour researchers are principally interested in the role of the physical environment on human behaviour. In the last decade there has been a rapid growth of interest in the interrelationships between the social status and environmental values. Many academic contributions have dealt with some of these topics from a theoretical perspective. In contrast, this paper therefore provides a case study analysis on the correlation between social class and the environmental values in Ibadan city, Nigeria. Two hundred structured questionnaires were administered across the social strata of (high, medium and low) social cadre. With the aid of statistical model, the research shows that social class positively influenced human-environment behaviour than the physical environment itself. And also, a correlate between social class and environmental values is examined by factor analyzing the social class variable to extract the explanatory variance amongst these inputted variables. This is aimed at stimulating empirical research interest in environment and behaviour research in developing world.
Abdou, Ossama A., and Amal A. Abdou G. Kholy. "Correlation Between Indoor Environmental Quality and Productivity in Buildings." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. This paper consists of a collection of available information on qualitative relations between indoor air environment and worker productivity. While qualitative information is fairly plentiful, quantitative information is quite limited; and what is there, is highly controversial. Some researchers have published measured improvements in productivity of 2.8% to 9.5% due to improved environmental conditions; others claim productivity increases of up to 15%. On the other hand, many people maintain that the measurable changes in productivity are too small and too random to be caused by the indoor environment. While there is no proof that maximum comfort leads to maximum productivity, an improved environment decreases worker complaints and absenteeism. It appears, however, that other factors such as labor-management relations, interaction between workers, and the physical arrangement of their work spaces are far more important to worker productivity than the indoor air quality (IAQ). It seems that when workers have control over their environment, they tend to be more satisfied. When their environment is improved either through management initiatives or as a result of worker complaints, they take it as an indication that management cares for them, and it increases their job satisfaction, which indirectly may increase their productivity. Most studies show that better lighting increases productivity and that working conditions are generally better when windows are provided. Other indoor environmental factors such as acoustics, thermal and olfactory aspects as well as humidity levels and ventilations rates seem to have correlations to worker performance as measured by factory outputs and industrial accidents, all of which are measures of productivity. Indoor environmental quality (IEQ) is important to the health, comfort, and well being of building occupants. It is believed that poor IAQ is associated with a number of different phenomena, most notably, the Sick Building Syndrome (SBS), Building-related Illness (BRI), and Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS), which, of course, have major effects on productivity. And, since that cost of providing the indoor environment is more than an order of magnitude smaller than the cost of the workers in that place, providing a superior environment may well be the most cost-effective way of increasing worker productivity.
Eldien, Hossam, Hany Elsayed, and Roula Ntefeh. "Courtyards Forms, an Approach to Improve the Illumination and Acoustical Environments." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Recently, a new type of buildings with courtyards has been found in some southern and eastern Mediterranean cities. This kind of buildings presents a combination of various uses (habitat, trade and offices) in one building, where the courtyard is considered as a principal architectural and social element. This new type of courtyards doesn't play an efficient role in the environment regulation because of its form modifications. The Courtyard becomes deeper than the traditional one; this factor involves a lack of illumination on lower levels of building and reduces sunlight on the internal façades during wintertime. On the other hand and with the development of transportation, it became an important architectural solution to improve the acoustical environment. In this paper we discuss the effects of many courtyards forms in order to improve the illumination and acoustical environments. We find that the courtyard surface is the principal factor determining the level of illumination in the lower levels more than the variation of surrounding masses heights. On the other hand, some forms can control the noise level and the others increase this problem.
Di Masso, Andrés, and Enric Pol. "Creating Public Space: Social Constructions of an Emerging Public Space in the Frame of an Urban Conflict." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. The present paper exposes the main results of a research performed in Barcelona, focused on the analysis of the process of social creation of meanings that link individuals and social groups to urban public spaces. The aim is to explore the different social constructions created and used to interpret a pre-urbanized public space in a situation of conflict, that is, under confronted strategies, actions and expressions for its definition, uses and social appropriation. The dynamics of growth of western contemporary cities usually follow formal patterns that tend to dispersion and fragmentation, against compacity and social cohesion (Sorkin, 1992; Nel-lo, 2003; Borja, 2005). In Barcelona, this tendency tries to be reverted by fostering the construction of high-quality public spaces, able to maintain a critical mass of diverse population in multifunctional and sustainable surroundings, working as centralities. This strategy can avoid the abandon of urban surroundings such as historical downtowns, preventing degradation and ghettization in them by the least resourced inhabitants. Nevertheless, it can also promote questionable dynamics of ‘gentrification’ that affect substantially the previous social and constructive fabric. Sometimes, as in the case studied, that is a reason of conflict between neighbour groups and the local government, both intending to legitimate the sense of their interventions and actions upon a provisory, expectant and ambiguous urban space waiting to define its uses and publics.The space considered, popularly known as ‘Hole of the shame’, is a void placed in Barcelona’s historical city, and is the result of the elimination of the medieval edificatory mass previewed in an urban remodelling plan. The delay of the works for its re-urbanization has triggered the vindication of its transformation by neighbour groups, who have built there a green area, a resting zone and two sports fields for the youngest people, often struggling with the police forces. In this way, the space has turned into an ‘object’ of conflict and a ‘setting’ of social confrontations (Burte, 2003). Four other cases will be studied in the next steps of the research.The analysis performed, mainly qualitative, is based in systematic observation of the space referred, and in the identification of interpretative repertoires (Potter & Wetherell, 1987) inferred from the analysis of in-depth interviews to key-agents in the transformation of that space. Results put in the centre of the process of meaning-construction social identity features, symbolic appropriation (Pol, 1996) and the complex process of attribution within a context of interests and power-relations, concluding that ideological mechanisms (Thompson, 1999) are pre-eminent defining modes of space meaning creation, producing and reproducing the conflict when thinking and acting a controversial future public space. It also appears in all the interpretative positions the social representation of a recognizable city model and the desire of community participatory design processes (Sanoff, 1999).
Paget, Susan. "Creating Sustainable Places for Children." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. "The aim of the paper is to discuss how the knowledge of the landscape architect can be used to create sustainable school grounds. The paper also looks critically at the professional role and identity of the landscape architect in a participative context. School grounds in Sweden are still, in spite of many campaigns and projects, places with few incentives for pupils and teachers to use other than as a place to run about in and get some fresh air. The demand for developing different methods for involving pupils in all stages of school ground use, planning, building and maintenance, as a means for a long term sustainable solution has noticeably increased over the last few years according to a survey conducted in 2002. Who can help out on this? Landscape architects belong to a profession that has knowledge about places and how they can be used and managed. They are also educated to see and visualize for others how places can change and be developed. These qualities are a potential for new thinking that is today not fully realized in the development of children's environments. In a case study at a secondary school in northern Sweden a new method for participatory planning was tried, so called "knowledge workshops". This method is in part based on Future Workshops, a method for visionary planning developed in Germany, but "knowledge workshops" includes the place itself as an actor and as a base for joint learning. Pupils, teachers, landscape architects and the project leaders from the community worked together over time. This resulted in a proposal for change which was then built. The paper will also address the findings from a focus group of landscape architects in Sweden discussing the role of the landscape architect in general, with a starting-point in school ground development. In what manner does the paradigm of the landscape architect (the first aesthetical standpoint she or he takes) have importance for the final design of school grounds? How much does a common language mean in this context? The "knowledge workshops" which included both children and adults showed that this last question is important. Working together with the place itself as an actor made a difference in how the process evolved, and to some extent in what was built. The question of whose aesthetic preference takes precedence was shown to be a point of debate. Another question of interest was how such newly-won knowledge can, together with different actors be a part of communal learning about a physical, tangible change to a place. Seeing what the obstacles are today against using the knowledge of landscape architects in school ground development and the significance of landscape architects in that process can be a basis for change in teaching landscape architecture. This critical analysis can also be of importance to planners and schools who can then put new and more relevant questions to landscape architects when developing school grounds."
Abdelwahab, Mona Abdelazeem. Critical Theory, Place Making and Architectural Practice In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Place making for people: Urban Spaces are continuously taken over by the widespread residential, commercial and administrative developments in the city. People are suffering a poor life quality; they have few or no public spaces and amenities. To create and restore the public life that can contribute to the quality of urban life in cities remains a major challenge for architects and urban designers today. The challenge is to design urban spaces that people will want to use (Carmona M. et al. 2003), as people are the measure of the success of any place making. Successful public places are filled with people; they flourish socially and economically, and more important they could attain this success for a long life and contribute to the urban quality of life through sustainability. Urban Park Design: Simultaneously, recent trends show an increasing interest in urban park design. Urban parks primarily evolved as recreation urban space. Today, urban parks have developed into living public places full of physical, social and cultural activities. The new paradigm shift in park design recognizes people's needs, their spatial behavior and activities as well as the social, cultural, political and economic context. People-Place relationship: Between the theory and practice: Today, urban spaces are not seen as static objects, but rather as relations, process and situations of a dynamic and ever changing nature (Nilsson F. 2004). Place making is an intrinsic part of the social practice of place (which reflects the realities of people's everyday life, activities and spatial behavior), people and place play a simultaneously interchangeable and dependent role. This research identifies this people-place relation as the key to make successful public places. However, architects and urban designers are often driven by ideologies and theories rather than social studies of place (Fisher T. 2004). Place has occupied a central part in the different theoretical approaches. However, theories of place, in general, have focused on ideologies rather than realities explaining visual and formal values rather than human activities. Simultaneously, social studies and place making has occupied a major part in urban design, to study the relation between space and spatial behavior and try to identify the basic elements of successful urban space through people's behavior pattern. A. Rappoport and C. Alexander are considered the most famous authors in this field. However, these social studies were often ignored due to their complex and changeable nature. Towards formulating a critical approach to urban park design: Place making for people remains a challenge for architects and urban designers today. However, they lack the tool or methodological framework to study the relation between the spatial organization of place and the nature and consequences of its social practice. Through an analysis of several examples of public urban parks, this thesis proposes a critical approach for architects and urban designers to design an urban park, which considers the people-place relation ship as its conceptual framework. This approach is hence, experimented against several case studies.
Moss, Ana Motta. "Cultural Capital and Immigrant Service Environments: Implications for Health and Well-Being." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. The recent immigrant experience is widespread and requires understanding. Immigrants often struggle to maintain a sense of self while adapting to new geographic, social-economic, and cultural environments. Most scholars highlight participation in organizational settings as a predictor of social capital among immigrants, and at least one aspect of this relationship is included in recent research (Hirshman, Kasinitz, & DeWind, 1999). Most studies, however, have focused on the role of individual membership and participation in ethnic institutions. Little attention has been paid to the cultural patterns that shape social relations in immigrant environments and their impact on the health and well-being of immigrants. This paper examines cultural patterns established within immigrant service organizations in New York City, and the role of these organizations in the transformation of immigrant culture into social and health resources. In addition, the paper explores how cultural capital contributes to the sustainability of immigrant organizations over time. This research was carried out at selected organizations in New York City. Site selection was based on a typology of organizations previously identified in the literature (Cordero-Guzman, 2003; Foner, 2002) as forming the immigrant social service delivery system: informal neighborhood-based immigrant groups, clubs and associations; legally constituted community-based organizations (501(c)3 status); and large metropolitan-level providers that serve immigrants. A multi-method strategy was used to develop organizational profiles based on the socio-cultural resources and practices at each site. Preliminary findings suggest that these environments form unique fields of action for immigrants in New York City. Ethno-centered environments often have leaders who represent their constituents’ values and traditions, are somewhat embedded in their communities, reveal high levels of informational support, and strive to maintain a positive image. Community-based nonprofit organizations combine ethnic values with mainstream practices and beliefs, have leaders who often represent working to middle-class aspirations from both native and American cultures, offer multiple channels for community participation, and promote a variety of social support practices. These organizations, however, seem to be strapped for funding which might affect their sustainability over time. Citywide providers represent the most mainstream cultural values of the three studied environments, with leaders revealing a multitude of characteristics and practices reflected in the host culture. Mechanisms for community participation are often issue specific (e.g., HIV, sexual orientation), since these organizations are not necessarily embedded in the local communities, and social support is service-oriented. The policy and programmatic implications of these research findings are discussed as they relate to the social and cultural dimensions of immigrants’ health and well-being. Cultural aspects of immigrant service organizations that mediate the negative effects of differentiation and exclusion inherent in mainstream societies will be explored in their implications for immigrants’ social integration and development.
Gomes, Frederica Stanke Gon, and Maria Cristina D. Lay. "Cultural Diversity and Sustainable Appropriation of Urban Spaces." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Following the premise that there is a relationship between appropriation of urban open spaces, cultural and socio-economic aspects of potential users (compositional factors), and aspects related to physical characteristics (contextual factors), this study investigates the process of sustainable appropriation of the urban space in cities with accelerated urban growth, occupied by different socio –cultural groups, namely German, Italian, and mixed background. Context & background: The network of public spaces represents the structure of cultural relationships, through which relationships can be supported or challenged. It is noted that appropriation of urban spaces occurs differently among cities, as well as between areas in the same city. According to the literature, urban spaces are different in terms of appropriation due to cultural forces - involving basic and functional needs, social community life and symbolic sense of public life -, and the physical structure of the place, which affect the conditions offered to perform the demanded activities - involving environmental qualities such as security, accessibility and environmental fit. Methodology: Performance evaluations were carried out in five neighbourhoods characterised by differences in cultural and socio-economic aspects, and aspects related to physical characteristics, located in the city Timb?, Brazil. Methodological procedures included mental maps, space syntax analysis, interviews, physical measurements, observations of behaviour, and questionnaires. Findings & Conclusions: The more intense relations extra –community are, the broader the social network is in order to establish common locals to diverse residents, and the most global integrated an open space is, the highest the level of sustainable appropriation by all kinds of socio-cultural groups of residents. New residents with lower income and mixed socio-cultural background have a broader social network dynamics from high local connected and controlled areas over global integrated ones, keeping relationship among people with different cultural and socio-economic background. Earlier residents, of German or Italian socio-cultural background show a limited social network dynamics over the city, limiting appropriation of urban space to their residential areas, establishing relationships with people from the same background. Both contextual and compositional aspects affect the social network development over the city, further affecting social sustainability appropriation in its local and global dynamics. Applicability to the field: The results contribute to the existing knowledge and outline recommendations that might support the social life dynamics of urban spaces.
Hammami, Feras. "Cultural Heritage Conservation as a Tool for Integrated Urban Development - a Case Study of the Historic City of Nablus." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006.

Competing forces in urbanization avert cultural heritage, resulting in loss of assets, disparate development and severe consequences for the poor. Lack of awareness to the value of Cultural Heritage and its conservation among politicians, planners, concerns of stakeholders prevents heritage conservation as an integral part of planning and development. On a premise that conservation is a tool for integrated urban development, the research project examined - through an identified case study: the Historic City of Nablus, Palestine - how cultural heritage and its conservation contribute into the city growth and development, poverty alleviation, improvement of living conditions and promotion of the Historic City image and attractiveness. Site visits and field observations, key informants interviews and analysis of documents and maps were a threefold method that was used in the case study analyses. Results obtained from this study showed that there is lack of integrated conservation into urban planning and development. This lack of conservation starts from institutional set-ups and organization and ends by projects implementations and operational processes. Thus, the study has contributed into the existing conservation policy as acknowledgments at three different levels: policy; institution; and design level. A slow-steps concept has been proposed to frame the correlation between these three different levels of influence. This concept interpreted by the end of the study discussion into strategic priorities and framework for action in the Historic City. Along with, an urgent need for institutional reform and capacity building based decentralization approach and cross-sectoral correlation. Civic engagement and public private partnerships in the conservation practices were also proposed as two main variables in approaching sustainable urban development. Conclusions from this study have been formulated into a form of recommendations to the local authorities, municipalities and local community representatives.

Kühn, Uta. Culture Distinction, Can It Be a Touristic Attraction?how Derive Profit from Ethnic Distinction In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Some communities living in one country have their own history, tradition and they feel a little bit different from the rest of population. Often they express their culture distinction by cultivation of folklore. Can this folklore be a tourist attraction? What do Kaszubi do for develop their culture and attract the tourists? And what more can they do?Cultural/urban/architectural context in which study is conducted Kaszuby, the wonderful region of Poland: In the North part of Poland there is a region called „Kaszuby”, lived by “Kaszubi”. This region has a really various and beautiful countryside. There are numerous lakes, rivers and forests and also the Baltic sea. This region, rich in natural valorous, is also rich in monuments, especially in north cities like Gda_sk or Sopot. This beauty area is lived by people with very interesting culture. Kaszubi are not distinct nation but they have their own language, the only regional language mentioned in Polish Constitution. They maintain their distinction by the cultivation of folklore especially: embroidering, snuff tradition, wicker-work, potter’s trade.Folklore and culture tourisme: In literature we can find different definitions of folklore. In this work author accepts the definition from “Ethnological dictionary, general terms” Zofia Staszczak [Staszczak Zofia, “Slownik etnologiczny terminy ogólne”, Warszawa-Poznan 1987]. In this book we distinct 3 kinds of folklore: traditional, reconstructed, spontaneous modern folklore. For the tourist aim the most often people use this reconstructed folklore. Another term important for this work is “culture tourism”. Here the author accepts opinion of Wladyslaw Gaworecki [Gaworecki Wladyslaw, “Turystyka”, Warszawa 2003] that is not only visiting of precious places but also it is a tourism of reflection and communication.Research questions, objectives and/or hypotheses :Do Kaszubi take advantages from their ethnic distinction for tourism’s developing? What kind of solution do they choose to link the tourists’ interest towards Kaszuby’s folklore? They could make something better?Research strategy/methodology developed for tackling research: In this work the author has used the literature research collected in many Polish special libraries, has interviewed the indigenous community and has profited her own experience reached by the visiting of the region.In September 2005 the author made a pilot survey which confirmed some result of literature research. In this survey participate 100 people and they answer if Kaszuby’s folklore could be attractive and which part of it is the most interesting and which expect to be developed. The author would like to make this survey with biggest group of people in Kaszuby. In the future she would like to compare this region with another region of strong ethnic distinction. State of development of thesis: research proposal (theoretical framework, literature review, hypothesis), data collection People from Kaszuby seem to realize that folklore could be a way for attracting tourists. They organize more and more folklore festivals, propose folklore worships, produce various souvenirs connected to folklore. They popularize their culture by museums. In this region there is one of the biggest ethnographical museum in Europe, Ethnographical Park in Wdzydze Kiszewskie. We observe a good development’s direction of “folklore tourism” in Kaszuby. Could they change something, make it better? In both: literature research and the pilot survey the results show that they have to accentuate importance of their cuisine (traditional restaurant and maybe they could propose culinary products?)Conclusion: Example of Kaszuby shows that culture distinction, especially express by folklore, could be a big tourist attraction and it could increase the number of the tourists visiting the region.
Mira, Ricardo Garcia, Isabel Lema Blanco, and Eulogio Real J. Deus. "Defining Dimensions in Social Perception of Risk. a Multidimensional Approach." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. The aim of this paper is to analyze the risk as a social construct and to describe its characteristics. The general objective is describing how individuals perceive and interpret the risk according their mental schemes (Renn, 1991). The risk amplification process was addressed from multiple points of view. One of them is that looking for an explanation from resident attitudes, and by mean of the identification of those factors -socioeconomic, environmental awareness, etc- contributing to the explanation of the intensification or attenuation of the perceived risk (Renn, Burns, Kasperton, Kasperton & Slovic, 1992). This work analyses the relation among perception of an urban risk (a local chemical plant), information on risk management, and environmental concern, in a city in Northwest of Spain. The risk was measured from the perception of risk towards a local chemical industry and other local problems. A representative sample of 699 residents in A Coruña was interviewed. The results show different ways of conceptualizing risk and other aspects related to information, environmental concern, and some local risks. Otherwise, other variables related to attribution of responsibility, distance, and gender will be analyzed.
Mira, Ricardo Garcia, Isabel Lema Blanco, and Eulogio Real J. Deus. "Defining Dimensions in Social Perception of Risk. a Multidimensional Approach." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. The aim of this paper is to analyze the risk as a social construct and to describe its characteristics. The general objective is describing how individuals perceive and interpret the risk according their mental schemes (Renn, 1991). The risk amplification process was addressed from multiple points of view. One of them is that looking for an explanation from resident attitudes, and by mean of the identification of those factors -socioeconomic, environmental awareness, etc- contributing to the explanation of the intensification or attenuation of the perceived risk (Renn, Burns, Kasperton, Kasperton & Slovic, 1992). This work analyses the relation among perception of an urban risk (a local chemical plant), information on risk management, and environmental concern, in a city in Northwest of Spain. The risk was measured from the perception of risk towards a local chemical industry and other local problems. A representative sample of 699 residents in A Coruña was interviewed. The results show different ways of conceptualizing risk and other aspects related to information, environmental concern, and some local risks. Otherwise, other variables related to attribution of responsibility, distance, and gender will be analysed.
El-Feki, Sameh, Sherif El-Fiki, and Amal Abdou. "Desert Communities, Traditions and the Built Environment; a Study Towards Promoting Eco-Tourism in Siwa Oasis – Egypt." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Egypt is blessed with Nile valley and its fertile lands, along which many civilizations have settled and developed throughout history. This has, for so long, laid most emphases of development strategies and economic plans upon this particular strip of Egypt's land, while more than 90% of the Country's desert area was left with very little, or probably no attention. Tourism is a major sector in Egypt's economy, which has contributed more than 17% to the Country's GDP in 2005. Egyptian tourism has, for some time, focused on historic monuments and beach resorts. In recent years, attention is directed to a different trend of tourism, in accordance with the general tendency towards sustainable development. This trend is eco-tourism, which endorses touring natural habitats in a manner that minimizes negative ecological impacts upon the environment. Thus, the prime goal for eco-tourists is the genuine exposure to and the true interaction with local environments. To benefit from these concepts, and to achieve better utility of the local resources, it is important to promote the application of eco-tourism in wider areas of Egypt. Eco-tourism has the potential to accomplish valuable social and economic benefits, by creating job opportunities for the local residents, exchanging knowledge with foreign visitors, disseminating environmental awareness, and promoting sustainable development. Thus, the current study addresses Siwa Oasis – Egypt, as an example for promoting eco-tourism in desert environments. In terms of architecture, it is important to grasp the real forces underlying the production of local built forms, so that any introduced facilities do not contradict with the main objectives of eco-tourism. This research deals with built forms as the responsive objectification of more complex and sophisticated subjective dimensions. Amongst these dimensions are social systems, traditions, beliefs and culture. Therefore, the study addresses the physical and non-physical aspects shaping the pattern of built environment in Siwa, to outline broad guidelines for new enterprises to undertake, towards supporting viable eco-tourism and sustainable development.The study concludes that architecture should not be a mere reproduction of certain building typologies that are undertaken in different historic or geographic contexts. It should alternatively stem from a sound understanding to all subjective and objective characteristics of the environment, and how local people envisage the desert and deal with it. This is found positively supportive to eco-tourism and sustainable socio-economic development of the desert communities.
Hussein, Ismail Abdel Gali. "Desertification Challenge in Egypt." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Egypt is an African / Asian / Mediterranean country. It occupies an area of about one million Km2, between Lat. 22º and 32_N and Long 25_ and 35_ E. It is bordered on the North by the Mediterranean Sea, on the South by the Republic of Sudan, on the West by Libya, and on the East by Palestine, Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea. Geographically, Egypt can be distinguished into four main geographic regions; Nile Valley & Delta, Sinai Peninsula, Eastern Desert and Western Desert. In terms of Aridity Index, 86% of the total area of Egypt is classified as hyper-arid and the remaining as arid.Egypt has been an active member in the United Nation Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) since 1996 The National Action Program (NAP) to combat desertification has been conceived and submitted to UNCCD secretariat in 2005. Since the ecosystem in each agro-ecological zone is significantly different, the desertification causes, processes and their impacts are accordingly variable. Therefore, the National Action Program (NAP) to combat desertification in Egypt has been tailored to meet the specific desertification challenges of each agro-ecological zone including markers and indicators, monitoring and assessment, capacity building and awareness, stakeholder's participatory, legal framework and legislations and socio-economic impacts. The main causes of desertification in Egypt are focused in the demographic pressure, water shortage, poor water management, unsustainable agricultural practices, biodiversity loss, and intensive cultivation in rain-fed areas. However, desertification processes include urbanization, salinization, pollution, soil fertility depletion, water erosion, genetic erosion and sand encroachment. There are five areas characterized by serious coverage of sand dune encroachment; west of the Nile Delta (255 km2), Fayoum and Wadi El-Rayan depression (480 km2), Southwest El-Minya governorate (350km2), Al Kharga Oasis ( 400 km2) and Northwestern High Dam lake (800 km2.). Rangelands of Egypt have been subjected to desertification process due to mismanagement practices such as intensive cultivation of barley and wheat and horticultural crops in rain fed areas, drought, overgrazing and lack of policies. However, about 45% of the total rangelands areas are severely degraded and could be described as very poor, ranges, 35% as fair, 15% as good and 5% as excellent ranges. A recent report indicated that in most areas of western coastal zone and, north Sinai, forage production had declined by 50-60% in less than 30 years and about 40-50% of the plant cover has been lost. (NAP, 2005).This paper will shed light on desertification status in Siwa, North costal area and southern Egypt.
Duarte, Cristiane, Ethel Santana, Alice Brasileiro, and Katia de Paula. "Design and Metaphor: Exploiting Analysis Tools for Built Environments." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Introduction: The dreamt, transformed and molded space, as well as metaphoric constructions of people’s visual language, are usually born in a project-speaking atmosphere of mechanisms that wander between the sensible and the intelligible. Metaphoric spaces are not exactly derived from the immediate appearance of built spaces, but rather shaped by memories, emotions and the social context of their inhabitants. Within this process, individuals not only search for explanations about their identity and placing situation but also reconstruct their own logic and aspirations towards their vicinity and cities. Such engaged work deals with people’s awareness of belonging to places and the constant need for improving architectural urban elements.Context & background literature: Based on the premise previously presented, the Group “Arquitetura, Subjetividade e Cultura” (Architecture, Subjectivity and Culture), linked to Post-grad. Studies Program in Architecture - Proarq/UFRJ, aims at systemizing methods for the analysis of the configuration of space attributes in order to settle down identity types of meanings and collective urban images.Aims and Methods: methodology we have chosen for the making of this work is based on several studies that long before have been trying to investigate the comprehension of “world view”(Geertz, 1973; Rapoport, 1969) through ethnographic readings of spaces and survey techniques that make use of participant observations and straight approach. We take these primary studies as a hook to the elaboration of new strategies that may gather technical architectural data with the discoveries and necessary aid of interdisciplinary fields. It is also our goal to comprehend space as an embodiment of culture, subjectivity and life project.Findings & Conclusions: Through the use of some tools based on the interdisciplinary range of human sciences – although adapted to architecture and urbanism researchers’ language – this paper outlines some ideas for the construction of spatial metaphors readings, wishing to contribute to the debates towards the importance of interdisciplinary issues in Architecture and Urbanism.
Glaumann, Mauritz, Åsa Sundkvist, and Ola Eriksson. "Development of an Environmental Classification System for Buildings Through a New Kind of Dialogue Between Stakeholders and Researchers." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Aims and Objectives: The objective of this research project is to develop a system for environmental classifications of buildings, taking into account the building sector's requirements and expectations as well as international and national research findings. The classification system will deal with both new and existing buildings and will encompass indoor environment, efficient use of energy, efficient resource management and hazardous substances. The aim of this paper is to present, discuss and draw conclusions from the first research phase of the project.Context: The building sector is responsible for about 40% of all of energy and material use in Sweden and hence needs to become more sustainable. Major stakeholders in the Swedish building and property sector, including the Swedish government, municipalities and companies, have for the first time started a coordinated work to achieve a more sustainable building sector. This effort, called the dialogue project, embrace a number of commitments for each participant. One of these is to promote that all new buildings and 30% of the existing ones should be classified with respect to health and environmental impact before 2010. A general and broadly accepted system for classification of environmental performance is expected to have a large impact on management, retrofit and new designs. In accordance with this aim two research & development projects were initiated.Method: The classification system is developed by researchers in collaboration with a group of companies and municipalities who support the work practically and financially. They participate in seminars and interviews and they will test modules of the classification system along the development process. The first phase of the project has included a number of inventories: inventory of current bills, legislation and policy targets relating to environmental impact in the building sector; Interviews with key informants representing authorities and stakeholders ; inventory of national and international tools for environmental assessment of buildingsConclusions: The result will focus on conclusions from the inventories seen from three different points of views - demands from the society, demands from the sector and scientific demands. To which extent they are in harmony or contradictory will be examined. Finally some key features and elements of the anticipated classification system will be extracted and presented.
Oi, Naoyuki, Hironobu Takashi, and Hironobu Takahashi. "Development of Caption Evaluation Method for the User Oriented Landscape Evaluation." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Caption Evaluation Method (CEM) was originally developed to evaluate the streetscape of a neighborhood high street (Koga T. et al.). The aim was to grasp the diversity of ordinary people’s image about townscape. The procedures of CEM are: 1) Participants walk around the objective area. 2) Each participant takes a photograph when he/she finds a landscape scene/element felt good or bad. 3) Afterwards, each participant puts captions on each of his/her own photographs. Participants are instructed that his/her captions on the scene/element should include “judgment (good/bad)”, “what kind of character”, “of which element (or part) of the scene”, made “what kind of impression”. Elements and captions obtained are usually used in the workshop of participants to make proposals for improving landscapes.In residential areas where townscape is well known to the residents, CEM has some advantages over previous popular methods such as Semantic Differential technique using color slides, which have limitation of the objective scenes and words used in the evaluation.As the development of CEM, two objectives are set in this study. 1) How do children react to landscape evaluation using CEM? 2) In shopping areas or shopping complex buildings where shoppers are not as familiar with landscapes as residential areas, how can we grasp the diversity of ordinary shoppers’ image? For the first objective, some developments are designed for children and the streetscape around an elementary school in the city center area is evaluated by the school children and neighborhood adults. Through the workshop, children were very interested in CEM and they made some good proposals, which are slightly different from the adults. For the second objective, Picture observing CEM is designed and a large shopping complex building is evaluated with both original (Environment experiencing) CEM and newly proposed CEM. More elements/scenes are noticed with Picture observing CEM than the original method. Picture observing CEM could be more useful to evaluate shopping complex buildings than the original CEM, though the difference between them should be studied further.
Guoqing, Shi. "Development Projects and Involuntary Resettlement: Socio-Economic Impacts." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Development projects involve resettlement. Land acquisition, demolition of housing and relocation are among the harmful socioeconomic effects which result from development projects that involve resettlement. The main discussion in this paper is based on the problem of resettlement as revealed in social assessments of development project, including the concept and classification of resettlement, social and economic impact analysis and the main resettlement problems in different stages during the project cycle. The basic concept of resettlement which includes land acquisition, house demolition, Relocation rehabilitation etc. in China is discussed. Resettlement in different project types and its impacts are analyzed. Based on the nature of a project, it may be divided into three types:urban resettlement, transport and power and energy resettlement, and reservoir resettlement. All land acquisition and demolition relocation and resettlement relocation will inevitably give birth to various advantageous and disadvantageous impacts on society, economy and environment. The impacts may be long-term or short- term; visible or invisible; may be measurable or unmeasurable.An analysis of socio-economic impact from resettlement is provided. Resettlement due to land acquisition could affect a community, unit or a household or one person. Owing to land acquisition and demolition, the community, unit or person affected might lose all or part of visible and invisible assets, including houses, communities, the resources of productive land, forestry, pastures, fishing places, important commercial assets, tenancy, opportunities for profits or public facilities and commercial locations. The key social impacts are analyzed as follows: effects caused by the change of land resources; effects on labor, production and managing skills; change of social relationship network; the possible group or individual conflict in the process of resettlement; change of community activities and property right; poverty reduction; social justice; gender and vulnerable issues; social environment and culture wealth. Finally, the strategy to address possible negative effect of resettlement associated with development projects is discussed.
Schmidt-Soltau, Kai. "Do Conservation and Development Programs Differ When They Displace People?" In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. There is an ongoing controversy over the extent to which large conservation organizations and big business are collaborating in conservation programs in ways that are oblivious about and harmful to the interests and livelihoods of rural communities. The paper examines the similarities between development and conservation practices in an important domain: the treatment offered to those, who “stand in the way” of development and conservation projects. The paper argues that conservation-induced displacement is not very different from development-induced displacement, if one analyses it from the perspective of the affected people. Yet the contrast between policy frameworks in the two domains is huge. The criteria of social justice are bent toward favoring what is seen as “just” from an one-sided “conservation justice” viewpoint. Based on a comparison of documented social costs, operational practices on the ground, and actual outcomes in these two types of displacements, the author voices an urgent need to harmonize standards and further enforce the introduction of social safeguards.
Lawrence, Roderick J.. "Do Health and Well-Being Play a Role in Residential Mobility?" In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Residential mobility not only involves choices about where one lives but also decisions about housing costs, as well as the type and size of housing units, their quality and tenure. Some recent studies of residential mobility have not analysed trends in housing supply such as construction, costs, and vacancy rates. Instead they consider these factors as part of the context in which individuals and households make choices. These contributions show that household size, composition and income, the age of the residents and their stage in the life course play a crucial role in residential mobility. Studies by psychologists, sociologists and health researchers have shown that housing preferences, choices and life-course trajectories are a complex bundle of attributes including how individuals interpret their well-being and health status. Although health reasons have often been omitted from recent interpretations of residential mobility and housing demand, this paper argues that they should not be ignored. A household survey in the Canton of Geneva, completed in 2000, analysed how and why a representative sample of the population ordered their stated preference to move or stay in their domicile. The results show that the wish to move can be better understood if the age, length of tenure, past residential experience, housing availability, affordability, and effective occupancy conditions are considered. The location of the housing unit, its cost, and personal relations with neighbours were not significant in determining whether the respondents wished to move. Although fiscal reasons play a minor role, there are other important factors concerning the well-being of specific population groups (e.g. the elderly, young adults) that explain why they are satisfied but would still like to move elsewhere in the same neighbourhood.
Sirry, Azza. "Dubai the Image of Development and the Dilemma of a Duplicating City." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. The paper will try to evaluate the Dubai experience and address the problem of duplication of the image of a modern city .The literature and background of the paper concentrates on the Gulf cities, traditional city versus new city development with the image of Dubai in mind .The researcher has lived in Dubai and visited several gulf cities including Doha. Several researches have been interested in the changes that have taken place in the Gulf Cities and Countries .Some delta with the cultural heritage, and modernization as a process, while others have concentrated more on the negative side of such developments. The paper takes these a study researches as a starting point for its argument. -Amin, Mohamed , Tracing the past meaning , potentials ;Dubai- case, conference on Sustainable development and urban development, faculty of engineering , Cairo university, Cairo, 2004 -Condensate Traveler December 2004 -DPU, UNDP, Sustainable development ,London , 2002 -(www.experienceqatar) - (www.dubaiproject). The paper concentrates on the experience of Dubai and the effect it had on the image of modern cities as seen by Gulf Rulers, Sheiks .Comparisons , rivals and brothers , how can countries and cities that are as close as it can get create different cities? .The argument is are they competing with each other for the same customer. Are they sustainable? What effect do they have on the traditional way of life? How can it be economically sustained? Each city has to have an identity that is different given its roots and background. No solution is universal.
Schmidt, Carlos, Maria Cristina D. Lay, Carina Hamm Oliveira, and Eduardo de Oliveir Horta. "Dwelling Type, Home-Based Income Generation Activities and Economic Sustainability." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. This research looks at the spatial and social impacts of home-based work on the function and design of low-income housing schemesContext and Background: While attention has been paid to the shelter aspects of housing, less importance has been paid to the economic aspects of housing and to the dwelling as a site for work. This has resulted in the planning of urban neighbourhoods that lack the necessary spatial linkages to support income-generating activities and economic sustainability in low-income housing schemes. Methodology: Methodological procedures consisted of post-occupancy evaluation of five low income housing schemes comprised of different dwelling types, located in the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre, Brazil. Data was collected through questionnaires, interviews, observations and physical measurements Findings and Conclusions: The findings show that part of household income generation originate from entrepreneurial activities carried out in the dwelling, resulting in a number of physical modifications in the dwelling as well as the creative usage of space. The type and quantity of modifications taking place are related to the degree of spatial flexibility, according to each dwelling type. Dwelling location within the urban area and neighbourhood, and its linkages to public infrastructure impact the characteristics of home-based work and the usage of the dwelling for income generation. The relationships investigated highlight the important role provision and adequacy of income generating activities play on performance evaluation and economic sustainability of low-income housing schemes. Applicability to the field: The paper is based on results of a comprehensive research carried out with the purpose of gathering feedback information to provide design guidelines for future social housing production and broaden policy makers' knowledge to plan for housing to meet the diverse income generation needs of low-income households.
Hauge, Åshild Lappegard. Dwellings as Expression of Identity, Differences Across Social and Demographic Groups In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. This study examines differences in how people perceive their dwellings as an expression of identity, and how the perception depends on popularity and prestige of the neighbourhood, gender, age, income, education, and quality of life. Blocks of flats: This study was carried through in two neighborhoods in a middle-sized city in Norway. The neighborhoods are representative for some typical resident areas in Scandinavian and other western countries as well. The Norwegian society and housing situation has however, to be taken into consideration. Norway is a very rich welfare state with considerably high standard of living. The differences between social classes are relatively small. Environmental psychology: The research project aimes at combining litterature in the following feilds: Meaning of home, residential satisfaction, social psychology.Are some groups of people more aware and concerned than others about how their dwelling reflects identity? Why? What are the implications? The assumption is that underlying factors, like aesthetic interests, how important people think self-presentation is, and how important they think the dwelling is, are not equally distributed across social and demographic groups. The study therefore examines differences in attitudes towards the dwelling as a symbol of identity, due to the popularity of the neighbourhood, gender, age, income, education and quality of life. Case studies: The empirical data are collected in two neighbourhoods representing different living conditions and social prestige. Due to the necessity of dealing with resident's housing experiences in detail, a case study methodology was chosen. The case study methodology also gives the advantage of seeing the results in relation to existing physical environments. Both survey and 18 qualitative interviews are conducted.Data collection finished. 2 articles written. Thesis will consist of 3-4 articles.The results indicate that younger people are more aware than older people of their dwelling as an indicator of identity, and they perceive it more important to express identity in this manner. Inhabitants in a neighbourhood with high prestige express more awareness of their dwelling's identity reflection. They also experience that the neighbourhood and dwelling express their identity more correct than inhabitants living in a less prestigious neighbourhood. Independent of neighbourhood prestige, respondents with high quality of life perceive the dwelling as a more correct expression of their identity. Age has an impact on identity reflection as a cohort-effect. The western cultures emphasize on individuality and consumption, especially in the last decades. Social identity theory explains why neighbourhood is so important for the perception of self.
Rahmaan, Anis ur, and Bushra Anis. "Dynamics of Gated Communities, their Impact and Challenges for Sustainable Development: a Case Study of Lahore (Pakistan)." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. The purpose of this study is three folds. Firstly, to review the historical development of “Gated Communities”; and the role played by them in bringing about social integration or otherwise in the urban fabric of developed and developing countries. Secondly, to study the impact and challenges of gated communities for sustainable development. Thirdly, to undertake a case study of gated communities in Lahore (Pakistan) with a view to explore their positive contribution or otherwise towards the achievement of social cohesion and sustainable development. Human ecosystem is not only getting transformed at a geometric pace but its various determinants, such as peoples’ demography, culture, social organization, psychology, environment and technology, are also changing acceleratively at differential rates. All this is leading to the formation of a global village, or to use Friedman’s terminology, the world is becoming flat! As a consequence, some of the socioeconomic and spatial concepts are becoming outmoded, and still others are undergoing drastic transformations to suit the new realities of the flattened world.Gated communities have likewise been undergoing drastic transformations both in their functions as well as form during the primary, secondary and tertiary civilizations. During the primary civilization most of the towns themselves were gated because the physical development pattern was nodal due to low level urbanization. During the secondary civilization, metropolitan or aggregative physical development got flourished due to heavy rural urban shift and the communities started overflowing their gated boundaries. During the tertiary civilization, the physical development pattern became diffusive which resulted in rurbanization or the megapolitanism. During this era, the gated communities started to immerge as islands of gated neighborhoods on the vast metropolitan/megapolitan fabric. The location, size, morphology and functions of gated communities have been and are still undergoing transformation as the human ecosystem is advancing towards the global village. As a consequence, they have been and are variously impacting and posing new challenges for social cohesion and sustainable development. This explorative study is comprised of five parts. Part one is introductory and provides a historical overview of the development of gated communities. Part two goes into the dynamics of socioeconomic and physical changes and their future prospects. Part three goes into their facilitative or debilitative role in the formation of socially integrated communities. Part four explores the impact and challenges posed by these communities in the context of sustainability. Finally, part five highlights the salient conclusions and recommendations of the study.
Ohara, Kazuoki. "Eco Museum Movements in Japan - Making a Sustainable Community Through a Museological Way -." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. "Eco museum and sustainability: The term "eco museum" refers to ecological activities that aim to develop an entire region as a living museum. The word eco museum comes from the French word écomusée, a compound of ecology and museum. The word "eco" used as the root of ecology or economy is from the Greek word "oikos," meaning "house." It is not only a "museum of ecology" but a "area as a museum" This study is to make it clear how the eco museum concept becomes important methodology for making a sustainable society. Elements of eco museum: An eco museum embodies three elements: (1) the preservation of various kinds of heritage, including nature and cultural and industrial traditions, in a given region, (2) the management and operation of these with the participation of local residents for the sake of their own futures, and (3) the function of the preserved nature and traditions as a museum. Ideally, as shown in the diagram, the three elements of "heritage," "participation" and "museum" should be well balanced and constitute a closely integrated whole. In Japan today, there are only a few cases in which the three elements interact on an equal footing. But many regions are now striving to build eco museums that achieve this ideal balance. There are now mostly started from rural areas in the context of rich natural environment, but a few movements in urban area are very interesting because of the good participation network process. Case studies: We note and make case studies on two remarkable examples of urban eco museum movements in Japan. In Hiranocho many people take part in making their whole area museum by the way that each house or each shop display its original materials. They are all who learn each other to be a strong community. Suginami "shiruku road" is a kind of a discovery trail, which is an instructive way for inhabitants to discover their own area, and the activities encourage them to feel the local identity. And the other suburban examples of eco museums also must collaterally show these effects of community building. Conclusion: Eco museum is an idea of lifelong education or learning, of course as same as museum facility. Eco museum activities are never ending. They are constantly developed, reviewed and altered. And it is the local people who set the directions for them. The people have to be wise enough to make directional decisions in conformity with the region's identity while regularly studying the continuity of the regional environment between past, present and future. At the same time, the eco museum is supposed to be effective as an educational institution that produces such wise citizens."
Seitz, Valerie, and Machiel van Dorst. "Eco- Village: Social Cage Or Cultural Attraction?" In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Eco-villages: Eco-villages are experimental places for sustainable building and sustainable living. The Netherlands are developing there first eco-villages, near the new-town Almere. In this paper we discuss the position of eco-villages within a sustainable development. We emphasise on the more difficult part; the role of eco-villages within social sustainability.Two case studies: In this paper we use two case-studies; the Farm, U.S.A. and ECU-village, The Netherlands. Both quit different, but with the same goal. The research consists of participation, interviews and observations. In this paper we discus the common ground of both projects.The Farm: The Farm is a sustainable community with a history of 30 years. The social interaction within the community has contributed to sustainable development. The latest effort is there involvement in a global academy for sustainable building. At the same time: the Farm also includes elements of a social cage. The community has an open minded attitude, but thus not includes strangers easily.ECU-village: This is a new project for sustainable living in The Netherlands. It’s also like the Farm a holistic (and maybe, hippy-based) community. This village likes to be autarkic in an environmental sense, but will fulfill a cultural function within Almere. This also leads to a dualistic image; something between a social cage and a cultural attraction.Conclusions: Eco-villages contribute to a sustainable development; by reducing environmental impact and as an example of a sustainable lifestyle. This example’s are not to be copied one to one, but need interpretation. The form of social interaction within the village is depending on the relations with the outside world. A strong local network works can be durable, if it is combined with a lager social network. This can be the social context of the villages, but also a global network. If an eco-village becomes a social cage, it isn’t durable. Within this context, the built environment places also a role in facilitating social interaction.
Adebimpe, Raheem Usman. "Ecology of Disaster Vulnerability in a Traditional African City: a Nigerian Case Study." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. African continent is particularly vulnerable to the impact of climate change due to factors such as widespread and growing poverty, recurrent drought and over-dependence on rain-fed agriculture. Although adaptation options encompassing traditional coping strategies may be theoretically available, in practice, the human infrastructural and economic response capacity to effect timely actions may well be beyond the means of some countries or groups within communities. This study examines an intra-urban pattern of vulnerability to the impacts of climate change using the example of rainstorm disaster in Ilorin city, Nigeria. It also underscores the peculiar nature of the inner city dwellers’ vulnerability. It also examines the coping mechanisms of urban dwellers to extremes of climate change. The data for the study is obtained from both primary and secondary sources. The primary source refers to a set structured questionnaire to be administered to selected households from those that were affected by rainstorm disaster (1999-2006). The number of households affected by the rainstorm was not known; however, the city of Ilorin is divided into twenty (20) traditional wards and rainstorm was known to have affected most part of the city during the period under review. Therefore, a preliminary survey was conducted in the whole city to identify ten houses in each ward that were affected. The questionnaire was administered to heads of households in the ten identified houses. The survey was conducted for houses that were affected in the last rainstorm to the survey since we were unable to identify houses that were previously affected after repairs. Moreover, the record of households involved and extent of the damage as well as the support given to victims were obtained from Ecological Disaster Management Committee in Kwara State. The data were analyzed using relevant statistical techniques. The result shows that the number of houses affected by rainstorm was directly related to the age of buildings and the materials used for the walls. These two variables were also found to possess a consistent spatial pattern within the city with greater concentration in the inner city. The paper proposes some institutional arrangements to socially support the affected households giving consideration for the social and economic conditions.
Kinukawa, Mari, Shinya Tsukamoto, Ken Miura, and Mitsuo Takada. "Effects by Going-Out Behavior on the Elderly with Dementia: Changes in Behavior Among the Nursing Home Residents by Utilizing a Satellite Day Room." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Due to some reasons such as regulation of the law, ensuring security, living area of nursing home residents has been generally limited within facilities in Japan. However, several efforts have been made recently by better utilizing living environment in order to improve their quality of life. Among these efforts, there is one new trial started in 2003 by a large-scale nursing home in Hiroshima Pref., Japan. The effort, called “Satellite Day Room(hereinafter, SDR)”, intends to expand living area of the nursing home residents and to reconstruct their life and to improve their mental and physical state by actively utilizing the outside environment. For this trial, eight residents with dementia but with comparatively high moving function were selected from the residents of the dementia ward in the facility. Accompanied by two staff, the eight residents commute to a SDR base that is approximately 500m far from the facility on foot and spend daytime from 10:00 to 16:00 everyday. The base is an ordinary town house located in a residential area and they also expand their living area by using the town house as a base of their living activities. This study aimed to clarify how SDR, going-out behavior from the large-scale facility, effected the nursing home residents with dementia. We compared their activeness by using a precision pedometer before and after starting SDR. Also, behavior tracking surveys were conducted to examine changes in their behaviors and interaction with the environmental elements - objects, people and nature - seen in the facility, in the SDR base, and in their commuting to and from the SDR base. After experiencing SDR, namely experiencing going out of the facility, commuting to and from the SDR base with interacting with the outside environment, and spending daytime at a home-like environment of the town house in residential area, the residents showed increased activeness, and showed increase in interaction with the surrounding environment and improved connection between their behaviors.
Benli, Aysen Cevriye, and Nerime Cimcoz. "Effects of Culture in the Architecture of Higher Education Buildings in Turkey." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. The Architecture of Higher Education Buildings in Turkey: A well- formulated and designed high education sites and buildings define the place of university in the community and in the history, because the importance of visual and cultural effects can not be denied. All humans are part of a certain cultural structure. In this structure, there is law, education, religions. All these systems are effective as superstructure of culture. The science and the arts affect the human’s cultural life too. Besides of these effects, architectural designs achieve aesthetic satisfaction, by arrangement of campus plan, by responding to variations in topography and tree cover, by organizing some approaches, enters, passes, vistas. The purpose of the study is to indicate and examine the most important aesthetical and cultural aspects of the architecture for higher education buildings in Turkey, in the case of _zmir Institute of Technology buildings. Effects of Culture in The Essence and Form of Higher Education Buildings The essence of architecture is the function. Function comes from human’s behaviours and from his cultural activities in life. Function sometimes differs from culture to culture. The production forces, the production relations, then the production system of any country, all these things are infrastructure of a culture as economical system. For the creation of cultural structure of human beings, the science and the arts are effective factors. Besides, sociological and ideological structures form community life as organisms and the family system also forms community life as cell in a culture. Human as an information source makes cultural effects to the community and as well as community make humans to be cultured. And human is effected from cultural structure as an information. Function occurs in a culture. Function effects the architectural designs of Higher Education Buildings. Then the essence and the form of Higher Education Buildings are related to culture. Case Studies from Turkey: This study is a part of a widespread study about aesthetical concepts in the architecture of higher education buildings. The subject is evaluated starting from the general topic ‘Effects of Culture in the Architecture of Higher Education Buildings in Turkey’. Case studies are from Turkey, especially _zmir Institute of Technology Buildings. While researching about University buildings some field studies are done in some University buildings in and outside Turkey. This study argues that in each culture and in each time period, architecture is changing as cultural and aesthetical changes occurred. Local and Global Effects of Cultures for Higher Education Buildings in Turkey : The architecture of Higher Education buildings must be local and global. While university effects from local culture, this is a universal environment for every country in the world. Nowadays, to understand the essence, form and culture for university buildings environment, the cultural system in that country must be well understood. It is necessary to investigate whether to preserve this existing environment which has a conformist aesthetic agenda or to change it in a revolutionary manner creating a new culture which will open up new horizons- to virtual reality which are not existing. This is where the basis of the problem exists. The architecture of higher education buildings must be local and global. It should be created by being rooted in one’s own history and culture and at the same time making positive efforts to incorporate elements from heterogeneous cultures.
Garvill, Jörgen, Louise Eriksson, and Annika Nordlund. "Effects of Environmental Concern, Problem Awareness, and Norms on Environmentally Significant Behaviours." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Many environmental problems of today are directly related to individuals’ every day behaviour. In this study three environmentally significant behaviours were compared; recycling of household waste, personal car use, and purchase of eco-labeled products. The aim was to investigate the effects of environmental concern and gender on problem awareness, personal norm, societal norm, social norm, and willingness to change the behaviour in an environmentally friendly direction and to compare the behaviours with regard to these factors. The aim was also to study to what extent willingness to change behaviours could be predicted from environmental concern, problem awareness, personal norm, societal norm, and social norm. Data was collected through a questionnaire mailed to 4000 randomly selected citizens in Sweden. The response rate was 31 %. Respondents with access to a car in the household and a drivers licence were selected which resulted in 957 respondents. Environmental concern was assessed with The New Ecological Paradigm scale (NEP). Problem awareness was measured as the global, local, and personal threat posed by not recycled waste, air pollution from private car use, and consumption of non eco-labeled products. Personal norm was assessed as the perceived moral obligation to recycle more, reduce personal car use, and purchase more eco-labeled products. Societal and social norms were measured as perceived expectations from the society and from close important others to recycle more, use the car less, and buy more eco-labeled products. Finally, willingness to change behaviours in an environmentally friendly direction was measured.The results showed that car use was seen as a larger threat than waste and consumption of non eco-labeled products. However, the moral obligation to change behaviour was strongest for recycling compared to car use and consumption. Both societal and social norm were stronger for recycling than for car use and consumption, and the willingness to change behaviour was strongest for recycling and least strong for car use. Respondents high on the NEP scale showed higher problem awareness, stronger personal norm, stronger societal norm, and a higher willingness to change than respondents low on NEP. Women showed higher problem awareness, stronger personal norm, stronger societal norm and a higher willingness to change than men. Multiple regression analyses showed that problem awareness, personal norm, societal norm, and social norm explained between 40 and 50 % of the variance in willingness to change for the three behaviours and that perceived moral obligation to change was the most important factor. The results of this study show that problem awareness is not enough to change individuals’ behaviour in an environmentally friendly direction. Problem awareness was highest for car use but the willingness to change behaviour was lowest for car use. Other factors such as environmental concern, societal and social norms, and especially personal norm are important.
Krim, Louhab. "Efficient Removal of Chromium Metal from Bottom Ash Obtained by Incineration of Tannery Sludge." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. The sufficient removal of chromium metal from bottom ash obtained by incineration of tannery sludge was assessed in this study. Fundamental properties of bottom ash were characterized. Chromium metal that exist in the bottom ash seem to be dissolved by acid treatments. This study shows that chromium metal in bottom ash can be removed easily by treating a bottom ash with oxalic acid, hydrochloric acid and water. Hydrochloric acid showed good removal rate of chromium metal comparable to those by oxalic acid.
Arafa, Salah. "Empowering the People to Manage their Environment." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Owing to the increasing population, soaring unemployment rates, and wide spread poverty in Egypt, the biggest challenges facing the nation are the improving of the human development index, redistribute the population, sustain the most biodiversity value, and to have a strategic plan for the future generation. The paper discusses the different dimenssions of the population problem in Egypt and shed light on its impact on some of the environmental issues and concerns that affect the sustainable development of the nation. It also discusses people’s participation in the local development planning and the need for community-based management of local resources and specially biodiversity. The paper focuses on the need for knowledge and skills to empower the people to manage their environment. The responsibilities and benefits of development should accrue at the community level. All stakeholders within the private community, government and non-government bodies, and the public at large should be identified and become actively involved through acceptable forums. Basaisa Village (Al-Sharkiya Governorate), New Basaisa Community (Ras-Sudr, South Sinai Governorate), and St. Kathrene Medicinal Plant Association (South Sinai Governorate) are discussed and presented as case studies. Key issues are: Public Awareness, Transfere of Knowledge, Coordination, and Integration. The development plan should integrate the different activities, address different needs, and promote the sharing of benefits by all stakeholders. It should also respect the traditional knowledge.
Tayeb, Louafi. "Energy and Its Role in Sustainable Development in Arab Countries." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. The energy sector has an effective role in Arab countries; thus it is important in reaching economical and social development through, the energy needs related to different economical sectors, The Arab countries steered great efforts to improve sustainability of this sector to it .these efforts examined the most important matters related to energy, there is an achieved improvement, although the Arab energy sector is still facing a number of characteristics non – sustainable. concluded in the following: - This sector is still suffering from exercising some kinds non – sustainable in producing and consuming, especially that which related to the final use.- The energy services with all their kinds don't reach most of the population, especially that the most number of population, from the citizens. The territory is still suffering from the non - arrival of energy services; added to that a similar electric. Number is suffering from weakness non- regularity of these provisions.- The sector has harmful environmental effects on air, soil and water resources.These defiance require drafting urgent procedures to adopt policies of the energy, to sustainable develop. And to take measures which can support in contributing to the sector to achieve a sustainable economical and social develop; this develop can be determined through the following procedures:- Upgrading the technology and the energy systems for the sustainable Development, and encouraging the private and comprehensive sectors to participate to improve this technology in producing their equipments.* Execution of program of sustainable energy confirmed by united nations, which emphasis in refuting and reinforcing the cooperate and the corporation between the different parts about energy for the sake of the sustainable Development.* The benefit from the technology of the energy side for the sustainable development in Arab countries to comply with the chances and competes imposed by the international system.* Facilitating the transit of energy techniques in the energy fields for the sake of sustainable development as well as the proper energy, and establishing programs of building national potencies to push and encourage the application of these technoes.* Exchanging info and experiences in the energy fields for the favor of the sustainable development, among the Arab countries; at the level of the duplicity or through the national organizations. * Emphasis on the participation of the Arab countries to the conferences and international impacts related to the sustainable development, matters and environmental energy to take part in discussing recommendations of them, to conform the economical benefits and abilities; and also the improving and the social demands of the Arab countries.
Yassin, Ibrahim, Viola Aziz, and Ahmad Khouzam. "Energy Efficiency Improvement Program in Egyptian Governmental Buildings." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. The demand on electricity consumption in Egypt has rapidly increased during the last two decades. The installed capacity increased from 2240 MW in year 1981 to 14600 in year 2003, whereas the electricity consumption increased from 18 TWh to 79.8 TWh during the same period. The annual increase in electricity consumption within the last five-year plan 1997-2002 reached 7.6%. The Ministry of Electricity & Energy, MOEE is exerting huge efforts to meet the annual increase in electricity demand. One of the effective measures adopted by MOEE to meet this demand is energy conservation. Egyptian Governmental Buildings represent a high share of electricity consumption, where it reached 3800 GWh about 5.5% of the total electricity consumption for the year 2001/2002 and amounting to 0.7 Billion LE, for this reason, the Minister of Electricity and Energy has entrusted a group of experts to conduct a study for improving energy efficiency in this sectorThis sector has been selected for the following reasons: _ It is one of the substantial consuming sectors, about 5.5% of the country total consumption. _ The energy consumption patterns of these buildings are very similar, which support replication of feasible energy efficiency projects._ There are no programs or efforts regarding raising the capabilities of the technical operators of governmental buildings on energy efficiency and energy conservation and no awareness efforts are directed to the workers and employees occupying these buildings regarding energy conservation practices. _ The used procurements guidelines for governmental buildings for new equipment have no energy efficient constrains or incentives. Therefore, the study objective was to develop a list of energy conservation opportunities economically feasible and technically proven that is applicable to most of electricity-intensive consuming governmental buildings with implementation program. The study concluded three main clusters of recommendations on short, medium and long term implementation timeframe. The short term recommendations include:Appointment of an energy manager for each governmental building provided with sufficient training, responsible for following up the energy conservation measures.Conducting awareness programs targeting the employees occupying the governmental buildings. The medium term recommendations include:Implementing retrofits of the current governmental building facilities especially for the lighting system, including replacement of incandescent lamps by the compact fluorescent lamps and using electronic ballasts instead of the magnetic ballasts, in addition of improving power factor for these buildings. The long term recommendations concentrate on: Developing governmental procurement guidelines to take into consideration energy efficiency concept. This stage will rely on the results and experience gained from the medium term recommendations. Recommendations of this study have been approved by the Ministerial Committee for Services for its application at the national level.The paper will present a quick over view of the different stages of the study, recommendations and actions taken based on these recommendations, including energy efficiency program implementation in governmental buildings.
Ota, A B.. "Environmental and Livelihood Risks in Private Sector Caused Development: a Case Study from Eastern India." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. India is a developing country and of late it has chosen the path of industrialization as one of the major means for registering speedy economic growth and development, since a host of its regions is rich with unutilized mineral resources. With the process of globalization and liberalization, in recent times a large number of business houses with MNC links have flung in to the resource rich areas for setting up their units. But such business houses almost everywhere are facing stiff people’s resistance and majority of them are halted halfway through. The resistance is caused primarily because the completed industrial and mining projects have severely affected the Environment and the Livelihood creating mistrust among the impacted people on the government machineries and also on the business houses. Keeping this at the back of the mind, an empirical study has been conducted in some of the completed projects and projects which have been halted due to people’s resistance. The findings of this empirical study have been presented in the present paper. The major objectives with which this study has been attempted are:1. To identify adverse effects caused by some of the completed mines and industries on the environment and livelihood in the impacted area and people 2. To list out environmental and livelihood issues that need to be guarded by the Business Houses while setting up their units3. To come up with a Framework for ensuring Environmental and Livelihood Risk Mitigating Majors for the Industrial and Mining houses as a part of their Responsible Business Behaviour towards the impacted community.The paper on the basis of the empirical findings has thus identified critical environment and livelihood issues which if guarded and are embodied as a part of the R&R Strategy from the beginning of a project and incorporated in the DPR with a closely monitoring mechanism, can help avert or minimize the resistance to a substantial extent. This will ensure a win-win situation for the impacted people-business houses and will help resolve the longstanding deadlock in the proposed project areas.
Shehata, Salwa Mostafa El. "Environmental Development Through the General Strategic Planfor Safour in Al-Sharkeya Governorate." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006.

On studying the current situation of Egyptian villages, it was found that the unplanned urban expansion has been carried out on over one million Feddans, of cultivable agricultural land, for avoiding farming work as a result of shortage of employment in the village, along with the existence of many other development issues, basically: solid waste management, pollution of waterways and underground water, unplanned urban expansion and its social impacts due to the absence of required information for an effective urban management, in a situation that misses distinct margins for urbanity and a plan for its expansion, besides a lack of urban planning efficiency resulting from the non-existence of an overall view and a future vision through a general strategic plan for the village.This whole situation shows the importance of setting up urban policies targeting the termination of invading cultivable lands. The importance of setting up overall economical, environmental and social policies, increasing employment opportunities and preserving resources that aims at stimulating local economy. This would manifest the importance of preparing an overall strategic plan for developing the Egyptian village, which aims - through its multiple mechanisms - at resolving all development problems of the Egyptian countryside, where it guarantees the following:• Providing social effective tools to enable society to achieve its objectives. Expanding public participation base to support society in specifying the objectives and priorities.• The government, private sector and civil community must have an active role in handling society’s outputs and market mechanisms.• Concern with the social aspect and developing this concern should be activated, along with intensifying participation in all economic, regional and local social aspects.• Relying on local resources in the process of comprehensive development.• Maintaining an adequate technological level in preparing and carrying out the comprehensive development.Research General Methodology: The methodology of preparing this research was based on following the assessment system through offering questions to the village participants, together with gathering information, and field basic surveys, to reach the village major issues and specifying gaps and confines that hinder achieving an active development. Then, the proposed activities (developing current activities or adding new activities) are specified based on the interviews results, experts’ suggestions and agreement on these suggestions through meetings and workshops with the village development partners. Therefore, a general strategic layout is set up , though the methodology of participation, to ensure specifying the objectives, development activities, and the elements and components of this strategy from the viewpoint of the local participants, and according to their priorities, along with an assessment of the proposed activities’ efficiency in achieving the concerned objectives.

Zaky, Mahmoud Mohamed Mo. "Environmental Factors Influencing Multi-Drug Resistant and Plasmid Dna Harboring Aeromonas Hydrophila Isolated from Polluted Water of Lake Manzala, Egypt." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Lake Manzala is considered one of the most important costal Lakes in Egypt, where it is situated in the northern east part on the Mediterranean sea, receiving high load of different polluted waste water effluents, such as, Sewage water, industrial and agricultural wastes, from many drains, such as, Bahr El-Bakar , Ramsis, El-Sirw and Hadous drains, which affect badly the Lake environment to the eutrophic level, as well as human health among populations around the Lake.This study revealed the high pollution condition of water and fish samples which were taken from the most important sites (Kapoty, Bashtier and Mataryia areas), representative to the human activity and different ecosystems in the Lake water environment. Total suspended solids (T.S.S), Ammonia and nitrates, showed high figures exceeded the national and international legislations.Bacterial content was very high in this study, using plate count and different selective media, such as Plate count agar, end agar and Aeromonas differential agar. Total viable bacteria (T.V.B) reached more than 104 cfu/ml in water samples and 105 cfu/g in fish samples, particularly in Kapoty and Mataryia areas. Both faecal coliforms and Aeromonas spp counts reached 102 cfu/ml in water samples and 103 cfu/g in fish samples. Statistical analysis revealed very strong and strong positive correlation between Aeromonas spp counts and some minerals, such as Chlorides, Calcium and Magnesium, (r= 0.9, 0.8, 0.6 respectively- P > 0.001), which revealed the interaction and adaptability of such organisms with environmental factors.A total of 88 isolates from Aeromonas differential agar were identified using API 20E system, showed that 17% of these isolates belongs to Aeromnas hydrophila, and most of these strains were resistant to 3 or more antibiotics, such as Penicillin G, Ampecillin and Chloramphenicole.Isolaton of Plasmid DNA from these strains of Aeromonas hydrophila, showed that most of them harbouring Plasmids ranged from (Less than 2, 2 and 4 KbP).This could explain the adaptability and multi-drug resistance of such bacterial pathogenes, which could be involved in the infection course, and active causal agents of diahrroeal diseases in this important costal area of Egypt on the Mideterranean sea.
Dimitriou, Dimitris, Clara Antonio, Filipe Correia, Ana Loureiro, Elena Sautkina, Hugo Caseira, Claudia Grijo, and Rita Morais. Environmental Factors of Pick-Pocketing Risk Evaluation: the Case of Two Sites in Lisbon In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Aims & objectives: This study examines environmental factors intervening into risk evaluation of pick-pocketing (a surreptitious non-violent theft of objects from a person’s bag or pockets) and investigates the extent of fear of crime, an underlying mechanism for psychological well-being, in two different sites in Lisbon, Portugal.Context & background literature: A significant body of research has revealed that general public’s evaluations of risk of crime occurrence rarely coincide with the reality of criminal events. Brantingham & Brantingham (1991) further suggest that these evaluations are related to ecological labels (physical and social environmental features) rather than actual crime rates. This has been confirmed by Sautkina (2004) regarding pick-pocketing risk evaluation in Paris and Moscow. Method of inquiry or argument: Two sites were chosen in the centre of Lisbon: Alfama (pick-pocketing ‘cold spot’) and Praça do Comércio (‘hot spot’). In both sites, interviews were conducted with passers-by (N=91) to examine: 1) pick-pocketing risk evaluations in situ; 2) explanations passers-by give to their risk evaluations. We hypothesized that dilapidation (more evident in Alfama) would reduce perceptions of efficient social control and lead to fear of crime (Taylor, 1987) and “high” pick-pocketing risk evaluations. Alfama’s highly dense street infrastructure, offering a poor prospect and few escape issues, would as well increase fear of crime (Nasar & Fisher, 1993). On the contrary, environmental characteristics of Praça do Comércio (open prospect, presence of numerous escape issues) along with its relaxing atmosphere (Moser & Lidvan, 1992) would enhance perceptions of safety.Findings & conclusions: Results show that pick-pocketing risk is evaluated as “high” in both sites. For Praça do Comércio, this can be explained by respondents’ lack of familiarity with the place, and by a presence of potential major stressors - a high social density and noise. In Alfama, such risk evaluation can be explained by participants’ awareness (65% are local residents) of criminality-related problems existing inside the area. This awareness however, could have a positive effect for residents, since knowledge about surrounding environment provides a sense of control - an important feature for ensuring psychological well-being. Regarding “low” risk evaluations, in Alfama, the factor of strong social bonds (Alfama’s residents may be seen as one of Lisbon’s subcultures) manifests the presence of a high degree of social control, while it may also help to reduce any detrimental effects for the psychological health. As for Praça do Comércio, explanations are based upon an individualistic perspective: perceptions of efficient formal social control and of environmental disaffordances for pickpockets. Thus, strong social bonds within a place may play an important role in perceptions of safety, putting aside and making less important physical features, whereas in places where a great number of strangers meet, and where social bonds are weaker, physical environment becomes consequently more important for perceptions of safety. Applicability to the field & the work to done next: Alfama is, nowadays, included into city’s major regeneration project. Any future regeneration schemes there, and on areas similar to Alfama, should consider how the physical layout could be altered towards an improved sense of safety and perception of efficient formal social control, without causing any disruption to environmental characteristics that enhanced the creation of strong social bonds in the first place.
Otogao, Kenji, and Tetsuya Akagi. Environmental Factors that Care Staffs Should Support on Continuity of the Self for Children In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to clarify how care staffs construct the human relation to children while the physical environment setting for bringing up spontaneity of children, and to investigate the physical and human environmental factors that care staffs should support on continuity of the self for children in day nursery. Background: Now, the qualitative improvements of the childcare environment are needed in Japan decreased birthrate drastically. In one of these important purposes, the environmental improvement to bring up the spontaneity of children is watched. This improvement tries to offer children various concrete experiences and stimulations with higher quality by creating the childcare environment with higher quality to them who spend the best part of a day in day nursery. It is thought that not only enhancing physical environment but also enhancing human environment such as upbringing of care staff's skills to be able to support appropriately children based on continuity of the self for them is important to enable this improvement. Method: In this study, the transactions among the care staffs, the children and the childcare environment were analyzed by the behavioral tracking method for care staffs and children to every five minutes in seven hours until from nine o'clock a.m. to four o'clock p.m. and by interviewing for care staffs in two day nurseries where the environmental scale is different. Results and Conclusions: We find that the visual cues to children are important as environmental factors that care staffs should support on continuity of the self for them in day nursery. When the care is suddenly started or changed by care staffs, children became more nervous easily to be difficult to forecast the following care. As a result, their concentration gradually lost, and spontaneous playing becomes difficult more and more by such a situation's continuing. Therefore, it becomes an important environmental factor that a physical and human environmental setting for the following care is shown children as a visual cue and their interests are gradually turned to the following care.
Rodríguez, Cesreo Estrada, and Patricia Orttega-Andeane. "Environmental Valuation of Hospital's Waiting Rooms: Relationships of Psycho Environmental Variables." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Background: In the present study we identified the relationships of the environmental variables air humidity and the noise measured objectively, with the stress' perception, the measured exhaustion and the physical valuation with instruments of self report, in addition to the time of delay in the patients who attended for their care in three different waiting rooms at a hospital in Mexico city. Method of inquiry: There is a growing literature today that offers empirical data on psychological and environmental characteristics of hospital settings (Topf, 2000; Zimring, 2004) stressing the negative effects they might have on patients' well-being and, in some cases, on some physiological indicators of health recovery; Reidl, Ortega & Estrada (2002) report a study which had the aim of identifying the relationship existing between physical, physiological and socio-environmental variables and their relationship with the stress valuation of patients. Results indicated the need to consider the waiting rooms as focal points in planning and environmental design of health centers and is of special importance for health institutions in Mexico, as they provide service to a great number of users and patients are obliged to spend long hours waiting in an environment that does not provide basic satisfactory conditions. Findings & Conclusions: The results identified significant relations between the physical valuation waiting rooms and the humidity (r = 309, p = 00), the level of noise (r = -,177, p = 03), stress' perception (r = -,193, p = 01), the exhaustion (r = -,186, p = 01) and with the time of delay (r = -,136, p = 05); there are additionally significant differences of the physical valuation among the three waiting rooms (F(2,209) = 5,98, p = 00). It means that, when the patients valued positively their environment, it was an optimal physical humidity conditions and lower noise; at the same time the patients reported a lower level of stress and exhaustion, and a short time of previous delay to its medical care. The conclusions emphasize to reduce adverse environmental conditions, because if they are not lowering they can increase or aggravate the disease or they can be a threat for the process of recovery in patients who attend to health care centers.
Verdugo, Victor Corral. "Environmental Worldviews and Water Conservation: the Eco-Anthropocentric Paradigm." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. "This paper explores the relationship between environmental worldviews and. So far, two apparently opposed belief systems have been proposed as worldviews guiding environmental behaviour. On the one hand, a system focusing on human needs and its prevalence as species, which disregards the intrinsic value of the natural world, on the other hand, an ecocentric worldview that conceives humans just as one more component of Nature, and claims for a control of human activities in order to avoid a disruption of Earth's ecosystems. Most authors in Conservation Psychology consider that a dichotomy exists between these apparently contradictory belief systems, although others have not found a contradiction. The aim of this paper is to test the presence of an integrative Eco-Anthropocentric Paradigm (EAP), which conceives Nature as a source of resources for satisfying human needs while, at the same time, sees it as having intrinsic value and being in need of preservation. A special objective of this research was to investigate the influence that this holistic belief system has on water conservation, considered to be a critical sustainable behaviour. 500 individuals living in cities of France, Italy, Mexico and India responded to items of a recently developed questionnaire (the EAP), as well to items of the well known "New Environmental Paradigm" scale. They also self-reported the frequency of water conservation actions at their households. Results were contrasted between national groups in order to see whether the EAP is more developed in collectivistic (Mexico, India) or in individualistic (France, Italy) countries. These results are discussed in terms of the value of sustainable belief systems and their relationship with conservation behaviour. "
Shateh, Hadi A.. "Establishing Environmental Architecture Pattern for Hot Arid Zones." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Architecture is the art and science of adaptation to the area with all its environmental, cultural, and social characters of the inhabitants. Climatic nature of place and culture are the basic elements of architectural style. Since these elements have unique qualities in desert regions, especially in the hot arid ones, the effect of these elements is reflected to the composition of architectural style. The definition of desert architecture could briefly be: the buildings that have been built by the available local resources, and with a design that offers suitable solar control and natural illumination, ventilation, and insulation for the desert climate. Also, it has got an architectural pattern that is described by general simplicity of form, architecture and design for the detailing elements.The distinct architectural pattern of the old town of Gadames is considered as a model for buildings existing in the hot arid areas of the grand desert. It would help to reach other architectural models with better conditions if the modern building technology was well used. Then, developing the positive sides of the surviving traditional style, while keeping its unique architectural property, would be a positive and important job to achieve architectural spaces with modern attributes and within the architectural frame which is able to adapt with desert.The general building pattern for the desert architecture depends basically on creating functional spaces rather than aesthetically. That was during the continuous search to develop the design style and using the potential of the local materials to get the best results in comfort conditions, and whatever else that was required; for instance, reducing the outside fenestrations, wind catchers, the interaction of building to obtain the required shading, and widening walls to guarantee insulation and time lag. To guarantee the use of modern technology in this environment, or to guarantee the modernization of desert architecture for rising to a better state, we first have to modernize and/or support a rule for the design idea. If architectural style was reformed by treating its constructional qualifications in a better way, and treating the other disadvantages in desert buildings, then we would have a survivable architectural style which accepts all new technical issues beside its adequacy to the environmental and cultural conditions. So, this paper is an attempt to conduce the design pattern for sufficient models in desert architecture, and reforming it so that it would be the applicable method for applying all or most of the design or modern technical ideas which support the natural conditioning concept, or the ideas which add an aesthetical or functional point while maintaining the identity of the place. The conclusion of this paper is achieving existing environmental pattern of vernacular design in old Ghadames town and potential fields of improvement.
Thwaites, Kevin, and Ian Simkins. "Experiential Landscape: Exploring the Spatial Dimensions of Human Emotional Fulfillment in Outdoor Open Space." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Open spaces with the capacity to benefit human quality of life are more necessary today than ever before. The 1999 Urban Task Force pioneered a socio-political agenda in the United Kingdom to make towns and cities livable and capable of sustaining contemporary urban lifestyles. Achieving this requires approaches to open space design to be responsive to human experience in routine daily life. The paper aims to contribute by outlining the development and application of a new conceptual framework for landscape and urban design, called experiential landscape, which synthesizes human experience with its spatial expression. The concept of experiential landscape has foundations in a UK context but its theoretical principles and methods of application have international relevance to help open space place making become more sensitive to human psychological functioning. The paper will detail results from the application of experiential landscape methods and discuss what this reveals for community identity and human well-being in relation to open space use.The paper outlines the development of experiential landscape focusing in particular on elements of people space relations research largely overlooked in current practice guidance. These relate specifically to spatial and geometrical properties associated with human psychological and emotional well-being. Central are theories of place advocating the potential contribution that small scale linked open spaces can make to mitigate the impact of urban stress in human communities. The experiential landscape concept synthesizes this with the theory of centres, pioneered in the 1970’s and refined in recent work by architectural theorist Christopher Alexander, with other material relating to social and ecological dimensions of outdoor spatial configuration. The paper combines analysis of text and field based material in a multi-method approach to present evidence for fundamental properties of order, present in the natural and cultural world and associated with human psychological benefit, which can potentially resurrect people’s connection with intuitively preferred forms and with relations between human functioning and the spatial environment.The concept of experiential landscape includes a range of methods and tools for application and these will be described through examples of field work paying particular attention to how they can benefit processes of public participation. These include the development and application of semi-structured interview techniques, anthropological tracking and GIS based spatial mapping methodology. These tools are used to reveal otherwise hidden experiential dimensions of place perception and the paper will show through case study how this has helped to develop a better understanding of neighbourhood identity and design new open space environments for learning and social development in children.
Cortés, Beatriz, Juan Ignacio Aragonés, Verónica Sevillano, and María Amérigo. "Exploring Environmental Problems Perception Through Affective Imagery." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Aim: The present study aims to understand environmental problems perception related to affectivity. Introduction and Context: The seriousness of global environmental problems engenders a challenge to psychology regarding the need to induce environmentally responsible behavior and sustainable development. Environmental psychology research has classically been cognitively oriented. Recent studies on risk perception, however, highlight the important role that affect may be playing, and sustainable behavior seems to stem from emotions (feelings of connectedness with other beings or moral emotions such as indignation or guilt).Method: 170 undergraduates where asked to recall associations for three environmental problems selected from a previous survey: climate change, loss of biodiversity, and environmental unconsciousness. Affective images associated with these issues were collected through free association test. Affect was also measured using the validated Spanish version of The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). One assumption of the current research is that word association techniques may allow to explore possible links between imagery and behavior. Despite the fact that this measuring instrument has recently been applied to the analysis of environmental risks, our methodological contribution is its combination with one of the most widely used measure of affectivity. That is to say, the second assumption rests on evidence suggesting a two dimensional structure of affective experience. 1509 associations were generated through the imagery survey and the content of these associations was analysed for each inductive stimulus.Affective imagery: The primary image of the majority of respondents was a paraphrase of each environmental issue. Although very few associations to climate change denoted consequences on human health, and no one mentioned future generations, our findings indicate a strong tendency for respondents to specify effects such as disasters, ice melting or floods, rather than causes, such as greenhouse gas emissions. By the same token, loss of biodiversity was primarily associated with resource scarcity or devastation, not with excessive uses of ecosystems. A slight difference appeared in images associated with environmental unconsciousness: the second highest frequency of responses referred to a specific behavioral pattern (no recycling actions), and the following ones suggested a sense of personal responsibility for environmental outcomes. In addition to analyzing the content categories, the affective ratings of images were examined.Implications: The knowledge gained from this research may be applied to the construction of communication messages and although more research is needed to compare data from different socio-demographic groups, there is some evidence that affective dimensions may be predictive of participation in pro-environmental behaviors.
Gatersleben, Birgitta, and David Uzzel. Favourite Places of Iaps Conference Delegates: do We Miss Home? In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Research on favourite places suggests that three different types of favourite places can be distinguished: Place centred, person centred or interactive places (Newell, 1997). This study examined the favourite places of conference delegates at the IAPS 18 in Vienna in 2004. The study aimed to examine to what extent favourite places of environment behaviour researchers may differ from other people’s favourite places. At the IAPS 18 in Vienna students from the MSc Environmental Psychology course at the University of Surrey asked conference delegates to indicate on a map of the world what their favourite place is and why. In total 87 people participated in this study; around 22% of the delegates. Most people (68%) referred to a specific town or city. The remainder referred to a country or area within a country. Person centred reasons (home) were given 33% of the respondents. Place centred reasons (beautiful place, lovely city) were given by (47%) of the respondents. Interactive places were mentioned by 14 people (16%) of the respondents. Natural environments were mentioned much less often by IAPS delegates (by 34%) than Newell (1997) found in her study with the general public (68%). Urban environments were mentioned more often by IAPS delegates (13%). Seven responses could not be classified. Interestingly 5 people (6%) specifically mentioned nice food. This was not related to either references to home or to references to social interaction. It can be concluded that IAPS conference delegates do not mention the same favourite places as do members of the general public investigated by Newell (1997). Urban environments were mentioned more often, perhaps because IAPS delegates have a stronger interest in the built environment. Moreover, very few people referred to small scale environments such as particular rooms or even areas within a town or city. This may be due to the use of the map to elicit response which could have prompted people to think in terms of geographical locations. It may also be due to the fact that respondents were away from home, making them think more globally rather than locally. Taken together these finding suggest that favourite places may vary depending on who is being asked, but also where and how they are asked.
Lokhorst, Anne Marike. Feedback, Social Support, and Public Commitment to Improve Environmental Quality of Farmlands In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Problem Definition: Farmers have a strong influence on the environment and landscape. Farming is an economic activity, for which economic criteria are predominant. However, farmers may be willing to take into consideration the effects of their practice on landscape and environment and change their behavior accordingly when they consider change as feasible and rewarding. The aim of this study is to understand farmer's current behavior concerning landscape and biodiversity. Eventually, this information will be used in an intervention programme designed to influence the major psychological determinants of environment friendly behavior by farmers and with that actually improve the environmental quality of farm lands. Targetgroup: Farmers in the Netherlands are a relatively well organized category. Many of them participate in different groups that aim to increase relevant knowledge. Few farmers have no ties with other farmers/groups of farmers. This has to be taken into account in the design of the study. There are groups that organize on the basis of their ecological concern and their concern with landscape and biodiversity (Agrarische Natuurverenigingen). Given the aims of this project it is likely that these groups will have more favourable prior attitudes toward the information and measures proposed than farmers/groups with other interests, and that degree of success of the intervention depends on ecological concern expressed in participation in one or more of those organizations. Ideally, the instrument is effective among all farmers but we expect more cooperation from farmers that have shown to be sympathetic towards these goals. The study is performed with 120 farmers that are recruited from Agrarische Natuurverenigingen, in Zeeland, a province in the southwest of the Netherlands. Literature: A questionnaire is developed to measure the potentially relevant psychological determinants of environment friendly behavior by farmers. This questionnaire focuses on constructs derived from the Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1991) and the Model of Goal Directed Behavior (Perugini & Bagozzi, 2001). These two models have been used extensively in previous research concerning for example energy saving, regulating of body weight and studying efforts (Armitage & Conner, 2001). The research model is adapted to the issue at hand by focusing on the dilemmatic aspects of the behavioral goals, additionally involving notions of self- and collective efficacy, personal norms, and identity-related concepts. Interviews will be conducted before administering the questionnaire to investigate which constructs are particularly relevant in this specific context. The design of the intervention programme proposes to test the effectiveness of an informational intervention technique and the way effectiveness is moderated by social support and public commitment, to have farmers voluntarily change their agricultural practices. This combination is in line with recent insights on intervention effectiveness (Staats, Harland & Wilke, 2004). Research Questions & Hypotheses: With the questionnnaire we expect to gain insight in which major psychological constructs have a significant effect on farmers' intentions to behave in an environmentally friendly way and how these constructs relate to each other. In a review chapter on the Model of Goal Directed Behavior, Perugini (in press) clearly states that the significance of predictors and their relationships differ in each study and are therefore dependent on the context of the behavior. After a period of one year, farmers will again fill out the questionnaire. This way we will be able to assess changes in intentions, self-reported behaviours and influential psychological determinants. We expect farmers who received information combined with social support to show greater improvement in their behavior compared to the other two groups. Method: 120 farmers from Zeeland, a province in the southwest of the Netherlands will fill out the questionnaire. These farmers are being recruited at the moment via their agricultural organizations. To test which constructs have a significant effect on farmers' intentions to behave in an environmentally friendly way and how these constructs relate to each other, regression analyses will be performed. Data collection will take place in March of this year. In the intervention programme, all participating farmers will be assigned to one of three conditions. One group will receive feedback on their performance relative to that of other farmers in their area using a benchmark tool, comparing their achievements with those of relevant others. The second group will also use this tool, but will also meet in so called social support groups to talk about their options and progress concerning the improvement of their land (see Lewin, 1947; Staats, Harland, & Wilke, 2004). The third group will serve as a control. In March 2007, the participating farmers will again fill out the questionnaire. To test whether farmers who received feedback and social support showed greater improvement in their behavior, multilevel analyses will be performed. Thesis: As this is the first year of the project, the writing of the thesis has not yet started. Part of the project also involves the running of laboratory experiments in which causal relationships between the central variables can be tested. One study has been carried out in which the circumstances under which group members are willing to publicly commit themselves in a public goods dilemma were investigated. Results of this experiment indicate the importance of general trust and the level of possible contributions: when there was a lot at stake, low trusters were more willing than high trusters to publicly commit themselves. A follow-up study on this subject is being carried out at the moment.
Sakr, Yasser. "Fiber-Optic Grids: Cyber-City, It and the Future of Sustainability in Urban and City Planning." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Developing an image of the city in an age of visual saturation appears to be a problem, precisely because awareness of the physical space of the city is disappearing or de-materializing-as a result of new digital information and communication technologies, as various theoreticians indicated. From the use of 3D city models and immersive virtual reality models of city to the use of telematics, telecommuting and advanced work environments that utilize Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), current urban and city planning theories and practices will inevitably change. Ultimately, we can learn valuable lessons from the urban structure of the “Internet” – the symbol of ICT. The impact and potential of ICT on the development of the urban environments in the 21st century carries along many promises of resolving some of today’s chronic problems of the urban environments.City and Urban planning in the Age of Information is, unfortunately, discussed in bits and pieces and thus the power of ICT is usually fragmented into scattered issues. Consequently, urban and city planners tend to misinterpret the overall picture. In some instances, this is a result of focusing on the most familiar issues that already gained momentum such as GIS. In other cases, as a result of the lack of a theoretical framework, the strategic and more conceptual issues are usually ignored. In doing so, a serious confusion between ICT tools and strategies take place, and thus blurring the line between ICT tools and strategies in urban and sustainable development.This paper attempts to discuss how urban planning strategies can creatively address the complex inter-linkages between ICT, urban forms and mobility in the City. It also attempts to encourage urban and city planners as well as architects to learn valuable lessons from the development of the “Web” – the symbol of Digital spaces.
Deus, Eulogio Real, Teresa Braña Tobío, Antonio Rial Boubeta, Jesús Varela Mallou, and Ricardo García Mira. "Forest Fires: Attitudes and Perceived Responsibilities from the Population in North-Western Spain." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Forest fires are among the main environmental problems in the north-west of Spain, a country severely threatened by desertification processes. Despite of the environmental (and economical) importance of the problem, there has been little research done about the perceived responsibilities for the fires, given that only 20% of them can be considered accidental. The present research investigates the attitudes and perceptions of a large sample consisting of 1100 residents in the affected areas (rural and semi-rural communities). Multivariate analysis of the responses provided by the sample will be used to provide a complete perspective of the perceived importance of forest fires, the attribution of responsibilities, and possible solutions to alleviate their environmental, economical and aesthetical.
Hagerhall, Caroline M. P., Thorbjörn Laike, and Richard Taylor. "Fractal Patterns and Attention Restoration-Evaluations of Real and Artificial Landscape Silhouettes." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. The reported studies are part of an ongoing interdisciplinary collaboration linking research on fractal geometry and the description of natural forms with research on the connection between aesthetic appraisal and human functioning. The perceived naturalness has been found to be one of the most significant predictors of environmental preference and in more recent years, a large body of research, using both self ratings of affective states and physiological measurements, has suggested that natural environments have particular restorative qualities with a particular positive effect on stress levels and the capacity to regain the ability to focus attention. Nature is suggested to be restorative because it is fascinating and effortless to attend to. But why is attending to nature’s patterns less demanding than attending to other patterns, and why does nature hold our attention? In nature many patterns have self similarity between scales, or in other words, nature has a fractal geometry. Our hypothesis is that the way complexity is organized in fractals could explain why such patterns are preferred and both fascinating and effortless to attend to. We have been investigating this issue in a number of studies using landscape silhouettes. Our initial studies, using silhouette outlines extracted from real landscape photos, showed that the perceived preference and naturalness peaked around a fractal dimension of 1.3. In the here reported studies artificial landscape silhouettes were created by using fractal lines generated with a computer. For these artificial silhouettes the result shows no peak but instead a continuous decrease in perceived preference/pleasantness and naturalness with increasing fractal dimension. The difference in results between the two types of silhouettes indicates that there is a different frame of reference for semantic evaluations of extracted and artificial silhouettes. It also points to roughness of the pattern as a potentially important additional factor. The implications of being able to tie perceived preference, naturalness and restorative ness to a measurable and designable factor like the fractal dimension is considerable. It provides not only a deeper understanding of why nature's patterns facilitates restoration but it opens the possibilities of applying this quality in a conscious way to built and indoor environments as well. A second part of the present study, from which data is currently being analyzed, involves EEG responses to the same artificial fractal silhouettes. The research is supported by the Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning.
JOINER, DUNCAN, and Eduard Schwarz. "From Hawthorne to Al Hajj: Cultural Identity and the Built Environment." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Aims & Objectives: In this paper, the authors draw some preliminary conclusions about the importance of understanding socio-cultural behaviour and expectations, for sustainable architecture and urban design. Their current study of the Holy Buildings of Makkah highlights cross-cultural differences in attitudes towards physical environments which have impacts on a global scale. They suggest how a better understanding of these could lead to increased sustainability in settlement patterns and use of resources. Context & background literature: Since the Hawthorne Effect was described over 70 years ago, and cast doubt on environmental determinism, it has become a classic case study in the literature of environment-behaviour research. The environmental changes and responses in the Hawthorne studies can also be interpreted as representing particular expectations relating to work environments and how they are managed within structures of employment and industrial relations. They represent particular socially and culturally based constructs of environment. These in turn have effects on attitudes and values attached to real estate, building design, and the shapes of cities. The manifestations of these values are analysed and contrasted with those which the authors have identified in their current study of the Holy Buildings of Makkah and the spatial behaviour associated with these, which extends world wide in a highly regulated way. Method of inquiry or argument: The Muslim Islamic characteristic of a sense of common purpose focused on al-Ka'abah and the shared ambition of participating in al Hajj, also has effects on attitudes and values attached to artefacts, architecture and urban design. The study shows that many of these have been misinterpreted by western scholars and art historians applying their own values. The Islamic sense of common purpose not only influences personal spatial behaviour, but through the rituals and pilgrimages associated with al Hajj it can be shown to influence finance, travel and accommodation industries on a global scale.
Fahmy, Amgad Aly. "Gated Communities as a Catalyst for Approaching Sustainability." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. "Approaching Sustainability: The main aim is to promote sustainable development. Through an integrated vision which is not a "uni-dimensional' tool, but co coordinating all environmental, economic and social aspects, to adopt a more integrated and cross cutting approach to sustainable development issues. Implement integrated principles for the sustainable planning, construction, operation, maintenance and use of buildings and landholdings. Sustainability refers to the influence in three areas: the environment, the society in which it operates and its economic impact. Traditionally, success is related to financial success; sustainability requires considering a "triple success measurement" of environmental, social factors in addition to the economic. Potentials of Gated Communities: Gated Communities are seen to be an enclave of housing, common to conventional suburban developments, the putative purpose of these communities varied among their residents, their owners - Developers- and Architects. Within a new Paradigm - Sustainability - it is seen to have high potentials to be adapted to serve in approaching the notion "Sustainable Development". For sustainability, a review of the literature that deals with this issue is carried out, where the main principles of sustainability are found to be aiding in the application of the formulation; an appraisal approach is suggested through the suggestion of a sequence of actions. The conclusions are applied in the evaluation of an existing project in one of the new settlements in New Cairo.An Appraisal Approach: An analysis to the area of study is divided into three phases: the first is a wide scope analysis concerning the evolution of New Cairo, and introducing the final report for the New Cairo extension, showing the master plan concerns and bases. The second phase is introducing El Rehab City (ERC) as one of the new communities within New Cairo, showing its context identified through a number of factors such as the topographic setting, the surroundings, street patterns, land use patterns, dominant unifying open spaces, major barriers on the edges, and similar factors. The third phase is the analysis of the residential pattern and the public land use of E.R.C.. Co operation achieves Sustainability: It was resulted to the possibility of applying most of the proposed approach, the theoretical part emphasize that sustainable development is not a single policy or plan that is incorporated into one department or function. It is a framework for decision making to be used across all sectors and at all levels. The conclusion from practical part confirms what was in the theoretical part, focusing on promoting sustainability through improving governance through coordinated efforts that link agencies, departments, and central government with local governments. In addition, to incorporate project appraisal techniques that includes environmental and social costs and benefits, and involves citizens in decision-making. In addition, to promote ethics and values that reflects sustainable development."
Monteiro, Circe Maria Gama. Gated Communities in Brazil: Towards a Culture of Social Transgression In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Aims & Objectives: Gated communities are systematically seen as safe places to live, especially by an affluent urban middle class. All spatial elements of control such as high walls, porters and guarded gates are seen as strong deterrents of crime and enabling safe live. However, recent reports show that communities became hostages of their own space and security, developing most of their socialization within these places. There is widespread believe that common social rules and laws applied to the city are not applied inside gated places; walls and gates separate them from the outside society’s laws. As a result, young children are allowed to drive cars, which are parked on public spaces, rules and authority is questioned and the dwellers are lenient to transgressions. This article compares American gated communities with Brazilian condominiums showing the similarities and peculiarities of both urban structures. It also investigates the impact of this wide spread new urban configuration on peoples experience of common and public spaces, sense of urbanity, transgression and impunity. Examples of social practices in gated neighborhoods are presented, building up evidence showing the spatial segregation, the lack of social respect, the weak role of administrations and a different concept of community. This paper discusses the effect of experiencing “legal” transgressions of spatial and social rules and norms in gated communities and the emergence of a permissive generation of citizens. Context & background literature: Review the recent literature on gated communities in America, and Latin America. Findings & Conclusions: children and youth being brought up in gated communities are much more lenient towards social transgressions than children experiences city's neighbor.
Monteiro, Circe, Andiara Lopes, and Thyana Galvao. "Gated Communities in Brazil: Towards a Culture of Social Transgression?" In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. "Gated communities: Gated communities are systematically seen as safe places to live, especially by an affluent urban middle class. All spatial elements of control such as high walls, porters and guarded gates are seen as strong deterrents of crime and enabling safe live. However, recent reports show that communities became hostages of their own space and security, developing most of their socialization within these places. There is widespread belief that common social rules and laws applied to the city are not applied inside gated places; walls and gates separate them from the outside society's laws. As a result, young children are allowed to drive cars, which are parked on public spaces, authority and rules are questioned and the dwellers are lenient to transgressions. This article compares American gated communities with Brazilian condominiums showing the similarities and peculiarities of both urban structures. It also investigates the impact of this widespread new urban configuration on peoples experience of common and public spaces, sense of urbanity, transgression and impunity. Examples of social practices in gated neighborhoods are presented, building up evidence showing the spatial segregation, the lack of social respect, the weak role of administrations and a different concept of community. This paper discusses the effect of experiencing "legal" transgressions of spatial and social rules and norms in gated communities and the emergence of a permissive generation of citizens Gated communities and residential condominiums; similarities and differences: The paper explores concepts such as community and classic authors(Tonnies, Weber). The notion of public versus private realms of life are also discussed (Tönnies, Sennett, Hall, Maffesoli, L. Dumont, B. Anderson, S. Zukin, H. Lefebvre) and finally studies on gated communities (Sennett, M. Davis, Jock Young, Stuart Hall, Teresa Caldeira, Setha Low and E. Blakely).The examples provided were product of ethnographic analysis of life in residential neighbourhoods in Brazil: observations of social practices correlated with questionnaires with dwellers, staff and managers of those communities. Security for transgressions: The results discuss the problems of living in places outside society rules and laws. Are children and youths raised in gated communities prone to replicate their behaviour in outside public spaces?Gated communities are new phenomena in Latin American cities. Cities are witnessing the spread of these places and the emergence of cultures of transgresion. It is necessary to assess the social and cultural outcome of life in these self regulated places."
Becker, Débora, and Antônio Tarcísio Reis. "Gated Communities: the Impact of Functional and Visual Barriers on Use and Security of Urban Space." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. The objective of this paper is to verify the impact provoked by functional and visual barriers of gated communities on the use and security of adjacent public open spaces. Three gated communities inhabited by middle to upper income people, characterized by terraced houses and surrounded by functional and visual barriers were selected in residential neighborhoods in consolidated urban areas of Porto Alegre, Brazil. Moreover, three nearby traditional streets, characterized by visual and functional connections between public and private space, are compared with those surrounding the gated communities. The gated communities have sprawled fast around the world, and have challenged the spatial and organizational order that has shaped modern cities. The main physical and spatial characteristics, implicit in the term 'gated communities', are the physical boundaries all around, and restricted access, which eliminate the traditional interface between buildings and public open spaces, obtained through doors and windows facing the streets. Nonetheless, the impact provoked by functional and visual barriers of gated communities on the use and security of adjacent public open spaces has not been sufficiently explored. As data gathering methods were used: questionnaires, applied to 137 respondents (47 gated communities' residents and 90 neighborhoods' residents); observations of behavior; and detailed physical measurements, besides plans of the areas and the gated communities collected in public institutions. Data were statistically analyzed in SPSS/PC through nonparametric tests, and qualitatively, considering its meaning and frequency, apart from space syntax analysis of axial lines representing the streets around the gated communities. The main results confirm the existent relationship between number of functional and visual connections between the public open spaces and adjacent buildings and the use of such public open spaces. The most intensively used streets tend to be the ones characterized by higher physical permeability, whereas the least used tend to be those streets almost deprived of functional and visual connections. Moreover, results reveal a relationship between security on the streets and the number of functional and visual connections between the public open spaces and adjacent buildings. Perception of insecurity increases as the number of physical connections decreases. The negative impact caused by the visual and functional barriers of gated communities on use and security of its adjacent public open spaces, revealed by this investigation, points to the necessity of public regulation on the relationship between gated communities and its neighboring public open spaces.
Eleishe, Azza. "Gated Residential Communities in Dubaian Investigation of Residents' Values and Perception." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. "The city state of Dubai, in the last decade, and in its pursuit to play a role in the global cities network has embarked in an unremarkable development effort transforming its urban fabric into a series of newly master planned communities for financial, educational, commercial, leisure, entertainment and residential purposes.Newly conceived residential gated communities have been designed according to imported western design and planning concepts housing high ends dwelling units, lavish landscaping schemes and state of the arts infrastructures and community services. These planned residential communities are in clear contrast with the surrounding climatic conditions as well as traditional cultural atmosphere. They have been designed to project an image of affluence, luxury, security, exclusiveness, seclusion and quality of life in isolation from the rest of the city. These new gated residential projects are mainly designed and marketed to attract an international clientele and to convince an upper income population to relocate and reside in Dubai as it develops to become one of the major financial and business centers of the world. The peculiar composition of Dubai's inhabitants, where expatriates constitute more than eighty five percent of the residents has been considered an example of cultural integration within a highly cosmopolitan society in sharp contrast with the traditional local cultural and religious background.The proposed paper investigates the values, perception and sense of community among the residents of several of the new gated housing communities in Dubai. The research methodology included site visits and examination of the physical design and attributes of the different communities, a survey using a standardized questionnaire format delivered randomly to occupied dwellings in each project and a statistical analysis of the respondents filled and returned questionnaires. The research 's findings should illustrate the significant design characteristics and social organization that residents find imperative for their satisfaction with their residential environment. In addition the findings should define peoples’ perception and appreciation of the "sense of community" concept and its effect on their psychological well being. The conclusions of the study should be informative for decision makers, architects and planners of the urban landscape in the newly re-structured global cities contexts."
Mathur, Hari Mohan. "Globalization, Displacement, and Impoverishment Risks:large Corporations and Tribal Peoples in Orissa, India." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Orissa, in eastern India, is a resource-rich state, known for its abundant mineral, hydrologic, forest and other resources, and for this reason it has been attracting large public sector development projects right from the beginning of the planning era in early 1950s. Under the globalization influences, the state government has recently introduced liberal industrial and other policies with the specific aim of attracting foreign direct investment, allowing private industry to play a role in the development process even larger than its own. The rich natural resource endowment and now the new investor-friendly policies make Orissa a particularly attractive destination for large corporations including multinational corporations (MNCs), and they indeed are lining up in numbers to invest in this state, especially in steel, alumina and mining industries. While the government is welcoming large corporations that have their eyes on mineral-rich tribal areas, the tribal people who form a large part of the local population are opposing them. From their perspective, the track record of development projects set up in their territories so far has been dismal. They have been displaced from their lands, their homes, their livelihoods, and their communities, in some cases even more than once, becoming poorer than before. Often, those demanding compensation have been met with brutal repression, with some even losing their lives. The recent events in Kalinganagar industrial complex, where the police firing led to the death of about a dozen people, have further strengthened their belief that the state is interested only in taking over their lands, not in what happens to them with their livelihoods gone; its interests lie elsewhere, in helping large corporations to make huge profits at their expense. Supported by activists groups, the tribal people are now becoming assertive, even hostile to the establishment of new projects whom they expect to do nothing but ruin their lives, leaving them in the worst forms of impoverishment. In response to growing discontent with displacement arising from a rapid process of industrialization, the government initiated a process of making a comprehensive resettlement policy applicable to projects in both public and private sectors, and the UNDP assisted it with a draft resettlement policy. However, the policy which the government has now issued is in a form somewhat different from that suggested in the draft policy, and is unlikely to meet expectations of the people affected. The other worrying aspect is that Orissa lacks adequate management capacity to address resettlement issues, so the policy guidelines may not prove much helpful to those requiring resettlement. This paper, based on first hand field experience, concludes that development goals of the Orissa government will remain elusive, if the affected people perceive the state as only MNCs-friendly, and not as one concerned about their future.
Theeman, Meredith L.. "Gloom in the Room? Factors Influencing Perception of the Illuminated Environment." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Portrayed as a psychophysical phenomenon, gloom is hypothesized to be a visual experience occurring when lighting systems, while up to industry standards, are not fitnessed into creating a positively lit environment. The components and context of ‘gloom’ have been noted in psychology and lighting engineering literature but a consensus on the configuration of spatial, lighting, and human factors producing gloom has yet to be reached. While lighting professionals have produced speculative indoor lighting designs which induce the perception of gloom; the connection between evaluating an environment as gloomy and the link to one’s mood has not been investigated. Small incongruities in people’s relationships with his/her environment may lead to physical and/or psychological discomfort prompting both positive and negative adaptations. Synomorphic relationships between people and their behaviors within working and learning environments are dependent upon the cohesion of their needs with what the space can afford. Gloom can be conceived as having two semantic divisions – one part rooted in mood, attitude, and subjective evaluation and one part rooted in external, tangible features of the natural and built environment. In the tradition of ambient environment research, this study explores why people perceive and respond to certain spaces as ‘gloomy’ in the hope of creating a framework with which to identify relationships between these factors as to better understand how gloom is constructed within our socio-environmental world. Twenty participants maintained a journal in which entries were made to directed questions in five familiar spaces. Narrative content analysis and frequency analyses were run on seventy journal entries (n=14) made within five environmental contexts defined by function (“a space within your work environment”) or associated feeling (“a space that makes you feel energetic”). Taken together, emerging themes indicate that aesthetic evaluations of gloom may sit at the intersection of one’s expectations for a space, present mood state, aesthetic and physical characteristics of a space and how these characteristics are interpreted. Recognizing that characteristics of the individual will affect perception of the illuminated environment should indicate to architects and designers that flexible lighting systems are most effective for indoor environments with multiple users/uses. Future research uncovering dynamics between specific lighting qualities and mood would add to the existing body of literature.
Hung, Yvonne, and Anneloes Meijnders. "Growing Food in the City: Youth Participation in Urban Agriculture." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. The 'East New York Farms' project is a community development venture in Brooklyn New York that introduced small-scale farming in vacant lots and community gardens, and involved neighborhood residents (in particular local youth) in planting, caring for and harvesting fresh fruits and vegetables. The project was constructed with sustainable development ideas that integrated the community's ecological, economic, educational and esthetic goals. Along with engaging youth in social and environmental change, the East New York Farms project worked to increase community food security through shortening the supply lines of the food system, encouraged local economic development through a weekly farmers' market (June-November), and balanced community development with a productive use of open and green spaces. East New York is a community of approximately 170,000 residents in a 5.6 square mile area located in the eastern part of Brooklyn. The 2000 US Census reported that 86% of the residents are African-American and/or Hispanic, 30% are under 18, and almost 30% live below the poverty line. According to a 1996 study by Pratt Institute graduate planning students, local food stores were capturing only 50% of the expenditures on produce in East New York. Since the start of the farmer's market in 1999, visitors on an average Saturday during the summer numbers approximately 600. The purpose of my study was to explore the impact of participation from the perspective of the youth participants. I interviewed 18 of the 25 interns (age 10-16) after they completed the 2001 season internship. I also re-contacted and interviewed 10 youth from the original sample in 2005. I conducted these follow-up interviews in order to learn about the long-term impact of participation. The initial interviews in 2001 revealed several themes: the significance of having a job; the importance of helping the community; the value of developing interpersonal skills; the meaning of gardening; and the necessity of safe and calming spaces for youth. The follow-up interviews with young people discussed how their early connection with the natural environment alongside caring adults has helped to provide them with skills and experiences that continue to be beneficial years later. This paper offers insights into interns' active participation in improving their social and physical environment, as they also cultivated their sense of self as agents of community change. The young peoples' experiences can inform the development and realization of future projects and offers support for the integration of youth in building sustainable communities.
Mostafa, Hesham, Aliaa El-mezawy, Arnold Geis, and Knut Heller. Growth and Exopolysaccharides Production by Enterococcus Faecium In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Enterococcus faecium strain was isolated from Egyptian infants and identified by sequencing of 16-RNA-23S-RNA genes region. The isolate was identified as Ent. faecium GEBRI 90. The strain was grown in M17 medium at pH 6.5, 1% different types of sugars were added to the medium to study the influence of and mono disaccharides on the growth and production of exopolysaccharides (EPS). The production of EPS was up to 1.292 g/L after 3 of incubation at 37°C with shaking at 120 rpm. The effect of addition of sodium glycero- phosphate (SGP) to M17 medium on the growth and EPS production was studied, the production of EPS and growth was inhibited without the addition of SGP to the medium, on the other hand, the production of EPS in 10L fermentor was 1.65 g/l with controlled pH at 6.5 after 165 min of fermentation in M17 medium contained 1% sucrose.
Bonet, Maria Rosa, Miquel Domingo, and Miquel Marti. "Habitat and Habitant at Pirineu." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. "Objectives: The aim of this paper is to show the approach, methodology and results of a study carried out titled "The current situation of high mountain villages which has lost population". The motivation of the research was to guide intervention actions of Catalonian government with the objective to protect and revitalize the architectonic and scenic patrimony of the Pirineu. Without doubt, the phenomenon of underpopulated mountain villages is the direct consequence of the transformation of agricultural models of production (Tulla 2004). One of the consequences of the globalization has been the divulgation, enlargement, generalization and incorporation of the typical city life styles into the rural world. This phenomenon generates dynamics of metropolitanization at micro level, which contrast with the phenomena of city explosion (Font, Indovina, Portas i Ascher, 2004). Because the explosion of small cities has implied better services and quality of life, this situation has accelerated that small rural nucleus lose population. At the same time, some studies reveal that a change of interest have occurred relating to the maintenance and restoration of a patrimony which has not been valued whereas people live in. This new situation offer new expectative for revitalization and interest for reoccupy these rural settings. Using urban, socio-economical and psycho-environmental indicators, 95 rural settings of high mountain where studied. In order to gather the information, interviews to the representative habitants of the villages as well as observational techniques were used, generating a card file for each setting. The results of the research have made evident the relevant role of individual and social behaviours in the processes of consolidation, recuperation or degradation of the architectural and environmental patrimony of these settings. In general terms, the human influence has been more relevant than the geographical conditions or than the effects of the public policies. The findings make relative the initial hypothesis which gave priority to economical, territorial and formal factors (such as location, sights, transportation facilities, proximity to more important nucleus). Thus, the current state of some rural village as well as the future recuperation of others depends on attitudes and values of their habitants, of their initiatives and the ecological responsibility assumed by most of them. "
Elzeyadi, Ihab. "Healthy by Design: Post-Occupancy Evaluation of a High-Performance Leed Rated Building." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Telling tales about buildings, their performance, the process of how they came together, how people feel, perceive, or behave inside them is more than documenting a building performance, taking its vital statistics, or conducting a post occupancy evaluation of its spaces. It is a comprehensive methodology of integrating techniques and tools of both the physical and socio-psychological sciences in a way that enriches the data we gather in, out, and about buildings so as to tell an interesting and comprehensive story about a building's history, design, and performance. This paper reports on a comprehensive building-in-use evaluation of an educational facility on a Pacific Northwest university campus. We have employed a variety of protocols and instruments to assess the overall quality inside offices and classrooms from an inclusive systemic perspective that acknowledges the physical, psychological, organizational, and social processes that affect occupants' interaction with their buildings as well as the process of designing a sustainable work place. We have collected indoor climate data information using a programmable Energy Management System that collected climate trends in offices, classrooms, and other educational and common use spaces inside the building. In addition we have conducted a cross-sectional web-based survey on a stratified random sample of students (n=450), faculty (n=65), and staff (n=110) working in the building. The survey was followed by focus group meeting with the building's users groups. The findings suggest that people are able to tolerate higher levels of discomfort in spaces where they can posses more control and that offer them a sense of pride with their surroundings. The paper concludes with a model of sustainable place experience. The hope that this model could be used to assess environmental quality in buildings as well as provide patterns of sustainable design through learning from buildings and their underlying tales.
Lawrence, Roderick J.. "Healthy Cities: Key Principles for Professional Practices." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Building a healthy city is intentional, not haphazard. It always occurs in a human context which defines and is mutually defined by a wide range of cultural, societal and individual human factors. Building and managing a healthy city involves choosing between a range of options in order to achieve numerous objectives some of which may not give a high priority to health and quality of life. This keynote address argues that it is necessary to reconsider the construction of cities and urban development in a broad environmental, economic, social and political context that explicitly accounts for health and well-being. It begins with a presentation of some key concepts, definitions and interpretations of health and cities. Then it presents the eleven key principles that the World Health Organization has presented as being the main constituents of healthy cities. It also discusses those prerequisites that are necessary in order to apply these principles in professional practice to achieve the goal of constructing healthy cities. A review of common approaches during the 20th century clearly shows that it is not an easy feat to apply the eleven principles in practice. Prior to the conclusion, the author suggests and illustrates a few innovative approaches that have been applied successfully in theWHO Healthy Cities project since 1987. Hopefully, these kinds of contributions will serve as a catalyst for many more innovative projects in the near future.
Townsend, Mardie. "Healthy Parks, Healthy People': Recognizing the Importance of Urban Open Spaces for Social and Cult." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. "Aims: Drawing on two recent Melbourne (Australian) studies, this paper explores the role of urban parks and open spaces in social and cultural health and wellbeing. Study 1 was undertaken in Knox - a middle class area with over 80% of the population born in Australia or north-western Europe. It aimed to: identify categories of people using and not using the selected open space area/s; document users' perceptions of benefits gained from that use; measure the social connectedness of open space users; and explore barriers to open space use. Study 2 was undertaken in Thomastown - an area with more people of lower socioeconomic status where only 17.5% has English as their only language. It aimed to explore: current use of parks and public open space by migrant populations (especially recently arrived migrants); and the potential for increased use of parks and public open space by such populations in the future. Background: Humans depend on nature for psychological, emotional, and spiritual wellbeing (eg. Frumkin, 2001; Roszak et al., 1995; Katcher & Beck, 1987; Wilson, 1984). Many psychological and physical afflictions relate to withdrawal from contact with nature, and exposure to nature may have positive benefits (eg. Scull, 2001; Cohen, 2000; Burns, 1998; Roszak et al., 1995;). Social capital is another key health determinant (Kawachi et al., 1997; Leeder & Dominello, 1999), yet social connectedness is in decline (Putnam, 1995). For migrants (24% of Australia's population), disengagement from nature and fellow humans may be compounded by poor language skills, perceptions of parks/open spaces as 'unsafe' or 'culturally inappropriate', and difficulties in assimilating into Australian society, particularly in gaining a sense of social connectedness (Knox & Britt, 2002; Webber, 2003). Parks and open spaces have the potential to bring together people of "different social, cultural and ethnic backgrounds" (Ravenscroft and Markwell, 2000 p. 138). Methods: The studies used different methodologies: one combined quantitative and qualitative approaches, the other was purely qualitative. The Knox project included: . Surveys of 150 users of selected open space areas; . Surveys of 150 'non-users' of open space areas (recruited at shopping centres); . 3 focus groups - one with users and non-users; one with young people aged 12-17; and one with people with disabilities and/or their carers. Frequencies and cross-tabulations were used to analyze the survey data, and the focus group data was analyzed thematically. The Whittlesea project involved the use of 'sequential focus groups' (Townsend & Mahoney 2005 p. 44), based on established groups or networks: . a Turkish Women's Group; . the 'Beginner's English Class' at Lalor Living and Learning Centre; and . young migrants accessed through the City's Youth Services Officer. The data from each set of focus groups was collated and analyzed thematically, using N-Vivo. Findings: Despite differences between the study samples, both studies highlighted the benefits parks and open space areas provide for psychosocial health, especially for social connectedness. In areas such as Whittlesea, with high refugee and migrant populations, ignorance and prejudice have potentially detrimental effects on the wellbeing of migrant populations. The Whittlesea study highlights the potential for reducing inter-cultural tensions and misunderstandings through use of public open spaces for cross-cultural activities. Similarly, the relationship-building potential of parks and open spaces was acknowledged in the Knox study. Given these (and many other) potential health and wellbeing benefits flowing from use of parks and open spaces in urban areas, it is important to understand why particular groups of people do not access such areas. Both studies explored the reasons for such lack of park/open space use and identified strategies for promoting the full range of health benefits of urban parks and open space areas."
Syrakoy, Athena-Christina, and Sophia Chatzicocoli. "Historical Conceptions of a Healthy City. the Greek Paradigm." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Today much attention is being given to the concept of a healthy city. However, a “healthy city” as it is still developing as a term as well as a real experience, and since it is subject to many parameters which do not necessarily run parallel to each other or work together, the need for incoming paradigms of healthy cities is needed. In addition to the contemporary paradigms, the study of the historical experiences and examples can enrich the understanding a healthy city’s historical background and can help in learning from the past. Especially, the Greek paradigm seems of particular importance as the idea of the creation of healthy cities seems to be central in the Hellenic (Greek) culture, the first anthropocentric culture developed in Europe which is perceived to form the base of the so called Western Civilization. The conceptions of a healthy city as well as the principles of the planning and design of healthy cities were supported by the Hellenic Mythology, Philosophy, Art and Science. Among the Greek sources of information concerning the conceptions of a healthy city is the Greek Mythology and especially the myths concentrated upon the notion of health and welfare. Another source of information can be considered the Hippocrates Collection and especially his treatise: “About Air, Water, Topos (Places)”. The conceptions of a healthy city were expressed in various applications on the Greek cities and some settings particularly devoted to health, such as the Asklepieia. Asklepieia were centres of worship of the hero, divine physician and healing god, Asklepios and, in fact, they were the first health care campuses and Medical Schools in Europe. Asklepieia, starting from central Greece, were spread through out the Mediterranean Basin and beyond and offered therapeutic treatment for many centuries in the then Hellenic territory, from the War of Troy though out the Classical, Hellenistic and Roman times to the early-Byzantine times (approximately the 6th century AD) until the total prevalence of Christianity. Asklepieia including all the amenities of a city can be considered as a paradigm of the physical manifestation of the healthy city conceptions in Greece. It is valuable to look for examples and develop studies not only among contemporary cultures and experiences but also among various historical periods in order to approach a holistic conception of a healthy city.
Gómez, José. "Home and the Family Life Cycle." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. As numerous studies have shown, the family home is a place where many aspects of the self are projected. However, there are a lot of theoretical and methodological difficulties still to be solved in this field o This study provides the results of an investigation carried out with families living in areas on the periphery of Paris. Data was collected qualitatively and quantitatively, using a semi-structured interview and a questionnaire. From this research, it is evident that the study of the inter-relation family-home as a system involves several challenges. The first of these challenges is to explain the dynamic interdependence of variables, instead of describing causal relations. The second challenge is to immerse the family-home system in a culture. Finally, the notion of time has to be considered, based on the concepts of the individual and family life cycle. Studying the family-home system also involves the following epistemological and methodological difficulties: 1) Participation of the researcher in the investigation. 2) Representativeness of the subjects and populations studied, and generalization of the results. 3) Inclusion of time and evolution as intrinsic variables to the behavior studied. 4) The difficulty, or impossibility, of using traditional methodologies.
Bulamile, Ludigija Boniface. "Home Owners' Responses to Crime in Dar Es Salaam Tanzania: Its Implications to Architecture, Urban Planning and Management." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. This is a PhD early stage proposal presentation in brief of preliminary findings of a research titled: Home owners’ responses to crime in Dar es Salaam Tanzania: its implications to urban architecture, urban planning and management theories and practices. As a background, the paper highlights the research problem, objectives, questions or issues and the research propositions. Further and in a nutshell the paper outlines the aims of the research as: to investigate and document in order to understand the physical (or architectural) responses against crimes of burglary and home robberies, to investigate in order understand the social relationships between the residents from the gated dwellings and residents outside the dwellings and to investigate in order to understand the challenges or implications of the relationship to the practice of architecture, urban planning and management in Dar es Salaam Tanzania. The paper takes off by reviewing theories on crime prevention strategies.Combating crime is often associated with increased policing, more severe punishment of criminals, social and educational programs, and programs for poverty eradication. In the last decades, there has been an increasing interest in the potential of the built environment to contribute to crime reduction. Jane Jacobs stresses the roles of residents- “the eyes of the street”. Oscar Newman developed a more detailed but similar approach to Jane Jacobs on the subject matter. He proposed four categories for discussion of defensible space theory. In research and practical policies it is nowadays often recognized in the developed world that the design of buildings, streets, parks and other public places can deter criminal activity and enhance urban safety.Experience through preliminary observations carried out in Dar es Salaam reveal that, homeowners respond to property crimes and fear of it by modifying the built environment on and around their properties so as to avert fear of crimes. As if to say the high wall fences are not enough, some homeowners install barbed wires, razor wires, electric wires and other sharp objects on their fences to forestall climbing. It is proposed that these attempts to address crimes at an individual level have consequences that are detrimental to urban architecture and planning. Literature review in this direction of research has shown that very little study has been done in Africa south of the Sahara. This is more so in the cities in East Africa, and Dar es Salaam in particular. This research is therefore intended to fill this knowledge gap. Much is to be achieved in Tanzania as planning regulations have to be revised and as informal settlements are being regularised.The implications for the preliminary findings are that: the public streets become free zones for the bad guys; the utility agencies cannot easily access the dwellings in an effort to collect utility charges. Safety of residents in these homes becomes at risk in case of fire. Homes are not easily accessible whenever emergency needs arise from without the gates. The streets become lonely at night and a sense of being unsafe when walking in them is felt. It looks as though one is walking through a forest!The paper ends by calling for review of the way residential neighborhoods are planned from grid type of street design to clusters with cul-de-sac street designs and design residential areas that enhance community spirit of cooperation.
Lara, María Gabriela L.. "Home's Solid Residuals Separation: Comparison Between Mexico City and Barcelona." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Objective: The inefficient management of trash causes one of the most important pollution problems we find, caused by city managers inefficient of approach. They invest in technology, without regard for citizen participation. Thus the objective of this paper was to establish the factors that make easy or inhibit trash separation at home, comparing two different cities Background literature: We used Pol's (2001) four spheres model, making a comparative study about the variables involved in the acquisition, handling and removal of solid waste by the people. Method: A non-probabilistic, two stage sampling was carried out. The first stage drawn from Barcelona's population and the second with Mexico City's one. The sample was constituted by 1105 subjects, 400 from Barcelona and 705 from Mexico City. Of them, 64%were women and 36% men. In both cities a 56 item questionnaire was applied. Findings & conclusions: Age correlated positively with the amount of separated materials. .With an analysis of variance we established that the amount of trashcans and having friends that separate trash were influential variables. In Barcelona the model explains 33% of the variance and in Mexico City 25%. In Barcelona the percentages of separation show that the behavior is related to the management system, as compared to Mexico City, where the cultural tradition explains it. Conclusions Within the houses, what is most important are the way space is used and not space by it self. This has incidence on separation, thus the work on ergonomic design of kitchens has to keep going. Not every thing can or has to be managed, there must be a space for people involvement and participation; as generating an image of efficiency of the administration generates lack of responsibility feelings from the people. Applicability & the work to done next: A good management must dignify working with trash and must generate jobs; it must integrate non formal jobs through legalization, investing more on wages rather than in technological infrastructure that becomes obsolete in a spell. You have to make a participant design that takes in account the context and that necessarily implies having several systems. You also have to promote the flea markets (tianguis), where objects are revalued. It is suggested that research has to be extended inquiring forms in which responsible consumption are promoted.
Vestbro, Dick Urban. "House Types and Urban Sprawl in Developing Countries." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Urban sprawl may be defined as urban expansion without procedures for efficient land use. It is typically expressed in allocating ample space to roads and parking areas, to buffer zones and leftover spaces between built-up areas, and in residential developments with low densities. Such planning procedures lead to encroachment of valuable agricultural land, to long travel distances, to high infrastructural costs because of long lines of roads, pipes, drainage ditches etc per house, and to a lack of urban qualities. This paper focuses on the role of house types that may accommodate higher densities, especially in large cities of low-income countries. Densities are expressed in floor area ratios, i.e. the ratio between the habitable area on each floor, multiplied with the number of floors, and divided by the land area considered to ‘belong to’ the respective urban type. In many low-income cities both planned and unplanned areas are dominated by detached one-story, one-household units in the middle of large plots, i.e. house types that generate urban sprawl. Among planners and politicians consciousness about the effects of urban sprawl seems to be low, and little is done to promote house and neighbourhood types that allow higher physical densities. Multi-storey buildings require more expensive building materials, construction techniques and the use of skilled labour, which impedes savings through self-help construction, but such obstacles may be partly overcome by applying appropriate technology solutions. Another obstacle is anti-urban attitudes, which may fade away with time. The paper is based on a literature review and on ongoing research on house and neighbourhood types in Dar es Salaam, Kampala, Johannesburg and Cape Town. The paper includes examples of house types that allow higher floor area ratios at the same time as spatial qualities such as cross ventilation, daylight in rooms and proper drainage are safeguarded. It is argued that vertical extensions from one to two-storey buildings may be combined with self-help construction techniques and/or the upgrading of local artisan skills. With new planning procedures floor area ratios in low-income cities may increase from today’s 0.1-0.2 to at least 0.6-0.8, which in turn means either that existing cities may treble or quadruple its population without appropriating virgin land; that overcrowding may be reduced considerably by adding new rooms to each housing unit, or that urban agriculture may be introduced in densifying housing areas without any further expansion of the city.
Santos, Thereza Carvalho. "Housing in Decentralized and Deregulated Contexts: Sustainable Strategies and Survival Practices." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. This paper addresses selected meanings, and corresponding outcomes, attributed to sustainable housing developments practiced in Brazil. These were examined in the light of two major national reports dealing with environment, health and sustainability: Agenda 21, and Environmental Outlook, in Brazil, 2002. Failure has, apparently, outshined success as a matter of public interest in sustainability. Some authors have blamed power struggle for the failure of sustainable planning models. Others have made different processes of production frequent scapegoats. Both trends, however, approach the subject from the point of view of spatial order and see untidiness as the visual sign of failure of authority - either the local management’s or the designer’s. Both alternatives share a common concern – to reinstate order by changing the basis of authority. They appear to aim at social control one way or another. This paper argues that those approaches, and corresponding ‘solutions’, besides belying the participatory process they are supposed to support, also still draw, to a large extent, on the management resources of the local state, which are less and less available since deregulation has, apparently, dominated World Bank agenda for developing countries. It also argues that the intended innovations which the sustainable planning agenda defines as goals are the outcome of a process which is, more often than not, a messy business of trial and errors. Some well illustrated guidelines for sustainable design offer quick response to design issues. Those, however, cannot be generally applied. Sustainable planning and design are often addressed stripped of the institutions of management that make them viable and, apparently as a consequence, independent of the culture and political context where they must be applied. What is sustainable in one given culture may prove to be quite the opposite in another context. Sustainable planning and design exercises demand local testing and widespread information geared to enable local institutions and citizens’ active participation. Awareness of its political, social, cultural and economic implications - and impact on community identity – may come as a consequence of this process, or not, depending on the institutions involved and on the channels of communication established. An analysis of some features of these “trials and errors”, looking at spatial transformations carried on by residents, in selected housing areas, illustrates the argument. This paper finalizes both highlighting some alternative concepts of sustainable design that emerge from them and indicating further research to be done.
Mayer, Beril Özmen. "How Fast Or Slow Architecture Should Be?" In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. In every field of professional life, the sector has been getting faster, not applying its own optimum pace, however, and speeding due to the higher rhythm of competitive society. In architecture and urban planning fields, this rapidity can be applied to the fast and uncontrolled residential areas in cities. This acceleration rate can be harmful to people, causing them to be unhappy, unhealthy, unsatisfied in their home environments, quarters and in cities. The aim of the paper is to test the answer on how the residential environment can be designed with a better quality of life for its users in this fast pace of globalization? The answer has explored by the concept of ‘Slow Architecture’ versus ‘Fast Architecture’. The idea has been adapted by Saturnini, who established “Slow City” movement. It has also be explained by Zumthor as a concept by using local materials and respecting local culture. It is a way to think about what kind of architecture that we have at hands and what is the quality that has better to be kept before it is consumed fast together with the good tradition and sold in the global exchange process. This “Slow City” idea has good common issues related to the sustainability concept that the natural ecology and species can be kept while their specifities, culture, arts, architectural features and principles survive. Architects employ the measures of materials, techniques of the place and the culture to identify a number of worthy examples in that environment. Considering these two important issues above, we examine housing development in North Cyprus. Just after the Referendum in 2004, fast growing housing developments have been started. Various type of housing development look alike due to the old building codes that were applied before the reunion of the island could happen. Therefore, architects, clients and developers have agreed to “produce and sell” these houses much faster than ever due to higher financial profits. This happened just after housing market has opened to the member states, when whole Cyprus became as a part of the European Union. At the end, this fast growing sector accelerates; most of the houses are designed as “copy and paste” manner. In this case, it is time to discover possibilities of the “Slow Architecture / City” concept into the case of North Cyprus, regarding these “copy-paste-produce-sell” ”houses. In the meantime, citizen’s interests and needs should be investigated on the matter. In this paper, new developed quarters near to University in the city of Gazimagusa have been chosen for the field study how fast or slow architecture should be designed for the citizen. The finding and conclusion will be speculated and stated in the full paper.
Joule, Robert Vincent, and Séverine Halimi-Falkowicz. "How to Promote Ecocitizen Behaviours at School." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. "Promoting ecocitizen behaviours: Promoting ecocitizen behaviours will be considered in the light of the theory of commitment (Kiesler, 1971; Joule and Beauvois, 1998, 2002) which invites us to break with the presupposition that informing and convincing people is sufficient to lead them to adopt the new expected behaviours. Modifying ideas is indeed not enough to modify behaviours. However, researches in commitment procedures, and more particularly in the foot-in-the-door procedure, show that a person will more probably adopt a new expected behaviour when the presented arguments are preceded by obtaining a less costly act called preparatory act (cf. Joule and Beauvois, 1998, 2002). We will report an action research that includes commitment procedures involving four preparatory acts. Altener European Project: The action research has been carried out within the framework of the ALTENER European project ("energy force for children") in the Provence-Alpes-Côtes d'Azur region (France). An action research that includes commitment procedures involving four preparatory acts: It has been conducted in 11 primary schools and aimed at promoting ecocitizen behaviours from 9-10 year old pupils (for instance have a shower rather than a bath) and their parents (for instance replace a standard bulb with a low-consumption bulb). 700 families were concerned by the research, and 28 teachers were involved. During the school year, pupils were led to perform the following preparatory acts : 1/ to notice good and bad ecocitizen practices in their school, 2/ to notice good and bad ecocitizen in their own family 3/ to fill in a questionnaire on the family ecocitizen practices, with the help of their parents 4/ to stick a pro-environment sticker on the family refrigerator. At the end of the school year, children and parents were led, in writing, to commit themselves to modify some of their behaviours, by signing a « committing bulletin ». For a "committing communication": Results are very encouraging because almost all of children and families agreed to sign the committing bulletin. We will conclude in laying the basis of what we call the "committing communication" (cf. Joule, Py and Bernard, 2004). "
Moser, Gabriel, and Mirilia Bonnes. "Human Dimensions of Global Change:perception and Behaviour in Sustainable Water Use in Four Countries." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Psychological processes at the individual, interpersonal, group and collective level play a relevant role in affecting environmental “Global Changes” occurring in our biosphere (Pawlik, 1991; Levy-Leboyer et al.1996). The psychological dimension of global environmental changes should be studied at a local or place-specific level of people’s daily life (see Bonnes & Bonaiuto, 2002; Moser et al., 2002), in order to address the issue of “Sustainable Development” and “sustainability”, as it has been increasingly stressed by the more recent developments of environmental psychological research (see Bechtel & Churchmann, 2002; Bonnes & Bonaiuto, 2002; Moser et al., 2002; Winter, 2000). There has been a parallel development in geography (see Swyngedouw, 1999). Among the various global changes related to human activities, one of the main priorities in the current environmental agenda (both for bio-physical and human-social science) is represented by the human use and attitudes towards fresh water resources. The purpose of this research, Funded by ICSU (International Council for Scientific Unions) Grants Programme 2004 and IUPSYs (International Union of Psychological Science), is to study the social psychological processes and factors (at the individual, interpersonal, group and collective level) orienting people’s perception and behaviours towards the use of fresh water resources, according to different geographical, social and cultural local contexts across and within countries. This international research aims at addressing the social psychological and cross-cultural aspects related to the use and conservation of fresh water resources by focusing on the specific similarities/differences as well as on intra-national peculiarities of differently developed countries.The research consists of different field studies, conducted within a comparative framework in Italy, France, India and Mexico. Data include people’s perception and behaviours in specific cases/situations of water scarcity, deficient supply and/or water restrictions (permanent, periodic, or accidental) across different physical-geographical, socio-cultural, and situational conditions, and thus accounts on the incidence of specific intra-national peculiarities of differently developed countries. The various analyses presented by the five papers of this symposium permit to identify the main individual, social and environmental factors promoting or hampering the “sustainable” consumption of fresh water resources and identify the regional or social variations existing within single countries, according to a context-based and place-specific approach. The results are meant to be shared among policy institutions and decision makers and among the general public, which should be useful for promoting a more sustainable consumption of fresh water resources among individuals and communities.Participants:• Gabriel Moser Consumption, Sources and Quality of Water in Four Different Countries. • Giuseppe Carrus & Jai Sinha Water as a Resource and Environmental Problems. • Mirilia Bonnes, Paola Passafaro & Giuseppe Carrus Attitudes Towards Water and Saving Water. • Victor Corral Environmental Worldviews and Water Conservation: The Eco-anthropocentric Paradigm• Laure Barthélémy & Yannick Savina Perceptions and Behaviours Towards Water Use in France• David Uzzell A Co-orientational Approach to Understanding Perceptions of Water Scarcity in Bhopal, India • Fatma El-GoharyWater Quality Management in Egypt: Existing Situation and Future Perspective
De Jesús, Nydza I. Correa. Iconic Logics, Social Refiguration of Subjects and the Language of City-Space In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Social refiguration and the global: This paper explores the transformations produced in the city space as an interconnected assemblage of public images rendering new iconic logics inserted in globalization processes. It studies the main aspects of the spatial languages the subject should comprehend in relation to public space (time) and its refiguration in contemporary cultural practices. The city as urban texture of our new forms of social interactivity must be examined in its positive capacity in the production of subjectivity, of the quotidian, not in a negative assertion of the disappearance of the city. Image-city: The constellation of images emerging in the contemporary project of globalization emphasizes the need to problematize the language of city-space. Time is again a central element in the equation of space. The continuous spatial extension of the city reveals one that is constructed as the image of itself. New technologies alongside of social interactivity and aesthetic practices recasts a variable coding in which categories such as public space and social communication, social (time) history, identity and tradition must be examined as ´superblocks´ reframing the language of cities. The emergence of a mode of signification traversed by visual culture refigures a subject immersed in multiplicities travelling in a constant exchange of forces. In this complex and shifting contexts we relocate encounters, dissensus and resistances. As we successively render a city imagined into an image-city we translate the sensible object into an abstract one, the city-space as a text. We might assume this translation as repetition for the city has always being a text, constituted by images, by abstractions in the construction of space. Observation and visual analysis: Contemporary cities, specifically Latin-Americans cities, will be examined using the categories of public space and aesthetic practices. Observation will be documented using the technologic possibilities of digital photography. As the photography becomes-text, visual analysis will provide the basis for unifying image and context; for reading the world-image in the surface of the 'glocal', for enhancing its interpretive and active potential in space/time. Social dialogue: The construction of space is organized within the domain of the reconstruction of world space. Central to this issue is the shift in scientific and social paradigms encompassing the category of the city in complex and multiple paradoxical dimensions. The city, the global city, is the time frame for cultural practices that expresses the possibility -more than ever present- of a social -extended- dialogue.
Chougrani, Fadela, and A Cherigune. "Identification and Some Technological Properties of Lacticacid Bacteria Isolated from Western Algerian Ewe's Milk." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. The present work consists on the one hand in identifying the different strains of lactic acid bacteria existing in ewe’s milk, by isolation and purification, so, to study their physiological, biochemical and technological properties. The operation of isolation and purification, as well as the various physiological and biochemical tests permitted us to identify 10 strains of lactic acid bacteria from ewe’s milk which were represented by 50% of lactobacilli such as Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and 50% of lactococci such as Leuconostoc mesenteroides. Strains were screened for their acidifying, proteolytic and antibioresistance activities. They present some variable technological properties according to their acidifying and proteolytic activities. Strains of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Leuconostoc mesenteroides exhibited the highest acidifying activity. All identified strains show an important proteolytic activity, with the exception of the strain Leuconostoc mesenteroides, that doesn't present any activity of this kind. The survey of the atibioresistance of the strains permits to signal their sensitivities obvious to the different used antibiotics. With regard to the microbiological analysis of the ewe’s milk this one underlines the middle presence of total germs (46.105 ufc/ml). Yeasts and fungi are negligible (30 ufc/ml), whereas, the presence of total coliforms is considerable (200 ufc/ml), the number of fecal streptococci was (57 ufc/ml) on average, staphylococci (15 ufc/ml), by relating no contamination by salmonella has been signaled. The physico-chemical analysis of milk raises a relatively weak acidity (18 °D) on average, a middle rate of fatty acids (6.45%) and a weak rate of nitrogen matter (3.5%). The results obtained reveal that the milk of sheep is a complete food of a biologic and technological interest, notably by the presence of necessary lactic strains for the food industry as the manufacture of yogurt and cheese.
Aguayo, José Marcos Bus. "Impact of Beliefs of Obligation and Attitudes in the Prediction of Conservation Behaviors." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Aims & objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the beliefs of obligation of taking care of the resources and the attitudes towards three kinds of pro-environmental behavior. Context & Background literature: The environmental problems which cities confront are diverse and require solutions in which the population actively participates. To recognise the factors that lead such participation has turned into a main goal. The research of the determiners of the pro-environmental behavior has started from several predictors and diverse theorical models. Beliefs have been associated with water conservation (Corral-Verdugo, Bechtel, & Fraijo-Sing, 2003), attitudes with ecological behavioral intention (Kaiser, Ranney, Hartig & Bowler, 1999) and with water conservation (Martimportugués, Canto, García & Hidalgo, 2002). According to these studies, a united evaluation of beliefs and attitudes represent a possibility of important inquiry. Method: The sample involved 300 inhabitants of México City with an average of 32 years of edge (range = 18-73), an average of 12 years of schooling, and an average monthly income of $5478 Mexican pesos. Half the subjects were female and the other half, male, who were interviewed at their own residence. The instruments used were Likert scales in order to measure the beliefs about taking care of the use of electric power, recycling, water conservation, and beliefs of obligation. A scale of semantic differential was constructed to evaluate attitude. Findings and conclusion: In terms of average values, 2.89 was the result for recycling, 2.88 for taking care of electric power, and 3.52 for water conservation, being the minimum scale value 1 and the maximum 4. By regression analysis it was found that the consumption of electric power, recycling and water conservation were predicted mainly by the beliefs of the obligation of taking care of the resources and the specific attitude of each behavior. It was concluded that the beliefs of obligation represent an important predictator of environmental action and that, when set together, along with the attitude, form a more appropriate predictive model. Finally, we discussed the relevance of the results for an environmental education campaign.
Raey, Mohamed El. "Impact of Climate Change on the Mediterranean Coast of Egypt." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Basic principles of climate change and its potential impact on various sectors of development are outlined. A comparison among various greenhouse gases and needs for control and capacity building in developing countries are presented. Particular attention to potential impacts on coastal zone, water resources and agricultural resources of Egypt are also presented. A vulnerability analysis of potential impact of SLR on the Nile delta region with particular attention on economic centers of the cities of Alexandria, Port Saied, Rosetta, Marina and Matruh on the Egyptian coast of the Mediterranean, are presented based on detailed analysis of Digital Elevation Models (DEM) and applications of remote sensing and GIS technologies to reach quantititative assessments of direct physical inundation according to IPCC scenarios of sea level rise, are discussed. Socioeconomic implications including job opportunities, loss of world heritage, loss of tourism,… are also discussed. Indirect impacts of salt water intrusion are still to be estimated. Results indicate necessary immediate activation of the precautionary principle for adaptation. A critical analysis of gaps, policy and work in progress in Egypt are also presented and discussed.
Hoogen, Van den, M Wouter, and Anneloes L. Meijnders. "Impact of Distance to Power Plant on Preferences for Energy Sources." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. As is true for any energy source, successful implementation of biomass, such as manure and grown crops, depends on public acceptance. Research by Hübner and Meijnders (2004) suggests that neighbours of power plants prefer other types of biomass than do electricity consumers. Two scenario studies were conducted to increase our understanding of these preference patterns. Based on temporal construal level theory (Trope & Lieberman, 2003) distance to the electricity production process was hypothesized to be a key determinant of preferences. The aim of the first study (N=131) was to replicate the preference patterns found for real neighbours and consumers by making use of written scenarios. Half of the participants were presented with a ‘near by’ scenario, explaining that a power plant would be built soon in their neighbourhood, and half of them read a ‘far away’ scenario, explaining that a power plant would be built in the future and far away. All participants were asked to indicate their preference for different types of biomass to be used in the plant. In support of the external validity of scenario studies, the ‘near by’ scenario elicited a pattern of preferences comparable to the pattern of the neighbours, and the ‘far away’ scenario elicited a preference pattern comparable to that of the consumers. In a second study (N=98), temporal and physical distance to the hypothetical power plant were manipulated independently. Physical (but not temporal) distance was found to influence preferences, and in addition we found evidence of influences on involvement, perceived risk and perceived personal consequences. The results of the scenario studies suggest that distance to the production process plays an important role in shaping preferences for different types of biomass. To talk about public acceptance of biomass is therefore too general. For successful implementation of biomass in society, a distinction should be made between users of the end product, the electricity consumers, and the persons who are confronted with the production process, the neighbours. The perspectives of both consumers and future neighbours of power plants should be considered in order to match the technological possibilities with the acceptance of these sources.
El-Batran, Manal, Neamat Nazmy, and Mohammed Sweedan. "Impact of Informal Urban Expansion on the Pyramids Area, Giza- Egypt." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006.

The paper aims to clarify the dangers and threats of informal urban expansion as well as various aspects of physical & economic development of Giza city, which is located only a few kilometers south of Cairo, and next to one of the most important heritage sites in Egypt and the World which is the pyramids area. The paper also discuses the role of the State in stopping the growth of informal settlements closed to the Pyramids and in safeguarding them. Heritage is our legacy from the past, what we live with today and what we pass on to future. World heritage sites belong to all the peoples of the world. Egypt is a country rich of monuments, heritage buildings and sites from different periods like ancient Egypt, Romans, Coptic and Islam. Egypt contains the Giza pyramids which are considered among the seven wonders of the World. Thus, the sustainable development plan for Giza city, like any other city that has heritage sites must include the preservation of its monuments which are considered irreplaceable( nonrenewable) sources and safeguarding them for the future generations in all the World. The problem is: Most Egyptian cities suffer, over the past four decades, from the rapid informal urbanization caused mainly from the villages migration to the cities specially the big ones like Cairo, Alexandria, Giza, as a result of the concentration of economic activities, services, and job opportunities in these cities. The growth of Giza city -our case study- is uncontrolled and the informal settlements become very close to the monument area of the pyramids, causing environmental and visual pollution which affects the Pyramids area as well as the future of the tourism. The paper will show successful experiments of some countries to safeguard their monuments or heritage sites. It also presents the threats around the pyramids area; by following the development of Giza city from a small village in the beginning of the 20th century into a big city now. The paper also introduces the results of interviews with specialists in the field of planning, archeology and several others. The results of the study show the pollution and urban sprawl problems that exists around the pyramids area and how to deal with them.

Cernea, Michael M.. "Impoverishment Or Sustainability: Can Poor Africans Even Become Poorer?" In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. The assumption of enduring sustainability is a basic premise, built into the rationale of every conservation/environmental program and of development investment programs. Such interventions are assumed not only to generate improvements, but also to make these improvements lasting and self-sustainable. The author examines critically this assumption in the perspective of risk analysis, in particular of the IRR (Impoverishment Risks and Reconstruction) model for resettling displaced populations, employed as a theoretical and analytical framework. The paper’s focus is on three categories of projects that entail involuntary displacement and resettlement. The cases considered are from Africa: (a) projects creating national conservation parks; (b) projects for building hydropower dams; and (c) projects in the mining sector and extractive industries.The paper points to an important conceptual shift over the last decade in the research apparatus on resettlement, broadened considerably by the use of a risk-related perspective. Employing an analytical risk-lens, the author explores how the risks intrinsic in such interventions affect communities, families and individuals. When this occurs, the impacts of these projects on the sustainability of people’s livelihoods may be negative.Answering the question in the paper’s title – “Can poor Africans become even poorer than they are?” – the author’s response is that this is precisely what happens when ongoing projects do not protect effectively against the impoverishment risks inherent in forcible displacement. The paper suggests how such situations can be prevented or mitigated. It argues that the general benefits from development projects, should not be paid in the coin of risks and losses to the immediately affected communities.
Guoqing, Shi, Zhou Jian, and Chen Shaojun. "Improvements in China's Resettlement Policies and Practices: Compensation Norms, Institution and Development." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006.

The extent and types of resettlement, such as the resettlement induced in different sectors by dams, transportation , urban construction and environment protection etc., are discussed.China’s existing policy and legal framework for resettlement are discussed as follows: the legal system and the legislation of China and the development of the policies on land acquisition, demolition, removal and resettlement. The Land Administration Law (LAL) of PRC is the basic law in resettlement induced by land acqurision. The TAL and its series regulations associated in national and local level constitutes the legal system in land acquisition and resettlement. The national Regulation in Urban House Demolition Administration and its local implementation guidelines in each city formulated the legal system in involuntary resettlement in urban areas. The Regulation in Compensation and Resettlement Large and Middle sized Water Conservancy and Hydropower Project and special Regulation in Resettlement induced by Three Gorges Dam Construction are formulated the involuntary resettlement in the water sector. The newest policies in involuntary resettlement is presented.The improvement in compensation norms and its development in last 55 years is presented and analyzed. The institutional system for resettlement is introduced. There are now three levels in China’s R&R organizations. The first level is the administrative level of the Central Government, i.e., the State Council and its ministries and institutions. The second one is the management sector and concerned government agencies of provincial, municipal and county government, including management sector, land management sector, house removal management sector, supervisory committee and judicial institutions. The third one is the institutions for implementing and servicing like project owner (including the institutions that are employed to work for the project owner, such as design institution, monitoring and evaluation institution) and the R&R institution trusted by the owner. In China, the difference of R&R between projects of different sectors lies in different implementing agencies and sector management department.The national agency focus on resettlement just come to the consultation within the central government.The practices of involuntary resettlement are presented. The resettlement plan, which includes the socioeconomic survey, resettlement planning, detailed resettlement plan, the contents of resettlement plan are discussed. The resettlement implementation, participation and consultation, budget and funds management, evaluation are also outlined.

In The Past 55 Years, The Massive Economic Development In China Has Caused More Than 70 Millions Involuntary Resettlars Induced By Development Projects.

Koyama, Masako, Tetsuya Akagi, and Kei Adachi. Improving More Homelike Environment in Group Care Unit for Persons with Dementia In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. "Purpose: The purpose of this study is to improve sustainable environment for persons with dementia in more homelike, in which the study is based on the characteristics of environmental behaviors for persons with dementia and staffs, psychology for staffs and artifacts in activity spaces and private rooms of nursing home.Background: Living environmental issues for persons with dementia have become more and more important. How can improve the living environment for them to homelike is paid to attention as an important theme decreasing their uneasiness and confusion, and stabilizing their mental status in recent years. However, because a concrete standard to the homelike is not shown, persons with dementia living in nursing home and staff are confusing now. Therefore, it is necessary to clarify a concrete standard for creating the homelike environment in the nursing home immediately. Method: The surveyed nursing home to which the group care is practiced has the conventional living and the group Living. In the conventional living and the group Living, four and three respectively group care units exist. We surveyed all the group care units to clarify the environmental factors for creating the homelike. The main three surveys were executed. 1) The person-environment transaction was analyzed by behavioral tracking method to all persons with dementia living in the nursing home and all staffs. 2) The degree of homelike with twenty-one activity spaces and private rooms respectively was analyzed by semantic differential method to twenty-three staffs. 3) The kind, the number, and the process of bringing to all artifacts in twenty-one activity spaces and private rooms respectively were interviewed from persons with dementia and staffs. Results and Conclusions: We find that the important environmental factors creating more homelike for persons with dementia are "human scale", "familiarity" and "personal life". However, these important degrees are different between the activity spaces and the private rooms. The degree of importance increases in order of human scale
Alhassan, Ameera H., and Steve J. M. Dudek. "Improving Sustainable Development Plans in the Arabian World Through Initiating the Arab Architecture." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. This paper demonstrates how Architecture Education worldwide follows certain criteria to ensure that academia improves its educational system in response to the scientific advancement as well as the state's future plans. The paper will also demonstrate how Schools of Architecture in the Arabic/ Islamic countries improve their syllabi independent of each other since their establishment; therefore there is a need to found the Arabian Architecture Accrediting Board (AAAB) that will work towards teaching architecture that will better serve the Arabian culture, climate, and sustainable development especially for that region of the world. Architecture Accrediting Boards in many countries set up guide lines for their educational institutes to ensure creating a unified theme of the state's curricula. In the United Kingdom the Royal Institute of British Architects, RIBA was established in 1834 to guide architecture as a profession. Towards the end of the 1990s individual countries of the European Union have established qualification recognition and a pan European Architecture accreditation. In the United States of America the National Architectural Accrediting Board, NAAB was started in 1932 while in Australia there is the National Architectural Accrediting Board, AACA which took place in 1974. And finally the Commonwealth Association of Architects which was established in 1965 currently validates the certificates of its 35 member states. Those accreditation bodies place a high priority on refurbishing Architecture Curricula in conjunction with modernisation and developing building technologies to better serve a main international goal that is achieving sustainable development in Architecture Industry. Given that achieving sustainable development requires developing better building plans for each country through developing a better educational system. The future of the architectural profession in Arabia calls to rethinking how they educate their students and accredit their schools.
Sato, Kenichi, and Tetsuya Akagi. Improving Urban Environment for Creating the Sustainability Based on Legibility Through Way Finding In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. "Purpose: The purpose of this experimental study is to improve sustainable urban environment in more legible manners, in which the study is based on the characteristics of wayfinding behavior in seven persons learned conceptually by using map, nine persons learned conceptually by using sentences, nine persons learned physically only direction sense to destination, and seven persons learned physically only distance sense to destination, while their walking on setting limits for wayfinding cues environmental information that they learned.Background: We cognize the urban environment by learning a lot of environmental information from various behaviors in daily life. However, because physical construction has been rapidly advanced and environmental information that we need to cognize the urban environment has become more complex, our cognizing to the urban environment becomes difficult more and more. Therefore, the person-environment transaction is examined, and the improvement of gentler urban environment for persons based on legibility is necessary for creating the sustainability. However, only few studies have so far been made at being discussed from the person-environment transaction to urban environment based on legibility.Method: The proving ground is the urban environment with a grid network of streets where the landmark doesn't exist. The experiment was conducted by three persons (a subject, a director, a recorder). The subjects are thirty-two persons who do not have direct and indirect experience for this ground. After individual subjects had finished wayfinding behaviors, the investigations used behavior tracking method and recognition method "scene distinction method", recall method "sketch map method" was done.Results and Conclusions: We find that the persons learned conceptually by using map cognize the urban environment easily most in four attributes. Because the learning of the map has developed "Sign-Organization" most compared with other learning. "Sign-Organization" cannot be perceived as quickly from a bird's-eye viewpoint, is symbolized by reconstructing the environmental knowledge with one's inner mentality. And, it is thought that this "Sign-Organization" is more advanced environmental knowledge that appears at the stage where a whole of urban environment composition is cognizable. Therefore, it is important to lead person's environmental knowledge to "Sign-Organization" earlier by to be able to get an unbroken view, to keep the continuousness of the space, and to present the signatures hierarchically, etc. to improve the urban environment complex now for creating the sustainability based on legibility."
Uzzell, David, Dennis Nigbur, and Evanthia Lyons. "Increasing Recycling Through Community Action." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Aims & Objectives: In response to challenging targets to reduce household waste, the Environmental Psychology Research Group at the University of Surrey undertook a research program to develop innovative methods to increase participation in Guildford’s Kerbside Recycling Scheme. The psychological dimension of recycling is often overlooked and usually just considers personal attitudes and convenience. This research placed the focus on social aspects of recycling as a behaviour and examined how Guildford residents’ waste management habits are determined by neighborhood influences and their own sense of who they are. Drawing on theories of social norms, social identity and planned behaviour, a number of neighborhoods in a UK town were identified to receive feedback about how well their street was doing in terms of recycling participation. Participation levels in the kerbside collection scheme were monitored over the 10 weeks during which households were receiving different forms of feedback involving comparisons with other areas, their own previous performance and local authority targets, and compared with a control group. The field experiments achieved an increase in recycling rates of up to 90% participation in some streets and remained high (80%) even after the feedback had been discontinued. This paper will report on the design and results of these field experiments
Ishak, Fakharuldin, and Noor Zaitun Yahaya. Indoor Air Pollution Awareness Among School Teachers: Case Study in Ipoh City, Perak, Malaysia In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. This paper discusses the results of a study to assess the awareness levels of the secondary school teachers on the indoor air pollution knowledge. The aim of the study is to gauge the Malaysia secondary students on their knowledge, awareness, understanding of the environment and air pollution. Data were gathered sample size of 373 respondents from selected schools in Ipoh City, in the state of Perak, Malaysia. The data were analyzed by using statistical analyses by using SPSS to obtained a better understanding of the trend of the data. The key results show that 76.6 % of the school teachers have a knowledge of indoor air pollution. The study also shows that 73.7 % of the respondents agree that contaminated indoor air contributes to the health effects. The study shows that the teachers in Malaysia already have basic knowledge of air pollution and environmental issues.
Bennadji, Amar Belakehal. Indoor Environmental Quality Thought Time In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. This research aims to explore the relationships between occupants and climatic parameters, with a focus on thermal comfort. Previous research [Bennadji et al, 2000] shows that buildings recently inhabited take a long time to see a diminution of their internal temperature's amplitude. This paper tries to clarify, by a quantitative study, the importance of the occupiers' behaviour towards their building's adaptation to climate. This paper focalises on one habit behaviour of a single family who moved from a traditional house to a modern flat. The monitoring of the thermal behaviour of the flat shows a very bad adaptation to climate even if the flat was built with better building specifications to avoid heat gain and lost. An investigation about this behaviour was necessarily to explain and demonstrate why people take a long time to understand the physical environment that they are living in and how to react to it. The paper will address the daily behaviour of occupants toward making their accommodation cooler as the climate addressed here is the hot arid climatic zone. During two years; a year before moving place and a year after; the internal minimal and maximal temperatures were taken daily as well as the external ones. The objective of this study is to make architects and designer more aware of people's adaptation to their new properties and the necessity to consider these new properties like a new manufactured product where many aspects of it are not well known. The results show that these buildings exchange with external climate in term of people use of the space and buildings envelop. The measurments done few years later shows a great improvment of the indoor environmental quality in term of thermal comfort achieaved by the users. The aim of this study is to make architects and designers more aware about people behaviour and habit while designing buildings and especially dwellings.
Okem, Selim. "Information City: the Network of International Capital, Media and Culture." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. The possibility of an information city, definition requirements: The 'classical classification' of the economies of the countries around the world can be grouped into three. In the first two cathegories are the economies that are dependent to agriculture and industry which is to say that those economies are strongly related to a place and man bound structure. That brings us to a conception of a city without any territorial borders and inhabitants. The questions arise such as; what could be the definition of the physical environment and requirements of such a borderless and non-populated city. What are the internal relationships of its mechanisms such as international capital, media and culture and what relations does an information city grow with the rest of the world? Are the conventional architectural, cultural terms applicable to it? This paper is aimed to raise discussions over the above mentioned questions. The background: The paper is mainly based on two studies. One is the article 'Architecture and the Zeitgeist: The Problem of Immanence' by the architect Peter Eisenman where he questions the characteristics and the requirements of a non-place bound architecture. It also takes into account the statictics of the people and investment growth in the different parts of the world given in the multi-author book called 'Mutations'. Narrative analysis of texts on information cities: A narrative analysis method first introduced by semiotician A. J. Greimas is used to analyse texts from authors P. Eisenman, F. Kittler, N. Tazi, Y. M. Boutang to bring out the conceptual oppositions to make an interpretive discussion broad in scope. Discussion: the influence of media culture : Though not the majority of people but the capital around the world is located in cites we call information cities. In those cities the capital needs media to stream in, be transferred back and forth while the media is fed by the very capital that it carries in itself. The culture is shaped within the relationship that this structure dictates. And this culture in accordence has all the financial power and the ways (media) to influence -even dominate the culture in the rest of the world. Architecture which is the way we organize the physical environment that surrounds us is effected by this cultural influence. The main discussion this paper raises is that 'can cities that have not reached information stage (that don't have mediatic infrastructure equipped with ethics, technology and technics and enough financial power to supply this equipment)cope with this influence?
Kalantidou, Eleni, and Kiriaki Tsoukala. "Intelligent Build Environments and User's Behaviour: Issues of Spatial Organization and Human Attitude." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Artificial intelligence and technology have enriched the physical environment and became an important part of humans' life. The digital reality has started to reform the human thought and to transform the urban setting. However, too few field researches related to the interaction between intelligent buildings, intelligent workspaces and people have been realized so far, a fact which has as a result the limited resources of information based on this scientific area. The bibliographical references on intelligent environments give emphasis more on their technological background and their facilities without examining enough the user's involvement. The goal of this article is to present aspects of user's behavior in the new spatial territories. The material is provided by a research that has been realized in two intelligent office buildings in Barcelona, Spain. Sixty (60) employees, thirty (30) men and thirty (30) women composed the sample. The collection of the data was made through questionnaires (questions of closed and open type) and was analyzed through qualitative and quantitative analyzing techniques. The basic parameters of the research are the spatial variables (technology, organization of space, location) and the social variables (organizational culture, gender), factors that play a significant role in employees' behavior. The analysis of the data shows differences between the two sexes in the way they comprehend the satisfaction in an intelligent working space and in the priorities they give on specific characteristics of the working environment (concerning its spatial organization and its technological characteristics). Also, there are indications that the location of the building and the organization culture of the companies influence the behaviour of both men and women. This project aims, through the study of employees’ behavior, to the formulation of design criteria which will contribute to the creation of a sustainable built environment and therefore to the improvement of the workspace quality.
Hanafi, Ahmed Hessein Ka. "Introducing Sustainability into Architectural Education: Towards a Holistic Framework." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. The Aims and Objectives of the paper: This paper is aiming to shift sustainability in architecture from an abstract manner to a concrete one through reshaping design thinking (aims and methodologies) and practicing ethics. This could be achieved by developing a conceptual framework (Principles, strategies and methods) covering the entire life-cycle of architecture (cradle-to-grave).The Context and Background Literature: This part offers general review of concepts and principles of sustainable development, covering various definitions: some general and some more precise (related to architecture nature) dealing with context compatibility and long-life viability of the built-environment. This review reveals the followings: The subject of sustainability in the built environment is a complex one and can be viewed from several points of view. Designing, producing and maintaining built-environment consume a large amounts of resources (about 30% of raw materials and 42% of energy in US). As the income level of a society increases, so does its resources consumption including architectural resources (land, building products, energy, etc…). This in turn increases the combined impact of architecture on the global ecosystems. Human and societal aspects is one of the most important principles of sustainable architecture especially nowadays as - in modern society - more than 70% of a person's lifespan is spent indoors. The aim of sustainable architecture is to achieve a balanced coexistence of the three constituent groups of environment (inorganic elements, living organisms and humans).The Method of Inquiry or Argument: Theoretical analytical methodology is employed and a content analysis is used addressing the idea of sustainability as a change paradigm in architecture covering not only the environmental discipline but also the social and economical ones.The Findings and Conclusions: Integrating sustainable concept in design thinking in many levels ranging from ideological level (believes in sustainability as an ethical reasoning for architecture) to the methodological level which incorporates principles and strategies for various range of disciplines and finally the practicing level which involves methods. This hierarchical multi-layer approach can help to draw a holistic framework for introducing sustainability related syllabuses to the architectural education. Sustainability has many approaches so it is necessary to introduce the Value Engineering in the undergraduate education and in addition to, train design studio student on how to utilize this managerial methodology to organize his design thinking. Sustainability as a continues cyclic concept, requires feedback action which encourages introducing Post Occupancy Evaluation to the architectural profession in a rigorous scientific bases this can not be achieved without an early plantation of POE - as a concept and methodology - in the architectural education. Many POE assignments can help students to practice an early real fruitful architectural criticism which may convince them in the vital role of sustainability in whole life in general and architecture in particular, more than that, these POE assignments can show them practically how to make compromises between many factors in many disciplines to reach to the optimum sustainable design (in both levels of construction and building in-us.
Takesada, Naruhiko. "Japanese Experience of Involuntary Resettlement: Long-Term Consequences of Resettlement by Ikawa Dam." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Dam Construction and Involuntary Resettlement in Japan: Constructing dams often involves number of households to be resettled involuntarily and is nowadays being faced with severe criticism in spite of various efforts by the concerned governments and donor agencies. In Japan, there were many cases of dam construction with involuntary resettlement, though the number of families affected per project was fairly smaller. Especially, in 1950s and ‘60s, as Japan experienced economic growth involuntary resettlement with dam construction was major social issue.Research and Practice in Involuntary Resettlement Caused by Dam: Existing literatures on research and practice in dam resettlement has two poles. One is “managerial view”, which sees involuntary resettlement as a part of development projects and seeks for “better” resettlement. The other is “movementist view”, which critically questions involuntary resettlement as well as development itself. Many researches and practices (including protests by NGOs) are in between these two poles. However, resettler’s strategy and choice coping with resettlement situation and new livelihood do not receive proper attention in either view. Ikawa Dam resettlement in 1950s’ Japan: In this study, involuntary resettlement of Ikawa Dam in Shizuoka Prefecture is examined. Ikawa Dam, completed in 1957 along the Ohi River, was constructed for the purpose of hydro power generation. It caused involuntary resettlement of 193 households among 550 households in Ikawa village. The approach taken in this resettlement was “New Village Building” as to reconstruct resettlers’ livelihood. As a relatively early development project in post-war Japan, Ikawa Dam Project adopted land-for-land approach for resettlement and compensation instead of monetary compensation, which was later introduced under the common guideline established in 1960s.Resettlers’ Choice and Long-term Consequences of Resettlement: In the study, intensive interviews were made to villagers who moved and then remained in newly developed resettlement area more than 50 years. The interview result reveals several points worth noting. First, resettlers’ choices to move to resettlement area were not necessarily rational or collective. Second, although the village community currently suffers depopulation and aging, many resettlers are satisfied with their choice and livelihood so far. Third, main reason for their satisfaction lies in the successful rearing of their children or second generation.Implications for Future Research and Practice: Although further studies on other dam resettlement experiences are needed, implications derived from the study are; Planning and implementation of resettlement program needs two elements. One is far-sightedness which may eventually assist to establish livelihood for the second generation. The other is proper attention to resettler’s possible decision as well as restraint to make rational decision.
Pandey, Balaji. "Kalinga Nagar Tragedy: Development Malice Or Development Goal?" In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. The tribal areas in Orissa are generally endowed with natural resources, which, of late, have become a bane for the inhabitants due to a new form of development paradigm with the advent of the New Economic Policy, which has greater thrust on rapid industrialization. The irony is that its proponents have invariably ignored the ‘path of development with equity’ in this paradigm, which is aggressively pushing the tribals to the margins by destroying their perennial source of sustenance and causing permanent damage to their social and cultural ethos. The Kalinga Nagar killings and the ongoing tribal unrest in the aftermath, not only in that area but almost all tribal pockets in Orissa, indicate their cumulative resentment against callous attitude of the State towards them in the name of economic development which aggravated further in the era of liberalization and globalization. Both the State and the investors seem to have joined hands in creating such a situation disregarding the Constitutional obligations and the ILO Conventions (107&169) concerning the tribal and indigenous peoples.The paper will trace the root causes of Kalinga Nagar incident and resultant tribal upheavals in Orissa and highlight views of various stakeholders and civil society organizations in this regard.
Senkatuka, Ian S.. Kampala City's Neighbourhood Roads - More than Just a Transit Conduit In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Faced with many constraints, the infrastructure provider - Kampala City Council, is failing to manage the neighbourhood roads in Kampala City. Many of them are therefore in a poor state of disrepair. This is evidenced by; the potholes that can be seen in many of them, the poor storm water drains, the lack of clearly defined pedestrian walkways, etc. This affects the comfort and the convenience of vehicular and pedestrian users, from inside and outside the neighbourhood, especially during the rainy seasons. To attempt to improve the management of these neighbourhood roads, and their actual state, it is important to look at the way the neighbourhood roads are used. This paper looks at neighbourhood roads found in neighbourhood areas, in Uganda's capital city Kampala that is urbanising rapidly. The development of the theoretical framework is still ongoing. However this research identifies with a number of theoretical fields that will be utilised in this study. The first is the management of neighbourhood road infrastructure, the second is the neighbourhood roads and their use, and the third is the actors/agents of change. In each of these theoretical frameworks, relevant concepts will be identified. Included in the theories of urban management will be the concepts of: urban governance, participation and self-help. Others concepts used will include place attachment by residents and other users, social cohesion by members of the community, and home based enterprises that serve road users. Not much research has been done that combines the three aspects described above, or that looks at the neighbourhood road from a wider perspective. Neighbourhood roads are looked at as a distinct technical element of the actual neighbourhood that enables people to move from one place to another. However the relationship between the road and the neighbourhood's people is not taken into consideration. The neighbourhood road is mainly seen as a transit conduit. However is that all it is used for? What does the neighbourhood road do for the local people who live along it or off it, and to others who use it? What potential improvements can be identified to improve it The neighbourhood roads in Kampala city need to be looked at with a wider perspective, for it is used for many more activities, other than as a transit route. Case Study Methodology: As part of an ongoing PHD research study, a case study of a selected road located within Kansanga in Makindye division, which is a mixed income neighbourhood of Kampala City, is being undertaken to show how the road is used, and how people living along and off it, relate to it. This case was chosen because it is information rich, and will be able to show how different income groups use and relate to the neighbourhood road. Preliminary results from the case study confirmed that in addition to being used as a transit conduit, the neighbourhood road is used for many more activities that include trade, social activities, etc. Facilities for trade that can be found along neighbourhood roads include groceries, fruit and vegetable stalls, charcoal stalls, bars, etc. The identified uses of the neighbourhood road, involve many stakeholders, some of who depend on it. However while the road is a means of livelihood to some, to others it is an insecure boundary to their properties. They use it to as a means of getting to a place where they feel secure and seclude themselves from it using boundary walls, gates, etc, as they try to protect themselves from crime. Preliminary results also highlighted the poor state of the neighbourhood road that will need to be improved, to make it comfortable and convenient for all its many users. It is therefore in their common interest to improve it. With this wider definition of the neighbourhood road and what it is used for, a wider group of stakeholders can be identified. From this it follows that new opportunities for improving the management and the maintenance of the neighbourhood road can be found. Some of the stakeholders identified, may be able to contribute to the improvement of the road, or they may be potential managers of the neighbourhood road, complementing or supplementing Kampala City Council in its role, if their needs can be met .The creation of community organisations and the involvement of the community in improving the neighbourhood roads, could also contribute to the development of a sense of community in the neighbourhood, which may lead to a safer neighbourhood. Thus looking at the road through a wider perspective should provide knowledge that could contribute to the improved management and the overall improvement of neighbourhood roads in Kampala city.
Tolba, Mostafa Kamal. "Land Degradation: Desertification is Stoppable." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Almost 30 years ago in Nairobi (in 1977) The World Community, at the UN Conference on Desertification, agreed a Plan of Action to Combat Desertification . The Plan’s 28 recommendations were ambitions in scope but entirely in keeping with the extent and complexity of the problem. Effectively applied, those recommendations would have put the international community in position to have halted desertification by the year 2000. Nothing of the sort happened . Seventeen years later , in 1994, the World Community adopted a UN Convention to combat Desertification. Twelve years later, in 2006, not too much happened . This paper argues that desertification is stoppable.
Robinson, Julia W.. "Landmarks in a Particular Research Trajectory: Identifying Architectural Differences Between Degrees Or Kinds of Institutionality." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. This paper verbally describes a drawn diagram of an architectural research enquiry that combined explorations of people’s perceptions of environments with methods of architectural description. The study resulted in a description of 5 degrees or kinds of institutionality. The initial research in 1975 explored how people understand housing types. The landmarks that set the course of the research included Rapoport’s House form and culture (1969) which raised questions about how environments are perceived; Newman’s Defensible space (1972) and Chermayeff & Alexander’s Community and privacy (1963) which explored degrees of privacy, Cooper’s “House as symbol of the self” (1974), and Sanoff’s “Measuring Attributes of the Visual Environment” (1974). A participant in the study presaged later work with an observation that certain houses looked “institutional”.The following investigation in the early 1980’s looked at a range of settings for disabled people to identify the design differences between institution and home environments. This work had several broad avenues of exploration of which one, ways of describing environments, we follow in this paper. (Another avenue, that of understanding institutionality was informed by diverse works such as Asylums (Goffman, 1961) Designing for therapeutic environments (Canter and Canter, 1979), “The normalization principle,” (Nirje, 1969), and Environmental characteristics of residential facilities for mentally retarded people, (Rotegard et al, 1981))This second stage work employed Zeisel’s hypothesis-based method that linked words to aspects of form (Inquiry by Design, 1975). Also generative were Cooper’s Easter Hill Village (1975), Howells’s Designing for Aging 1980) and Pattern language (Alexander et al, 1977, which related physical descriptions of places to people’s understanding and use. This stage also employed concepts of “etic” and “emic” raised implicitly or implicitly in Rapoport’s The meaning of the built environment (1982) and Bonta’s Architecture & its interpretation (1979).The third stage of work explored the relation between the terms “institution” and “home” utilizing landmarks from psychology and linguistics that addressed categories and definitions: “Basic objects in natural categories” (Rosch et al, 1976) and “Categories of Environmental Scenes” (Tversky and Hemenway, 1983). Yet another contributing stream is from social science studies of groups with impairments, for example PASS 3 (Wolfensburger & Glenn, 1975), and Multi-phasic environmental assessment (Moos and Lemke, 1979).Description of architecture in semiological studies such as Krampen’s 1979 book Meaning in the urban environment, Donald Preziosi’s Minoan architectural design (1983), and Steadman’s Architectural morphology expanded our vision of possible techniques for describing environments. At the end of this phase space syntax, as presented in The social logic of space (Hillier and Hanson, 1984) played a critical role in developing alternative ways to understand spatial patterns. When linked to earlier explorations of the privacy gradient, these insights led to the description of the five-level description of institutionality.
Vieira, Mariana Dias, and Cristiane Rose Sique Duarte. "Landscape of Mobility." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. The aim of this work is to analyse the open spaces with special attention to those that enable the permanent or eventual organization of open air markets. We choose to study the spaces associated with cultural practices because we believe that these activities leads to the re-creation and re-conceptualization of new spaces. The work adopts a broad understanding, seeing urban design as more than simply the physical or visual appearance of development, but also as an integrative and integrating activity – and as such, it should be produced for people to use it. Some authors state the evidence of the effects of fragmentation in contemporary cities and the establishment of new patterns of urban perception and appropriation. Although it is true, we call attention to the persistence of some structures, such as the open air markets that remain full of meaning in the urban life, even though they had been constantly modified. We also believe that these permanences play a very important role in the maintenance of the urban life and promote the emergence of new relations and spatial experiences. In order to analyse the many aspects of the urban form of these spaces we compare different ones, where these activities take place, observing three different dimensions: morphological, perceptual and social dimensions. The comprehension of these dimensions associated to some hidden rules – which are found very frequently in open-markets - make evident that urban form and its uses can not be studied separately. Understanding the contemporary urban life as a result of intense mobility and interconnectivity between spaces, the open air markets appear as a relevant promoter of movement and urban vitality. The open air markets creates a very specific urban context, with diverse interests involved that requires a new comprehension of urban morphology and a development of a new thinking on the practice and process of urban design.
Ahmed, Tamer Mohamed. Landscape Planning and Environmental Control in Hot Arid Zones In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. "Context: the unrelenting growth of the primate city, Cairo, the government of Egypt has implemented new cities policies to redistribute the nation's population away from the fertile Nile Delta region to new desert cities, unfortunately success of the new cities in Egypt did not achieve their goals in generally because people did not move to live in these new cities, the aim of planning these new cities as relatively self-contained settlements, so that their residents would not only live but also work go to school, shop and play locally. This study believes that the miss concept of liveability is the key reason of that situation; liveability includes a collection of different issues that are underpinned by a common set of guiding values such as, accessibility, equity, and participation that give substance to the concepts of liveability. Seventy five percent of the world's population during the 21st Century will live in the developing countries cities, and making these cities liveable is one of this century's challenges at the same time this cities become gradually an important nodes in the financial and productive networks in the global economy. A large number of these cities are within the hot arid regions; moreover these cities have lots of problems but the population is one of the increasing problems, governments of these countries are struggling to solve this problem, one of the key solutions was planning a new satellite settlements or new cities in kind of demographic development more like decentralization and relocation policies. The quality of life experienced by society living in a city is tied to their ability to access infrastructure (transportation, communication, water, and sanitation); food; clean air; affordable housing; meaningful employment; and green space and parks and moreover a comfort microclimate.Good landscape planning must have an ecological base: the practice of "creative ecology" is recommended, it must also have regard for visual quality; however, these two demands may be in conflict: they must be reconciled; again, landscape planning must focus on the multi functionality of the landscape elements using the ground of the liveability, landscape planning can play an important role in urban transformation by virtue of its multi functionality. There are a few studies on the microclimate and human comfort of the hot arid zones cities, in the cities of the arid regions; however, temperatures, solar radiation, humidity and wind are the most important ones in the assessment of the environmental quality. By scanning the literature we can perceive the lack of knowledge in the concept of liveability in arid zones cities, and again the shortage of literature within the area of landscape planning in arid zones cities, considering microclimate issues and human comfort. The research main question: What are the barriers and opportunities of the landscape planning to enhance the urban microclimate in the new cities in Egypt? The research related questions: What are the general problems in the Egyptian new cities which make it unliveable? How the urban microclimate can be enhanced in the new cities in Egypt? How far are the environmental impacts considered while planning the new cities in Egypt? What is the role, strategies and concepts of Landscape planning in the dry arid zones cities? What are economic benefits from making new cities in Egypt liveable? The research hypotheses: The landscape planning has a low consideration in the process of the Egyptian new cities master planning, despite the importance of its role in making these cities liveable in deferent ways. The research Objectives and aims: To find out why the Egyptian new cities model even with its long experience still not liveable and not working in an appropriate order, considering the huge investments in its infrastructures. Because there is relatively little quantitative evidence in this field, so this thesis will use strongly the qualitative and empirical evidences derived from robust scientific studies, and will takes account of the views and judgements of recognized experts in the field. The research is employing four methods have been chosen which are content analysis, discourse analysis, interviews and questionnaires. These four methods have chosen for the research since they give both quantitative and qualitative empirical data. Content analysis, allows getting information on the larger amount of texts. Discourse analysis, gives the possibility to study the same texts more thoroughly taking the results of the content analysis into account. Questionnaires, can gather bigger amount of people's opinions on the subject of interest. Interviews, give the possibility to focus on the same issues as in the questionnaires more thoroughly. Content and discourse analyses, questionnaires and interviews give a good ground for a comparison of presentations in media and people's opinions."
Islam, Mohammed Zakiul. Learning from the Past In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. It is essential to study the traditional Islamic cities of the Maghreb area in order to build/rebuild or formulate new ones in the same area. This paper concentrates on two important factors which shaped the cities of the past: Law and Theme. By providing examples of the Maghreb area this paper draws our attention towards the past cities of all the culture. Islamic law has physically influenced the structure of the traditional cities of Maghreb area. Qur’an is the main source of the Islamic law and Sunnah is the second one. These two sources were enough during the life of the Prophet. But as Islamic world began to grow, the Muslims relied upon two further sources: Ijama (consensus) and Qiyas (analogy). Muftis (jurists) of the traditional Islamic cities have used these two sources to solve dispute at the urban settlements. This paper briefly discusses some urban disputes at Fes, Morocco and how the urban environment was shaped by law. In order to do that, a number of cases and judgments relating to urban disputes are presented. The fatwas (judgements) were issued after taking Mas’ahah (public interest) and Urf (Custom) into consideration. The paper also proposes to consider ‘time’ if we are to apply it to the contemporary cities. The cases presented here are originally recorded in Kitab al-Mi’yar of al Wansharisi (d.914/1508) and the Kitab al-Bunyan of Ibn al-Rami (d 734/1334). This paper has taken them from two sources, they are: (1) Damages in Islamic Law: Maghribi Muftis and the Built Environment (9th-15th Centuries CE) by Akel I. Kahera and Omar Benmira; (2) Arabic Islamic Cities: Building and Planning Principles by Besim Selim Hakim. The second important factor of the traditional cities is the ‘theme’. A ‘theme’ of a city is the basis of its existence. Theme ensures the growth and self-identity of the city. A city may have more than one theme. But it need at-least one to survive. For example, Fez, Morocco had not established itself as a city in absence of a theme or a driving force. The geographical location of Fez made it certain that a settlement would have evolved naturally in that place. It was located at the intersection of two great trade routes. However, it did not flourished until at the end of the eighth century, when a descendent of the Prophet Muhammad call Idris ibn Abduallah founded the city. Idris was considered as a man of knowledge by the local people as he was a direct descendent of the Prophet Muhammad. So a “city of knowledge” was established and hence ‘knowledge’ was the theme of Fez.The paper proposes that we need to create a model through which Islamic laws(traditional laws for other culture) can be applied to the contemporary cities. The ‘theme’ of the city is also needed to be identified.
Higuchi, Maria Inês Gasp. "Living Place, Kinship and Health: Dimensions of the Same World." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Aims and objectives: This presentation discusses how living place, kinship and integral health are inseparable among people of a poor peripheral locality in Manaus, capital of the State of Amazonas, Brazil. My main aim is to describe the dwelling acts whose principal arena is the house; how it is that the residents imbue that particular place with notions of relatedness; how the two become synonymous and are continuously developed in an ongoing process that will inevitably constitute the basis for security and a sense of physical and emotional well-being within the family group. Context and background literature: Various studies argued that the significance attributed to the living space cannot be understood by taking into account merely its objective characteristics isolated from the subjective aspects that inform people's daily experiences (Bachelard, 1964; Hirsch, 1995; Croll and Parkin 1992). As Eyles (1985:124) pointed out 'place has social significance and social ties have place significance'. As cultural ideas, places can be seen as a human landscape in the sense that the land is grounded on ideas of kinship (Gow, 1995). The relationship between people and land is fully bound up together and surpasses the actual place; they live to make it the space for kinship relations and for individual well-being. To understand people's meanings of place and environmental sustainability one has to take into account the entire complex of relations in which they engage.Methodology: This one year long study was developed through the analysis of data gathered by participant observation and unstructured interviews carried out in a small urban location which is here called Vila do Sol. I chose this locality to bring together my own concerns about the necessity for improving the development of environmental programs within that neighborhood and to provide grounds for educational intervention in general.Findings and Conclusions: I try to demonstrate that such multidimensional interaction is enhanced through residential propinquity and mutual material and moral assistance. In this sense, closeness is defined as much in terms of co-residence as in terms of genealogical classification. Hence I provide details of how kinship works in daily life to promote well-being, with the house as the spatial realm for such activities. The cluster of houses inhabited by neighboring siblings, works as an important locus for organizing close relations among the residents. Siblings tend to follow those kin who arrived earlier to the location, and around them, they establish their houses. The strength ness of their relations is seen by how closely relatives live next to each other. The choice of living in a particular location appears to be made as a result of the kin relationship. Living close is a matter of preference and duty. This preference is founded on practical and emotional grounds. Living in proximity facilitates looking after and helping each other in many different ways especially when immediate assistance is needed.
Nawawi, Norwina Mohd. "Local Influence in the Dimensions of Designing Birthing Spaces for the Malay-Muslim Malaysians." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Aims and Objectives: The study aims to uncover the myth and realities of cultural and belief influence in the design of preferred birthing spaces for the selected Malay-Muslim population of Malaysia and compare them to the clinical settings of existing community based maternity units with the objective of finding a conducive design for better health outcome for mother and child. The study aim to dispel the notion of universal birthing space for all localities and that architects should consider the cultural and spiritual dimension in each of their design for better outcome. Context and Background Literature: The Government of Malaysia, in the quest for a healthy nation is continuously providing Women and Child Healthcare centres throughout Malaysia at the hospitals, health clinics and rural clinics of the country. The question posed to architects was there a Malaysian standard in designing these facilities? For maternity care, home nursing and home delivery had always been the cultural norm of the Malaysians until the advent of western medicine. Although 21st Century witness a trend where the western society goes back to “home” delivery either in the community hospital or in the homes, the reality on the general condition of the Malaysian society, do still warrant the provision of ‘good’, ‘suitable’ and ‘acceptable’ centres for maternity care other than their respective homes. Current space standards adopted for maternity care in Malaysia are generally based on culture alien to Malaysians. Asians, their lives being very much intrinsic in their culture and beliefs, seems to succumb to those conditions.Methodology and Scope: This paper is a qualitative paper. The methodology for this research is through literature review for secondary data and selected primary data through observations and questionnaire survey on selected architectural firms/architects and sites in Peninsular Malaysia as well as identifying the level of society it serves. The research will be based on the study of traditional birthing practices of the Malay-Muslim and current maternity procedures of the public Alternative Birthing Centers (ABC) of the Health Clinic and Selected District Hospitals in Peninsular Malaysia. Findings and Conclusions: The findings of this research is in its contribution in demystifying the social, cultural and religious myth surrounding the spatial and environmental requirements of traditional birthing in the Muslim-Malay Malaysian society and how it can provide added input in the establishment of an added criteria towards future design of birthing spaces of the public healthcare facility of that locality. Standard approach for local customization of design Applicability to the field & the work to done next: The findings from this research will contribute significantly to the main research of the PhD thesis on the 'added dimension' as one of the criterion for the design of birthing room spaces that address the perceived natural needs of the society. This research will be an impetus for subsequent research of onto other areas of public healthcare facilities. The significance of this research is in its contribution in demystifying the social and cultural myth surrounding the requirements for traditional birthing in the Malaysian society.
Mushumbusi, Medard Zephyrin. "Making Building Regulations Effective in Informal Settlements: Case Study, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Aim and objectives: To share experience on the regulation process in the provision of housing in the informal settlements, its impact on peoples' health decent living, orderly development and on the environment. Contextual framework: Research in many countries have concluded that less than half of the urban population in developing countries could afford to build according to prevailing standards and regulations. A study on the regulatory framework for affordable shelter in Dar es Salaam gives an indication that the existing planning and building regulations including administrative procedures constitute the most significant barriers to shelter provision to the urban majority. However, Lack of appropriate building regulations result in chaotic and lower construction standards throughout the industry that eventually leads to increased costs in terms of future construction maintenance costs health preservation and environmental problems. Guided and orderly development would stimulate economic, social, cultural and environmental development. Aspects of security of tenure and provision of infrastructure and public goods have also been identified as critical components within the broad sense of housing provision for sustainable development. Paradoxically (in developing countries and in Tanzania in particular), building regulations are only restricted to regulating the development of the minority planned areas and the permanent structures in the urban formal sector/ areas. Research strategy: It is being argue that building regulations as such impede the development of human settlements, hence giving rise to informal settlements. It is therefore considered important to compare the two scenarios as to what extent building regulations affect their developments and how they impact on the sustainable development. A case study approach has been adopted as a strategy where development in both formal and informal settlements are monitored and compared by way of interviews, field observations and discussions with stakeholders. Preliminary findings: A pilot study has been done in two formal settlements and one formal settlement for comparison purposes. Preliminary findings are that in both types of settlements there is disregard of existing regulations (both planning and building). Despite the good intentions of regulations, urban dwellers find it difficult to comply with the same in total because of many impediments ranging from bureaucratic (slow) procedures to inappropriateness of some regulations (indiscriminate application of regulations). The paper expounds on these observed barriers with a view of setting forth the policy framework on regulations for guided sustainable shelter development, especially in the informal settlements. That is, regulations that are tailored to meet the needs and resources of groups in society, particularly the economically disadvantaged who are the urban majority. Field application and the way forward: The main aim of the research is to ascertain the building regulation requirements and their likely impact on alternative design proposals and construction processes. The regulatory process is to a greater extent a product of social practices in human settlements intervention. In that regard, the research aims at seeking to understand these practices in relation to the concrete contexts of inter playing forces in practice. This will contribute to knowledge on enabling building legislation as a benchmark for revising the existing building regulations to answer the urban shelter demands of the majority. After these preliminary findings from the pilot study, the research advances to a full scale study to the field survey to follow up and observe the practices in terms of laws formulation, enactment and enforcement on one side and the people's practice, perceptions and reactions on the other side. Data will be complemented, corrobolated and triangulated so as to ensure convergence of evidence and findings. Also basing on the evidence obtained, some extrapolations will be done for possible applicability to other situations with similar conditions. Such extrapolation will be necessary in an attempt to generalize the results to a broader theory before attempting to draw up any policy implications.
Kishk, Fawzy M., and Hesham M. Gaber S. Abdallah. "Management of Environmental Health Risks in Rural Egypt Using Holistic Ecosystem Approaches." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Communities in rural Egypt continue to be exposed to traditional environmental health risks related to ecosystem degradation, poverty, and underdevelopment while at the same time they are increasingly exposed to the newly-emerging environmental risks. Since community health issues are complex, multidisciplinary in nature, often ill-defined, and solutions to them uncertain, simple and narrowly focused approaches and interventions may not be sufficient to address them. New approaches that integrate and operationalize concepts of environmental sustainability and community-based development are thus needed to help develop better assessment and management of health risks within a framework of sustainable development. One such approach is the holistic ecosystem approaches to human health (Eco-Health) that integrates issues of health, environment, and economic development. Using this approach, the researchers, in collaboration with community, will be able to develop a better understanding of their ecosystem components (physical environment, socio-cultural and economic) and the dynamics between them. Such an understanding will make it possible to analyze the complex linkages and interdependencies between ecosystem health (the functioning and performance of ecosystems) and human health (the functioning and well-being of the community). Based on this knowledge, the research team-- in collaboration with the community-- will be in a better position to identify those ecosystem-based determinants of health which is a prerequisite for developing better systems for managing the environmental health risks facing their community. In this paper we report on how this approach is being employed in two contrasting case studies in rural Egypt for the purpose of developing interventions and policies aimed at reducing environmental health risks and consequently enhance community health and wellbeing.
Narain, Sunita. "Managing People in Environments: How do Densely Populated Countries like India Plan for Relocation and Rehabilitation in Projects? is It Possible? Or is There Another Way?" In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. In the 1970s, India's planners became concerned about the plight of the tiger. A project was launched to conserve tigers by demarcating reserve areas where the tiger would be protected. Thirty years later the country finds tiger conservation is of grave concern still. The problems are manifold. But one issue that slipped everybody was the issue of people, who live in the forests, where the tigers roam. The plan was to relocate people. In 30 years some people have been moved. But many more remain inside. The question is if the paradigm of exclusive management is even the option for India and its tigers or does it need to practice new ways of inclusive management and coexistence. How is this possible? What can be done? The paper explores the current status quo and its impact on tigers and people and what needs to be done in the future. It uses this experience to understand what the challenges of people-centric development are in countries like India, where poor people live on its richest forest and mining lands.
Horelli, Liisa. "Managing Time and Space of Everyday Life with a Focus on Health Promotion." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Time planning and time policy, have not been on the agenda of the Nordic countries, unlike some of the Southern and Middle European nations. Urban time policies refer to those public policies and planning interventions that intervene in the time schedules and time/space organizations that regulate human relationships at the urban level (Mareggi, 2002). Local time policies have striven to build up new social synchronization of individual and collective times by legislation (in Italy) and by setting up time offices, such as Zeitburo in Bremen and Bureau des Temps in Paris. The Nordic welfare countries, which have invested in the social and material infrastructure of daily life more than many other nations, have recently experienced increasingly demanding working conditions, a deterioration of welfare services and a new kind of urban poverty coupled with a frantic densification of the cities. Consequently, an urgent need exists to improve the Nordic tradition of welfare society. But what might the Nordic time planning model look like? I argue that a new approach is needed which integrates sustainability and health promotion with the management of time and space of everyday life (Health promotion refers to the provision of possibilities for people to maintain and improve their health, as well as that of the environment). The approach deals with interventions that will take place on many levels, sectors, with varying partnerships, hybrid organisations and networking know-how which focus on the creation of conditions for a healthy everyday life. The hypothesis is that a supportive infrastructure of everyday life (Horelli, 2004) will provide collective environment fit for locally dependent groups, such as families with children, and subsequently increase their perceived well-being and subjective health. The aim of the paper is to present first results of a three-year long action research study in two neighbourhoods of two Finnish towns (Helsinki, 550.000 inhabitants and Turku 200.000 inhabitants) in which the approach has been experimented. The goal of the study is to construct and test integrated models of time and space with a focus on health promotion and sustainability. The design of the study recognises the main activities of daily life: housing, work, services and mobility in the specific neighbourhoods. The latter have been carefully analysed and 20 pilot families and their employers have been interviewed. The families have also kept time-diaries. The preliminary results can be observed on several levels: as the experience of person-environment fit and subjective wellbeing (psychological presence), as improvements in the shared time profile of the family, as family-friendliness of the working place and as participatory governance in the neighbourhood. The application of the integrative approach seems to mean a constant search for coevolving arrangements at the interface of different levels and sectors, such as new kind of family services and help desks that alleviate the daily stress. The most demanding practical challenges are posed by the difficulties to manage distributed expertise and shared leadership which are integral to implementation. The theoretical challenges deal with the problematic nature of measuring the impact of different levels and dimensions on the individual and of tapping complex concepts, such as ´psychological presence`. The latter is one of the criteria for both individual mastering of time and subjective well-being. These issues will be researched further and also discussed in the presentation.
Oktay, Beser, Sebnem Onal Hoskara, and Naciye Doratli. "Measuring the Level of Sustainability in Kyrenia Liman Arkas_ Quarter in Northern Cyprus." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. The main aim of this paper is to measure the sustainability level of Liman Arkas_ quarter in Kyrenia, which is one of the historic urban quarters of the Northern Cyprus and to indicate an appropriate strategy for its revitalization. Based on this aim, the paper will be composed of three main parts. In the first part, physical, economic and social characteristics of Liman Arkas_ quarter will be presented. In the second part, the level of sustainability in the Liman Arkas_ quarter will be discussed. Since the authors argued that there is strong relationship between revitalization and sustainability of historic urban quarters, according to the result of the sustainability level, in the third part of the paper, the proposals will be developed for the revitalization of the concerned HUQ.Many of the historic urban quarters in the world are being threatened, physically degraded, damaged or even destroyed by the impact of the urban development that follows industrialization in societies everywhere. As a result, physical and socio-economic conditions of the historic urban quarters do not satisfy the contemporary needs of people; therefore many people as well as activities move out of such areas in order to be close to the contemporary facilities. These problems convey to the decrease in vitality, livability and sustainability in the historic urban quarters. Thus, preserving and conserving the historic urban quarters in terms of social, economic and the physical context is necessary to have vitality and sustainability in such areas. In order to measure the current level of sustainability in the selected case area, some relevant sustainability indicators are identified. For the determination of the level of sustainability, the scaling technique 1-5 in which, 1 represents the unsustainable position in all aspects and 5 represents highly sustainable conditions has been selected. The sustainability level has been tested for the physical, economic and social structures in the case study area. In the physical analysis, the natural and built environment characteristics are analyzed by conducting topographical analysis, urban pattern analysis that includes figure-ground, linkage, Lynch, lost space analyses. For social analysis a questionnaire survey is completed in order to determine the demographic, economic and social characteristics of the case study area.According to the results of the analyses, the sustainability level is defined and then the relevant revitalization strategy has been proposed for the case study area. Sustainability in historic urban quarters depends on the physical, economic and social revitalization of such areas. In Liman Arkas_ quarter, the sustainability level is found as level 4 that represents 'sustainability in most aspect'. Depending on these results, the relevant revitalization strategy is defined as 'functional regeneration' for Liman Arkas_ quarter. Considering the direct relationship between sustainability and revitalization concepts, through the utilization of this strategy, the level of sustainability of Liman Arkas_ can be increased to 5 which present a high level of sustainability.
Eleznik, Nadja. "Mental Models of Radioactivity and Attitudes Towards Radioactive Waste." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Mental models and social acceptability: Social acceptability of the radioactive waste repository, even for the low and intermediate radioactive waste (LILW), presents a great problem in every country with such a waste. Even if people agree with the need for its construction, the chosen location should be far from their homes (NIMBY). The reasons for such attitudes were attributed to different causes: uneducated public, differences in understanding of radioactivity and risk by experts and lay public, risk communication problems, lack of credibility and social trust, etc. Nowadays it is realized that public trust is extremely important if effective risk communication and public acceptability is to be achieved. It is also recognized that lay public mental model differ from expert ones and influence their attitudes towards different issues connected with nuclear energy. In this research relative influence of mental model on social acceptability in comparison with some other factors (like credibility, trust, demography…) is studied Search for LILW repository location: In 1996 the Slovenian national Agency for radwaste management - ARAO re-initiated the search for a LILW repository location with a new, so-called combined approach to the site selection. In this context the influence of social models on acceptability was studied. Previous research on people’s perception of the LILW repository construction, their attitudes towards radioactive waste, their willingness to accept it, based on several surveys, indicated significant differences in answers of experts and lay persons, mainly regarding evaluation of the consequences of repository construction. These findings support the use of mental models approach. Mental models approach: Based on the findings of pilot investigations a mental model approach to the radioactivity, radioactive waste and repository was used as a method for development of risk communication strategies with local communities which volunteered to host the repository. The mental models were obtained by adjustment of the method developed by Morgan and co-workers (Risk Communication, 2002) where expert model of radioactivity is compared with mental model of lay people obtained through individual opened interviews. Additional information on trust and role of main actors in the site selection process was gained with the overall questionnaire on the representative sample of Slovenian population. Variables influencing acceptability: While project is still under way some preliminary results clearly show that mental models ad least partially influence people attitudes towards LILW repository. Credibility of main players and other social issues are also important. Results of this study will provide information of relative importance of mental models in comparison with different social variables. A model of risk communication strategy based on the research findings is also prepared.
Khatib, Awni, Maher Al-Jabari, and Safa Shahin. "Monitoring the Treatment of Tanneries Wastewater Uv/vis Spectrophotometric Analysis." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. As the first real attempt to control wastewater from tanneries in Palestine, a new treatment facility has been established in Hebron, based on chromium precipitation and then regeneration for reuse. In this paper, UV/vis spectrophotometery is demonstrated as an applicable technique for monitoring the performance of the treatment process. The technique is performed on real wastewater from local tanneries and standard tanning agents.The characteristic shapes of the measured spectra for wastewater and standard tanning agents were similar to that for chromium solutions as reported in the literature in having two peaks within the visible range, while some variations in the obtained equivalent wavelengths for the peaks were observed. These variations were attributed to the reaction of chromium (III) with different ligands from the wastewater. The effects of the presence of various residuals from tanning processing on the monitoring technique were investigated experimentally. The presence of lime, sulfuric acid, and salts from tap water showed no noticeable effect on shifting the spectra. While the presence of dissolved organics such as amino acids (from processed hides), caused a clear shifting in spectra. This was more pronounced at the peak of _ max 595 nm. Increasing the concentration of amino acid caused larger shift. Spectra for freshly prepared solutions of the tanning agents were dependent on time indicating instability in their solutions within the first few days. The technique is demonstrated on real samples from the wastewater treatment facility and provided good results.
Jonuschat, Helga, and Sabine Gruner. "Neighborly Relationships and the Personal Well-Being." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Impact of the Neighborhood on Well-Being: This article examines the impact of neighborly relationships on the personal well-being. In order to define these impacts, we focused on two different aspects: Firstly, on the exchange of support within neighborly relationships and secondly, on social boundaries in neighborhoods.Weak and Very Weak Ties: Neighborly relationships must firstly be subdivided into weak and very weak ties: Whereas weak ties develop from direct neighborly interactions, very weak, superficial relationships are based on subjective perceptions of the individual living environment. Consequently, also the exchange of support and the according impacts on the personal well-being differ within weak and very weak neighborly relationships. Very weak neighborly relationships have moreover an important influence of social boundaries, e.g. according to the categories race or class, as stereotypes and stigmatizations are more dominant in indirect contacts than in direct contacts that are typical for stronger relationships. In our article, we want to discuss the exchange of support within neighborly relationships as well as different explanations to the phenomenon of social boundaries in neighborhoods.Qualitative Analysis: The article results from the qualitative analysis of neighborly relationships in German post-war housing estates. The analysis is based on 56 in-depth interviews on the one hand, as well as on the observation of two participation processes with local residents on the other hand.Support and Social Boundaries: Regarding weak neighborly ties, residents profit from direct interactions that consist in the exchange of e.g. small aids (like reposition parcels) or by active integrative and community building measures (such as invitations). Very weak ties are particularly essential for emotional forms of support like well-being, a feeling of security or a feeling of social integration. However, in neighborhoods there are rarely stronger social ties or mutual support exchange across social boundaries. The empirical survey revealed several reasons for the production of social boundaries in neighborhoods, like cultural characteristics, spatial distributions, linguistic obstacles or a lack of occasions. In this respect, social boundaries predominantly impair the well-being of residents belonging to discriminated groups. In summary, analyzing neighborly relationships should therefore take the intensity of relationships and the according mode of interaction into consideration in order to adequately examine the production of a feeling of well-being.
Yntiso, Gebre. "New Resettlement in Ethiopia: Concerns Over Stakeholder Participation and Environment." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. In Ethiopia, between 2003 and 2005, over 180,000 households have been resettled in more than 100 villages. The new resettlement program, which aims at relocating 2.2 million people in three years, was launched as a development response to recurrent drought and food insecurity in the country. The government and its partners (donors and NGOs) developed a joint food security document in which population resettlement is one component. The section on resettlement outlines important principles and guidelines such as voluntarism, community participation, and consultation with host communities. Moreover, in the resettlement program implementation manual, the government clearly stated that forest and wildlife resources would be protected. Earlier anecdotal reports on the new scheme revealed absence of genuine stakeholder participation and widespread ecological damage with enormous risks to the sustainability of both the resettlement program (as a development project) and the environment. Based on recent studies carried out in 11 resettlement sites, this paper examines the nature of stakeholder participation in resettlement decision-making and the impact of the program on forest resources, wildlife, soil fertility, and local natural resource management systems. The paper urges the need to adopt resettlement policy and practice that would ensure true participation, environmental protection, and sustainable development within the carrying capacity of the eco-system.
Thomsen, Judith. Norwegian Student's Housing Attitudes Towards Institutionally Provided Student Housing In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. This study has its background in discussions of the housing situation of students, internationally and in particular in Norway. The provision and development of student housing is a challenge for many university cities in western countries. There is a general tendency of rising student numbers. They are a result of the ongoing extension of higher education institutions. The development of higher education in Norway reflects these international trends. The rising student numbers cause demand for student accommodation and may, as earlier research shows, affect the local housing markets negatively. Despite the increasing student numbers, there is limited research done on the issue of student housing and on how students would like to reside. Minimal attention has been paid to the provision of student accommodation, and institutionally provided accommodation has not grown correspondingly with student numbers. The study is conducted in Norway. Three institutionally provided student housing projects in three Norwegian cities are chosen as case study projects. In these cities, institutionally provided student-housing covers a percentage of 12 - 20 % of the student population's housing needs. The welfare organisations in Norway intend to increase the percentage. Literature use can be divided into following sub-topics: - Housing preferences - Young people's and student's lifestyle - Use and analysis of architecture This research aims to: 1. Investigate Norwegian student's housing attitudes towards contemporary institutionally provided student housing 2. Learn about student's perception and evaluation of recent, apparently innovative student housing projects 3. Contribute to the knowledge on the development of student housing in Norway 4. Research questions: 1. Which general attitudes do Norwegian students have towards institutionally provided student housing? 2. How do student residents perceive recent, apparently innovative student housing examples regarding aspects of location, building design and housing form? 3. How do students reflect on the architectural design of the case study projects? And which role does architectural design play for contemporary students when choosing a place to stay? The research method chosen for this project is case study method. The cases are investigated in their natural context and a combination of methods is applied to cover different aspects. To be able to examine housing quality comprehensively, both the physical and the subjectively perceived aspects should be considered. The cases were selected on the basis of different and unique characteristics. Qualitative interviews were conducted with students in each project during autumn 2005. The data collected in the interviews represent a personal and subjective point of view in relation to the particular projects. A survey will examine student's housing preferences on a more general basis. The data collection is partly finished. Interviews have been conducted in autumn 2006. The survey will be conducted in spring / summer 2006.
Edgerton, Edward. "Objective and Subjective Evaluation of a Redesigned Corridor Environment in a Psychiatric Hospital." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Dykebar Hospital is a large psychiatric hospital in the west of Scotland, delivering a range of psychiatric services and in-patient provision. The hospital is currently undergoing a period of significant change and has recently revised its approach to mental healthcare provision and communications. A key aim of this revised approach is to ‘de-institutionalise’ and modernise areas of the hospital in order to create a therapeutic and healing environment for patients, staff and visitors. In line with this approach, the Arts Commission for Scotland has funded a public art project, “Finding Space” in the hospital. The project has commissioned an artist to identify and re-design an existing space within the hospital that can be used for patient and staff relaxation and recovery. This paper reports on the results of a research study which evaluated the impact of this re-designed space. The space involved one of the main corridors in the hospital which leads to wards occupied by elderly patients, many of whom suffer from dementia. The hospital shop is located in this corridor and part of the corridor has a seating area that looks onto the internal courtyard. The overall aim of the redesign was to ‘de-institutionalise’ this long, daunting corridor and encourage use of the space and positive behaviours by patients. This is in line with previous research in psychiatric hospitals which suggests that “the primary objective… is to create a comfortable and therapeutic setting that promotes interest and activity” (Rivlin 1991). The research was based on a pre/post intervention evaluation and the main method of data collection was behavioural mapping of the corridor using categories identified by Tyson, Lambert & Beattie (2002) and Devlin (1992). In addition, questionnaire surveys were conducted with staff and patients based on their use and perceptions of different spaces within the hospital. The sample size for the questionnaire consisted of 54 patients in the wards connected to the corridor (approximately 60%) and 26 staff (approximately 30%). This paper will compare the pre and post intervention findings, drawing attention to the points of contrast and similarity between the data sets in relation to existing psychiatric hospital research and associated theoretical debates.
Scopelliti, Massimiliano, Giuseppe Carrus, Elisa Romoli, and Marino Bonaiuto. "On-Site Evaluation of Restorative Environments: a Comparison Between Natural and Historical Places in Rome." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Past research on attention restoration theory – ART – and restorative environments (Kaplan & Kaplan, 1989) generally showed that natural places have a greater restorative potential when compared to built ones (Purcell, Peron & Berto, 2001; Staats, Kievet & Hartig, 2003; Berto, 2005). A general lack in these studies is that a comparison was made between beautiful natural environments and distressing built ones (industrial zones, urban areas, etc.). The possibility for restoration to occur also in built environments was shown by Scopelliti & Giuliani (2004). In particular, the importance of the historical meaning of a place in the restoration process emerged in a recent study (Scopelliti & Giuliani, 2005). In addition, research on restorative environments is often based on a slide presentation instead of an on-site evaluation of environments. The aim of the present study is to compare the restorative potential of natural and built historical environments, in order to explore more directly the psychological process occurring during the restoration experience in natural and built settings. In this respect, a study (currently in progress) is being conducted in Rome. A preliminary phase is currently under conduction with the aim of selecting a natural and a built historical place in Rome with a high restorative potential. Photographs of 10 natural and 10 built environments were presented to 40 subjects, stratified by age and gender. All images represented the environments in the sunlight and in absence of crowding conditions. Participants were asked to evaluate each photograph through a short Italian version of the PRS (Perceived Restorativeness Scale, Hartig, Korpela, Evans & Gärling, 1997). The two places (a natural and a built one) scoring highest were selected for the main study. A sample of 50 subjects, well balanced with respect to age and gender, will be interviewed in each place (N = 100). Subjects are asked to evaluate both the place they are in and the one represented in a photograph, through the Italian version of the PRS. Both places are expected to score high on the PRS. We also hypothesize an effect of place experience. For subjects experiencing restoration within a natural setting the difference in the restorative potential of natural and built environment is expected to be greater than for respondents in the built condition. Results will be discussed with reference to ART, and practical implications will be examined.
Butula, Sonja. "Optimising Land Use Decisions: the Importance of General Conservational Interest Disclosure." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. "The aim and objectives of the paper: The aim of the paper is to highlight the need for information on landscape value preferences in conservation activities within land use planning. The paper therefore draws on the importance of conservation criteria explication fostering the idea of effective implementation of public participation in the beginning of planning process, specifically the phase of landscape evaluation. The paper addresses two main issues in planning that often cause impasse to a particular spatial conservation problem solving: uncertainty and subjectivity. The context and background literature: Two problem contexts are addressed in this paper. The first is determined by disputes about conservation goals and objectives in, for example, impact assessments and other environmental planning tools that are used to cope with conservation problems within land use planning. Secondly, land use planning is fundamentally an evaluative activity, as Udy (1996) suggested. In terms of environmental qualities that should be conserved and/or enhanced by planning, optimisation of alternative solution has been recognised as the principle that planning process should be based on (Johanessen, 1998, Marusi_, 1993). The value question in the planning context, i.e. identification and acceptance of diversity of interests is given by Taylor's (1986) direction of environmental ethics - the principle of "as low as reasonably achievable", ALARA. The method of inquiry: The study was carried out in a rural area of continental Croatia which main physiographical feature is riparian landscape. The photo questionnaire (ranking of the state of the landscape naturalness by photo simulation).was used as the method for achieving value preferences from three social groups: local inhabitants, experts (people directly involved into a land use planning process) and potential users of a space. The knowledge of preferences of the respondent groups for three landscape quality dimensions tested was interpreted by statistical analysis. Using the tool of vulnerability modelling, specific qualities of a landscape were presented as spatial information. The findings and Conclusions: The results have shown that the conservation goal is transferred into three distinctive value dimensions. The result also showed that a specific environmental component might be simultaneously carrier of diverse value definitions.The method of participative approach in searching for solutions for landscape protection resulted in complex system of landscape values which opens the possibility of further dialog between the space users and planning experts in optimisation of decisions regarding land use."
Bengtsson, Anna, and Gunilla Carlsson. "Outdoor Environments at Three Nursing Homes -Qualitative Interviews with Residents and Next of Kin." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Aim: The purpose of this paper is to describe how the outdoor environment is experienced and used and the meaning of the outdoor environment to residents at nursing homes. Background: In many cases outdoor environments at nursing homes are little used, although frequent studies prove the importance to health and wellbeing of being outdoors. One reason is that the design of the outdoors does not fit the users' specific needs. In this field, studies concerning physical accessibility are fairly well represented, as are studies focusing on outdoor activities, in particular horticultural activities. Studies with design implications to outdoor environment generally address persons suffering from dementia. These studies are usually based on how the environment is used and which problems occur. It is hard to find studies particularly aiming at understanding the psychological meaning of the outdoor environment as lived and experienced phenomena by the residents, either if they are suffering from dementia or if they are in need of care for other reasons. Studies of the later kind are essential to achieve profound understanding of the users' specific needs. Method of Inquiry: Three nursing homes were strategically selected due to differences in outdoor design and content. In order to gain diversity in the residents' experiences, information rich persons at each nursing home were selected. The residents' functional capacity varied and in order to include residents with low functional capacity, next of kin participated in some cases on the part of or together with a resident. In all, 16 residents were included. Interviews were conducted with 12 residents and 7 next of kin. The qualitative interviews aimed at exploring the residents' experience and use of the outdoors and what this meant to them. A phenomenological approach was used and thus naïve descriptions were treated to reach an understanding of the outdoor environment as lived and experienced phenomena. Findings and Conclusions: The findings of the respondents' experiences are first reported in themes and then interpreted and discussed in relation to other studies. This gives the possibility for naturalistic generalization, i.e. the reader is able to convert the plain results to other appropriate real life situations, for example in working contexts of designers and nursing personnel. In future studies the results needs to be further exemplified and specified to attain detailed design applications.
Fyhri, Aslak. "Over Grown Or Lush? Tourists' Perceptions and Preferences of an Arctic Coastal Landscape in Change." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. European landscapes are now subject to change, both physically, due to changes in climate, agricultural policy, industry and housing development but also resulting from transformations in perception, because of new knowledge and transformations of local ways of life, such as dissemination of romantic attitudes among both tourists and locals. Among the most significant visual alterations both in the case area and elsewhere are general re-growth and overgrowth. These changes might lead to problems such as overgrowth of cultural remains, decrease in biodiversity, deterioration of the vistas for sightseers, reduced local access to valued values, and probably also a loss of place ness to the local population. A project has been initiated to identify, by the use of an inter-disciplinary approach, significant landscape changes in the archipelagos of Lofoten and Vesterålen, Northern Norway, to evaluate implications of such changes, and to clarify foundations for maintenance and restoration together with opportunities for development, especially accentuating tourism-related issues. The current paper describes one subtask of the project, an exploration of how landscapes and landscape changes are perceived by tourists. While there is a quite long tradition in the studies of landscape perceptions in general, there have still been quite few empirical studies of tourists’ landscape perceptions and preferences, and even fewer when it comes to studies encompassing visualizations of landscapes, either on-site studies or research conducted through representational options such as photographs. The empirical study that is presented employed a multiple sorting procedure, with a combination of fixed and free sorts. Quantitative and categorical data derived from the multiple sorting methods were subjected to multidimensional scaling analysis (ALSCAL, PROXSCAL). The results indicate that tourists do have an understanding of re-growth as a challenge to the particular coastal landscape of Northern Norway, but that their preference ratings are not easily reflected by such a conceptual framework. Moreover, the tourists’ previous experiences with this particular landscape type play a significant role in the type of categorizations they make.The combination of quantitative and qualitative methods used in this study may be relevant for identifying and assessing environmental impacts, as well as the mental constructs used in assessing such impacts, from the perspective of tourists in others places where tourism is a key economic factor, but also for understanding local residents’ awareness and assessment of re-growth as an environmental challenge.
Sautkina, Elena, Aimée Casal Sara Amador, and Christophe Castano. "Parisians' Perceptions of Safety in Railway Station and Train Environments." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. "Fear of crime, a powerful factor decreasing urbanites' quality of life, can often be experienced in railway station and train environments. It may drive users to modifying their habitudes, e.g., making them change itineraries they are accustomed to, prefer other transport facilities. The objective of this study is to identify the factors of fear of crime in Parisian railway stations and trains among users of the SNCF (French National Railway). Fear of crime has a multi-faceted nature, and cannot be reduced to a single factor (Amerio & Roccato, 2004). Several approaches were applied in this study: § Nasar & Fisher (1993) state that individuals can develop images of "dangerous places" without directly knowing them, e.g., trough media reports, rumours; § Fear of crime is often due to social and physical incivilities, perceived as symbols of decline of social order and as a threat to public safety (Taylor, 1987); § Prospect-Refuge Theory (Appleton, 1975) and its later extensions were applied to explain users' perceptions of safety regarding physical environment of railway stations and trains. Semi-direct interviews were conducted with 43 users of four Parisian railway stations (two central and two situated in the periphery of the city). Results show that the two peripheral stations widely reputed as "dangerous" are actually perceived by their users as safe, which is explained by a confusion made between the stations themselves and surrounding disadvantaged areas. Presence of marginal individuals and groups, traces of their activities, especially when combined with a lack of surveillance is an important factor of railway users' fear of crime (particularly intense at night). Fear of crime is higher in station corridors, corners and platforms when these places have few issues, alarms and video cameras, i.e., when they do not offer enough possibilities of prospect, escape and refuge. For the same reason, trains are perceived to be less safe than stations. Also, users report less fear of crime in railway stations compared with underground stations, and perceive railway stations as less safe than streets. Escape, prospect and refuge seem to play an important role in this differentiation. In order to reduce users' fear of crime it would be advisable to: 1) augment the expressions of institutional social control, e.g., through a more participative staff (rather than police) presence; 2) in future design projects for station and train environments, take into account users' needs in terms of prospect, refuge and escape."
Gruner, Sabine, and Helga Jonuschat. "Participation in Planning and Designing Housing Environments." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. "Analysing participation processes: This article aims at presenting a practical method to participate tenants in shaping their own housing environments. It is based on two participation processes that were conducted during the interdisciplinary research project "Line Break" in which we analyse the physical and social transformation processes in German Post-War settlements. In our discussion we will focus on motivational factors and power relations in the context of the participation processParticipation in designing housing environments: Sustainable development requires the participation of all relevant stakeholders in decision-making. As the personal housing environment represents an essential factor for the individual well-being, participation in shaping this environment should be a commonly accepted practice. However, particularly tenants in urban neighbourhoods usually do not have a stake in deciding how their housing environments should look like and how they should be used. The result is that residents do not identify with their housing environments with the consequence that negligence or even vandalism can occur. Qualitative analysis of the "Green Folder" method: In order to explore different aspects of participation in planning, the research project "Line Break" initiated participation processes in two urban social housing estates. The goals of the intervention were firstly to integrate the residents' requirements, but also their concerns in the planning process. Secondly, we aimed at furthering neighbourly relationships and promote mutual understanding by presenting and mediating different perspectives referring to the usage of the housing environment. The participation process was based on three elements: An action inquiry by means of the so-called "Green Folder” that was filled with about 10 easy creative tasks to fulfil, e.g. writing a postcard or drawing a picture, a local exhibition of the results and a resident meeting to discuss the research results.Frameworks and conditions for participation: The main findings deriving from the evaluation of the participation processes relate to general frameworks and conditions for participating tenants in planning their housing environments. The process should be interesting and motivating for all people involved, because it is important that all stakeholders, actively promote in the process. Secondly, one must negotiate scopes of action for the residents with the local decision-makers in order to prevent a "camouflage" participation. Finally, participation processes offer the possibility to further neighbourly relationships and social capital in a longterm perspective. But to make use of these possibilities the participation process should be embedded in a longterm action plan integrating all local stakeholders."
Eldeen, Tag, and N. Zeinab. Participatory Planning for Upgrading of Informal Urban Settlements In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006.

The urbanisation is one of the major trends of the 21st century more problematically in the developing countries where rural-urban migration and the centralisation of the socio-economic services in the large cities leave no choice for the poor migrants other than create and develop their own informal shelters. The occurrence of urban slums has been a concern for decision-makers ever since it became apparent that the top-down ‘provider’ model would not meet housing demands in low-income cities. Instead ‘enabling strategies’ are advocated. An integral part of such strategies is the policy of upgrading. This policy has gained support after it was realised that informal settle¬ments could no longer be considered ‘transitory’, that squatter evictions did not address the root causes of the shelter problem, and that housing through conventional schemes were not economically viable. Numbers of upgrading projects have been implemented but it is noted that in meeting the needs of under-privileged groups there is a need for better partici¬patory methods to empower such groups.The general objective of the project is to understand the specific relationship between upgra¬ding and community participation in a city with severe slum problems. The project focuses on models for participatory planning as an instrument to improve perfor¬mance when upgrading informal settlements. Simultaneously, the study will examine the enabling strategy community participation for solving housing prob¬lems in developing countries which intends to involve the residents in setting goals. The research plan includes an overview of upgrading of informal settlements of large cities with high aims for community participation. The major fieldwork will consist of a comprehensive analysis of Manshiet Nasser, Cairo as an information-rich case, sup¬plemented by comparisons with documented cases in India and South Africa. The implemen¬ted participatory upgrading projects in Manshiet Nasser will be evaluated, based on criteria such as effectiveness, im¬pact, relevance, sustainability and efficiency. Multiple methods of data collection will be used in a triangulating fashion such as: interviews with key persons and residents from the community using photographs of problematic housing situations as a way to stimulate discussions; women focus group; and ‘sitting in’ at meetings of the community. The research project is expected to provide a better understanding of the specific relationship between squatter upgrading, community participation and gender order. The project should shed light on the conflicts between goal achievements and processes of community participa¬tion. By using innovative methods – and by making comparisons with participation processes in other large cities where women are active – it is hoped that patriarchal power structures be exposed and that obstacles for women’s participation in house improvements traced.

Gabr, Hisham S., and Nagwa H. Sherif. "Pedestrian Use of Sidewalks and Streets in Cairo: Problems Identification and Improvement Strategies." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Performance of Street and Sidewalk Design: Evaluating the performance of street and sidewalk design and identifying patterns of use by pedestrians in Cairo is the objective of this paper. The paper addresses the behavioral problems of street use, identifies problem patterns and possible causes. Ideas for resolving some of these problems through proper design that accommodates the cultural and behavioral characteristics of the local population are discussed. Chaotic Use of Streets: Pedestrian use of streets and sidewalks in cities is a fundamental human right emphasized in this paper. Proper design of street right-of-ways for pedestrian use is essential for human safety, efficiency of street use, and accommodation of various street activities. Proper balance between pedestrian needs, vehicular traffic, and residential requirements is important to achieve. The overcrowded metropolis of Cairo, Egypt, has been witnessing irregularities in street use over the past few decades. Shop owners, car drivers, street vendors, home owners have been occupying the sidewalks thereby prohibiting pedestrians from using them. Subsequently, the health and safety of pedestrians have been jeopardized, driving adversely disrupted, and the experience of street users has been visually and behaviorally distorted. Observations and Interviews: Visual observations of pedestrian use or misuse of streets and sidewalks in selected streets across different types of neighborhoods in the city constitute the basic data collection technique. Convenient sample of pedestrians and street users were interviewed to elaborate on the problems of use and possible solutions. Design responsive to cultural and behavioral needs: Problematic patterns of street use have become almost the norm rather than the exception. The resulting situation does not help alleviate the problem but adds more problems, contributing finally to a poor and stressful urban experience. The findings document some of the symptoms for not using sidewalks by pedestrians in a normally expected manner. Proper design guidelines for streets and sidewalks in existing Egyptian cities particularly Cairo has a chance to be successful if the designer understands the actual human behavioral needs and the design accommodates the socio-cultural characteristics of users. The findings can be useful when designing new cities in Egypt. Responding to basic human needs when designing or redesigning cities, is a prelude to sustainable urban development.
Justin, Ludvina Colbeau, and Karine Weiss. "Perceived Risk and Behaviors Face to Catastrophic Floods: from Incredulity to Individual Commitment." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. The research done within the socio-metric paradigm (Slovic, 1992), has shown that the perceived risk was highly different for the population than for the scientific community. There is a strong shift between the knowledge about risk and the evaluation of its probability which is, in part, linked to personal experience. Despite the communication efforts of local public services, potentially exposed populations do not want to believe they are at risk. This attitude can be linked to a denial attitude, to the delegation of responsibility towards the local administration, or even to the perception of a lack of control. How can tools be developed in order to reduce this shift between the perceived risk and the reality of flood risks? This research aims in one hand, to identify the factors which can lead to these incredulity reactions, and on the other hand, to imply the population in the implementation of prevention and emergency behaviors.The method was developed thanks to three complementary approaches: - an analytical one, through individual interviews, in order to analyze the principal factors of vulnerability- a cartographic one, in order to evaluate the perception of the perceived risk and the objective one,- the last step was the validation of the results through focus groups. Two cities were selected, around the Loire river in France, according to their exposure to the flood risk. Both cities are highly at risk. The first one is characterized by floods occurring with regularity, but now, major floods are part of the collective memory. The second one, because of the structural works on the river, is no more concerned by minor floods. The results first show a difference between perceived risk in general and personal perceived risk: People do know that their living area is at risk; they think that the flood can occur but not at home or in their very close environment. They want to minimize the eventuality of a flood: in reference either with technological progress, or with their own experience, or with confidence in local authorities. It is also obvious that people do not want to accept the risk because of economic consequences (fall of the price of the real estate). In the same way, even if the respondents say that they know what to do in the case of a flood, individual and collective interviews showed that they do not really have knowledge about the details of a possible action. They hide behind a technical speech and have difficulties to integrate the idea of an individual prevention. As people show a strong attachment to their living area, they have collected a lot of documents about the river and the past floods. Their knowledge then has to be shared, for instance within the organisation of a public demonstration, where the population could be involved. Proximity actions are needed in order to make people more aware about the personal risk, and information about floods must be more pragmatic. The local authorities may have benefit in using and developing the local resources.
Polic, Marko, Ivan Marusic, and Drago Kos. "Perception of Environmental Problems, Development, and Planning." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. People and their environment: Development and planning of one's environment is highly dependant on its image of it, on its cognitive map. Therefore we try to find out how people imagine their environment, its development and necessary planning. In this study the respective environment was either one's locality or the whole country. The study was undertaken during the period of 1998 - 2000 based on the grant from the Ministry of Environment, that wanted it as a tool in the preparation of the Plan of Spatial Development of Slovenia. Some of the results will be reported here. Image and its use: Boulding in his book The Image (1956) presented the idea that human activity is predicated on an image of, rather than on the objective reality of, the external world. Cognitive map is the part of this image, an internal representation of the spatial organization of the external world. From the beginning research of Lynch (1960) onwards, it was studied also for practical purposes. Anne Whyte (1977) emphasized importance of environmental perception research, because individual and collective understanding of the environment could be seen as a major force in shaping that environment through the action of human's choices and behavior. Method: Participants: A representative random sample of 1291 adult inhabitants of Slovenia was included into the survey. Material: Questionnaire consisted of 54 simple and complex, mainly closed type questions. They were questioning about different aspects of their image of Slovenia. Only questions considering environmental problems, planning and development are considered here. Procedure: Participants were questioned individually at their homes by specially trained students. In average interview lasted about one hour. Results and discussion: Results clearly showed that environmental values were very important for people. Their importance revealed themselves in protective attitudes toward environment management, care for natural resources, though sometimes in controversial ways (e.g. protection of river basin but also their use for electricity production). There were also demographic differences in these attitudes (e.g. the most protective were participants aged 26-30 years). These and other results concerning different developmental and planning questions are presented and discussed.Applicability and proposals: Research presented possible contribution to the planning considering also people and their views. It should be a common practice to involve people into the planning processes. In this sense it is quite useful to know at least their position. Results appeared as quite useful and the use of similar methods was applied also on the smaller scale.
Munakata, Jun, and Kotaroh Hirate. "Perception of Subjective Impression Regarding Spaciousness and Density of Townscape." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Too much density of buildings in urban area cause several problems, that varies from environmental influence such as lack of daylighting and natural wind to psychological problems such as oppression to residents and/or pedestrian along the street. In order to reduce those bad effects, building coverage ratio and ratio of building volume to its lot are regulated in Japan, considering the character and activity of the area, however, there has been reported many cases that newly developed 'law-abiding' buildings cause environmental and psychological problem with neighboring residents. Therefore it can be said that new regulation or guideline is highly required to lead adequate density of volume of each building and/or mass of buildings in urban place. And it is also required to know how people evaluate the density of urban area. Thus, we conducted a field research where 134 urban streets between one and eight hundred meters in length and between four and about sixteen meters in width were selected in several cities of Japan, including Tokyo metropolitan. In each street, a staff of local planning office of the area participated this research as investigator and evaluated subjective impression of the street on the whole using SD scales such as oppression from the buildings, spaciousness, brightness, density and preference of the street. The reason of their perceived spaciousness and oppression was recorded freely. They also recorded subjective impression for physical condition of the street such as average height of buildings, volume of space between buildings and amount of cars and bicycles along the street as well as regulations regarding volume of buildings along the street. For the 54 of 134 streets, 3 dimensional data of buildings along the street was also measured in order to calculate other index to explain subjective impressions. As a result, it turned out that regulated rate of volume of building and building coverage ratio have no relation with subjective impression of the street (r
Barthelemy, Laure, and Yannick Savina. "Perceptions and Behaviors Towards Water Use in Franc." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Within the framework of an international study supported by the ICSU and IUPsyS, this research explores the relationship between man and water in France. A questionnaire detailing various determinants of this relationship was elaborated from observations, interviews and focus groups carried out in the participating countries. This questionnaire measures several dimensions: affordances, or possible actions allowed by the environment (of consumption and conservation), personal beliefs related to the state of resources, and the perception of possible and effective individual control of this state. We also take into account individual beliefs concerning uses and attitudes towards water attributed to others. All this dimensions underline the interdependence between behaviour and the environment in which it takes place. Our results concern two contrasted French cities: Paris and Brest. We will first show how the dimensions common to all participating countries relate to each other, and how their articulation might explain behaviours. We will then explore differences that appear within France in the uses and attitudes towards water, and show that the unit of analysis should be as specific as possible. Those differences will give us the opportunity to understand the organization and structure of the representations of this collective object at an individual level. Identifying the psychosocial and environmental variables that relate to the use and preservation of water resources allows for water management that is locally adapted and therefore more effective. Developing this type of knowledge appears to be vital if we are to overcome the “tragedy of the commons”, encourage the sustainable use of water, and thus developing pro-environmental behaviours in a stable way.
Carrus, Giuseppe, and Jai Sinha. "Perceptions of Fresh-Water Resources and Environmental Issues: a Four Country Comparison." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. The paper presents the results of qualitative and quantitative studies assessing people’s perceptions/representations of freshwater resources and people’s perceptions/evaluations of environmental issues in four countries (Italy, France, India & Mexico), as part of a wider project on “Human perceptions and behaviors in sustainable water use” (funded by ICSU & IUPSyS). In each of the country involved in the project, two sites were chosen as case-studies, according to fresh water supply and/or restriction contexts. The qualitative studies were conducted in all the four countries using face-to-face semi-structured interviews and focus groups. This wide material was then content-analyze in order to identify the main emerging trends, in particular for what it concerns the relationship between participants’ representation of fresh-water as a “limited” natural resource and participants’ evaluation of water issues in relation to other environmental issues in general. Starting from the material gathered through the qualitative phase, a quantitative study was then conducted, using a self-reported questionnaire administered by trained interviewers to about 500 residents of different cities in Italy France, India & Mexico. The questionnaire comprised, among others, specific sections measuring knowledge/representations about different water sources, knowledge/representations about the water cycle and water renewability; awareness of the consequences of water use and over-use; perception of water problems in relation to other environmental problems. The preliminary findings highlighted both similarities and differences across the different countries considered, as well as among the different sites that were contrasted within each single country. The theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed.
Jochemczyk, Lukasz, and Anna Wieczorek. "Perceptions of the Sustainability of Resource Use in Social Traps – Conclusions from Educational Simulations." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. The question of sustainable resource use has the structure of a social dilemma. An awareness of the importance of sustainability and of the need for saving resources is commonly considered to be insufficient to increase cooperation in social dilemmas. We demonstrate how communication in the dilemma situation affects how participants’ perceptions of the dilemma change over time. The content of these shared perceptions, or “shared reality”, emerges from a combination of elements from participants’ prior knowledge. The current research presents interdependencies between participants’ initial knowledge, the process of communication, the formation of shared reality, and the dilemma resolutions. We designed a simulation game for 10-20 participants that demonstrate the effects of initial knowledge on the content of communications and on the final resolution of a social dilemma. The game serves as an educational tool, helping participants understand the interdependencies between the communication process and resolution through ongoing changes in their perceptions of the situation. In this kind of simulation, as in real-life social dilemmas, participants encounter temptations and must make decisions about resource use. The game assumes uncertainty about the growth and renewal of the resource. In consecutive turns, participants earn chips for the amount of the resource they are able to amass. During the game, they have a chance to experience a competitive environment, to observe the behaviors of others, and also to actively influence group decisions. Throughout the simulation, participants repeatedly estimate the size and renewal rate of the resource. Monitoring the communication process allows us to examine the continually constructed and reconstructed shared reality between participants. In this way, this simulation can help identify factors that lead to sustainable solutions.
Woloszyn, Philippe, Aline Barlet, and Hany Elsayed Ho Eldien. "Perceptive Evaluation Procedures for Diffuse Reflexion Listening." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Research context: As the physical approach of the influence of the facade morphology on the acoustical diffusion in an urban street is an extensive subject for acoustics papers those last ten years, one can note that the perceptual aspect of this interaction has quasi-never been developed. This is why both Cerma and Grecau laboratories intend to proceed into this research topic within the “Bruit et Nuisances Sonores” Research Proposal Challenge, initiated by the Ecology & Sustainable Development Ministry, in collaboration with CSTB and LCPC laboratories. Parametering urban diffusion: This research aims to evaluate the influence of the urban facades morphology on the sound sources perception. Additionally, if this influence remains obvious, the experiment following will allow to define the exact nature of this effect. Therefore, we developed different evaluation procedures through spatial restitution of urban sonic objects, such as the tramway bells signals. This will define the physical characterisation of the propagation space, with identifying the facade morphology as the varying parameter. To do this, the Impulse Response (I.R.) of the street has been acquired into the three dimensions of the geometrical space (xyz), on 6 points distributed into the length of the Vital Carles street in Bordeaux, France. Both recorded through a binaural technique and convoluted by a 4-channel B-Format Impulse Response (I.R.), those bell signals are then auralised through a restitution system that preserves their spatial components.Sound recording and investigation methodology: The auralisation conditions depend on the recording techniques: headphone listening for the bells binaural recording, and immersive conditions in B-format 6.2 (6 channels and 2 subbasses) for the convoluted bell signal. In a very first time, the I.R. physical signal has been auralised by experts (acousticians, musicians, sound engineers), in order to discriminate them, through a free categorisation procedure. This procedure consists into a classification of the sonic corpus elements, without taking into account the number of categories nor the number of elements included in each category. A second task consists into a categorial construction through a free argumentation, leading to a class qualification. The resulting descriptors will then being validated by a second group of listeners, hearing to the same sonic corpus. In a second time, this procedure will be applied to both binaural and convoluted bell signals, through a non expert investigation (mixed students). First results: First results concerning the expert group investigation lead us to conclude on a good sample discrimination, through three emergent categorisation criteria: sound level, spatial feeling/ resonance, source distance. Further experiments will finalise those results with confirming the diffuse reflection effect on urban sound sources perception, through sharpening the previous criteria.
Shanab, Abou, and A. I. Reda. "Phenotypic and Genotypic Analysis of Thermotolerant Bacteria Isolated from Hot Springs." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006.

The high degree of temperature in water exerts pressure on microbial species leading to the selection of specific flora capable of tolerate and survival under heat stress. A total of 229 bacterial cultures were isolated from ten different hot spring at Siwa, Matrouh, Egypt. The number and percentage of heat tolerance bacteria were assessed. Only 13 (5.6%) of bacterial isolates were able to tolerate and survive under 65oC. These bacterial isolates were genetically diverse according to RAPD and Box- PCR analyses using different primers. RAPD, Box-PCR and 16S rRNA sequence analysis confirmed the abundant bacterial strains were closely related to Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus pumilus, based on 100% similarity in their 16S rDNA gene sequences. Bacillus licheniformis responded to one hour of thermal stress at elevated temperature from 30oC to 65oC by synthesizing 11 heat shock proteins (HSPs) with molecular weights ranging between _30 – 120 kDa.

Mura, Marina, Franco Masala, Renato Troffa, and Davide Plantera. "Photography as a Medium Between Architects and Inhabitants on Participated Design." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. The study aims to deepen the potentiality of photography in studying the constituent elements of social imageability of the city and of the inhabitants' place identity, being a useful medium for the communication between architects and users in participated design. General objective is to build a shared communication form between local architects and environmental psychologists towards a sustainable urban design. Specifically, it aims at analysing: - photography as a visual form able to furnish useful information's in social sustainability of design; -differences among categories of inhabitants -which elements are differently read by environmental psychologists and designers Urban Environmental Psychology (Garcìa Mira et al., 2005); concept of social imageability of place and place identity (Nenci et al., 2000; Moser et al., 2000) and participated design (Sanoff, 2000). It represents the first part of a complex project on the communicative use of photography as a tool for participated design. Photography has been widely used, mainly in experimental studies, but its representational distortions (Edwards, 1992, Markwick, 2001) have been not enough studied yet. Based on recent studies (Mura, 2004, 2005) our hypothesis is that people, in presenting their urban environment, represent both the environment and their place identity (Breakwell, 1986; Bonaiuto et al., 2004) by choosing beautiful and representative places,or degraded ones as a social denunciation.An evaluation by environmental psychologists could be considered as essential on the perspective of a sustainable transformation and design of urban places (Bonnes & Nenci, 2002). Through a photographic contest, 400 photos made by inhabitants have been collected. Photography's codify has been negotiated from environmental psychologists and architects to create a common field and individuate common questions. Two independent referees, social psychologists and architects, codified photographies on 17 variables. Cohen's K test has been used to compare referee's evaluations. Data have been analysed both with descriptive and inferential analysis Results show that a comparison between architects and environmental psycholgists' evaluations is possible, mainly for as regards particular urban elements. The analysis confirm the hypothesis showing that photographies can be a useful tool to study social representations of the city, place identity of the inhabitants and to individuate significant elements of the city in participated design.Theoretical and methodological implications will be discussed
Zacharias, John. "Physical and Economic Factors in the Spatial and Social Behavior of Pedestrians in Non-Motorized Areas." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Context: The results of the non-motorization of city areas that got underway in the 1970s has now produced a generation of downstream effects in Europe, North America and Japan especially. A new wave of interventions to channel and reduce overall motorized traffic is underway in Europe, while hundreds more pedestrian zones are being created in China. This is a good time to undertake some serious investigations of the internal dynamics of these areas. Purpose: This project is concerned with the movement and activities of people relative to layout. When a facility is planned in an area where there are already pedestrians, the location cannot often be optimal in relation to the predominant flows. The question is the extent to which the facility itself conditions behavior in the space, volume-flows through the space ultimately impacting on the economics of the facility. Methods: New studies in a set of environments and cities are being conducted using identical methods in each study. In this way, we can be sure that the data are strictly comparable. The layout of each pedestrian area is conceived as a set of people generators-metro stations, office buildings, busy streets nearby-along with the network and spatial system, Network is understood as a graph with directional movement. Each segment of the graph carries various properties with regard to its position in the whole system and its spatial orientation to other segments. The spatial system is conceived as geometry and metrics. Presence and volume-flow censuses are collected along with details of the land uses, all plotted on a detailed map of the spaces and buildings of each area. There are five sets of data for each pedestrian zone: 1-generator flow; 2-store patronage; 3-one-directional pedestrian flow; 4-other-direction pedestrian flow; 5-land use and activity descriptions. Case studies: Thus so far, we have four complete case studies: Les Halles, Paris; Rotterdam central area; Tianjin central district; Ginza, Tokyo. This presentation will consist of a comparison of the four pedestrian areas. The comparison will include a quantification of the variables described above and their meaning for the internal dynamics of the pedestrian environment, as well as a qualitative comparison, considering the range of activities, variations in the land use mix, as well as culturally bound public activity and norms for activity. The comparison will include non-parametric statistics at this stage, although when more studies are complete, it will be possible to use parametric methods. Outcomes: We will try to draw out patterns of relationships from the four examples, as a step toward a comprehensive analysis of the whole set of environments. The intention of the work is to gain an understanding of the relative weight to accord programmatic interventions and layout interventions in non-motorized districts for desired social and economic outcomes.
Refaee, Mohamed, Steve Sharples, Mags Adams, Trevor Cox, Gemma Moore, and Ben Croxford. "Physical and Perceptional Investigation of the Urban Environment in Clerkenwell, London." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. A detailed case study was undertaken in Clerkenwell, London, during a three months period (November, December, January, 2004-2005) to explore and understand issues relating to urban environmental quality. Indoor, outdoor environmental conditions and residents views and attitudes on living in the area data were collected. The results showed that the indoor thermal conditions in twenty nine naturally ventilated homes had a mean air temperature and relative humidity of 19.7°C and 42.7% respectively. Additionally there was a negative correlation between average temperature and home age (r=0.66, p
Amador, Sarah. "Place-Identity in Temporary Migration: Reconciling Expectations of Home and Host Country." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. The paper examines temporary migrants' relationship to others-in-place as a means to identify the psychosocial and spatial resources that they draw upon, in order to achieve a balance between the maintenance of links with the home country and the establishment of local ties. The study attempts to determine identity processes that regulate migrants' adjustment to others in the different settings that constitute their new environment and to thus grasp the ways in which places in the host city are utilized by migrants in order to position themselves within the migrant community as well as the broader host society. Over two hundred (200) women from the Philippines, working for and living-in with chinese families as domestic helpers in Hong Kong completed a questionnaire detailing aspects of their experience of residential as well as semi-public and public settings in the host city. Other measures intended to ascertain levels of self-determination and the nature of dependence on supportive settings outside of the dwelling were also included. Results should allow for a discussion of the nature of place-based identity processes that come into play during temporary migration and of their relation to (i) migrants' social positioning at local and transnational scales and (ii) the extent and nature of migrants' appropriation of the host city, within the framework of migrant well-being.
Carrus, Giuseppe, Marino Bonaiuto, Elena Bilotta, Manuela Ceccarelli, and Mirilia Bonnes. "Place-Identity Processes and Environmental Sustainability: Relations Between Local Identification, Support for Biodiversity Conservation, and Use of Fresh-Water Resources." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Aims & Objectives: Local endorsement of environmental policies is a key issue in environmental agenda. In this paper, assumptions from social and environmental psychology are used to predict support for environmental policies in the biodiversity and fresh-water conservation domains in Italy. An experimental study (study 1) tested the moderating effect of group identity salience on support for the institution of protected areas, and a field study (study 2) assessed the role of identification with the local community and Social Value Orientation (SVO) in predicting fresh-water use and conservation during water scarcity conditions.Context & background literature: Identity processes are a major driver of human perceptions, motivation and behavior. Research in social and environmental psychology showed how social and place-related identity can orient people’s behaviors in several environmentally relevant domains, such as: ecological behaviors (Uzzell, Pol & Badenas, 2002); support for biodiversity conservation policies (Carrus, Bonaiuto & Bonnes, 2005); cooperation in natural resource dilemmas (Van Vugt, 2001; 2002).Method of inquiry or argument: Study 1. Two scenarios describing the institution of a natural park proposed either by a national or by a regional authority were set up. Participants (N = 180) were randomly assigned to one of three experimental conditions of identity salience, using a self-definition task (Haslam et al., 1999): 1) personal; 2) regional; 3) national identity salient. Each participant evaluated both scenarios. A 2-way interaction between “identity salience” and “authority localization” in shaping support for the parks described in the scenarios was predicted.Study 2. 758 residents and vacationers of the Elba Island completed a self-reported questionnaire measuring local identification, SVO, and fresh-water conservation behaviors, during Summer and Easter time. Basing on findings from the social Social Dilemmas literature, it was expected that both local identification and SVO should affect people’s degree of cooperation in conserving fresh-water resources.Findings & Conclusions: Results confirmed the hypotheses for both studies. In study 1, subjects in the “regional identity salient” condition expressed higher support for the park proposed by a regional authority, while subjects in the “national identity salient” condition expressed higher support for the park proposed by a national authority. In study 2, the highest levels of voluntary cooperation to conserve fresh-water emerged among prosocial persons with high local identity, while the lowest levels emerged among proself persons with low local identity. Theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed.
Chrysafides, Evangelos. "Planning Health Facilities Within a Comprehensive and Sustainable Development." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Developments in the field of health, especially in the western world after the Second World War, were rapid, approaching an extensive knowledge and application on the planning and designing of health systems. Nowadays uncertainty surrounds health systems, not only from the unpredictable evolution of medical and other sciences as well as technology, but mostly from the population growth, demography and new epidemiology, the global economy as it is currently evolving, the disappearance of civilizations and the destruction of the environment.Societies in the twentieth first century have to face strategic policies in health in three directions: The first has to incorporate any activity in the health field in relation to uncertainty. The second is defined as a philosophy and action within a broader and comprehensive framework of social and economic sustainable development. The third shapes all targets for development and health in respect of human beings and the environment.
Koca, Guler. "Planning Problems of Traditional Settlement in Eskisehir." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Problems in Implementation of Conservation Planning in Turkey: In Turkey, although there has been an agreement on the conservation of historic and architectural environment values since 1970's, its requirements are still not accomplished. Several major problems regarding implementation of conservation plans are listed as follows: After the decision of the conservation is taken ,preparation process of its implementation plan takes too long. There is a conflict in use of authority between the institutions responsible from the conservation and the implementation of plans, and legal regulations are insufficient to integrate the conservation implementations with planning process. Financial support of central and local administrations to the conservation implementation projects is insufficient. Usually, local administrations and people living in the conservation region do not support the conservation decisions on the contrary, they had a belief that this decision will end up with a lost. Urban Conservation planning in a small city (Eskisehir): Eskisehir was founded as a Turkish - Anatolian city in the second stage of urbanization process in Anatolia. The first settlement in the area consists of two sections: Odunpazari and Tasbasi area. Odunpazari is situated on the side of hill and contains residential units.Tasbasi area , on the other hand , was a market area of the town including stores and Turkish baths. Although a terrible fire in 1905 destroyed most of the area, some original and small scaled buildings still remain unchanged today. Both Odunpazari and Tasbasi areas are conservation sites; however pressure of intense housing around these areas threatens them more day- by-day. These areas have been experiencing troubles due to conservation plans and municipalities different demands for their implication , and they still lack an effective conservation policy. Time to time, municipality has strong public opposition, especially in Tasbasi, in implementation of the conservation plan and it is forced to step back. Because of political deals, the solutions offered are usually in favor of the people's expectations which demands permit for intense housing in these areas. Survey and observations in these areas: Implementations and some samples will explain.Suggestions of solution: Before preparing city development (construction) plans, investigation of the available housing stock in cities and determination of new housing areas accordingly may be a legal obligation. Further legal precautions can be taken to prevent this “destroy and rebuild” approach and encourage people to conserve the old. In this paper , the problems regarding conservation of these areas will be discussed and possible solutions will be proposed.
Aydinli, Semra. "Possibilities and Limitations of Gated Communities in Istanbul." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. The power of geography, a rich variety of cultures, value systems and life-styles had defined the different configurations of the architecture in Istanbul. The architecture of city in Istanbul can be experienced with its architectural and urbanistic themes dating from late Byzantine Period to the Ottoman Empire and its more cosmopolitan image of today, having a lot of dialectics. Nowadays gated communities, being emerged as a result of arbitrary and sudden radical housing policy changes, make Istanbul such a big and exciting puzzle. It is possible to understand the change and continuity in Istanbul with its gated communities which represent cultural, ideological and social mosaic. Since different cultures and social groups live together in these residential areas, their multi-layered meaning patterns can be discovered through their architectural and urban traces. In experiencing this multi-layered pattern, it becomes easy to understand the visible and invisible dimensions of gated communities which also exhibit the hybrid identity of Istanbul. Understanding this hybrid identity makes possible to grasp the affordances of Istanbul and then to associate particular ideas and events with specific forms and shapes and their relationships. On the other hand, gated communities being the result of global culture can be considered as an extension of culture industry which defines the formation of architecture of a city. Today, global culture tends to use the power of image which has an influential role in emphasizing the global values and accordingly in marketing architecture. The increasing numbers of housing developments in Istanbul are going to be articulated by gated communities that have priorities on behalf of commercial attractiveness and false pleasureness. The advertisement of these housing sites in the media focuses on a new life style that gated communities provides. In respect to this advertisement strategy we are directed towards the new housing life style which exhibits the power of image on behalf of marketing architecture. Since the gated communities bring a different responsibility to social phenomena which is the web of culture, language, total environmental realities, they have both possibilities creating entropy for housing problems within a metropolis and limitations. In this paper the possibilities and limitations of the gated communities in Istanbul will be introduced according to their structural meaning caused by the reciprocal relationship between the spatial character of city and the lifestyle which is complementary. Istanbul, with its cultural heritage and its economic, political and social developments, has a potential in understanding the structural meaning of gated communities caused by the network relations between perceptual, cultural, social, economic and political issues within a global culture.
Butchart, Maggie, and Phil Lyon. "Post Occupancy Evaluation of Maternity Facilities in the Uk." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Purpose: There are some 650,000 births in the UK each year and more than 90% take place in NHS hospitals. Therefore, providing a safe, comfortable, caring environment should be a priority. This research involves a Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE), which was designed to assess whether maternity facility design met the needs of the users. The POE assessed perceptions of the environment, measuring expectations and satisfaction with facilities using a self-completion questionnaire specifically focussed on design issues.Context: Evidence suggests that hospital design generally can directly influence the health of patients and staff (Baum and Singer 1984; Bell, Greene et al. 2001; Leather, Beale et al. 2003). Research has examined issues relating to primary patient concerns such as privacy, stress noise and security (Diette, Lechtzin et al. 2003; Blomkvist, Eriksen et al. 2005; Walch, Rabin et al. 2005). Perhaps surprisingly, a similar relationship between design and health outcome appears to apply to maternity unit design. Recent reports suggest that childbirth is made more difficult for women by a lack of space and privacy in the typical hospital labour room (Hundley, Ryan et al. 2001; 2005 Commission for Healthcare Audit and Inspection 2005; Boseley 2005). Guidelines advocate that women are 'accommodated in a pleasant room which is comfortable practical and is as homely as possible' (Department of Health 2005). Design Method: This research was conducted in three maternity units in the UK integrated within sizeable hospital complexes. The first was a recently-refurbished unit which was part of a large teaching hospital in a major city in the south of England. The second unit was part of a new purpose-built PFI (Private Finance Initiative) hospital in the north of England. The third maternity unit was also part of a PFI development for a Women and Children's hospital in the east of England. As part of the POE, women delivering at the units were given a self-report satisfaction questionnaire at six days postnatally (n=238). Global measures of satisfaction were asked at the beginning of each section with further multiple items probing satisfaction with different aspects of facility design. The final global question asked participants to rate expectations. Results: Survey results for labour and postnatal experiences revealed a marked difference in reported satisfaction with facilities and service. Participants were asked to rate on a scale of 1 to 10 (with 10 being the optimal score) their satisfaction with the surrounding environment. Participants were significantly less satisfied with their surroundings postnatally than when in the labour suite T = 35.83 p = .000, r = -.61. Participants were also asked to rate the care they received in labour and postnatal stay once more on a scale of 1 to 10 (with 10 being he optimal score). The test showed a significant difference between the two conditions, where participants were less satisfied with the care they received postnatally than in labour T = 40.10, p = .000, r = -.63 To assess the validity of the participants' satisfaction scores a further questions was asked about expectations. Participants were invited to rate their expectations on a scale from much better than expected to much worse than expected. The relationship between satisfaction with the surrounding environment and overall expectations regarding the facilities provided was positively correlated rs = .521, p = 0.01 (1- tailed). Implications: The research aimed to provide a greater understanding of maternity facility design with regard to the needs of the end-users. The findings suggest a difference in perception of the labour and postnatal facility design which impacts on the discernment of care received. The guidelines suggest that postnatal accommodation should consist of a 'small postnatal room with one other mother and baby. It is decorated so as to create a pleasant comfortable environment, including comfortable chairs for nursing. It also has ‘en suite’ toilet and bathing amenities for mothers.' (Department of Health 2005) This was not achieved in the three hospitals surveyed. Participants consistently rated their postnatal stay as less satisfactory than their labour experience. The implications of this study are clear. First, postnatal facilities and care are consistently poorer than labour facilities. This anomaly negatively affects the patient experience. Secondly, it is possible to create a positive image of maternity units, as shown by the affirmative attitude expressed towards the labour suite. Following this through to postnatal care in the ward (which is a crucial time for mother and their newborn) would ensure a consistently positive attitude toward maternity service provision. Thirdly, frequently a maternity unit is the usually the first encounter of hospital women have and enhancing this experience can produce a positive affective evaluation and perception of the hospital.
Montero, Maria, Gary W. Evans, and Carlos Galan-Diaz. "Poverty and Socio-Emotional Development in the Mexican Context." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006.

Aims & Objectives: To document the possible impact of two different levels of poverty (poor and middle-class families)on the socio-emotional development of children. Context & background literature: Traditionally, poverty has been associated to extreme hard economic difficulties, although poverty as a complex process should be studied as multi dimentional phenomenon that impacts at different levels on human functioning (Evans & English, 2002; McLeod J. & Shanahan, 1996; Msten & Reed, 2002) . In coherence, it was generated a battery of psychological instruments and direct observations to be applied to a sample of approximately 400 Mexican subjects (50% mothers and 50% offspring's) in order to document the possible impact of two different levels of poverty (poor and middle-class families) on the socio-emotional development of children. Method of inquiry or argument: It was hypothesized that some variables like mother responsivity, could buffering the negative impact of poverty conditions on socio-emotional development in children. In consequence, amongst the considered variables are: (a) environmental variables such as density and in-home noise, (b) social variables such as family turmoil and social networks support, (c) psychological variables such as loneliness and mother responsivity. Findings & Conclusions: The results are discussed from a social-ecological perspective, taking into consideration the possibility to contrast the explanations derived from a mediational model versus a structural model. Applicability to the field & the work to done next: Based on the findings from this study, could be possible to identify mother's patterns behavior of interaction that promoting resilience mechanism in their children. These patterns will be useful to reduce the pernicious poverty impact on socio-emotional development in children. As Mexico is a developing country which has the highest proportion of Indian groups, at Latin American level, at future, the next challenge is to consider indigenous samples and to identify similarities and divergences with the previous results. To promote the mental and physical health and the environmental sustainability among the most vulnerable groups in developing countries, like poor people or Indian ethnics is a social and scientific compromise that needs of innovative and multidisciplinary approaches to be efficient.

El-Rafey, Moshira, and Doaa Al-Sherif. "Practical Approaches and Environmental Sustainability: Case Study Shabramant Village, Giza Governorate." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Urban environmental design is the interdisciplinary decision making process at the local levels of governments that guides the implementation of public and private investments. The public interest in these decisions is considerable and includes concerns for equity, economy and quality. Consequently, urban environmental design is a special aspect of local government administration that emerges to enhance society services and environmental developments. The environmental design assessment includes architecture, urban design, city planning, landscape architecture and other evolving specialization including laws, economic, political sciences and other related fields.In many cities in Egypt, squatter settlements have grown rapidly, and green areas and agricultural lands around cities have eroded or have been destroyed, suffering from congestion, air and industrial pollution and inadequate sewage and solid waste managements systems.This study deals with the problem of rapidly urbanizing and deteriorated urban settlements in Egypt. The case study chosen for the purpose of this study is located in shabramant Mont village, Giza governorate, located on the south west of greater Cairo. The village has developed severe problems with localized flooding during the Nile inundation season. Several houses have collapsed, forcing families to double up in already crowded conditions.The objectives of this study is to assess the environmental and social impacts associated with products, services concepts and the role of the local authorities in promoting the design for sustainability. It also aims to draw on systematic, creative and innovative approaches to address the transition towards more sustainable environment. The study points to the fact that in order to connect environmental sustainability and sustainable development from policy to practice there are new ways to be conducted among professionals, research institutes, industry, private sectors and decision makers and local authorities.
Troffa, Renato, Marina Mura, and Davide Plantera. "Preferences and Architectural Typologies in Participated Design." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. The present study, part of an in progress complex research, aims to investigate the understanding of urban architecture and the preference of the citizens with respect to different architectural styles. This first exploratory study, starting from an interdisciplinary viewpoint, is focused on deepening the diverse perspective of urban psychologists and architects in order to realize communicative procedures of urban planning towards a social sustainable design. The theoretical background of the study is related on the role of architecture in human-environment transitions (Bonnes et al. 1990; Garcìa Mira et al., 2005; van der Voordt , 2005; Thompson, 2005 among the others) and, particularly, in the model of participated design (Sanoff, 2000, 2001). On the perspective of Environmental Urban Psychology (Bonnes, et al. 1990; Nenci, 2003), starting from the hypothesis that varying urban architectural typologies affects inhabitants' social life, architects and urban psychologists investigated: a) the evaluation given by urbanites upon the buildings of their city in relation to the understanding of the history of architecture; b) inhabitants' residential satisfaction in relation to other prototypical cities. Via a dialogue conducted by urban psychologists, the following study integrates householders' ingenuous point of view with the expertise of the designers. The study involved a sample of 120 subjects, balanced by sex and age. The subjects performed a self reported questionnaire to investigate: a) their level of appreciation for architectural typologies (contemporary, contemporary relating to the historic, and historic) b) the understanding of key elements of the history of architecture, c) their preference for other prototypical cities (ancient, modern, big and small). Architectural types and prototypical cities had been selected by expert architects. The results seem to show an influence of the architectural typology on urban preferences. In particular, people evaluate more negative contemporary buildings than ancient ones. A sparse understanding of the story of architecture has been detected. Furthermore, results did not show a direct correlation between preference for ancient buildings and the desire to live in ancient cities. Theoretical and methodological implications will be discussed.
Gomez, Francisco Haz, Ricardo Garcia-Mira, and Eulogio J. Real-Deus. "Present and Future of Environmental Problems. a Multidimensional Analysis of Environmental Optimism." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. "The aim of this research is to explore the environmental perception in a sample of urban population in Spain. Two dimensions are considered. On one hand, "time": present and future (25 years later) perception of the environmental problems. On the other hand, "space" considering three spatial contexts: the zone where the resident lives, Spain and the world as a global context. From an urban perspective, we will consider what variables are determining a value orientation in individuals. From environmental pessimism until optimism; variables gender, background, and age are explored with regard to environmental optimism and pessimism profiles.This paper is part of a wider research carried out by professor Robert Gifford to world-wide level. From the sixties many authors were interested in the study of the people perception on the environmental reality (Marans y Ahrentzen, 1987). Environmental perception is a central subject of the theory and research in Environmental Psychology. Part of our work (see García-Mira, 1997) has considered the study of environmental perception within the framework of large scale settings, understood as part of a global concept. In this research, environmental problems are considered in the same way. A survey study was carried out in the city of Corunna (Spain). A representative sample of 300 individuals was considered in the design. Data were analyzed through multidimensional scaling procedures, considering different spaces for the present evaluation and the future evaluation. Three dimensional spaces were also considered for the "space" dimension of "this zone", "Spain", and "Globally". All these spaces were compared, in terms of analyzing their co-ordinates in the multidimensional space derived by "Indscal" (Individual Differences Scaling), as well as the different structures and profiles for the five situations.This research discusses different aspects from perception of environmental problems in the future. It also analyzes how it can affect the present social perception, exploring profiles of environmental optimism and pessimism, with regard to gender, age and background."
Kabisch, Sigrun, Dirk Heinrichs, and Ricardo Jordan. "Prospects and Challenges for Sustainable Development of Large Agglomerations and Megacities." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Introduction: Large urban agglomerations and mega-cities promise, on the one hand, significant potential for economic progress by creating innovative environments through connecting human capital, global actors as well as financial and information resources. But, on the other hand, these conditions pose significant risks at global, regional and local scales by aggravating social disorganization, economic disparity, loss of governability, and ecological stresses that create unhealthy local environments. Because of an increasing recognition that the future development of humankind concentrates in urban areas, there is a rapidly growing scientific interest in understanding the evolution of large agglomerations, their driving forces, consequences and potential solutions to their problems.Aim of the symposium: Taking up the global challenge of urbanization, the symposium provides the space for an interdisciplinary discussion on significant socio-economic, health and ecological consequences of continued future growth of agglomerations. It explores mitigation and steering strategies and actions. A particular concern is the interdependence between human behavior and vulnerable living conditions in densely populated areas.Content: In expectation that existing problems will further aggravate in future, there is an urgent need for research to develop concepts for the sustainable development of these areas and support their application. The understanding of the complexity of interrelated urban processes and mechanisms as a precondition is currently limited. There is likewise lack of knowledge on optimum strategies for an integrated management of the urban system. To work on these questions, research results and lessons from various international projects shall be presented und discussed in the symposium.
Rodríguez, Cesáreo Estrada. Psychological Effects of Noise Contamination in Elementary Educational Settings: a Study in Mexico In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Research problem: Government and educational efforts to increase country's educational level and academic achievement have never contemplated classrooms' design and its' acoustic as many other countries have done. Based on this fact our project aims to answer the following research question: What is the classrooms' physical design and acoustics role in elementary schools in the students' intelligibility, teachers-student level of communication and academic achievement? Urban context: The study will be performed in Mexico City's elementary schools registering their physical design and acoustic levels of the school itself and selected classrooms at different days and hours. Simultaneously to the classrooms' acoustic levels students and professors will answer several validated psychometric tests to evaluate intelligibility, communication process interruption and personal annoyance. Relevant literature: According to Shield & Dockrell (2003) most of the classrooms' noise studies have been performed in: a) elementary schools with participants between 5 and 11 years old and that most of them concentrate their evaluation on b) cognitive processes while performing classroom tasks and school performance. On the other hand, Crandell & Smaldino (2000) in their exhaustive review of acoustics' classrooms effects (noise, reverberation, sign/noise rate and emissary/listener distance) demonstrate negative effects noise has in the students' speech perception. Based on these representative examples of theoretical and empirical antecedents we decided to integrate in our research the study of noise in schools' environments as: a) a communication interference element, b) deteriorating factor for academic performance and c) a hamper aspect for the cognitive process of students. Research questions, objectives and hypotheses: What is the classrooms' physical design and acoustics degree effect in elementary schools in the students' intelligibility, teachers-student level of communication and academic achievement? OBJECTIVE: Identify the educational and psychological effects the physical and acoustics prevalent conditions in a sample of elementary schools classrooms have on the students' academic achievement. HYPOTHESIS: Acoustics and architectonic design produce both negative psychological symptoms (annoyance and communication interference) and educational effects (low intelligibility which will derive in low students' school achievement moderated by participants' socio-demographic characteristics. QUESTIONS: Is there a significant correlation among the schools' and classrooms' architectonic design and students' academic achievement, speeches' intelligibility, annoyance perception and communication interference? Is there a significant correlation among the schools' and classrooms' acoustics levels and students' academic achievement, speeches' intelligibility, annoyance perception and communication interference? Is there a significant association among speech intelligibility and school performance? Methodology: Our research design contemplates as 1. Independent variables: Acoustics measured by noise, reverberation time and sign/noise ratio, and architectonic design appraised by emissary/receptor distance, equipment and spatial organization. 2. Dependent variables: annoyance, academic achievement, intelligibility and communication interruption. Socio-demographic characteristics such as: students' age, sex, mothers' educational level and household social density are considered as moderatos variables. Two phases are contemplated: a) Exploratory and pilot study to psychometrically validate the psychological instruments and to standardize the physical measurements and procedure. The second and final study aims to probe association's hypothesis among contemplated variables: physical, psychological and academic. A model will be proposed.
Kos, Drago, Nadja Zeleznik, and Marko Polic. "Public Participation in Search for Lilw Repository Location: Frames and Procedures." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Risk technology and its installation: Search for location of certain risky or unpleasant objects could be quite a difficult task. As Slovenia is for the number of years now in the process of search for the location of LILW repository social acceptability of this facility is currently the main problem in the search for location. Efforts in this direction are presented, in all its diversity, weaknesses and successes, addressing also the context of the whole process, but especially considering different aspects of public participation. NIMBY and all that: Acronyms like NIMBY, LULU, NIMTOF are widely known, and the phenomena they represent are common nowadays. The questions of risk perception and safety are widely studied. The question of what is 'acceptable' or 'tolerable' has different answers depending on who, what, where, etc. Beliefs of experts differ from that of lay persons what makes the matter even more difficult. Ethical and value questions are often in the forefront of discussion. Nowadays stakeholder involvement had replaced risk communication as the required ingredient of any risk management effort (Kasperson, 2005). Methods: The search process in Slovenia is presented in all its forms, from public campaigns to different participatory efforts, as well as its reflection in different survey studies, conducted either in the whole country or in particular involved communities mainly in a time span of the last five years. From technocratic to socio-technical approach: The most important aspects of the whole process were the transition from purely technical approach to the approach that involve people in the decision process. Development of this process is presented and critical changes explained in the frame of its own dynamics as well as changes in the country. Public opinion was closely reflecting these changes, sometimes also generating them. Formerly higly negative attitudes are slowly substituted with the more positive ones. Where to go now: The search process is not yet finished, some lessons were learned, but not completely and tendencies toward narrowing the stakeholder basis are reapering. Possible consequences and nature of this process are discussed.
Ozsoy, Ahsen, and Nuran Zeren Gulersoy. "Quality Improvement of the Urban Environment: Experiences from Istanbul." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. "Aim of the paper: The rapid growth in the world's population, globalization trends and their impacts on population mobility necessitate a vital consideration on "environmental quality" in urban areas. The socio-economic implications are of great importance in quality discussion that is directly related to physical qualifications of cities. The primary aim of design practices in urban environment is rehabilitating the life quality, where the focal point is human. Context of the paper: Answers of the question "What makes a place quality or successful?" can be very different for anybody. Qualities of a place can be defined with both concrete and abstract indicators. A place can be alive and attractive; secure and controlled; and also easy to access. The objective qualities of the same place can be perceived by its inhabitants and visitors differently according to their personal characteristics, such as age, sex, education, profession, status in the society, previous spatial experiences, and also expectations. That makes difficult to understand the concept of quality and to create solutions for improvement approaches in problematic cases. On the other hand, the concept of gentrification, as an approach for social and spatial change of dilapidated urban housing areas, has been mostly discussed in the world since the 1960s, with its socio-economic and ownership basis. Method of inquiry: Istanbul has also been experiencing the rehabilitation and gentrification process in some areas in the city center since the 1980s. In this study, a conceptual review about various aspects of quality improvement studies and gentrification approaches are given, the developments in terms of gentrification experienced since the 1980s in Istanbul are examined, and successes and failures of these practices are discussed with the analysis and evaluations based on the observations and archival research in the study area. Findings: Some of these transformations have relatively been more successful in terms of improvement the qualities of the place by involving the residents, the non-governmental organizations, artist groups, etc. in the process."
Jaeger, Melanie, and Volker Linneweber. "Realising Ecological Efficiency in Buildings: Perceptions, Procedures and Obstacles." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Ecological efficiency of buildings is becoming increasingly important in the building sector not at last because of its stronger presence in legislation (e.g. EnEV 2006 in Germany). To be ecologically efficient a building mostly requires full functionality that often depends on a complex interaction between different building features, aspects of the surrounding, climate conditions, and not at last the awareness and behaviour of building managers and users.Literature indicates that an implementation of future building users in the process of planning and construction (cp. Linneweber, 1993) and the building planners' higher understanding of the users perception can improve later building performance (cp. Rambow 1995, 2000) According to this a thorough planning phase would be needed here, that is sensitive to the different interdependent dimensions of building performance and considers function enhancing procedures like user need analysis and user participation.Perceptions and procedures in building planning and performance are explored in a current interdisciplinary study, focusing office buildings with a special kind of façade system that is said to be 'ecologically efficient'. 4 different office buildings throughout Germany were evaluated using physical measures, structured interviews with building planners and managers as well as user questionnaires. Aspects of planning process and current operation and their dependency on perceptions and experiences of architects, users and building managers were analyzed.Results show crucial threads to efficient building performance: A significant distance in building-related perceptions and expectancies between planners, constructors and user was found. Further the criteria 'ecological efficiency' seemed to be adopted in a more or less 'outward' way that is not grounded on quantitative base rates and expectation values. Finally the complexity of the building itself is not just a special challenge to planners but also to users who need to show contra-intuitive behaviour in parts.The results of the study will directly be implemented to the field through workshops and a planner's handbook. Recommendations will be given related to better ways of handling a building complexity in planning and usage but also in order to enhance the exchange between building planner, managers and users.
Tawa, Michael. "Recollectable Places: Between the Constricted and Reconstructed City." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. This is a reflection on the play of memory and narrative in the mapping, recollection and invention of place. He was born in Alexandria in 1955 and had lived away, in Australia, since he was ten. Thirty five years later he revisited the city for the first time. For a month he followed a process of retracing pathways between memory and reality, walking the city streets, travelling through its suburbs, recollecting childhood places and events, slowly rebuilding the urban fabric, and becoming aware of the highly constricted social and urban framework he experienced as a child. Without the aid of maps or directions, he was able to find his way and orient himself to the city’s layout and districts, if not to its topographies and scales. He became aware of the extent to which, in his absence from it and unconsciously, he had been reconstructing the city on the basis of half remembered stories, faded images, family photographs and the desire lines that drove his search for origins and identity. He now wishes to reflect on these experiences of reconstructing the constricted city of Alexandria, by playing-out some of the themes that the process uncovered for him – themes such as mapping, deferral, resonance, fragment, assemblage, orientation, recollection, space, time and placemaking. The manner in which the city was able to prompt, provide for and afford different kinds of narrative practices – in other words the city’s propensity to recollectability and invention - appeared to him as a function of its spatial and temporal layering, its fragmented and discontinuous textures, its anachronisms, its ambiguities, and especially the sense about it and in it of something lost and forgotten, and yet palpably present. He contends that the recollectability of place is an essential quality of engaging, adaptive, enriching and therefore socially and culturally sustainable urban settings. In his presentation, he would like to explore this quality of recollectability, and the conditions that give rise to it. Because he is interested in the design of enduring places, he would also like to suggest a range of urban design implications and objectives based on this quality of recollectability, using the city of Alexandria as an exemplary case study.
Hsieh, Tsai-Shiou. "Recycling Perceptions and Practices of New York City Immigrants: an Ecological-Psychological Inquiry." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Aims & Objectives: This study aims at exploring people’s changes of environmental orientation and behavior after they move to another country. Relocation and immigration have not been widely discussed in conjunction to environmental issues in existing literature. Using New York City’s recycling program as a case study, this research hopes to: (1) enrich psychological understandings of recycling issues in more dynamic ways, and (2) inform environmental policy-makers of being keen to the global trends of immigration. Context & background literature: Adopting the framework of ecological psychology, the author situates the participants in their everyday environments. Expanding Gibson’s affordances theory, the author investigated the opportunities that the environment provides for recycling. People’s environmental consciousness, ecological identity (Thomashow, 1995) were also investigate to understand their conceptualizations and practices of recycling. Previous living and traveling experiences regarding the formation of environmental orientation were discussed. Method of inquiry or argument: Multi-method qualitative approaches were adopted in this study, including observation, archival research, and semi-structured interviews. Observations and archival studies were used to establish the basic understanding of New York City’s recycling program, in both residential and public areas. Interviewees were mostly immigrants; however, some American-born participants were served as contrast group. Interviews were conducted in participants’ living spaces in order to facilitate the demonstration of their everyday recycling scenarios. Interview topics included general recycling behavior; recycle in different place, at different time of their lives, and NYC’s recycling policy changes. All interviews were transcribed and content-analyzed. Findings & Conclusions: Main findings of this research includes: (1) personal past environmental experiences and education played an important role in shaping people’s conceptualization of recycling, and it can be both positive and negative influences; (2) people recycle differently in their homes as opposed to work places and/or public places; (3) Spatial elements, such as sizes of the apartment or kitchen, were often connected to their desirability of extensive recycling; (4) immigrants often contrast different cultures of recycling: in United States vs. in their home country. To conclude: qualitative inquiry of recycling and ecological psychology perspective provides a more dynamic view of people’s conceptualizations practices of recycling.
Hokara, Ebnem Önal, Beser Oktay, and Naciye Doratl_. "Relationship Between Urban Revitalization and Sustainability in Historic Urban Quarters: a Sustainable Urban Revitalization Approach." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. The aim of this paper is to put forward the relationship between revitalization of historic urban environments and their sustainability for developing a model for the sustainable urban revitalization of historic urban quarters. Based on this aim, the paper will be composed of three parts. In the first part, the theoretical background on urban revitalization and sustainability concepts will be presented. In the second part, the relationship between sustainability and urban revitalization will be put forward and in the third part the model for the sustainable urban revitalization of historic urban quarters will be indicated. Sustainable urban revitalization of historic urban quarters is viewed as a comprehensive approach that integrates several processes that is related to historic buildings and their physical urban context, together with the socio-economic environment within which the quarters exists and operates. In order to be a successful process, urban revitalization would integrate economic revitalization, physical revitalization and social revitalization. Similarly, sustainability is the process that prevents the environmental, economic and social problems in order to improve the living conditions of the inhabitants and the future generations. Thus, sustainable urban conservation/ revitalization in historic urban environments, as similar with urban revitalization, involves three dimensions, such as conservation of the physical fabric, improving the economic base and maintaining the social structure. The paper presented here is a part of a PhD thesis completed at Eastern Mediterranean University by one of the authors. Accordingly, it is based upon a detailed research on the topic, covering various methods such as literature survey, site survey and questionnaire survey. Yet, the part of the research that is presented in this congress is a result of a thorough literature survey. Based on the strong relationship between revitalization of historic urban quarters and their sustainability, the authors argue that the merits of revitalization of historic urban quarters with the principles of sustainability provide all environmental, economic and social contexts for wider recognition. It is also argued that achieving a balance between revitalization and the sustainability of the historic urban quarters is possible if only revitalization includes physical up-grading, economical vitality and social security and equity.
Ali, Dianati, Ramazan Tilaki, and Kobra Zabih Zadeh. "Removal of Phenol from Water Environment by Aquatic Plant Lemna Minor." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Aims & Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine phenol removal capability of Lemna- minor and clearing the effect of plant density on uptake of Phenol in different initial concentration. Also this study examined the effect of presence of Glucose, Lactose and Ethanol on uptake of Phenol by common Duckweed (Lemna- minor). Background literature: Previous research demonstrated that aquatic plants take up, metabolize and sequester organic pollutants. However, limited studies have investigated effect of assimilable organic substrate on uptake of refractory organic by aquatic plants. Materials and Method: In this study Lemna minor, a floating species from Lemnaceae family, has been selected to study its ability to remove phenol from static phenolic solutions. All of the experiments were carried out in two modes without and with addition of organic substrates (Glucose, Lactose, Ethanol). The initial concentrations of phenol were 20, 50 and 100 mgL-1 and density of Lemna (wet weight) ranged from 12.5 to 150 gM-2. Controls (without plants) were prepared with the same concentrations. The concentration of residual Phenol was determined by Spectrophotometer. The absorbance of colored complex of Phenol with 4-aminoantipyrine was read at 510 nm.Results: Phenol uptake by L. minor was decreased by increasing the plant density and initial concentration of Phenol. The optimal plant density was 100gM-2. In the density of 150 gM-2 when L. minor covers fully the surface of the water, elimination of phenol was decreased. We have noticed the existence of a maximum time limit of degradation that is dependent to initial concentration of Phenol and growth medium composition. Under the optimal plant density condition, the elimination of phenol by L. minor is slow when there was 100 mgL-1 Glucose, Lactose or Ethanol separately in the phenolic solution. Conclusion: Lemna minor can remove up to 20mgL-1 phenol completely from water environment. Elimination of phenol was decreased in the presence of Glucose and Lactose.
Weiss, Karine, and Dorothée Marchand. "Representation of Environment and Evolution of Behaviors." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. The environmental actors refer to the social sciences more and more to understand the relation between individual and environment. Environmental psychology and social psychology stress the role of the representations in comprehension of the individual and social behaviors. Through different socio-environmental contexts, we want to show the importance of the social representations of the environment on the individual and social behaviors. We postulate that to change the practices, we first have to change the social representations of the environement where they occur. We propose four researchs carried out in urban or natural contexts. Two presentations concern the perception of risk; Colbeau-Justin & Weiss study the behaviours face to floods and Marchand & Colbeau-Justin present a research on the perception of earthquake. In both cases, the autors focus on the need for taking account of the representations of the risk, its knowledge and the collective memory to developt a culture of the risk through involving population. With her research on both social representations of the farmer's profession and environment, E.Guillou shows how the evolution of agricultural pratices can integrate the durability of environment. Finally, Stewart & Marchand show that urban pratices has to be understood as the results of social representations of urban environment, involving the collective memory, the history of the city identity and the socioeconomical factors and the personnal experiences. The four research proposed are exploratories. Thus the autors have developed surveys according to their objectives. The data were all collected with semi-directive interviews but also with mental maps (studies on perception of risk) and focus groups (perception of risk of floods). The discursive productions have been treated with thematic content analyses and statistical analyses (multiple correspondence analysis, frequencies). The cartographic productions were analysed to provide informations - in particular - on the distorsion between the reality and the environment as it is perceived by the subjects. The discourse on the agricultural practices has been analysed with the similitudes analysis to identify the elements of the representation of the farmers and the environment and to highlight the structure of these representations (the paradigme of structural analysis of the social representations). While keeping their own originality according to the specificities of each research, the results converge to the same conclusions; the change of the behaviors must be made through the evolution of the representations. To change vulnerability and reactions face to risk, environmental or political actors have to consider the psychosociological dimensions in the relationship with the environment. To change the agricultural pratices in order to respect the balance of the ecosystem, the actors have to understand the representation the farmers have of themselves and of the environment. And in the same way, to change the level of frequentation of a centre, urban planers have to consider the city as a represented and lived territory. The four research focus on the individual factor in the explanation of behaviors (need of control, positive social image) but also on cultural (values, beliefs), social (collective memory, social group) and environmental ones (caracteristics of territories).Participants:• Ludvina Colbeaut-Justin & Karine WeissPerceived Risk and Behaviors Face to Catastrphic Floods: from Incredulity to Individual Commitment.• Dorothee Marchand & Ludvina Colbeau JustinVulnerability of Population, Adaptation to Risk and Representation of Earthquaque in Martinique.• Elisabeth Michel-GuillouThe Environment: A New Function of the Farmer's Profession?• Isobel Stewart & Dorothee MarchandComplex Relations between a Population and its Urban Environment: Representation of the Town of Le Creusot.
Rozec, Valérie, Nicolas Dubois, Isabelle Maramotti, and Catherine Skoda-Schmoll. Representations of Air Pollution Outdoor and Indoor In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. "Introduction: This research is based on two French studies of individual and domestic exposure to air pollution ("sentinel of air" study's of APPA and preliminary study of OQAI).the present study analyzes the motivations of these volunteers to accept this type of research, in connection with the representations the air pollution and the risk.The main targets are:1) To study the representations of the air pollution inside and outside housing.2) To analyze the motivations of the volunteers from personal exposure to air pollution. Context: The evaluation of air pollution is often associated various indices like sight (Evans & Tafalla, 1987, Rotton, 1987). In the same way, the sense of smell is often requested when one evokes perception of air pollution (Bonnefoy, 1997; Cavalini, 1992) Moreover, there would be a shift between measured pollution and that perceived by the individuals (Gatersleben & Uzzell, 2001). We spend 80% of our time inside housing and the context of housing can have a double influence on air pollution. The idea that the interior is good, clean, controlled (Serfaty-Garzon, 2003; Dubois, 2004) is opposed to the polluted outdoor (Fischer, 1997). Indeed, housing can be permeable to harmful effects. A study of the complaints (Rozec & Al, 2003) shows the existence of a feeling of intrusion, violation or of incapacity to live as they would like in their home. Method: This research was organized around two successive phases: - some interviews were made to study the majors elements of representations of air pollution (indoor and outdoor), perception of exposure. - we prepared thereafter a questionnaire (127) managed by telephone and by mail. This the questionnaire make up of three folds entailing the representations of air pollution (general, indoors, outdoors), lived of the study on exposure (APPA, OQAI) and the communication on air pollution Conclusion: The findings of this study support that the representations of the air pollution outdoor is linked to health and emotional dimension. The results point out that individuals have discovered various indoor sources of pollution. Moreover, changes in the domestic practices were noted. It seems that the values associated to housing allow fast changes of attitudes. However a significant effort has to be done to provide knowledge on air pollution to better arbitrate choices between risks, costs and benefits. The work to done next: This study must be carried out near general public in order to know if the representations of the air pollution of these volunteers are shared by a broader population. The study of these representations will make it possible to better communicate on air pollution."
Ohisumi, Keiko, and Kaname Yanagisawa. "Research on the Impact of Physical Environment on Profoundly Multiple Handicapped Children." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. "Making the guideline for planning and designing the playroom: This research aims to study the relationship between the physical environment and the activities of profoundly multiple handicapped children. We wanted to make the guideline for planning and designing the no.2 playroom at the facility for therapy and education of the children in Chiba Higashi Hospital through this research. Create more healing and playful environment: We renovated another playroom at no.3 ward for pediatrics in Chiba Higashi Hospital in 2004. The previous playroom used to be unattractive, so staff which was mainly child- care workers and child guidance workers, wished to design more healing and playful environment. We conducted post-occupancy evaluation on the new playroom and we found its new environment created more children's imaginative activities and also offered more comfortable space for parents. Because of the great success of the renovation, we were asked to renovate another playroom at facility for therapy and education of children.Three therapeutic activities: In this research we used the observational survey for understanding the activities of the children._We spent 4 days for doing this observational survey._The activities we observed were follows: 1) Therapeutic activities on multi sensory stimulation called "snoezelen":_Staff makes the settings with multi sensory stimulated equipments for these activities. 2) Therapeutic activities on multi sensory stimulation with music: Staff sings and show musical instruments to the children. They also let them to touch the musical instruments for their sensory stimulation. 3) Therapeutic activities on motor stimulation called "movement": This isn't training but pleasure activity with movement to develop mind and body. This activity only works on specific person for a half year to one year. Besides the observational survey, we did interviews to staff about these activities, the life and physical condition of the children. Relationship between activities and settings: We found the relationship between theses activities and settings. The children especially showed very strong emotion against sound, light, smell and tremble. The setting was always changed according to the type of therapeutic activity. In "snoezelen" and music therapy, the children used no.1 playroom. However, in "movement," they also used no.2 playroom as well. Because "movement" gave much mental stress on the children, so they should be calmed down for a while in no.2 playroom before going back to their bedrooms. They used two different rooms, one was for the therapy and another was for the relaxation."
Menchawy, El, and Adel Samy. "Reshaping Urban Communities for Sustainable Development." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. The paper explores the meaning of sustainable development and its effect on the pattern of urban development, then discusses several principles which can be considered while reshaping urban communities into eco-communities, and provides examples of local initiatives for a sustainable future. Several issues that effect sustainability will be discussed as: dimensions of sustainability, the importaceof urban design for sustainability, sustainable urban growth and its pattern, transportation and traffic management, land use planning and housing, redeveloping a community for a sustainable future to create a livable neighborhood, sustainable community urban design principles, with a focus on sustainability in desert Architecture and urban design with the urban microclimate in the desert. Finally, the paper illustrates some national and international examples for sustainable urban design, and presents projects that the term sustainability has been implanted upon them, and get to a conclusion to create criteria for reshaping urban communities for sustainable development.
Limbumba, Tatu Mtwangi. Residential Location Choices Within Informal Settlements In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. "Research Issue: In Tanzania over 70% of the urban residents live in informal settlements. While informal residential areas or settlements are not the most ideal urban land use planning objectives, their existence benefits a large portion of the urban population especially the poor. Various factors have been put forward in the literature as to why people locate to informal settlements and these focus on urban poverty, location and lack of adequate housing delivery by the government. Others say people living in informal settlements are often there by choice. They may have other housing options but choose to live in informal areas in order to minimize what they can spend on housing in order to maximise other values including life style, proximity to job markets, education or other capital investments (Perlman, 1987). Since informal settlements continue to grow, an understanding as to why people locate to them may assist in planning for effective housing programmes. Context: The paper presents the preliminary findings from a pilot study carried out as part of PhD research work titled Residential Location Choices within Informal Settlements. The main objective of the research is to examine and understand the factors people find important in selecting where to live within informal settlements so as to understand the meaning behind their location choices and the overall development of informal settlements. The study is carried out in Dar es Salaam city the capital of Tanzania. Informal settlements in Dar es Salaam city cannot be treated as a homogeneous mass and their diversity is reflected in the settlements' location in relation to the city centre or Central Business District (CBD). As a basis for the study on the important factors for location choice of households, Dar es Salaam informal areas were divided into three residential zones, namely those in the inner city, in the intermediate areas and those located in the urban periphery. Literature Review: Many researches have been published on the phenomena of informal settlements especially on the institutional, economic and political factors that contribute to their development. And many solutions have been put forward to address informal housing growth, poverty and environmental effects e.g. demolition, slum clearance programmes, upgrading, community participation and so on. Location has been cited as a factor for informal housing (Kironde 1995; ). A study on "Land Tenure and Land Regularization in Informal Urban settlements in Developing Countries", explaining information networks in squatting, has cited proximity to work places, existing infrastructure and the city centre as in great demand. There are however limited studies on the question of location, preferences and demographic factors in the process of informal housing development (Kapoor et al, 2004; Owusu, 2004); Why do urban residents locating to informal residential areas choose one location over another? What factors do they consider important? While housing in informal settlement is sometimes viewed as a lack of alternatives or housing options (Peil, 1975) but there is documented evidence that for instance, resettled residents from squatter areas usually reoccupy their old area (Ruland 1982 in Berner 2000; Kironde 1995; Kapoor et al, 2004). This maybe due to the economic and social benefits derived from living in informal residential areas especially employment. Research Objectives: As mentioned earlier, the main objective of the study is to understand the factors households find important in selecting where to live/build and how the decisions improve or constraint their welfare. Specific Objectives of the Research are: 1. To investigate the factors underlying housing location choices of households in informal residential areas in Dar es Salaam City. Research Question - What are the factors people consider when choosing to locate/build in one informal area over another? 2. To study what contributes to people's residential choice of an informal residential area. Research Question - In what ways, if any, do socio-economic (personal) characteristics contribute to the choice of location? 3. To explore whether there are any links between their choices and their livelihoods Research Question - What are the links between their choices and livelihoods? 4. To investigate the socio-economic implications of their choices. Research Question - Has the choice improved the life of the people? Research Methodology: The methodology used in the pilot study was both qualitative and quantitative. The study areas were purposefully selected and during the selection process, the researcher ensured that an inner city, intermediate and peri-urban informal area was chosen. In order to get more interesting and comparable information, a mixed income area was chosen in the intermediate zone. Face-to-face interviews was done to collect information using a questionnaire (closed and open-ended questions). The interviews were with selected heads of household picked out based on a criterion namely both owners and tenants who had lived in the area for less than 10 years because reasons for choice would be fresh in their minds. A Pilot Study: The preliminary findings of the pilot study in Dar es Salaam indicate that many households locating to the inner city informal areas are mostly tenants and relatively poor. The most dominant reason cited is proximity to work places in the city centre and nearness to their relatives. Many of the households' heads made a living as traders in the city's market. Household's selected for study in the intermediate informal areas belonged to the middle/lower middle-income category. Their reasons for selection were based on the environment/aesthetics of the area. The heads of household in the periphery were concerned with the availability of rooms and plots at a price they could afford as well as lower living costs because the area's proximity to the peri-urban farm areas provided basic produce at affordable prices. All the areas except the one in the inner city had no access to reliable water supply.Lessons Learned: The lessons learned for future PhD work include the carrying out of in-depth interviews to few selected households that will be the cases for the study so as to get significant stories on the meanings behind their location choices within informal settlements. "
Frick, Jacqueline, and Matthias Buchecker. "Residential Quality in Sub- and Peri-Urban Communities: the Role of Social and Spatial Characteristics." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. In the process of urbanization, local residents have been found to increasingly withdraw from their everyday landscape, particularly in sub- and peri-urban communities. These tendencies may represent a consequence of unfulfilled needs which in turn alter the expectations of the inhabitants. Previous studies suggest that the needs involved in these dynamics are not only related to spatial matters, but particularly to social aspects like integration, identification and cooperation. The present study aims at comparing residents' needs regarding their living environment in several communities typical for the agglomeration of greater Zurich. An instrument was constructed to assess the residents’ basic residential needs as well as perceived residential quality using 35 questions respectively. These needs and quality evaluations can be empirically divided into four factors (cf. Frick & Buchecker, IAPS 2004): (a) Nature, restoration and security, (b) hobby, culture and social contacts, (c) aesthetics and town structure, and (d) involvement, corporate feeling and self-realization. A representative survey was conducted in three communities in Switzerland (n = 1096) which differed with regard to their degree of urbanization, (i.e., suburban, peri-urban, rural commuter community).The relevance of the assessed needs was rated differently in the three communities. In particular, nature and restoration was significantly more important in the rural community, whereas inhabitants of the peri-urban community rated social contacts on one hand, and privacy and comfort on the other hand more important than the rest of the sample. Residents of the suburban area were least attached to their living environment and needs were least articulate in all dimensions. The factor nature/security was the only one significantly related to perceived overall residential quality in the peri- urban community. In the rural community, social involvement – which was also rated most positively here – additionally predicted overall quality. Suburban residents seem to be more related to the city as a whole, however a positive evaluation of the architectural characteristics of their neighborhood (e.g., traditional buildings or a identifiable village center) seems to increase identification and quality ratings.Our results demonstrate that the residents' needs structure changes with the urbanity of the residential environment. The less urban a community, the more important become the social dimensions of residential quality. Thus, sustainable landscape development in peri-urban areas implies focusing on the quality of life in a comprehensive sense and, equally consider the residents’ social needs instead of merely spatial matters.
Abu-Orf, Hazem. "Revitalization Nicosiahow Does Revitalization Contribute to Sustainable Development?" In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. This article questions the application of the theory of collaborative planning to the case of divided cities by looking at the revitalization process of the joint Nicosia master plan. The later is a joint planning activity of representatives of both Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot communities. The article discusses a research project that set out to elicit perceptions of the revitalization process held by those in both parts of divided Nicosia by using a common interview methodology and argues that collaborative planning gives insufficient weight to the power play needed for the adoption of collaborative plans. Just as with the political affairs of Cyprus in general, the study of revitalization in divided Nicosia is embryonic, fragmented, and invariably raises contradictions. While the joint plan includes in its planning policy applying the principles of sustainable design criteria for the benefit of both Cypriot communities, there has been little emphasis on implying sustainability in the implementation process, with greater emphasis to achieving economic revitalization, than to sustainability. It is assumed that revitalization of historic cities contributes to sustainable development through the recycling of derelict land and buildings, reducing demand for peripheral development and facilitating the land of compact cities. But, the joint team, that is currently implementing the master plan on both sides of the ‘green line’, has yet fully to address the requirements for more sustainable design. This article seeks to lay the foundations for documenting such complex processes towards the consolidation of historic Nicosia using the notion of collaborative planning as a guide for the empirical investigations, in order to further an understanding of not only how the revitalization initiatives in planning contribute to sustainability, but also what the case of Nicosia may argue for other cases of planning in divided cities.
Sigrun, Kabisch, and Dirk Heinrichs. Risk Habitat Megacity - Strategies for Sustainable Development in Megacities and Urban Agglomeration In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Aims: According to the UN and its Habitat Organisation, five comprehensive problem fields are relevant for the enhancement of living conditions within cities: shelter, society, environment, economy, and governance. These problem fields and their non-linear interdependencies form a highly complex system which is far from being understood. Thus, one of the greatest challenges to the research on megacities is to understand their development and thereby to define strategies for making this development more sustainable. Due to their size and their inherent complexity, megacities represent an environment that is prone to increased natural and anthropogenic risks. In consequence, the quantitative and qualitative assessment of these risks and the design of risk management measures are another major challenge with respect to megacities. These two challenges, promoting sustainable development and coping with risks, are of central relevance in the proposed programme. Context: Reflecting global socio-economic and political changes, megacities present a recent phenomenon of highly complex urbanisation processes. On the one hand, they promise significant potentials for economic progress by creating 'innovative environments' through connecting human capital, globally interlinked actors, and financial and information resources. On the other hand, megacities pose significant risks on global, regional and local scales by aggravating social disorganisation, economic disparity, loss of governability, and ecological stress creating an unhealthy local environment. Together with Latin American partners, local, regional and global problems shall be investigated. Methods: Significant ecological and socio-economic consequences require mitigation actions which are indeed an important challenge of global relevance. Furthermore, considering the expectable aggravation of the already existing problems, there is an imminent need for research in order to timely develop and apply concepts for the sustainable development of these areas. Because of the limited understanding of the complexity of interrelated urban processes and the lack of knowledge on optimum strategies for an integrated management of the urban system, it is necessary to establish a research agenda for the formulation of strategies and concepts. The inter- and transdisciplinary research strategy includes three crosscutting theoretical based themes (Sustainable development, Risk concepts and Governance), which are of transboundary relevance for the entire programme. From the current state of the discussion, it further introduces seven empirical topics: Air pollution and health, Land use management, Water and health, Socio-spatial differentiation, Energy system, Waste, Traffic. Preliminary objectives: The research programme aims to: - Identify and assess characteristic sustainability risks of megacities and large agglomerations with appropriate and locally adapted indicators, - Generate insights into the driving factors behind these risks and their interdependencies, - Design strategies, tools und instruments for risk management (mitigation and prevention) as key aids towards a more sustainable urban development, - Develop implementation solutions that take into account the institutional, cultural, political, economic, and social aspects within the megacities, and, thus, have a chance of implementation, - Build a platform for continuous learning and application to integrate academic research and practice. At the moment we are in the preparation phase. The full research programme will start in 2007.
Mira, Ricardo Garcia, and Isabel Lema Blanco. "Risk Perception and Social Construction.a Case Study in a Corunna (Spain)." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. This work is about the public perception of living near a chemical plant in a city in Northwest of Spain, in relation with urban environmental risks, the local chemical plant and other local (or global) problems. In addition, the relations among risk perception and other issues like quality information sources, trust in the local government, proximity to the industry, or socio- economic conditions, are also analysed in this work. The theoretical framework of the risk perception is contextualized, in part as a social construct, and in part as a physical property of a danger or event (Short, 1989). In addition, recent surveys confirm the existing relation between environmental concern about risk and some social and economic factors. A sample of 699 individuals was interviewed. Data will be analised through a multidimensional scaling technique, as well as other cluster analysis and reduction data procedure. Findings allow us to describe the way in which citizens elaborate the balance between economic development and environmental problems, and provide us some discussion on social representation of risk.
Elsemary, Mounir. "Roads Along Rivers Within Citiescorniche El-Nile in Cairo City and Its Recent Improvement Project as a Case Study." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006.

High Ways along rivers in cities is one of the newest problems facing us. Those high ways actually separate cities of its rivers, replace pedestrian with cars and give rivers the photo of the drainage. That negative photo is suggested now by the recent project of to “Corniche el-Nile” in Cairo city. That project was the reason of this study.The study will include why rivers are within cities? What is the job of roads along rivers in a city, in general? And what is the job of “Corniche el-Nile” in Cairo city, in particular? That job which related to the special position of the river Nile in the city. It will also include the recent situation of “Corniche el-Nile” in the following points: El Corniche setup, the increase of traffic on it, Greater Cairo Planning vision and the improvement project of the Corniche as suggested by Ministry of Reclamation and Housing which had as its goal to implement a traffic path adjacent and parallel to the river. Case studies will be presented in both negative and positive sides. The negative side is Multi - lanes and levels high ways. The positive side is in deferent cases and by several participations as follow:- Roads used as promenade roads and park ways. - Roads decreased its service level to the local level. - Roads put in tunnels and let the ground level as an open space.- Roads and High ways go away from the river side. Finally, a conclusion followed by an outline of a suggested plan to improve “Corniche el-Nile” will be presented by the researcher.

Papapetrou, Maria. "Schoolyard as a Living Environment for Adolescentsthe Case of the 1St High School of Thessaloniki Schoolyard Redesign." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. School environment - as a significant part of young people’s daily time- is well known for radically influencing students’ values, life attitudes and behaviour. Specifically, schoolyard - except of its educational and pedagogical dimension - also plays a decisive role to the quality of the young individual’s development as a place where it feels relaxed from the adults’ supervision so it can express itself easily.In fact, schoolyard is the place which replaces student’s motionlessness in the classroom by motion. It is where the rigorous attention gives place to the relaxation, the isolation is replaced by the social interaction and the directed thinking by the imagination, while the intensive mental action is followed by the holistic mobilization of the student’s personality. Biological, psychological and social needs of the developing person are accomplished in the schoolyard through the provided chances for corresponding activities –play, sports etc. Moreover in Greece, schoolyard is one of the least outdoor public spaces remaining in the contemporary built environment that can be used by young people.In Greece, despite the importance of the schoolyard in young people’s daily activities there has not been paid the proper attention as far as its design is concerned in reference to the demands of this particular age. The improper design and the inadequate equipment of the yard often leave unexploited a place which – apart from an educational tool –could also be a vital living place of the youth.Based on the above, during the winter of 2005 there has been undertaken a project concerning the 1st High School of Thessaloniki schoolyard redesign. The followed method is the participatory design process, that involves the whole student community. The aims of the project were firstly the recognition of the students’ expectations regarding to their needing various activities in the schoolyard and secondly the detection of the relevant demanded environmental conditions as well as the arousing of the students in matters of environment. The results revealed essential inadequacies and deficiencies in the existent environment in relation to the adolescence functional needs. The students became aware of the built environment matters while they could consciously and effectively participate to the schoolyard’s redesign. Their proposals consisted the base on which the final design was developed.
Turton, David. "Seeing like a Conservation Organisation: African Parks Foundation in Southern Ethiopia." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. During the 1980s, community based approaches to biodiversity conservation grew rapidly, as part of a general questioning of centralised, state-centric approaches to development. Since the early 1990s, however, there has been a revival of more traditional, preservationist approaches, which emphasise the central management and control of strictly protected areas as an urgent necessity and moral imperative, and which tend to treat local people as ?project beneficiaries rather than as genuine partners. This has been accompanied by a renewed interest in (among other ideas) public-private partnerships in the management of protected areas and by a striking growth in the power and scope of conservation organisations (e.g., World Wildlife Fund, Conservation International and The Nature Conservancy). In this paper I shall seek to understand the ideological and philosophical underpinnings of this revival in the preservationist approach to biodiversity conservation by examining the case of a relatively new kid on the conservation block, African Parks Foundation (APF) of the Netherlands. I shall focus on the history of APFs recent involvement in Ethiopia, where it has entered into public-private partnership arrangements with the Ethiopian government to run two national parks in the south of the country for a period of at least 25 years. Taking inspiration from James C. Scott’s Seeing like a State, I shall argue that APF exemplifies the imperialism of high-modernist planned social order, applied to conservation. I shall ask whether the same strictures applied by Scott to centrally managed social plans in general - that they ignore the necessary role of local knowledge at their peril may also be applied to the conservation mission exemplified by APF.
Mercado, Serafín J., and Alejandra Terán Eli López. "Semantic Networks of House." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. "Aims and Objectives: The Semantic Networks model is an approach to explain the manner in which humans encode conceptual information in long term memory and the links between concepts is what provides meaning An approach was developed by Figueroa et all (1981) which allows to use free association to gather data of the way people understand concepts. They collect words that provide concepts that are related to the one we want to understand in a way tat they define it. The aim of the present paper is to show a modified procedure, using Multi Dimensional Scaling, which provides such defining concepts and establishes their structure. This makes available a model of the way people conceptualize the house and evaluate it. Context and background literature: Semantic networks are an information processing model of how information is organized in long term memory. The idea is that a concept acquires its meaning from other concepts that are related with it. These models are computer simulated and tested experimentally. Thus the model is contrasted with human performance. Figueroa et all. (1981) developed an approach with which you could ascertain the terms used by a sample of subjects to explain a concept. He collects the concepts that the subjects consider define the concept of interest. Method: We used Figueroa et All's procedure with a sample to obtain the words that a set of subjects gave as defining "house", "home" and certain critical rooms. For each the SAM set was established, which is the prototypical one of words defining the concept for that group. The sets along with the seed words were pooled together, eliminating repetitions. All possible pairs were generated, along a scale from 1 to 10 with which their conceptual relatedness was to be judged by a second sample. Findings and conclusions: A Kruskal non-metric MDS was carried out that provided the relationship among the concepts. House and home are central. Family and children are closer to home. There are groups for food processing and cleanliness, rest, and to bonding feelings. . Applicability and further research: According to modern cognitive theory, people act to objects, including places and buildings, in terms of the cognitive structures through which they ascertain and evaluate them. We believe that the method of "Natural Semantic Networks provides a means to gather information about peoples schemata and value system.. We should apply the technique to other environments."
Yamazaki, Ai, and Kazuhiko Mori. Setting Karte' for Environmental Improvement in Nursing Home In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. We propose 'Setting Karte(SK)' that is a design tool for environmental improvement in residential care home. It has multilateral information about daily life scene for staffs and designers to communicate each other. The object of this study is to consider the possibility and means of SK in environmental improvement. The variety of daily life scenes is getting fewer while the elderly are staying in nursing homes compared with living in their home, because some nursing homes have no chance or no places the elderly can use their extent abilities. The environmental improvements in such nursing homes are important for individual residents to keep their ability. And also they need the participation of staff to correspond to each various elderly appropriately. But, the specific means of the environmental improvement have not been enough considered to practice on nursing homes. At first, we observed behavior of the elderly in some residential care homes and picked out the daily life scenes that occurred often on specific places. And then, we investigated the contents and structure of information on SK. Second, we analyzed characteristic that staffs imaged from SK as 'alive', 'safety' and 'homely'. Finally, we discussed the means of SK in environmental improvement by the comparison with daily life scenes. We arranged three kinds of information on SK, where staff was or how he was supporting as care environment, and where roommates were or how they related as social environment. Moreover we represented layouts and scales of places and furniture as physical environment using an axonometric drawing. As a result, the image of 'alive' and 'safety' are various among staffs, but we found 'homely' is tend to be a common image among them. We found that it makes possible to evaluate the quality of residential care homes compared deferent scenes of SK. Therefore, SK consisted of many cases of various daily life scenes will become a reference to check how support should be in each physical environment to occur the activity. Moreover, SK is useful to notice to some deficit in care environment or social environment or physical environment.
Frihy, Omran E., Moheb Iskander, Walid El Sayed, and Mamdouh El Hattab. "Shoreline Management of the Western Mediterranean Coast of Egypt Based on an Analysis of Beach Vulnerability to Hydrodynamic Forces." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. The western Mediterranean coast of Egypt between Sallum and Alexandria is a unique stretch in its aesthetic amenities, attractive morphologic features and landcover variability. Although this coastline behaves considerable equilibrium through history developers have built traditional protective structures in an effect to create sheltered recreational beaches without taking into consideration geomorphologic characteristics, coastal processes and their harmful impacts on the beach environment and human safety. Adverse impacts resulted from these irrational structures include changing the depositional-hydrodynamic regime resulted from blocking longshore currents by hard structures; creating downdrift erosion to the neighboring beaches and creating harmful swimming environment. Moreover, these non-environmentally friendly measures usually put additional costs on developers to periodically mitigate such impacts in the form of sediment recycling or sand bypassing of updrift accumulated sand delivered to eroded beaches, removing accumulated algae, dismantle hard structures and constructing inland swimming pools. The improper practicing in this region prompts us to undertake an attempt to carry out a morphodynamic assessment to provide a framework for understanding the relationship between coastal morphology and dynamic forces prevail. Such analysis is based on numerical modeling of the degree of shoreline vulnerability to hydrodynamic forces using a dataset of bathymetry, shoreline position and waves prevailing in the region. Model results provide a support base in analyzing morphodynamics of coastal morphologic features distinguished from high resolution satellite image dated 2002. Based on the degree of natural protection (sheltering), beach morphodynamics, shoreline configuration and aesthetic considerations, the study shore can be categorized into four morphotype stretches: (1) High-energy exposed long-smooth shores and the outer margins of the rocky headlands, (2) moderate to high-energy semi-exposed embayments and saddles east of the rocky headlands, (3) low-energy semi-exposed pocket beaches, and (4) calm sheltered enclosed water basins for safe anchorages, moorings and recreation beaches.Results obtained have important implications for shoreline management initiatives with the identifications of sustained sites suitable for future beachfront development. In addition, benefits gained from understanding of morphodynamic processes would increase considerations pertaining to recreational, aesthetic and environmental aspects. In view of sustainability, appropriate sites selection would avoid or minimize hard structures needed to create safe recreation beaches. On a strategic scale, results reached can provide reliable database for information that can be used in establishing a sustainable shoreline management plan which in turn is an essential task in integrally managing the coastal zone of this attractive region
Tobias, Robert. "Simulating the Psychological Effects of Self-Commitment for Planning Habit-Change-Campaigns." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. How does self-commitment change habits?: Many environmental and health-problems are directly related to individual every-day behaviour. Main obstacles of changing such behaviours often are habits. An effective instrument of habit-change is self-commitment. To efficiently plan habit-change-campaigns using self-commitment, a model is developed, that allows investigating the main phenomena related to self-commitment. Theories related to commitment-effects: Many theories try to explain the way, self-commitment works, but they all focus only on single aspects of the phenomenon. Often Festingers theory of dissonance is used, that explains the commitment-effect with cognitive tension-states that 'urge' to comply with the commitment. Another frequent approach explains the effect based on norm-concepts: To comply with a commitment is more adequate and probably even socially enforced. Also Gollwitzers concept of implementation intentions can be understood as a kind of self-commitment. Due to an implementation intention a situation 'provokes' a certain behaviour similar to a behaviour, that was conditioned over time to the situation. Further, the situation acts as a prompt reminding a committed person to perform the behaviour as investigated in priming-experiments. Though, commitment-effects can't be examined in isolation: Peripheral effects like changes of habits over time or the perception of others behaviours must be considered, too. A simulation-model of self-commitment: In a first step, a model was developed that integrates all the above mentioned theories. A formal representation was used to get clear concepts and interfaces between the theories and to explicitly state all the hypotheses necessary to fill gaps in the theories. Although the model consists of very simple processes, as a whole it is rather complex. So it was implemented as a computer-simulation, that allows deriving hypotheses efficiently even in complex settings. Especially the investigation of long-term dynamics in larger populations becomes possible this way. Exploring and testing the model: The simulation-model will be explored systematically to derive hypotheses that can be tested empirically. Some of them will be tested with data collected in two campaigns using commitment as a behaviour-change instrument. One campaign aimed at changing the waste-disposal behaviour in Cuba and the other at the water-treatment behaviour in Bolivia. The data was collected in a panel and a monitoring, where behaviour and some psychological constructs could be measured several times per week. Towards a campaign-planning instrument: The model will be enhanced and the hypotheses derived from it tested more extensively. It shall then be used as an instrument, which facilitates planning and conducting of habit-change-campaigns.
Piechotka, Anna Pawlikowsk. "Small City Revitalization: New Functions of Medieval Castle in Czersk (Poland) - Tourist Base and Cultural/education Centre for Local Community." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. In many small towns of Mazovia Region (Poland) medieval castles act not only as an attraction for numerous tourists, but also can be a chance for various cultural and education initiatives, focused on city’s permanent inhabitants needs. These architectural monuments might be for example attractive for certain local community both as a possible location of city cultural/education centre and as an important symbol of regional identity (its history and tradition). The problem is to find a well-balanced compromise between castle’s multifunctional use (museum, cultural centre) and specific requirements of different groups of its visitors (tourists and local community members), without destroying the specific character of the unique, historic environment. That issue becomes crucial, as a rational proposal of castle’s revitalization (with a balance between commercial development, tourism requirements, local community expectations and historic preservation needs), treated as one of the elements of spatial planning intended to create sustainable urban conservation program, might have an important influence for present and future environment quality of a small town. [Nuttgens P. 1991; Zachwatowicz J. 1982] The main purpose of our research, undertaken in the Institute of Tourism and Recreation, AWF in Warsaw, was to consider some present and future functions of the selected medieval castles located in the small towns of Mazovia Region. In the first stage of this research (2004-2005) field studies (questionnaires) were completed in Czersk (small town near Warsaw), focused on the present function of the castle and expectations of its future program, expressed by local community members. Our first results are answers to the following questions: 1)castle legal and technical state, main functions and its conservatory programmed requirements; 2)tourist movement there (per year); 3)management activity to create both cultural and educative events; 4)cooperation and initiatives of local authorities and non-government institutions; 5)accessibility for handicapped persons; 6)expectations of castle future functions and cultural/educative activities there (as a proposal from the part of the local community representatives). We hope that our research result might constitute an important part of the sustainable spatial planning policy, intended to serve the local community requirements, environment protection, sustainable historic architecture conservation and the small city revitalization needs.
Ketizmen, Gokce, and Hulya Turgut Yildiz. "Social and Cultural Sustainability in Architectural Design Studios." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. What changes are needed to make cities and built environment in globalize world compatible with sustainable development? What are the responsibility of architects and the role of architectural education on this subject? The research presented in this paper is focused on these questions. Sustainability is not a new concept and sustainable development have been widely used but their definition is elusive. The concept of sustainable development summarizes the challenges that the world is facing to manage a global social and economic development. Cities have been given a central place in discussions about sustainability problems and current attention is that some fundamental changes in world-views, values and human behaviors are necessary to sustain human societies. The cultural and social dimensions of a society have strong influence on and are indeed partially composed of the value, norms, customs, social structure and life style of a community. Social and cultural sustainability should, therefore, be recognized, as key dimensions of sustainable development. The rapid change in social, cultural and technological developments in the contemporary and pluralistic world has also necessitated a change in the focus of architectural studies. In order to follow these changes it is essential to adjust design education accordingly. Architectural education as a whole, and particularly the architectural design studio, should be considered as sort of an initiation process where students are introduced to architectural knowledge and the activities with projects of the studio should emphasize the context at a community, regional and global level. This makes it essential for education and research conducted in academic institutions to formulate new solutions for the present and the future in order to better understand if, and how, cities/ architectural product can contribute to the solution of environmental problems. On the basis of these arguments, the paper discusses the relationship between sustainability, the built environment, and the design education by showing that the purpose of the architecture is to create better environments that provide the high quality for the natural and built settings. The paper consists of three main parts. The first part will examine the theoretical literature on the 'concept' and 'indicators' of sustainability mainly focused on socio-cultural issues and the relations with design studios will be presented. The second part will cover the case study to test these ideas. The method of case study is based on a general evaluation of the architectural design studios of architectural departments in Turkey as to indicate if sustainability is taken as one of the design criteria’s in design projects. As a method, surveys will be send out to architectural departments in Turkey as to indicate if sustainability is taken as one of the design issues in design projects. The study concludes with some brief observations about the relevance of these ideas to contemporary debates concerning educational responses to sustainable development.
Ratiu, Eugenia. "Socio-Spatial and Temporal Contexts of the Home Expressions' Emergence." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. "The importance of the social, space and time contexts in which the life events occur during transitions are questioned from the standpoint of the life span identity development. In this perspective, living in emergency dwelling is regarded as a life event. This research focuses on the identity development dynamics as expressed by the concept of « home ». The aim of this study was to identify these dynamics depending on the individuals' residential course. Especially, we considered the significant home situations as home reference positions and the home-rage extension. During this process, we identify how the individuals invested both the dwelling and the urban levels. It seems that these strategies enable the individuals to preserve the continuity and the coherence of a positive self-image, regardless of how they lived and perceived the social constraints related to their precarious and uncertain social positioning and/or to their residential situation. The results are interpreted in terms of urban practices and their localization and as socio-spatial delimitation criteria. The research highlights the role and the circumstances of the displacement of the "home" out of the private space, in urban place."
Iskander, Laila, and Manal El-Batran. "Solid Waste as a Means of Job Creations and Poverty Alleviation: Experience from Egypt." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. The aims: The paper aims to show that solid waste can be turned for a nuisance and environmental hazard into a source for small industries creating jobs through various forms of recycling activities. Background literature: the role informal garbage collectors (Zabbaleen in Arabic) in collecting waste in Cairo. The current satiation. The international companies contracted. The problem is: The need for jabs for those who lost their jobs because of, or unlikely to get jobs with the international companies. Job creation has to be based on their experience on waste segregation and recycling. Method of inquiry: The paper will show successful experiments in this area by Non-governmental organization in Egypt and the International Centre for Environment and Development based in Cairo. Conclusions: Recycling waste is not only a solution to a hazardous environmental problem but also a concert means of creating jabs, increasing earning and thus alleviating poverty.
Rohrmann, Bernd. "Soundscapes - Types and Impacts of Music Imparted in Public Places." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. "Research issue: Public places - such as markets, pubs and restaurants, music venues, cinemas, theatres, teaching venues, shopping centers, sport venues, transportation facilities - have a particular 'soundscape' which affects visitors' perceptions and behaviors. For example, people in a restaurant encounter three kinds of soundscapes: the sounds created by other customers, the sounds from outside (the street), and the sounds provided by the music systems which are run in most public places; none of these soundscapes are under the control of the visitors. Thus the question arises, what do they actually desire, and do they like what they experience in this kind of environment? People-environment context: Almost all people going to a restaurant or shop or gym do so for a practical reason, e.g., eating or bying something or exercising; hearing music is not their primary aim. The music imparted there may entertain or disturb. So far, pertinent research mainly looked at two issues: impacts on the venue's function, and noise effects. Quietness as an environmental feature has obtained less attention. Empirical investigation: In two socio-psychological field studies, demands and appraisals of supplied music were explored, surveying what sound levels do occur inside venues, whether customers want music to be present or absent; the desired content and level of music; their perceptions and evaluations of the actual music situation, and how the existing soundscapes relate to the purpose of their visit. In study [A], "Extent and effects of soundscapes in eating places", 6 cafes and restaurants were looked at, and data collected through personal interviews of customers (N=72). Study [B], "Sound levels and social interactions in music venues", dealt with 3 types of venues: pubs, restaurants and gyms (3 each); N=32 qualitative interviews were conducted, plus enquiries with staff and management. In both studies, sound measurements were carried out, recording both peak and average sound levels. Findings and interpretation: The results from study [A] indicate that customers have specific preferences, and that their overall satisfaction with a restaurant visit is influenced by their evaluation of the music soundscape they encounter. Although the measured sound levels were substantial (Leq's up to 85 dB[A], with peaks well above 100), most customers accept these levels. It seems that the culture of restaurant environments has changed - rather loud soundscapes are liked or at least tolerated, and quiet situations not much searched for. In study [B], the sound exposure was similar; the interview data suggest that communication behavior changes in loud environments, for example, the use of words decreases while facial expressions become more essential. Yet again the tolerance for 'noisy' soundscapes appeared to be considerable. Practical implications: These findings can be interpreted as part of a wider context: Quiet localities have become rare, and a need for music in about every kind of public place seems to be postulated. Yet their is a price: It seems that the quality of human interactive communication in music-dominated environments is impaired. Also, the needs and preferences of customers versus venue staff is likely to differ. Further research needs to explicate these facets and and then develop socio-psychological propositions for those who manage public places."
Nenadich, Nadya K.. Space and Memory in Contemporary Gated Communities: the New Urbanist Approach In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. "Gated Communities: Reproduction over reality?: It can be said that one of the central themes of contemporary culture is the preference of reproduction over reality. Gated communities can best define this if we understand them as a simulation of the social. Places where in the name of security and safety the signs that constitute the discourse of the social in the city, are reconstructed to suggest a particular structure distant from the problems that are central to housing today. This paper would like to focus on a particular form of gated community, that of the New Urbanism and proposes as its research problem an analysis of this phenomenon in its historic, social as well as its political and economical dimensions and its impact on the urban and architectural landscape. We understand that the gates on these communities are for the most part virtual or simulated, and it is this precisely what makes it an interesting subject in contemporary society.The shapping of urbsn and suburban landscapes: New Urbanism begins roughly in 1980 as a critique to the practices of urban planning in the United States, and specifically to the Modern suburbanization born after the Second World War and the urban sprawl that resulted from it. Since then and particularly in the last decade of the 20th century, New Urbanism has been shaping suburban landscapes and it is in this context where this study is being conducted. Although this movement is a typically American phenomenon for it approaches geographical space as one devoid of limits, its seeds have spread widely not only in America but also throughout Europe and Asia. In many places New Urbanism has been adopted by governments as part of their housing and urban development policies which suggests that more than an architectural movement, we are dealing with a geographical and social phenomenon of great impact. Space and memory: the Society of Control: Although New Urbanism has been around for over a decade, little critical literature has been published. Many are the books that praise these communities, all written by those that participate in the business of making these places. Aside from those books, text from M. Sorkin, Gwendolyn Wright, Kenneth Jackson, Tom Martinson will help explain the development of planned communities in the US. Other relevant literature such as books by Nan Ellin, Michel Foucault, Gilles Deleuze, and Paul Ricoeur will help develop a theoretical framework.New, Urban, Neotraditionalist, Proto-Corporative: Modern-day Urbanism: In this context the following research questions spring forth, is the New Urbanism truly a new urban model? Does is correspond to a transformation in the way we live? Does it help to alleviate in any way urban sprawl? After a preliminary investigation we can say that New Urbanism is neither new nor urban. It is not new for it reproduces in its proposal a substantial part of the Modern urban model it criticises, simply promoting other concepts of universality and homogeneity. And it is clearly not urban for it ignores the deterioration of the city concentrating its efforts solely in suburban areas. Two other hypotheses complete the framework for this initial investigation. First, we will investigate if these communities beyond representing a neotraditional model stand for a proto-corporatist version of contemporary urbanism. And secondly, and as a consequence of the meaning given to history in these communities, we will explore if this phenomena in its reproduction of the past and its preference of simulacra plays with the notion of the real creating a hyper-real way of life unable to withstand as an alternative to the central issues in modern-day urbanism.Existing and Current settlement patterns: what are they?: Settlement patterns in the United States can begin to be explained through the development of planned communities. Since the arrival of the Puritans, the construction of utopias -if this is at all possible- as tangible expressions of beliefs has been part of the American tradition. The iconoclastic single-family detached house has undergone a transformation in almost every decade of the 20th century. Differences aside what most of those models share is the idea that the conditions of equality and cooperativism had to be evidenced in the spatial configurations of each community. Nevertheless, they diverge in their theoretical approach and in the definition of the idea of community. In its move towards traditional ways of shaping space, New Urbanism tries to foster community life through an ideal model of living. With this idea of the construction of utopia, it offers a structuralist view of architecture by placing it at a privileged position in the shaping of human behaviour. Analysing the notion of space we will we able to determine its function in the proposal of the New Urbanism and at the same time in the design of contemporary cities. Studying memory as a concept that evokes symbols, we will be able to establish their power in the production of particular meanings in the organization of the subject in contemporary life. New Urbanism proposes a spatial logic of functional arrangement that appeals to a humanistic conception based on the memory of an individualistic-community. This makes reference to an urban design that is both a product and a producer of the forms of privatisation of public and private space exploring at the same time the memory and the desire for individuality, progress and freedom, in other words the so called "American dream". As a conclusion, we can say that edge cities fail to represent the heterogeneous habitats new urbanists claim; instead they create sites of fictional diversity every time more disassociated from the governmental process thus evidencing the alteration in the society/public power relationship. Common interest developments (CIDs) currently house over 32 million Americans that represent, through the idea of 'private governments', a departure from the accepted notions of liberal democracy hence promoting an adaptation of citizenship. This portrays a scene where instead of utopias we have privatopias, places where uniformity becomes a means of segregation and the later a symbol of exclusiveness. Is this what the future holds for us? Is this a sustainable proposal for the environment? And if so, are these really the places we want to live in?"
Franz, Gerald. "Space, Color, and Perceived Qualities of Indoor Environments." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. An empirical study is presented that tested for potential interactive effects of environmental properties. Introduction: When relating productivity measures to qualities of indoor environments, emotional concepts play an important role as intermediating variables (e.g., arousal in the classic Yerkes-Dodson law, 1909, or workplace satisfaction, cf. Zapf, 1991). While there is a substantial body of studies (e.g., see Mehrabian & Russell, 1974; Stamps, 2000) analyzing influences of individual aspects of the physical environment, little is known about the interplay of multiple factors. In this paper a study is presented which exemplarily addressed both individual and interactive effects of room colors and primary spatial properties. Method: An internet-based study collected affective appraisals by altogether 91 participants of 64 vacant normal architectural indoor spaces. The use of interactive virtual reality techniques for both stimulus design and presentation permitted a balanced and orthogonal variation of room color and the numbers and dimensions of architectural elements. The experimental task was a semantic differential rating in eight categories covering the experiential qualities valence, arousal, dominance, and spaciousness. The study was complemented by two laboratory experiments providing baseline conditions on individual effects of spatial properties and room colors for 2x16 scenes. Results: Differences between rooms accounted for much mor variance (.17
Costa, André Luiz Pinhe, and Sylvia Cavalcante. "Spatial Context and Human Relations in Residential Environment." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. This abstract is related to a research work about the analogy between physical context and human relations in Brazilian home environments. Starting from an anthropological basis - a cultural deliverance of the Brazilian way of living, its main objective was to analyze the mutual influence between man and space in a specific context of which the most distinguishing mark is a rigorous delimitation of employers and domestic workers social roles. The study object chosen was the domestic workers living space located in apartments constructed in Fortaleza, Ceará-state capital, north-eastern region of Brazil, between 1980 and 2005. In order to set up a reading and comprehension axis for the obtained reality, the concepts of social exclusion - as a citizenship basic wrights deprive process, appropriation - as the spatial identification process, and proxemics - the interrelated observations of man's use of space as a specialized elaboration of culture were taken, considering their applicability in social/environmental researches. The data collection phase was composed by two stages. Initially, a documental research was taken with multi-residential building projects, considering the following information lines: apartment's general data, occupation conditions, privacy, accessibility, environmental comfort and healthfulness. At the second stage, a focus group research was developed within three distinguished segments directly related to the theme: architects (proposers), domestic workers (users) and domestic employers (owners). The resulting data of each stage was indexed according to the information lines of the documental research. As for the information specifically generated by the focus groups, it was also classified by segment and submitted to a codification analysis. Finally, there was a data intersection phase when all the information provided by the focus groups was compared and imbricated with the results of the documental research. The results lead to a tendency of consensual opinion among the three segments about the domestic workers space conditions, especially in matters of unsatisfactory room dimensions, insufficient privacy and scarce environment comfort. The main differences, however, are at the explanation presented: each segment indicates a unique vision of the spatial conformation and its way of use and occupation. The opinions converge over the spatial appropriation process questions, but clearly magnify the role of each segment at the related socio-cultural context: even though it is an agreement that the spatial appropriation difficulty leads to a lack of citizenship basic wrights, the solution commitment for this dilemma is treated as an utopia by proposers and owners, and considered a necessity by users.
Heinrichs, Dirk. "Sprawling Beyond the Limits? Sustainability of Urban Expansion in Latin American Megacities." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. The paper contributes to the debate on the trends of sprawl and their consequences in Latin American megacities. Sprawl, as the expansion of urban areas into the surrounding countryside, has covered land more quickly than any previous form of urbanization. In Latin American megacities, sprawl occurs in a distinct context. Latin America is the most urbanized region in the world. At the same time, the population is more heavily concentrated in its primate cities than anywhere else. With Mexico City, Sao Paulo and Buenos Aires, the region has apparently three among the ten largest cities in the world. However, after decades of excessive growth, urbanization in Latin America has reached a turning point. While the rural-urban migratory flows slowed down in the last decade, intra-metropolitan mobility and the spatial, demographic and socio-economic differentiation of the population of large cities started to increase. Using Santiago de Chile as case for inquiry, it examines the size and structure of spatial expansion and the land use patterns of urban sprawl over the past two decades. It offers an assessment of this trend against sustainability principles with a special focus on land use conflicts and protection of human health. Based on this review, it draws some lessens on the critical features that result from sprawl for present and future growth of the city. The paper derives from research in an ongoing initiative on the 'Risk Habitat Megacity' in Latin America. It provides input for a debate on emerging forms of urban sprawl, as well as indicators and thresholds for sustainable land use and urban expansion. It further links to the discussion on appropriate management strategies, for example smart growth.
Chatterjee, Sudeshna. "Streets and Open Spaces Near Home: Implications of Constraints on Children's Use of Everyday Spaces for Neighborhoods." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. This paper investigates the role of streets and open spaces near home in the lives of middle-school aged Muslim children within a low-income, high density settlement, relatively free of traffic inside but surrounded by high speed vehicular roads on the periphery, in central New Delhi. All children who participated in this study typically walked to school, and to all other everyday places. Far-off city level places were reached by using public transport. The study is part of a larger research on the meaning of the child friendly city for children in low-income communities in New Delhi. This paper however, investigates one dimension of conceptualizing child friendly environments and sustainable cities, through the notion of place-child exchange or sharing of activities and interests between child and place (Chatterjee 2005). Streets and open spaces near home were nominated the most number of times in this dimension of place-child exchange. Streets and open spaces near home also emerged as most friendly places across all the dimensions of the child friendly city during in-depth semi-structured individual interviews (n=31, girls=16, boys=15). However, proximity of streets and open spaces to home appeared as the most critical factor, more than other physical attributes in determining regular access and engagement in play and other activities especially for girls. Focus group discussions, including mapping friendly streets on aerial photographs, with 15 girls in the 11-12 year age range revealed that a friendly street for one child was a very unsafe one for another simply because it was away from home. The deviation from this pattern was noted in children, both boys and girls, who were newcomers, from low socio-economic status (SES) migrant families. These new migrants, sought out far-off attractive places such as nearby middle-income neighborhood parks, as well as more global city level attractions across high traffic corridors and flyovers, at every opportunity. The focus group discussions with a larger sample (n=70) and including a larger age range (9-16 years) revealed, the socio-cultural constraints on use of outdoor spaces for older Muslim girls, and higher SES Muslim girls. However, even relatively active outdoor users, the younger girls from low SES backgrounds, could do so through negotiation with families, demonstrating the tension between social structures of family and wider society. Both boys and girls experienced constraints in using the most accessible of childhood outdoors—streets and open spaces near home, though the nature of constraints were different for the genders—the constraints on girls were based on social and structural norms of a patriarchal Muslim community, and constraints on boys were based on social class, and politics of territorial control by dominant groups. However, in a low-income, relatively homogeneous community, proximity of streets and open spaces, the multiple affordances for action as well as the identity of these places contributed to active use by children overcoming constraints. The findings of this study suggest ways to create more child friendly streets and open spaces in inner-city low-income neighborhoods. But the most significant finding is that in order to create active childhood outdoors, and hence a sustainable child friendly city, parents’ fear of places needs to be overcome, and a respect for the performative ability of the individual child needs to be respected.
Koizumi, Koji, and Tatsuya Kishimoto. "Study on Impression Changes According as Change in Streetusing Virtual Reality." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Introduction: Recently, streetscapes of urban cities are changing by deregulation and repeated redevelopment.In this study, we clarify the impression changes in the street according as the change in the height control by the examination of the evaluation experiment and the multivariate analysis using three street models on Virtual Reality, as a method to find the direction of better streetscapes in Ginza, Tokyo.Examination Method: Examinees experience the VR space that can look around and walk through.The VR space is made by 3DCAD data which the photograph of the facade is mapped on.As a display, a handy VR system that combines HMD with three axis gyro sensor device is used.Impression Changes in Ginza Street According as Height Control : Six factors that composed Ginza Central Street are extracted through the examination of the evaluation experiment and the multivariate analysis;orderliness, flourishing, the emotionality, openness, the impression degree, and the aesthetic factor. A current model is a street where the emotionality and orderliness are higher. When the height control becomes 31m, the skyline became almost even. Mental factors such as flourishing, the emotionality, and the impression degree decreases though the evaluation of a physical factor such as orderliness and openness increases. Moreover, when there are a lot of buildings of 56m, the skyline became uneven. Mental factors such as the impression degrees and flourishing increases though a physical factor like orderliness and openness decreases compared with 31m height control model.Conclusion : This paper clarified the impression changes in the street according to the height control and the factors that decide the impression of the facade as a method to examine the landscape planning of Ginza Central Street.We became to be able to know the impression changes in the street according to the height control beforehand by using this method in future.Next, we will study not only Ginza, but for many streets. And we will examine the method of controlling the impression of the street that has generality
Rubio-Ardanaz, Eduardo, and Xiao Fang. "Study the Impact of the Participation in the Decision Making Process on the Pro-Environmental Commitment." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. The participation in the decision making process for recycling: The objective of this research is to estimate what is the impact of citizen's participation in the decision making processes, on their commitment afterwards in the pro-environmental behaviors. Participation as an important factor for Sustainable Development: objective and instrument: With the aims to arrive to the Sustainable Development, and apply the technological advances in efficiency, the role of the citizens in this process is crucial. One of these cases is the recycling, the re-use, and the control of over consume. The social/behavioral factor is very important (Oskamp, 2000). The participation at the social and political level is very important for the Sustainable Development (Robinson, 2003; Kaplan, 2000). It appears inside the Declaration of Rio, and the Agenda 21 (UNCED, 1992), with the meaning of objective by itself. Multidisciplinary applied on Sustainable Development: The study of the recycling of glass in the geographical area of Urdaibai (Bizkaia-Spain). In our study we applied three different methodological and analysis frames: psychosocial, anthropological, and geographical approaches. We use ethnographic methodology to get the data by the means of interview, and the participant observation. At the same time, the recollection of data by questionnaires also is important and makes us to get a psychosocial point of view. The geographical tool (GIS) is used to read the data from this spatial frame. Participation as a basic factor in the following of Sustainable Development: The Sustainable Development requires the citizen's participation in two complementary dimensions: 1) Participation as objective by itself, to improve the democratization of the process. 2) Participation as instrument, to push people's commitment in the pro-environmental behaviors. Both of them are emphasized in this study. It also shows the importance of another type of the participation (political, social, economical..) to the implementation of Sustainable Development process in the near future. Application of Participation for Sustainable Development: The applicability makes reference to the design of politics toward the citizen's mobilization at the local level. It is necessary to analyze the social and economic structure, and the distribution of the population in the area, with the purpose of adjusting these politics to the specific zone.
Kader, Mohamed H. Abdel. "Sunlight and Environmentally Friendly Photosensitizes for Noxious Insects and Schistosomes Control." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006.

In this work, we present our results of the use of hematoporphyrine and phthalocyanine derivatives as photo insecticides and photoparasiticides.Theses compounds are already approved for medical use in the photodynamic therapy of tumors and other diseases. It was documented that photosensitizing dyes are characterized by a very low environmental impact and minimal risk for plant, animal and human ecosystems.The biological targets are the common noxious insects, mosquito (Cluex pipiens) larvae housefly (Musa domestica) and Egyptian Schistosomes (Hematobium and mansoni ) and their snail vectors.The results reveal that, the efficiency of the photosesitization reactions depends strongly on the type and concentration of the used sensitizers, as well as the fluence rate and exposure time.Potential applications of these results will be introduced and discussed. It worth mentioning that field trails are in progress.

Nasrollahi, Nazanin, Phil Jones, and Ian Knight. "Survey on Indoor Environment Quality (Ieq) in Offices in Iran." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Survey on Indoor Environment Quality (IEQ) in offices in Iran: Indoor environment quality (IEQ) is an important quality aspect of office buildings that should be taken in to account to find office worker's complaints and help them to promote their productivity. This study investigates the Indoor Environment Quality (IEQ) in six office buildings in Tehran (Iran) with particular attention to thermal comfort. The study is based around a questionnaire survey of the occupants in the Case Study Offices. Questionnaire: The results from this survey indicate that 25% of the respondents were thermally comfortable in their workspace in winter, and 22% in summer. The survey also reveals that the respondents in open-plan office cubicles with high or low partitions were more satisfied with the temperature, the ease of interaction with co-workers, visual privacy, personal workspace, daylight and the noise level in their workspace compared to workers in fully open-plan offices and cellular offices. They also reported an enhanced perceived productivity in comparison with these other workspaces.
Elgizawi, Lamis. "Sustain Health in Compact Slums." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Human beings are at the centre of concerns of sustainable development while sustainable development is the key to improved health .Sustainable development is defined as the need to achieve greater social equity or avoidance of the imposition of added costs or risks on succeeding generation (EDAW97).Many slum areas evolved from rapid unplanned urbanization leading to unhealthy environment which had a major role in the development of poor health in those slum areas .In most of slum areas ;densities are high and associated with rang of problems .Management and improvements of infrastructure specially roads ,sanitation ,air pollution and lack of public green spaces will lead to healthy communities. The problem is how to improve the quality of life of those communities through a healthy residential environment. The paper aims to study the process of Improving health in slums by increasing the public awareness of using good ventilation, Painting and finishing material not harming the health. Health services has an important role to play in sustainable development reducing the disease burden This role was being undermined by the insecurity of health services in poor slums “Poverty increases vulnerability to poor health and poor health increases vulnerability to poverty.”(WHO2002).Some of the causes of the increase of the disease burden is the deterioration in the state of the environment which exposes people to pollutants and toxics materials. This will result in a range of effects on health which will ultimately require; Governance, NGO, people participation and other steak holders should take various actions to achieve the aim of the study. The data that was presented; indicated that 78% of children attending schools in poor slums in the city have blood lead levels equaling , or higher than the international action level of 10g/dl. The study will be in Al-Gamalia in Al Azhar district, using a cross-sectional study to show how rapid unplanned urbanization could lead to people living in settings in which shelter was insecure, air quality was poor, access to water and sanitation was limited. In addition, residents of this region constantly had to deal with high levels of noise, a lack of adequate ventilation, limited privacy and the threat of violence. In these highly marginalized communities, health status, especially that of known high-risk groups such as young children and old people was particularly poor, leading to a situation of unsustainable development.
Ferrer, Montserrat Ecija. "Sustainability and Personal Determinants in the Election of Transport Modality." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Aims & Objectives: The primary aim of this investigation was to explore the variables and determine personal factors that affect the election of transport modality (public or private) to be able to establish strategies that help their management. We base on the supposition that the public transport is environmentally a more sustainable election and we were based on the data available referring to the mobility of the users of a specific setting (a university campus) where a 35% accede to it in private transport and a 65% do it in public transport. Comparing data of this model of present mobility with a model where all the users accede in public transport, we observed that if most of the people used the last model, the power consumption would be reduced to less than a fifth part of the current one and its contribution to the global warming would suppose a reduction of more than 30 times less of emissions. Context & background literature: The phenomenon of the globalization implies a series of affectations at territorial level, emerging in a fragmented, dispersed and specialized city that makes difficult the mobility and the collective transport. In the current city-planning model, mobility is considered a central subject from a psycho-socio-environmental point of view because of the social and environmental costs that it implies. The subject of mobility has been considered from the beginnings of the contemporary stage of environmental psychology with very diverse approaches (Everett & Watson, 1987). In relation to this thematic, diverse factors have been studied: the aversive motivations that condition the election of a transport (Stokols & Novaco, 1981), the reluctance to do without the private transport (Pol & Domínguez, 1986), the commuting and the stress that it generates (Cassidy, 1997), disliking factors for the use of the public transport (Stockols, 1972, 1976) and the habits of the users (Aarts et al., 1997, 2000). Method of inquiry or argument: The methodology developed for the attainment of the objectives of the study is based on the elaboration and application of a questionnaire to a representative sample of the population of this setting (1000 users). The final sample was obtained through an accidental non probabilistic sampling, obtaining the minimum sample of the different groups of users (e.g. teachers, students, administratives, etc.). The questionnaire consists of aspects such as the profile of the users of each means of transport, the ways of accessing the setting, the distance and the time inverted in the transport, the valuation and facilitation of the public transport, the perception of distances and the habits and routines of mobility of the users distinguishing status, gender and age. The analyses of the result were made using the statistical program SPSS/PC. Findings & Conclusions: The obtained results confirm some of the hypotheses already raised in other studies in relation to status, gender and age of the user and the election of the type of transport. One of the most significant results is that the public transport user values more positive this mean of transport than the private transport user. Diverse reasons could explain these results. Although one of the reason could be the objective quality of the public transport, there are indicators that aim at the reduction of the cognitive dissonance or the establishment of habits (Aarts ET to, 1997, 2000). Both factors are of greater influence for the election of the transport. The consolidation of this habit (use public transport) would be necessary even if users have private transport (the study indicates us that a 40% of the users accede to the enclosure in public transport not to have private vehicle).
Belmessaoud, Baya Lahcene, Hany Ayad, and Mohamed Abdelal. Sustainability and Urban Form -Applied Ethical Values as an Approach to a Sustainable Urban Space In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Role of ethical dimension of urban form: The research is an attempt to recognize the role of ethical dimension of urban form as an important determinant of design. In retrospective; the research is concerned with finding an integrated mechanism or tool that enables the integration of basic applied ethical values in plans of urban space, to produce a tool that can be used to evaluate the intangible aspects of sustainability underlying ethics. a) Research endeavor to encompass, through the historical evolution of the urban fabric, the priorities held in different civilizations and so to enlighten commune crystallized values b) Conducting an inquiry into the intangible dimension of sustainability, the ethical dimension of the urban form, to analyze the grounds which such dimension rests on. c) Reaching an analytical understanding of the basic values embedded in the urban form as an unitary field of studying the right and the good. d) Helping to the creation of more ethical communities by sustainable cities. No field concerning urban ethics: In this century it is possible to point to several people who have helped us to see how we were going wrong in our cities by neglecting nature and organic communities. Information about sustainability in the prevailing literature is often to be found fragmented, encrusted with statistics or expressed in a specialized language: Unfortunately, at present there is no trans-disciplinary language across the built environment that can bring together the diversity of interests necessary in studying the built environment for sustainability Furthermore few urban form theories in western cultures approached issues of ethics. Till now there is no field concerning urban professional ethics as bioethics, business ethics. The closely attempt was made by Lynch in his theory of a good city form but he limits himself to discuss the spatial functions of these elements. Set of universal values and respecting local values: Identifying the applied ethical values underlying the organization and planning of the built urban form is the strategy most relevant to the implementation of ethics and urban form. Research stands on the capacity of interpreting urban concepts in light of ethical values. The principles of traditional architecture and urbanism are not historic phenomena; they cannot be outdated. They are practical responses to practical problems. The task is to help mind to link closely ethical values hidden in these forms to contemporary urban design, to think about the true meaning close to spiritual origin not as a rational choice frozen in discipline and method. The set of universal values rests at first on a comparative study of different ethics to find the common ethical values as a shared background. Secondly, the research detects the common urban characters embodied in different traditional cities over the world recognized as universal flexible urban characters.
Babu, Shankara V.. "Sustainability and Urban Sprawl – Metro Phoenix, Az – Challenges to the Sustainability of a Community." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Phoenix, AZ is one of the fastest growing US cities, both in population numbers and in land area. 3.5 million out of the 5.7 million state’s residents, live in Maricopa County. The past few years’ huge influx of residents to the metro area has sent the prices of homes soaring, and as a result new bedroom communities are springing up far and wide from the city core to make homes affordable.As this demand for housing continues whole swaths of land far and away from the city center is being developed as bedroom communities. Typically, infrastructure (particularly freeways), businesses, companies are not available in these areas, and takes years to get established in the area. Often these communities’ houses thousands of homes and a good majority of the residents must travel several miles commuting to and from work. More often than not the jobs that are available within their community or close to their community are service industry jobs and do not pay enough to afford the homes and the lifestyle. When the commuters choke the freeways during rush hour every workday, they add enormous amount of air pollution to the locality’s air pollution. This particular study looks into the pollution component that commuters add to the region, particularly in air when they travel long distances for their jobs. It also looks at the importance of well paying jobs that are needed to make these bedroom communities ‘sustainable’. This study looks at 3 different ‘bedroom’ communities in the greater Phoenix metro area for its assessment. The results suggest that urban sprawl, which is usually justified on the basis of ‘affordable’ housing, is not a sustainable practice. Additionally, when there are bedroom communities added to existing metro areas without some of the fundamental infrastructure such as adequate freeways, and well paying jobs, the air quality of the entire region suffers. Furthermore, the results imply that the system of ‘town planning’ currently in practice may not be adequate to make these communities sustainable over longer term. This research paper is important in two fundamental ways, one, it places emphasis on the problem of sustainability and urban sprawl in the context of society of today. Second, it explores the possibility of setting standards in such a way that an individual community can decide how best to make their own communities sustainable for the long haul. This study is conducted in metro Phoenix area, which is one of the fastest growing cities in the United States. The significance of this is in the fact that this area is in the Sonoran Desert, and the general consensus here is ‘we will run out of water before we run out of land’. This study could provide a benchmark for growing communities, towns, and cities that are attempting to make their communities sustainable not only in the context of economics but also in societal well being.
Karsten, Lia. "Sustainable Cities: Towards Family-Inclusive Urban Planning." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Sustainable cities are frequently associated with the physical dimension of minimizing environmental damage. The social dimensions of sustainability are easily overlooked. Nevertheless, both dimensions are closely connected. This is made clear when we look at the suburbanization processes in western societies. All large cities can be characterized by the steady suburbanization of middleclass families with children. In so doing, many families exchange lengthy commutes for child-friendly residential environments. This process of out-migration has negative consequences for the city and the environment. Car use increases with air pollution as a result. But out-migration is detrimental to family life, too. Moving to the suburb may create a disaffiliation of families’ social networks. In addition, long commuting distances have negative impacts on families work-life balance. To reach the aim of a sustainable city, housing issues and urban planning are of great importance. How can we create cities in such a way that families don’t feel forced to move but instead like to stay in the city? How can cities be planned in such a way that they support modern family life? So far, the need for family inclusive (sustainable) cities and the necessity to develop family friendly plans have not been heard massively. In this paper I want to analyze the housing ideals of working families with various ethnic backgrounds living in Rotterdam, The Netherlands. They belong to the minority of urban households with growing up children. What ideas do these families have about their ideal city? While suburban residential preferences of families are widely described, residential preferences of urban oriented family households are rarely documented.The aim of this paper is to unravel the different layers of a city supportive for families, the social-spatial dimensions of sustainability. The narratives of the urban families studied have been analysed along four interrelated geographical scales: the city as a whole, the neighbourhood, the street and the home. How do they construct ‘their sustainable city’? It will become clear that these families try to reconcile cities and families, public and private, production and reproduction in a way that we have called the ‘balanced’ city. This is a city that integrates, as families themselves do, the different domains of life. The different layers of this balanced city will be explained in further detail in the paper presentation.
Gambim, Paula Silva, Mateus Mengatto Moretto, Clarissa C. Calderi Montelli, Antônio Tarcísio Naumova, Luciana Locatelli, Carla A. Neves Calazans, and Maria Cristina D. Lay. "Sustainable Development: an Analysis of Urban Landmarks." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. This paper analyses urban landmarks as part of a sustainable development. It is investigated spatial attributes that are important to define urban landmarks in downtown Porto Alegre, Brazil. The aesthetic value of these landmarks, their relationship to surroundings formal attributes, and their relationship to urban visual fields and pedestrian movement are explored. The methodological procedures included three stages: identification of landmarks through cognitive maps and interviews; analysis of landmark regarding visual fields and pedestrian movement; and questionnaires, added to a video recorded, to evaluate the landmarks, their aesthetic attributes and their surroundings. Results show that identified landmarks are located in the most integrated lines, with greater potential of pedestrian movement, and close to the most integrated visual fields, which allow greater visibility. The importance of the building historical value in landmark formation is confirmed. A better understanding of landmark formation, with positive consequences for a sustainable urban development, is acquired.
Wilson, Claire Henderson. "Sustainable High-Rise Developments: Factors Impacting on Residents' Health and Wellbeing." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Aim: to investigate factors impacting on inner city high-rise residents' health and wellbeing. Objectives: (i) to discover the impacts of inner city high-rise living on individuals' health and wellbeing and (ii) to complete Australian research that investigates the impacts of access to natural environments for people living in inner city high-rise developments. Despite recognition of the negative health effects associated with high-rise living, in recent years there has been an almost three-fold increase in the number of inner city high-rise occupants in Melbourne and Sydney. With the transition from traditional detached house occupancy to high density apartment living, opportunities for contact with the natural environment have been reduced for many city dwelling Australians. Contact with 'nature', such as urban parks, gardens, waterfronts and pets, has been shown to minimize some of the negative effects of living in the inner city. Research suggests that contact with nearby 'nature' can enhance high-rise residents' physical and mental health and wellbeing. This mixed-methods project comprised two forms of data collection: Phase 1: quantitative self-completed questionnaires and Phase 2: qualitative semi-structured interviews. Phase 1 involved surveying 221 high-rise residents to determine associations between high-rise living and health and wellbeing and access to natural environments and health and wellbeing. Participants' varied in gender, age, socio-economic status, health status, tenure, city of residence, length of residence and proximity to natural environments. Phase 2 involved interviewing 30 of the surveyed participants to explore in detail their understandings and experiences of high-rise living and access to natural environments. This paper presents findings from Phase 2 of the project. Thematic analysis of the interview data generated 7 broad categories of factors found to impact on participants' health and wellbeing (positively and negatively). These categories were: 1. Accessibility, 2. Management, 3. Safety and Security, 4. Design and Development, 5. Connections, Choice and Control, 6. Community Infrastructure and 7. Social Exclusion. The qualitative findings supported findings from Phase 1 of the project and indicated that whilst access to natural environments enhances high-rise residents' health and wellbeing, a range of other factors are also influential. Findings generated from this exploratory project provide some evidence to suggest that for disadvantaged populations (e.g. public housing tenants), the availability of a park, garden or waterfront, can enhance health and wellbeing. Future research could focus on high-rise living in different countries to explore cross-cultural comparisons.
Lay, Dias, Maria Cristina, and Antônio Tarcísio Reis. "Sustainable Housing: the Role of Open Spaces in Supporting Community Formation Across Dwelling Types." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Objectives: The study investigates the relationships between physical attributes of communal open spaces and spatial behaviour, in order to measure to what extent quality of communal open spaces supports community formation across different dwelling types in low-income housing schemes as a means to achieve social sustainability. Context and background: Performance evaluation of housing schemes implemented in Brazil show differences on environmental quality and possibilities of appropriation, with frequent neglect of communal open spaces, both in terms of physical and social performance. A body of research indicates that most of the qualitative problems that affect performance of housing schemes are originated by inadequacy of site layout and dwelling design, limiting performance and affecting use opportunities and community formation. Methodology: Methodological procedures consisted of post-occupancy evaluation of twelve housing schemes, comprised of four storey blocks of flats, terrace, detached, semi-detached and row houses, located in the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre, Brazil. Data was collected through questionnaires, interviews, observations and physical measurements. Findings and Conclusions: Correlation between type and intensity of relations among residents, satisfaction with the scheme, and satisfaction with the living environment indicate that the better are relations among residents, the higher is satisfaction with the scheme and the living environment, and vice-versa. Residents of detached, semi-detached and row houses are better related among themselves than residents of blocks of apartments and terrace houses. Relations among residents and sense of community affect level of maintenance of communal open spaces and equipment: the better are the relations, the better the community is organised for provision and upkeep of buildings and communal open spaces. The lack of organisation and maintenance in the scheme highlights problems among residents, and indicates the impact of physical characteristics on sense of community, further affecting social sustainability within the housing schemeApplicability to the field: The paper is based on selected results of a comprehensive research supported by the National Financial Institution responsible for the production of low-income housing schemes in Brazil, carried out with the purpose of gathering feedback information to provide design guidelines for future housing production
van Dorst, Machiel. "Sustainable Liveability: Privacy Zoning as a Physical Condition for Social Sustainability." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Liveability is an appropriate relationship between a person and their environment; sustainability is an appropriate relationship between humanity and the environment. This paper focuses on a positive relation between liveability and sustainable development and its implications for designing neighbourhoods. The definition of sustainable liveability: Liveability is a statement about the relationship between a subject (an organism, a person or a community) and the environment. This relationship can be explained in different ways: the perceived liveability, the presumed liveability and the apparent liveability. Sustainable liveability supports people’s needs and is described by both the perceived liveability and the apparent liveability. The needs to be supported are universal needs (also for future generations) which do not lead to conflicts with other facets of sustainable development (the more basic needs). Privacy as a basic need: The physical environment must support the following needs: health, safety, control (by residents over their environment), social relations and contact with the natural environment. In this paper we emphasise on control and social relations. This leads to a model of privacy zoning: a set of zones, each having a different significance for social interaction. This zoning (a system of embedded territories) gives everyone an opportunity to regulate their own degree of social interaction to avoid both anonymity and social pressure. Privacy is in this case control over social interaction, like in the definition of Altman, but the zoning isn’t limited to primary territories, secondary territories and public territories. The case-study: The theory is related in this paper to a case-study in a post-war neighbourhood in Delft, The Netherlands. In this neighbourhood there is a complex privacy zoning. The privacy zoning and the liveability of the neighbourhood are the main topics of a survey, observations and interviews. The results of this survey explains the differences in liveability between different high-rise apartment flats and there location within the privacy zoning. Conclusions: In the conclusions the translation of social sustainability in the built environment into sustainable liveability is discussed. This paper gives also design guidelines to explain the relation between the model of privacy zoning and the designing of a sustainable liveable neighbourhood.
Batel, Susana. "Sustainable Planning and Design: Initiatives and Actual Practices." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Where do technicians and dwellers meet in the cities? A case of public participation over the planning of cities. In this presentation we analyse a case of public participation concerning the built heritage of Lisbon, aiming to understand how the relations between the technical and the lay systems may impact upon the planning of cities. In the last years, the participation of citizens as partners in decisions that affect their communities has acquired normative formal status, as a way of fostering more transparency in the relation between the individual and the society (Campbell & Jovchelovitch, 2000). However, the process of turning this norm into practice, by incorporating the citizen’s preoccupations in the decisions, has been slow, creating a contradiction between norms and facts. Several socio-psychological approaches, namely, discursive (Moloney & Walker, 2002; Billig,1985), attitudinal (Jonas, Broemer & Diehl, 2000) and social representations approaches (Moscovici, 1976), attempted to explain the instrumentality of drawing from ambivalent and hybrid representations fields over the same issue. One of them is the notion of cognitive polyphasia, which has specifically been used to deal with this question (Wagner, Duveen, Verma & Themel, 1999; Jovchelovitch & Gervais, 1999) and we will resort to it too. The case analysed here concerns the transformation of a XVII century Convent, located in a Lisbon historic neighborhood, into a closed luxury condominium. The project was accepted by the technicians of the local authorities without consulting the dwellers and an intense public debate started when a group of dwellers organized protests and debate sessions against this transformation. In this study, through the analysis of the press, our notes taken from the debate sessions, the surveys answered by the dwellers and the interviews made with the technicians, we re-construct the representations of the city, built heritage and the role of citizens in urban issues, that this controversy brought forward. The interviews of the technicians show us that they look at this controversy from two different identities: citizen and technician. When they step in the citizen’s shoes they argue in favour of citizenship rights and public participation as one of them, but when assuming their identities as technicians they oppose this particular public movement, dismissing the dwellers goals. The notion of Cognitive polyphasia is used to examine how they manage this contradiction. The survey allows us to look for the diversity of positions among the dwellers. Finally, we discuss how the technician’s management of this contradiction may impact upon the planning of cities.
Altan, Ha_im. "Sustainable Planning and Design: the Role of Environmental Analysis at the Initial Design Stages." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. If everyone on earth consumed natural resources and polluted the environment as we currently do, we would need at least three planets to support us. Reducing our ecological footprint to one planet is crucial in terms of ensuring long term sustainability for the world we live in. While today’s energy prices are severely increasing and building energy use is becoming a global issue, sustainable building planning and design has now become an essential work for sustainable future. Moreover, a number of research projects have shown that sustainable buildings tend to be more desirable to the occupants than equivalent higher energy consuming buildings, which backs up the idea of sustainable building design and helps to minimise environmental impacts and associated costs. This paper discusses the importance of sustainable planning and design, and the role of environmental analysis at the initial design stages, and explains how such building environmental simulation techniques can be used in a sensible and inventive way for better building sustainability. Furthermore, this is also demonstrated through a detailed case study of new housing design for delivering sustainable communities in both urban and rural areas. The results of this study is not only to promote more sustainability-orientated approaches within the built environment and increase the awareness of sustainable building design, but also an opportunity to improve building planning and design and play active part for the sustainable future. This information can also be used in environmental design advice scheme analysis and is a reminder for all architects, engineers, project managers, consultants and other professionals involved in design process to comprehend the importance of sustainable building design in our environment.
Karamanou, Zoi, and Nikolaos Rododakis. "Sustainable Planning and Design:riverside Zones in the Coastal Region of the Island of Crete." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. The presentation of the methodological approach for the environmental protection and the sustainable development of sensitive areas concerns the study and evaluation of existing land uses, definition of protected areas and regeneration on both sides of the riverbed (Zone of Residential Control, Zone of Wider Preservation and Zone of Total Preservation) and the proposal for new land uses.This presentation refers to the results of university researches including the analysis and the proposals of the land uses, as well as some local interventions for the environmental protection and sustainable development of the riverside zones in the coastal region of Crete.The research has followed two stages: - The survey of existing situation, the representation of land uses marking the activities and the particularities of the area after a close examination on the spot. Main target of the research is to take strong measures and to study the necessary arrangements in a way that • They allow the rehabilitation of the negative results of human interventions• They protect the area and prevent it from the negative consequences.• They create the suitable conditions for the protection of future distractions.- The proposals for the conservation, the arrangement or the change of some uses for the protection of the environment and the sustainable development, in the limits of feasibility. The concrete interventions ensure the viability by protecting and taking precaution against any future arbitrary activities.Concerning the rivers there is the composition of the final plan of land uses as well as the definition, documentation and general planning of the proposed local interventions and new uses (ecological parks, sports and recreational activities, horse riding club, centers of environmental training and education, routed nature walks, an amphitheatre etc.). Also, the proposals concern the sustainable development of the riverbed and the preservation of the urban and suburban areas of the city of Heraklion in addition to the development of the river estuary. The intervention that was realized consists of the creation of a breakwater jetty (made of natural stone), for protection of the riverbed and the estuary as well, and a small port for fishing boats and recreational vessels in order to accommodate the west tourist zone of Heraklion.
Karamanou, Zoi, and Nikolaos Rodolakis. "Sustainable Planning and Design:riverside Zones in the Coastal Region of the Island of Crete." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. The presentation of the methodological approach for the environmental protection and the sustainable development of sensitive areas concerns the study and evaluation of existing land uses, definition of protected areas and regeneration on both sides of the riverbed (Zone of Residential Control, Zone of Wider Preservation and Zone of Total Preservation) and the proposal for new land uses. This presentation refers to the results of university researches including the analysis and the proposals of the land uses, as well as some local interventions for the environmental protection and sustainable development of the riverside zones in the coastal region of Crete. The research has followed two stages: - The survey of existing situation, the representation of land uses marking the activities and the particularities of the area after a close examination on the spot. Main target of the research is to take strong measures and to study the necessary arrangements in a way that • They allow the rehabilitation of the negative results of human interventions• They protect the area and prevent it from the negative consequences.• They create the suitable conditions for the protection of future distractions.- The proposals for the conservation, the arrangement or the change of some uses for the protection of the environment and the sustainable development, in the limits of feasibility. The concrete interventions ensure the viability by protecting and taking precaution against any future arbitrary activities. Concerning the rivers there is the composition of the final plan of land uses as well as the definition, documentation and general planning of the proposed local interventions and new uses (ecological parks, sports and recreational activities, horse riding club, centers of environmental training and education, routed nature walks, an amphitheatre etc.). Also, the proposals concern the sustainable development of the riverbed and the preservation of the urban and suburban areas of the city of Heraklion in addition to the development of the river estuary. The intervention that was realized consists of the creation of a breakwater jetty (made of natural stone), for protection of the riverbed and the estuary as well, and a small port for fishing boats and recreational vessels in order to accommodate the west tourist zone of Heraklion
Eldeen, Heba Safey, and Eman El-Nachar. "Sustainable Thinking: an Operational Model for Integrating Sustainability into Architectural Education." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006.

"During the last decades, the issue of sustainable development has brought new realities to the realm of architecture and urban design. In turn, such realities have introduced concerns like equity, responsibility, ethics and other philosophies that go beyond the functional, aesthetic and technical aspects of design. In this respect, sustainability becomes an indispensable component of the design process, requiring a large shift in attributes of thinking, values and actions among architects.Evidently, moving the design field toward a sustainable future depends on awareness, knowledge, skills and values brought by the philosophy of sustainability. In this regard, several studies have questioned how architecture education –without an explicit content and pedagogy pertaining to sustainability- can prepare students for participating in creating sustainable societies. Literature reveals that most architectural schools are still way behind realizing the essence of education for sustainability. As response, some called for restructured curricul, while others attempted to tackle sustainability in elective courses, reducing its concepts to building skills while ignoring moral, mental and societal aspects.Debates and experiences assert that education for sustainability is a whole system of inquiry. Progressive, experiential and constructivist educational approaches propose a combination of the best known about both teaching and learning together with the content, core competencies and habits of minds needed to advance in sustainable future. Given the preceding, this paper stresses the idea that architectural education for sustainability highly depends on a transformation in the moods of thinking among both teachers and learners. In other words, an integration of best pedagogical practices -that would produce critical thinkers and self-regulated life-long learners- is to be merged with the content of education for sustainability.The paper aims at drawing an operational model for integrating sustainability through embedding "sustainable thinking" as paradigm for designing as well as implementing the curriculum. It sheds light on the concepts of sustainable development needed to be viable in architectural education. Then, it proposes the notion of sustainable thinking and how it can be rooted as educational paradigm.To reach its goal, the paper combines a theoretical approach with an empirical study. A theoretical base for implementing aspects of sustainable thinking for both teaching and learning is established. Then, two different conventional courses –humanities and theories courses- are subject for applying and examining pedagogies of sustainable thinking. Results indicate possibilities for moving towards sustainable thinking for educating futures architects. Based on such results, the operational model is then drawn."

Isik, Bilge. "Sustaining the Residential Environment in Bam-Iran by Using Hybrid Building Out of Earth and Steel." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Architectural education of the present age, different than learning from the local masters in the history, failed to teach necessities of residential environment. In “The Age of Universities” Global teaching maintain the architects with global structure and material technology, which rarely fits the local needs. Residential needs mainly consist of healthy living, social security, engineered disaster safety. The needs are outcome of local conditions. Natural environment, consisting of climate, geography etc. builds up the human action, that creates architectural and engineered culture. Constituting the residential environment without considering heritage, has bound to fail. Recently after Bam earthquake (2003), countries with wooden-framed or light-steel framed housing knowledge wanted to help disaster area, ignoring all the architectural heritage data. Obviously it is not easy to record all the local necessity of new habitat for international sponsorship. Certainly affords should be given to understand disaster and local necessity, to sustain the residential environment in Bam. The study is on local architecture in Iran, for reasoning the collapse of earthen houses, and proposal of safe earthen structure, developed at Istanbul Technical University. The proposal considers also the material and technology offer by the global sponsors, while keeping in mind that local people are living over 10 000 years in earthen architecture.
Craig, Tony. "Symbols of Sustainability: an Experimental Study of Hypothetical House Purchase Behaviour." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Context: The external appearance of housing plays an important part in how we judge both our own, and other people’s houses. However, in the UK, the nature of the housing ‘product’ (i.e. volume housing built by speculative developers) is largely determined by consumer preferences which are assumed to be revealed through market behaviour. This paper presents a study looking at the external appearance of housing as it relates to representations of sustainability.Background: Preferences for particular house types have been shown to be influenced by both the materials used and the visual appearance of house facades. Indeed, previous research has demonstrated that people associate particular building materials with certain personality characteristics of assumed residents. Given that the external façade of a house is often the most visually apparent aspect of its construction, it is important to consider the meanings associated with a particular building material or style. This paper reports on a study looking at the symbolic meaning associated with building materials, by looking at the change in inferred meaning associated with a change in building material. These issues are examined with reference to social representations of sustainability, especially insofar as certain building materials are considered to be representative of sustainability credentials.Method: Participants were randomly assigned (using automatic randomization built into an online survey) to one of four experimental conditions. Two factors were varied between the experimental conditions: The exterior façade material (Timber or Render), and the description (Standard or ‘Sustainable’). Taking the Theory of Planned Behaviour as a conceptual starting point, the various antecedents to behavioural intention were examined. The behavioural intention under investigation in this study was defined as being: “considering buying a particular house”. 108 participants took part in this study, which was run as an online survey. The influence of attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control on behavioural intention were examined. In addition to this, measures of inferred personality characteristics were taken and explored in relation to the conceptual model.Research Implications and Applications: Attitudes were found to be significantly associated with behavioural intention if overtly sustainable features (e.g. timber cladding) were present, whereas when no such features were apparent, behavioural intention was found to be more associated with subjective norms. Therefore, environmental meaning is considered to be a moderating variable in the theory of planned behaviour. Implications of these findings are discussed along with suggestions for further research.
Dreux, Virginia, Antônio Tarcísio Lay, and Debora Becker. "Syntactic and Perceptual Analysis of Urban Security in Central Areas." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Aims and Objectives: The paper focuses on spatial factors cross-examined with regard to their effects on environmental performance and spatial cognition of urban open spaces, which in many major Brazilian cities, present lack of security related to crime. It investigates the relationships between spatial configuration, spatial behavior and spatial cognition at an empirical level related to the role of spatial configuration in shaping users' perception of urban security of the ancient core in the central area of Porto Alegre, and its effects on the legibility and imageability of the area. Context and background literature: The importance of fear of crime on affecting the use of urban spaces, limiting user mobility, has been given special attention by many authors. A whole set of variables has been related to the lack of urban security, including those of social-economic, political and physico-spatial nature. Relatively few studies have incorporated global configurational aspects and their cognitive dimensions within a single framework in investigating the relationships between man and built environment, more specifically those involving the analysis of relationships between the configurational characteristics of accessibility, the occurrence of crimes, legibility and environmental image. The generalized mental picture of the exterior physical world, which benefits from architectural legibility as experienced by an individual, further emphases affective qualities of spatial form that are central to the emotional and physical well-being of the inhabitant population, personally as well as socially. Methodology: Data were collected by complementary techniques, such as physical measurements, interviews with cognitive maps, observations of behavior and questionnaires, besides information about passengers gathered from the Metro Central Office, and information about crime collected from the City Council Urban Security Sector. Respondents were selected among residents, workers and users in the area. Quantitative data were analyzed through non-parametric statistics and qualitative data were analyzed by meaning and frequency. Compositional analysis was made by the identification of global integration (Rn) using Spatialist. Findings and Conclusions: The assumption put forward in the literature that urban spaces with low integration value would present low pedestrian movement and possibility of crimes might increase, while places with high integration values would present higher pedestrian movement and possibility of crime might decrease, was not confirmed: the location of the metro station in an area formed by important historic and administrative buildings and a dense and popular commercial sector, certainly influenced level of co-presence, but did not seem to have influenced user environmental image, as well as security of urban spaces or fear of crime. Applicability to the field: The methodological procedures adopted in the investigation represent a pluralistic approach to the field. It illustrates how the syntactic description of spatial configuration and the theoretical positions of spatial cognition can be combined in an integrated approach in investigating human spatial experience.
Cranz, Galen. "Teaching Sustainable Development from Social and Cultural Perspectives in China." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. "Having imported Western capitalist land use and building practices, including high-rises, suburbs, second homes, cars and freeways, the Chinese have decided that they also need the Western antidote-- sustainability. Accordingly, the Department of Architecture at Southeast University in Nanjing, China invited a teaching team from UC Berkeley to develop a formal four-week course on sustainable settlement practices with emphasis on social and cultural aspects. This paper reports on that experience, specifically how we taught sustainable architecture, urban design, and planning from social and cultural perspectives on the premise that sustainability is a fundamentally social project of epic proportions. Our model of sustainability emphasizes horizontal integration of systems rather than the standalone building. Integration of systems is more important than energy independence. A whole systems approach connects all functional sectors (transportation, land use, water management, air quality, energy, social organization) at all scales (starting with the body and moving on to consider to the room, building, public space, neighborhood, city, and region). We develop this theoretical perspective on sustainability through 4 teaching strategies. 1) Create a reader of the "top 10" articles on sustainable building and settlement practices, and reinforce the concepts through visual presentations and interactive learning exercises, such as Merchants “council of all beings.” 2) Analyze the traditional Chinese practice of feng shui for those guidelines relating to sustainable design practices and re-formulate them as empirically testable research propositions in order to develop a joint research agenda for the next several years with our Chinese students and colleagues. 3) Learn how education and socialization to new and historical values occurs in the context of Chinese society and culture. For example, the Communist government is now invoking Taoism to promote a pro-nature ethic and using Mao Tse Tung to promote consumerism. 4) Apply these theoretical perspectives on sustainability to a local site in a studio format of instruction. Evaluation of the teaching and learning effectiveness of these strategies is based on weekly assessment by the Chinese students and faculty and by the Berkeley teaching team using questionnaires, focused interviews, photography, videography, and diaries."
Okba, Ehab M., and Mona H. Soliman. "Teamwork as a New Sustainable Pedagogy for Teaching Architectural Design." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. A significant shift is taking place in organizations throughout the world. This shift involves increasing the emphasis on the group or teamwork. When a team is functioning well, the team dynamics and sense of belongingness and acceptance can bring out the best of the architect. Teamwork can enhance problem solving and creativity; generate understanding, acceptance, support, and commitment. This paper aims at proposing a new sustainable pedagogy for enhancing the architectural design courses at the schools of architecture through incorporating teamwork into architectural design pedagogy, as a successful mean of interaction with the future global parameters in the architectural profession, such as new open market strategies, new advanced technology revolution, new large-scale-projects with complicated design problems. The paper consists of two major parts. First, the theoretical part, highlighting: the importance of applying teamwork as a tool for obtaining a more successful sustainable design product; tools for making an effective teamwork in the design process; strategies for designing a new teamwork pedagogy for teaching architectural design (designing a syllabus, organizing, and evaluating teamwork). Second, the experimental part, based upon applying teamwork as a new proposed pedagogy for teaching architectural design. The paper examines this new proposed pedagogy on housing projects following green architecture principles. A questionnaire was conducted to test and evaluate the students' response towards this new sustainable pedagogy and determine all its positive and negative aspects. The paper proposes a new sustainable guiding tool for incorporating teamwork into sustainable architectural design process that could successfully confront and solve all negative aspects to achieve the optimum sustainable architectural product in the design studio. The Egyptian faculties could use this new proposed sustainable guiding tool as a means for managing a successful teamwork for sustainable architectural design education.
Casal, Aimée. "Territorial and Temporal Dimensions in the Study of the Nimby Phenomenon." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. The objective of this research is to understand the NIMBY phenomenon, through the study of the social acceptability of three waste water treatment sites in the suburbs of Paris. The request emanates from a public organization, who fear NIMBY reactions among local residents, and wish to prevent the phenomenon by establishing communication with the local population. The NIMBY (Not In My Back Yard) refers to a phenomenon usually observed around environmental facilities, when residents recognize the utility of them, perceive the benefits for the environment, but do not wish to see them established in their close environment. From an individual point of view, this can be easily understood, but from a global point of view, the problem appears insolvable, when no one, nowhere, seems ready to accept them in their neighbourhood. The case of waste water treatment plants is specific, because their localization depends on urban demographic development, and on the configurations of the land. Therefore, the choice of their location is limited. Nevertheless that does not constitute a valid argument for most refractory people. This applied study is carried out on three different sites, one is a waste water treatment plant that is being extended, another one is about to be extended, and a third one has yet to be constructed. The sites also differ by their environmental characteristics: residential or industrial, with a lot of greenery or multi-harmful. The method consisted in carrying out individual semi-structured interviews amongst the bordering populations, on the topics of perception of quality of life at the scale of the neighbourhood, knowledge of and experience with the site, perception of harmful effects, as well as personal implication towards waste water treatment and, and on reduction of harmful effects. A last part takes into account personal factors which can modulate environmental assessment. Ongoing data analysis allows for comparisons between the three sites, on environmental and temporal levels. The results are put in relation with objective factors such as the view of the site and microclimatic aspects. They will be discussed in light of theoretical contributions in social and environmental psychology.
Tayeb, El, and M. Ossama. "The Biosafety Debate: Concepts and Issues." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. 1. The early debate: fear of the unknown. 2. Today’s debate 3. Current issues of risk4. To regulate or not to regulate (and what level of regulation?)4.1 Regulation is often a political issue. At least some societies prefer less regulation – and even less “government”. Many societies also have little confidence in government regulatory agencies or in transparency of their procedures and operations 4.2 Regulation is also often seen to result in delaying the R&D efforts of private enterprise, or even stifling it. It also adds significantly to the cost of the product, not in terms of fees to be paid, but in terms of the cost of generation of information required by the regulators. If the regulations require information not only on the product but also on the process through which it was developed, the inventor would worry about protection of his intellectual property rights and his competitive advantage in the market. On the other hand complete lack of regulation places the proponent of a product under the threat of liability law suites that could be devastatingly expensive. Ideally the inventor prefers a simplified regulatory system, where no information on the process is revealed, where only limited information on the product is required, which costs little time and money and which absolves him of responsibility if and when things go wrong. The public would often demand very much the opposite. In the area of pharmaceuticals the public gets almost what it demands, although the laws allow for simplified and more rapid approval procedures for life saving drugs while still in the experimental stage4.3 Biosafety issues could be tackled at different levels ranging from voluntary “codes of conduct“ to “guidelines”, to binding “regulations“. Codes of conduct and guidelines are most suitable in countries with established, inter alia, traditions of: responsible business, effective public opinion, strict, incorruptible law enforcement ,strong sovereign independence from foreign pressure With such environments and with adequate monitoring, even accidents could be dealt with in a timely and effective fashion. Scientists, business and regulators can not afford to act irresponsibly. Unfortunately, this is not the case in most developing countries; hence much more strict regulations may be necessary than in developed countries. 4.4 The central approaches for a biosafety system should involve: risk assessment and risk management protocols, adequate databases, well equipped laboratory facilities that are capable of proper assessment in the local environment, strict enforcement of regulations with no room for exceptions, high capacity and effective training of personnel. 4.5 An important element is transparency. This comprises: the right of the consumer to know (through appropriate labeling) the source of the product to be consumed, and the right of the regulator to be informed of the process through which the genetically engineered material was constructed.
Kamel, Maha Samy, Sahar Soliman Abd-Allah, and Neamat Mohamed Nazmy. "The Challenge Posed by Urban Sprawl." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006.

The aims and objectives: The paper aims to find out the reasons that cause the urban growth of a city to go in an unplanned direction and to cause economic and urban problems , and why these cities unless planned by good planners who studied the economic and physical aspects, urban growth went in another directions when began to expand. Context & background literature: Rapid urban growth over the coming decades must be regarded as inevitable. By allowing our settlements to expand the way they do, we spoil values of great importance, we spoil nature which is the container of our life and we spoil the valuable resources and also the good ideas of city planners who have tried to help people to be satisfied with their inhabitants. The problem is: Cities are facing even more difficult problems, an increase in population at the same time that it is not developing in accordance with the needs of its community. That leads to city disintegration and to uncontrolled or predicted urban growth, caused by the unprecedented increase of the capital income and the non systematic technological progress that these forces have had on man's life. Method of inquiry or argument: The paper will analyze the urban expansion of many preplanned cities, some of them expanded into the planned directions, and some others went into different places that cause many problems on the long run; and shows also cities that goes without a real plan and expanded only with the inhabitant's point of view, mentioning the drawbacks and benefits of every case. Findings & Conclusions: Is that the planner's act must ensure that the over all planning synthesizes, the interests of society with respect to land use and contributes to protecting the country's nature and resources. So that sustainable development of society with respect for people's living conditions and for the conservation of nature and resources are secured.

Willis, Katharine S.. "The City as the Space of Events; Changing Interactions and Infrastructures in Urban Public Space as Afforded by New Media Technologies." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Spatial Identity and Imagaeability: The paper will initially focus on a study of the changing spatial identity and perception of urban structures. Lynch established the concept of mental or cognitive maps of urban space (Lynch 1960), and stated that for a city to be more fully experienced the imageability or intelligible elements of the city need to be understood. An imageable place can be defined as one that that can be comprehended over time as a pattern of high continuity with many distinctive parts clearly connected (Downs and Stea, 1974). The human need for spatial identification with one’s surroundings and a relationship to them is a fundamentally situated process; perceptions of self, identity and memory are inextricably linked with our sense of belonging in a spatial setting. However mobile and wireless technologies reconfigure established structures of spatial identification in physical environments. Mobility and the City as Spatial Event: Urban theory is mostly framed around the notion that that spatial and social structures change slowly. However the potential of greater mobility and travel, combined with that offered by mobile and wireless technologies is transforming the concept and necessity of stable spatial and temporal urban structures. Cities can be conceived as spatial events, where the emphasis is no longer on equilibrium, but on the intrinsic dynamics of urban change (Batty, 2002). Instead of thinking of places with boundaries around, they can be imagined as articulated movements in networks of social relations and understandings, undergoing continuous and complex changes. Urban Public Space: Public spaces or territories have a temporary quality and an individual has free access and occupancy rights (Altman 1975). These areas are often considered as ‘in-between’ spaces; streets, parks and transit routes. The underlying dichotomy of public versus private in public space is rendered more fluid by new locative technologies, which in turn imply a fundamental transformation in the norms of public action and conduct (Couldry, 2002). Social interactions and activities are dependent on settings or situations (Goffmann 1959) and electronic media can be understood as overriding the boundaries and definitions of situations supported by physical settings. Since ‘where’ you are no longer defines ‘who’ you are, new media eliminates a traditional dimension of civic legibility (Mitchell, 1995). However, by changing the boundaries of social situations, electronic media do not simply offer quicker or more thorough access to events and behaviours, instead they provide opportunities for new events and behaviours (Meyrowitz, 1985). Brief Summary: The project will investigate the implications of ubiquitous mobile and wireless technologies in the city for how these spaces are perceived, and also for how new situated interactions in spatial structures offer possibilities for both the design of urban space and the technology situated within it.
Mayo, Shaker Mahmood, and Syed Shabih-ul- Zaidi. "The City Obesity Trends and the Sustainable Urban Development Practice in Developing Countries." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Urban planners have faced their most volatile phase of the history during the industrial and post-industrial age of the society. This volatile phase has introduced some of the unprecedented patterns of urbanization and urban growth, social and economic transformations, and has resulted into gluttonous exploitations of natural resources and the worst forms of environmental degradation. The paper in question deals with the urbanization patterns in the World at large. The paper argues that although there are significant differences in the urbanization levels of the developing and the developed parts of the World, but, the contrasting differences are more in their patterns of urbanization-concentrated versus decentralized urbanization patterns. The paper also deals with the urbanization patterns in the Province of Punjab, Pakistan in comparison with the urbanization patterns in the developed and developing countries. The study finds out that the phenomenon of city obesity-with its negative impacts on health, environment, socioeconomic and physical conditions of urban areas is more dominant in the developing countries. The paper suggests an anti-sprawl, decentralized and smart growth policy for the Sustainable Urban Development Planning in the Developing Countries.
Lord, Sebastien. The Complexity of Mobility in Old Age: Six-Year Longitudinal Study of Elderly Suburbanites Growing Old at Home In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. This paper presents the results from a doctoral thesis in gerontology, planning, and architecture. This paper aims to understand residential trajectories, daily experiences, and meanings of home and of daily mobility for elderly suburbanites. This longitudinal study has been conducted in Canada, between 1999 and 2006. While studying elders’ residential aspirations has been prevalent in recent decades, little research has been conducted on actual residential behaviors. The first aim is to explore the evolution of elderly suburbanites’ residential aspirations trough a temporal perspective. The second aim is to understand the evolution of seniors’ daily mobility in both displacement and meanings issues. The third objective is to monitor the ties that bind residential and daily mobility. Residential Aspirations and Residential Choices: Postwar suburbs are problematic living areas for those elders who choose to age at home, which many studies have confirmed is the choice of a vast majority. They intend to go beyond day-to-day difficulties. The literature shows, through synchronic portraits, those suburban seniors adapt to their residential environment according to their autonomy level, financial and social resources, as well as meanings of home, neighborhood. This “well-known” desire to age in place has not been longitudinally monitored, with a few exceptions. Some studies suggest that the decision to move is multifaceted. Daily mobility is also at the basis of a new residential location choice. Methods' Triangulation: Recent research showed the “complexity” of both the aging process and the environment where individual experiences take place. By mixing quantitative, qualitative and spatial analyses, the transformation of practices and experiences of home and neighborhood have been explored through a complex layering of issues. Socio-anthropological interviews where used for data collection with a non-random sample. From the 1999 sample of 102 seniors, 91 were retraced in 2006 (70 in place and 15 moved), 6 are now deceased, and 11 could not be found. Growing older in suburb, an inevitable residential experiences modification: Results show that residential behaviors are consistent with residential aspirations. Furthermore, results show that we must investigate beyond the elders' health and emotional attachment to home in order to explain the everyday environmental tensions. Aging at home is more than a deliberate choice. With the inertia of time, the elders adapt their lifestyles to the environment without actually entering a decision process. Daily activities and mobility practices are continuously redesigned in order to age in place. Therefore, daily experiences’ adaptation to social interactions and the home representations all become sine qua none outcomes. The capacity of adaptation allows maintaining social contacts and positive home experiences.
Kweyunga, Salome. The Conflict Between Culture and Modernity in Kitchen Designs for Urban Dwellers in Uganda In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Inappropriateness of Current Kitchen Designs for Urban Dwellers in Uganda: A closer study of the current designs of existing flats and a wide range of individual residential houses indicate mostly westernised layout plans of the kitchen area. This attitude goes back to the colonial era when the best town houses were designed and built by the colonialists to suit their own intentions; Designs for Africans, Asians and Europeans were different. This was segregation whereby the races were treated separately. The tastes and cultural needs of the indigenous, African peoples were never considered and lifestyles were imposed on them. However, to some extent, an effort was made in designs for African quarters to try to make them adapt to the type of life the people were living. It was, and still is believed that in order to be modern, one has to think, talk and live like a westerner while in one or another one downplaying the traditional, cultural way of life. Inevitably this mindset is very much with us to date. Kitchen Designs for Urban Dwellers in Uganda: Culture is constantly changing but the cultural roots within a given group cannot easily done away with. One may call it a conflict of cultural values but the question is: Where does one draw the line to differentiate culture from modernity? Rural immigrants into the urban areas in Uganda slowly transform into urban dwellers and gradually change their original, indeginous ways of living. The setting for this thesis paper is the urban areas of Uganda Organisation of space for kitchen designs is crucial, given the nature of all the activities, which take place there. Urban areas in Uganda have been inter-tribal in composition, thus intercultural. This trend is more obvious on the international scene when one looks at the bigger picture. With time the impact of such a trend is felt more. Modernity Theory: The theoretical framework is hinged mainly on the modernity theory. This revolves around such conceptual reflections as modernism, modernisation and globalisation. Some studies have already been done on kitchen models and designs. This is being studied as well as other literature on theory. The author of this thesis will endeavour to cover areas of the topic, which have not yet been done. Kitchen spatial layouts cannot be studied in isolation without looking into the types of stoves in use, as well as availability and use of energy. Culture is very dynamic and this thesis will explore the concept further with its transnational connections. Gender issues also play a big role in relation to determining spatial layouts and cannot, therefore, be overlooked. Most women in particular spend most of their working time in the kitchen. Therefore such an area needs to be carefully looked into in relation to health, social and architectural qualities, among others. Objectives: The research aims to create improved new kitchen designs with the cultural and modern needs of the present-day urban dweller in Uganda. This will be achieved through the following sub-objectives: 1.Identification of some kitchen designs in traditional housing in Uganda and their relevance in as far as fuel, food ingredients and cultural meaning are concerned. 2.Investigation of the ways in which traditional food is stored, prepared and served. 3.Study of selected representative designs of domestic kitchens, which are already built, and in use in some urban areas in Uganda. Interviews with users will be conducted. 4.Development of some models and layout designs 5.Identification of energy saving technologies Methodology: Looking at a wide range of cases, the case study methodology will be used. The aim is to use this effective research method in order to collect, assimilate and evaluate the relevant data. Both qualitative and quantitative research methods will be used. A full laboratory test of the kitchen design will be made as an attempt to illustrate the recommendations of the research thesis. The Internet will be used as well as a tool for information search for relevant books and journals. In order to assess the performance of various kitchens, interviews will be conducted with a wide range of users and other stakeholders bearing in mind the bottom-up concept. Research Program: Currently the state of development for the thesis has not advanced far. Theoretical framework has already commenced in the form of coursework taken as lectures, seminars and various discussions at KTH, Stockholm, Sweden. The author is currently planning for fieldwork, which will take place later this year. Relevant literature on the topic is being reviewed and a pilot study is underway. Information is gathered by photographing, measuring and documenting data on selected cases in Uganda. A number of cases in the urban areas depict kitchen designs that contradict and contrast with the actual day-to-day use. The findings are, therefore, expected to be both very exciting and informative. As research work progresses and information is gathered, work will be more stream lined and more focused in the right direction.
Mourao, Ada Raquel Tei, and Sylvia Cavalcante. "The Construction of Place and Identity in a Reinvented City." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. "Objectives: The present study investigated the inhabitants identity of place of Maracanaú from an Environmental Psychology point of view, amplifying this concept to a perspective that takes into consideration the physical and social surroundings through the Urban Social Identity. Context: The city of Maracanaú is located in the Metropolitan region of Fortaleza, state of Ceará- Brazil. This city has gone through enormous changes that occurred because of industrialization and urbanization process that transformed the local rural space into an urban one, through the construction of Industrial Districts and Popular Housing Blocks.This process is a part of a expansion planning of the city of Fortaleza, and did not have any relationship with Maracanaú's local reality, in the first moment. Method: The research was realized with three groups of people: The original inhabitants, who lived in the city prior to its transformation; the people who lived in the Popular Housing Blocks and actually experienced the transformation process; and the young people who did not participate of the prior moments and that have a relationship with the city as it is today. The interviews occurred in the participants residences, workplaces, and collective areas. Besides the participant observation which happened throughout the research process, interviews were conducted with previously set questions, applied to the group of original inhabitants, and to the inhabitants of the Popular Housing Blocks, in a total of five for each category. The questionnaires were applied in a total of two hundred and sixty eight (268) young people with age ranging from 14 to 25 years old. Findings & Conclusions: The analysis of the relationship of the subjects with the inhabited space, done through the study of the "appropriation" concept, allowed us to verify that, there are many and diversified forms of attachment on the different groups of city's inhabitants, resulting from their personal and social life histories, and from their day to day experiences with the city, which transform little by little these space attributes into a significant place for their inhabitants. The understanding of the concept of identity was therefore amplified, from a fixed perspective, into a process one. The results pointed to a construction of a new and multiple place identity, based on common points."
Sharaf, Abdelsalam. "The Cultural and Social Obstacles of Health Care Projects in Upper Egypt; a Case Study." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. The study aims at: -assessing the health development policy in Upper Egypt. -identifying the health conditions in the field study community in Aswan, the diseases map, and the health care in this community. -revealing the obstacles, social and cultural, that face the heath care projects in this community. -drawing on the results, the study aims at trying to suggest ways to overcome these obstacles. The study depends on a case study of a local community in Aswan. a field study was conducted there for almost two years, 2003 and 2005. The study was based on the anthropological methods, using quantitative and qualitative tools to collect data.
Rodriguez, Gabriel E.. "The Detached Sub-Urban House: Representations and Stakes of Ambient Environment." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. In France, more then half of the population lives in detached sub-urban houses which are considered as the ideal dwelling by almost 90% of the population. This type of residence is popular in part because of the sense of comfort that it represents which has evolved into a much more complex perception that encompasses elements that can be studied under the notion of “ambient environment”. Since the production of sub-urban houses is in the hands of building contractors as architects are marginalized (only 5%), this research studies the representations and stakes of residential ambient environments as a way to understand and explain the relation between dwellers, building contractors and architects. We first analyze the discourse of dwellers (real-estate ads), building contractors (advertising) and architects (competition) in order to establish appraisal of the ambient environment of detached houses in order to collect the elements that are forwarded by each population as a way to establish their sensitive appraisal of the detached single-family houseSecond, we study the plans of houses designed by architects (architectural competition for low cost single-family houses) and building contractors (real-estate development in Nantes; France), with or without a specific client, in order to characterize their ambient environments. This analysis allows the setting of a typology of the disposition and orientation of the openings of the social space of real-estate developments and competition houses. We also study their day-lighting factors, sun lighting autonomy and solar gain. The dwellers, the architects and the developers treat residential ambient-environment as an important quality but it comes after other considerations as location, dimension, number of rooms and space. The concerns of ambience are associated to the social space and refer to exposure, day lighting, view qualities, privacy and the notion of calm.The social space of the development houses have, in general, openings disposed on opposite walls (street/garden) (traversing) with larger windows oriented towards the south and the west. Competition houses present much more varied dispositions with mono-oriented, bi-oriented and traversing with tree openings. Both types of houses present a level of sun lighting that go from “satisfying” to “very satisfying”. So the question of control and mastering of the luminous ambient-environment by architects and developers is still to be answered.
Farid, Maha. "The Effect of Cultural Heritage in the Interior Design of the Residential Units on Family Productivity and Moral Health." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Research aims: were to investigate the effect of cultural heritage on human behavior in the use of space within the residential units in Egypt, and to analyze the different attitudes toward interior spaces in order to improve space performance. The Context: According to rapid population growth in Egypt, it has been observed that the average residential unit of an average social class family, hardly accommodates the basic functional areas as a result of socio-cultural effects; such effects could affect personal performance, individual needs, work, productivity and sometimes family interaction. The study focus is on the dining area which is traditionally furnished using the available furniture on the Egyptian market with dimensions that do not fit small spaces. According to observations, the dining area is rarely used for meals and consumes a considerable area which could be assigned effectively for other activities to support family relation, interaction, hence, moral health. The daily activities of the egyptian family has not been taken into consideration in the space planning of the majority of this class residential unit. Research methodology: Human factors researches are usually based on observations and surveys to obtain general guidelines that can significantly aid the designer to make design decisions to improve space performance( Rapoport 1969; Lang 1974; Zeisel 1981; Pile 2002;). The first task of the research was collecting data related to average sizes of residential units and the average number of members in an average social class family ( Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics, 2004) . The second task was an in depth study on 210 residential units in which questionnaires, floor plans with annotated activity information were filled by university students in architecture and interior design departments about there own residence. The choice of students was both educative and informative. The information acquired helped to define the use(s) of this area, whether it is closed, opened, or adjacent corner in the living area in order to reach some design guidelines. Findings: The research is in its process, findings and expected results will be available in the full paper.
Maki, Kiwamu. The Effect of Fatigue on Streetscape Evaluation- a Comparison Between before and After the Vdt Task - In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Introduction: The former research involving an evaluation of streetscape slides showed a large individual difference with regard to several aspects. Hence, the following experiment focused on identifying a factor that is capable of explaining this difference; in addition to streetscape evaluation, the personality test (Yatabe-Guilford Personality Inventory) and a questionnaire on behavior in and opinions on a city were administered. However, these items had small correlations with the evaluation differences of the slides among persons. The following experiment focuses on fatigue as a factor that can explain the individual difference pertaining to streetscape evaluation. Experiment: The impressions of a series of 24 streetscape slides before and after the two hours VDT task were rated on 12 semantic differential scales. The self-conscious symptom of fatigue inventory, which consists of 30 points to be checked, was also completed immediately before the streetscape slides were rated. The VDT tasks were reiterative and required the subjects to concentrate. The experiment comprised 20 subjects who were young female students aged between 20 and 22 years. The experiment lasted for a total of 5 h and 40 min including breaks. Results: The mean values of the rating scores were calculated. The difference between the former and the latter ratings was nearly equal for almost all the impressions (283 out of 288 mean values showed the difference to be lesser than 0.7 on the 7-point scales). The largest difference, 0.9 point difference, was observed with regard to the preference for a slide of an uphill road. This indicates that fatigue mediated the evaluation through virtual activity. The subjects were divided into two groups depending on the number of points by which their inventory scores increased. G1 comprised 7 persons, whose points increased from 1 to 5, and G2 comprised 9 persons, whose points increased from 6 to 11 (the data of 4 persons were omitted for certain reasons). With regard to the images of an uphill road, the construction of traditional old houses, abundant greenery, and so on, the mean preferences of the fatigable subjects belonging to G2 were more than 1.0 point higher than those of the subjects belonging to G1. The principal component analysis of the preference data of 16 subjects revealed that the subjects belonging to G1 preferred the large-scale urban scapes and those belonging to G2 preferred the small-scale calm images relatively. Furthermore, with regard to artificial and busy streets, the mean preference of the latter rating was lower than that of the former one for the subjects belonging to G2. These consequences indicate the influence of fatigability on streetscape evaluation.
Sener, Elmira Gür, and Ömer Erem. "The Effect of the Physical Aspects of a Child Development Center on Center Selection." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. The role of education is certainly a key factor for an individual’s development. After 1980s the findings of psychological and education system based researches has showed that especially preschool ages is a very important period in one’s development. Single parent family structure, increase in the number of working mothers and the importance given to the child’s socialization experiences has made preschool children begin their education in “child development centers” (CDC). Preschool education is becoming important in the new millennium because not only cognitive but also child’s personality, social abilities and emotions develop in the first five ages that is the most activated period for a child.Researches made on CDC’s have discussed the role of centers and have introduced the importance of environmental physical conditions. Many findings on environment behavior inter-disciplinary studies and results on child-environment studies have indicated the organization of space in early child education. On the other hand, in preschool period, the child’s socio-emotional, cognitive and physical developments are affected by his/her experiences and the child’s interaction with the environment is a basic factor in his personality. It is also understood from the recent studies that a physical milieu a child can discover, examine and learn with rich sources has a positive effect on both child’s behavior and his/ her learning capacities and talents.The quality of preschool physical environment is an important study topic because it plays an important role on preschool child development. The results of researches have showed that children in well-qualified CDC’s show more positive social behaviors, lingual intelligence and communication talents. The quality of CDC in which children live interacting with the environment, the inner and outer space organization, continuity, the experience in space and development in his/her learning are important factors that has to be discussed. In this study the physical factors affecting the design of CDC’s will be emphasized. The increase of aesthetic quality to make children and their parents draw attention to the centers, to differ the center’s image from institutional buildings, interior and outer spaces in child scale, to design the CDC’s for their visibility for the parents to have information about the existence and place of the center will be examined. The effect of the physical environment on CDC selection will be investigated with a case study. Indirectly at the end of the analysis, a heuristic support for an architect who is designing a preschool education center is aimed.
Mosler, Hans-Joachim, and Martha Rodriguez-Rodelo. "The Effects of Commitment and Prompts on Psychological Factors Affecting Recycling and Compost Behavior. a Field Experiment in the City of Santiago De Cuba." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. The study aims at reducing the amount of generated waste of households in Santiago de Cuba by different intervention strategies. The effectiveness as well as the psychological effects of commitment and prompts were tested in a field study in 6 different research areas. The increased generation of household waste in most of the developing countries is a growing problem. Most of these countries have no treatment of waste except disposal in landfills. Such waste disposal creates serious environmental problems that affect health of humans and animals and causes serious economic and other welfare losses. The environmental degradation caused by inadequate disposal of waste can be expressed by the contamination of surface and ground water through leachate, soil contamination through direct waste contact or leachate, air pollution by burning of waste, spreading of diseases by different vectors like birds, insects and rodents, or uncontrolled release of methane by anaerobic decomposition of waste. In order to improve the solid waste management of the city of Santiago de Cuba, an investigation of the households' waste generation and treatment was conducted. In summer 2004 a field experiment was carried out. The effects of public commitment and prompts upon recycling behavior and different forms of persuasion upon compost behavior were tested in varying sequences in 6 areas of the city. The effects of these strategies were assessed by a panel survey that took place at the beginning, at midway, and at the end of the experiment. In one control area only the panel survey was applied. Also a monitoring was conducted in the form that a small sample of people had to fill out a short questionnaire every day. Using multivariate analysis of variances the differences of the factor means over the three points of measurement were calculated separately for the intervention areas and the control area. The following factors were analyzed: behavior, intention, attitude, personal return, affect, habits, difficulty, and observed behaviour of others. The results showed significant differential effects of the intervention strategies on behavior and some of the behavioral factors. These results allow to draw conclusions about what factors are affected by which intervention strategy. This knowledge will improve our understanding of how these strategies are working psychologically which in turn helps to design more effective intervention strategies.
Uzunarslan, H. _ebnem. "The Effects of Cultural Changes to Residential Spaces in the Early Repuplican Period in Turkey." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. The developments lived for twenty years - between 1923-1943 - which is defined as Early Republican Period have caused deep changes in the order of society in Turkey. The contemporary ideology’s concrete reflections of the phenomen of cultural change progressing with the Republic, has shown itself in the field of architecture. This has brought with it, the change of order in the residential spaces.The special searches developing parallel to the period’s cultural structure movements has been shaped far from traditional manner. In order to examine the influences of cultural structure of Ottoman Empire from the point that it has come before Republic. The first is lifestyle and habits that explains the society’s general structure by special dimensions. The other point of view is an ideological angle and while building a bridge between past and present, it defines the dimensions of cultural development. These dimensions are in the position of determining contemporary and modernist process aimed after Republic.The houses of the period generally have met the new Republic by their traditional wide family structure, habits and special order passed from the Ottoman Empire. First reflections of social change accelerated by the revolutions made by the Republic have shown itself by the thaw of family ties. This situation has been the start of fast changes in residential spaces. The transformation from traditional big family order to the small one has forced the wish for modern houses that developed according to the country’s rebuilding and took on the contemporary Western architectural understanding.The traditionally planned houses before the Republic, spaces were named only ’’room’’ by their orders habitually answering all the activities while especially after 30’s, modern houses with private spaces were seen. These spaces having been started to be used according to their functions like bedroom, dining room, study; have passed to plan with furniture providing different layouts while giving up on fixed room order.The buildings starting to be shaped according to the developments in the West, have met concepts like ‘’modernism’’ and ‘’cubic’’ in the 1930’s. These houses programmed in the new understanding have continued this understanding in their special order and furniture. They have reached a new definition by the rational solution of function based, basic and massive forms. But traditions and habits have made it hard for these new lines to reflect on special order.If we consider this period in a special view lived until the early 40’s changing society’s cultural dilemma was seen to be reflected in the houses still; The spaces of change lived in the ‘’ Early Republican Period’’ Have at most been away from their old and no understanding has ever reached this effect lived in the spaces of cultural change in the later years.
Salama, Amr Ezzat. "The Egyptian Approach Towards Achieving Sustainable Development and Resolving Urban Challenges." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. In a time where the world has committed itself to a global sustainable development agenda followed by an even strong dedication to global millennium development goals; the world is now expected to move from the planning phase to the actual stage of achieving a better quality of life for our cities and their inhabitants through sustainable planning, design and exchange of successful actual practices. The relationship between the Egyptian cities, their natural environment and the impact that this dynamic has and affects human health and welfare is immense. The impact of environmental, social and economic challenges on urban development represent huge challenges that we need to overcome, the sustainability and the quality of life we seek lies in the rethinking of urban strategies, governance, urban poverty, housing, pollution and transportation. We have a responsibility towards providing not only a different lifestyle, alternatives but unconventional solutions, ways and means for attaining a good quality of life starting from the planning phase of cities, through the design of new housing schemes and learning from other successful stories. Currently, the Egyptian government has taken serious steps to overcome those challenges. Housing and Building Research Centre (HBRC) is leading the regulatory shift which is required to institutionalize the new urban planning practice in Egypt, through its collaborative work with practitioners from various ministries and the private sector, the new planning law is dealing with the previous regulatory bottlenecks’ that hampered the effective planning practice in Egypt. On the other hand, (GOPP) The General Organization for Physical Planning, revised its role from plan makers to enablers of the land use planning practitioners to prepare city and village plans using participatory approaches, strategic and action planning tools the traditional master planning initiatives and there are various programs undertaken in Egypt to revive city competitiveness based on supporting local economic initiatives. Those new planning norms are initiated based on effective partnerships with research centers, universities and local authorities. In the third world in general and specially in our country Egypt, we are facing the problem that the urban sprawl is very fast and is not documented accurately, we need always new plans to locate the new extensions of Egyptian cities, even while preparing a project for planning the urban growth, we sometimes find out that the informal urban extension is faster than the plan itself. So it is very important during this period to have recent maps documenting the new urban growth of every urban settlement in Egypt using the new technology of the Geographical Information System (GIS) to develop a data-base for the on-going analysis. The Egyptian Government with its institutions working in this field are committed to bettering the quality of the urban environment for its civilians through a clear sustainable agenda that embraces participation, new technologies and initiatives, involvement of the stakeholders in decision making and the promotion of prosperity on all levels of society.
Elafifi, Abubakr Salah. The Emergency Facilities in Egypt In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Abstract Text: Research problem The emergency facility is considered as one of the most important health care services, which presented by the Egyptian government for its citizens. Needless to say that rescuing patient’s life lay’s on the first hand on the immediate dispatch and quick response on such a call, where qualified ambulance staff presents first aid medical care on site. The thesis identifies the main activities of emergency facilities from the architectural point of view, classified the service onto three main group of services; Ambulance Stations, Emergency Departments in General Hospital, & Specialized Emergency Hospitals. It also provides framework for delegation with effective design, guidance on planning and designing of such healthcare services premises. Research questions / Objectives / Hypothesis The research hypothesis is how far dose the international programs for the pre-determination of functions & spaces in hospitals design, are succeeded in achieving its goals to satisfy users needs. The main objective of this thesis is to determine the different levels of emergency services in Egypt. This will be achieved through identifying all design requirements & variables that may affect the architecture design of such premises, and comparing these requirements and variables with existing structures to confirm the convenience and the non- convenience issues of those premises & how far does they meet the user’s needs. Research structure / Strategy / Methodology The thesis aims at achieving these goals, consists of three parts & five chapters. The first part is the theoretical study in which identifies the emergency services, the historical background of emergency departments, design requirements and different factors that may affect the design. Second part deals with applied study which is comprises 16 number of various samples of site visits which covers all different researched items that discussed in the first part of the thesis. These applied site visits included three ambulance stations, eleven emergency departments & two emergency hospitals. The big number of site visits helps to get much closer to the positive & negative sides of the executed emergency facilities buildings. The third part of thesis is the results, the conclusions & the recommendations Data gathering So many difficulties have faced the researcher during the data gathering stage. At the theoretical part, the big lack of information as a result of the limited resources of scientific references (previous studies, researches, periodicals, books… etc) and even the official statistics. The main references in this thesis were the big selection of the “Health Building Notes” conducted & published by the “NHS Estates”: the executive agency of the department of health at the UK. These notes were very helpful in forming the research main idea and giving the advice on the briefing and designing implications of departments of health policy. The other useful collection of references are consists of 17 Arabic references and 29 foreign references. At the applied part, some other difficulties were emerged which is the requested permissions for visiting the emergency premises planned to visit (that it needs some relationships with the one who is in charge at each premises). Other difficulties at this stage which is the big amount of the gathered information collected through the 16 numbers of site visits, where needs such a very good organizations. Thus, we divide these collected data onto two main groups of information in order to successfully categorize the visited premises and make them more useful. The first ones dealt with the physical built environment, registering existing features of the place, functions and activities in a B.I.C. “building identification card” showing premises name, back history, owner, location, population served and number of attendances per day. The used tools are: site survey, photo registration and personal observations. The second part dealt with the users and their needs, where the used tools are interviews, questionnaire.. etc. The research conclusion The assumption stated above which is based on the previous knowledge of the European and / or the American standards of hospitals design, proved to be insufficient in terms of: a) site selection, b) type of accidents, c) number of attendances of emergency cases, d) user’s needs: cultural & medical considerations, & e) population served. The Recommendations Continuous (POE) research on existing emergency premises: Ambulance Stations, Emergency Departments in General Hospitals & Emergency Hospitals, in order to achieve more progress in designing of those important health care structures, and to make sure that this will meet users needs both functional & human. b) A careful review should be done to the executed Emergency hospitals in Egypt as to achieve the highest design efficiency and to control the budget of such premises. More thesis recommendations that relies on the architecture design of these three types of premises.
Guillou, Elisabeth Michel. "The Environment: a New Function of the Farmer's Profession?" In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. "The relation of farmers with the earth which they cultivate constitutes an “anthropo-system”, in other words a space where the relationships between a natural sub-system and a social sub-system take place. This anthropo-system is characterized by ambivalent individual-environment relationships. In fact, the use of the resources is necessary for the production and consequently, for the satisfaction of human needs, but it sometimes entails irreversible damages which thus limit the use of these same spaces.In France, since the beginning of the 60s, the necessity of feeding the population and of remaining competitive at the international level has encouraged encourages farmers to produce more and at a lower cost. The consequences of these intensive practices on environment were then neglected. The increase of the productivity has entailed regional developments such as the levelling of banks, the lifting of hedges, the draining of the wet zones which twenty years later had dramatic consequences for the ecosystem and for human health. Today, agriculture is directly involved in many problems of environmental degradation. The mediatic impact of ecological matters and the implementation of drastic regulations lead farmers to become aware of these problems. The agriculture-environment relationships have evolved inasmuch as the environment has taken a more and more significant place by the side of the main functions of the profession. It appears both as a functional resource linked to practices and as a natural resource that we must protect.The awareness of environmental problems by the farmers is unmistakable. However, the change of farming practices is difficult and remains a minority. In front of such facts, one of the purposes of our research was to study the evolution of farmer's profession and the evolution of the agricultural practices in this changing world. More precisely, this study tried to identify the determinants that were likely to explain a change of practices linked to the environment. For this purpose, this research compared farmers who have kept the traditional practices with farmers who have adopted "pro-environmental" agricultural practices. More precisely, we attempted to identify the distinctions which could appear in the social representations that these two populations had of their own profession and of the environment. The study of the social representations allows understanding how people think and why they act. Furthermore, the evolution of the agricultural practices towards the environment can modify the vision of the farmers’ world. These modifications can also be grasped by the study of the social representations dynamics.Semi-directive interviews and questionnaires were led with farmers from Picardie, a French area with a large-scale farming industry. The study of the professional representations allowed to show that the environmental function of management of the landscapes and the spaces integrate the functions of the farmer's profession. And at the same time, the representation of the environment has gradually integrated reasoned agricultural practices. However, this transformation turns out to be relatively long inasmuch as the change of practices justifies itself more by the necessity of protecting a positive social image than by environmental concern."
Ilin, Corina, and Zoltan Bogathy. "The Environmental Impact of Political and Economical Decision: Romania – Case Study." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. The work we present starts from a daily observation about Romania: today we face dramatic environmental consequences of political and economic decision made 40, 30 or 20 years ago. The disasters provoked by floodings in 2005 are the most devastating example of this kind. We propose several other examples for analysis: the consequences of forced industrialization (with instances of huge economic failures like Crivina, Anina, Caras-Severin County), the cases of major pollution, Copsa Mica, Sibiu County and Aurul Baia Mare, natural disasters like the one in Lunca Dunarii provoked by desertification or the potential for disasters of the same magnitude like in Rosia Montana. One of our objectives is to present the types of disasters existing in Romania and especially in the areas neighboring the industrial facilities and in the areas affected by flooding and the way they affect the health of the people living here and the social, political and economic context. Another objective is to discover the attitude people living in Romania and to analyze the pro environmental programs suggested by the local administration, the attitudes towards these programs and the willingness to introduce these aspects in universities, as a subject. Starting from the Handbook of Environmental Psychology, coordinated by Robert B. Bechtel and Arza Churchman and Ricardo Garcia Mira’s studies and researches relying on documents we found at the environmental agencies in Romania, we present the major types of disasters existing in our country and especially in the areas neighboring the industrial facilities and in the areas affected by flooding and the way they affect the health of the people living here. We will also take in consideration theories regarding disaster management and developing a proper prevention program, comparing them with what was actually done in Romania when ecological disasters occured. The methods of inquiry we used were: observing, focus-goups, interviews, inquiry based on questionnaires, archive study. Presenting several case studies, we propose a model for diagnosis and intervention from the perspective of Environmental Psychology connected to the approach of Political and Economic Psychology.
Alkizer, Yasemin. "The Extraordinary Housing Demand of Istanbul in the Context of Socio Cultural Change." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Istanbul, progressing rapidly in the way of being a global city has a different socio cultural and physical structure which has been shaped by different life styles and requirements just as rapidly. It keeps in stock different socio cultural formation bringing-along physical structures amounting from squatters in slum areas to ramshackle buildings in ghettos, from cooperatives in the suburbs to mass housing surroundings of the city, from apartments alongside of luxurious avenues to five star residence towers in the city-center, from luxurious villas inside and outside of the city to waterside mansion in Bosporus and Prince Islands. Physical development of the city and existing housing stock cannot adjust to evolution of the social structure in the city despite of this diversification in Istanbul. The aim of this paper is to discuss and reevaluate the tends of the rapid alteration in Social Life of Istanbul since 1990, the multifarious typologies of life style (or family) emerging as a result of this alteration and requirements of diverse housing typologies in this changing life styles. The first step of the method in this study is to assign housing typologies and their numbers, extraordinary groups, their life styles and concomitant their population via by way of statistical data and literature and to compare the two kinds of data. Second step is to determine and classify the needs of extraordinary groups appertaining to housing through literature and researches about it. In the last and third step, existing housing stock is to aim adapting and revising according to the needs by means of the first two steps and suggesting the new housing typologies. Family type, which will be dealt-with in this paper, consists of extraordinary groups or togetherness called single-family appearing as the needs of modern life style in the modern societies latterly, excepting core or extended family in traditional sense. Seniors (managers), students and single academic staff, widowed people (with or without child) and elderly people constitute the widest part of these extraordinary groups, which has arisen in Istanbul during last two decade. On the other hand, Istanbul, which has rapidly gained the population since 1950, has obtained the glut of the mass housing since 1980’s. Until the end of 1990’s housing production of the city has appeared as three roomed housing typology on the average. These houses, building in the formal housing market commonly, have been supplied to core family in the upper and upper-middle income groups. In Istanbul being Metropolitan City Municipality in 1985, an unlike housing typology and needs belonging to different and peculiar requirements for people in the assorted groups mentioned above have begun to occur frequently recently. Hence defining and classification of persons and groups having different social life style, and determining and matching of the needs of these classes and researching flexible, transformative compatible solution proposals for these needs considerably contribute to housing planning of Istanbul for today and for the future.
Mahmoud, Naglaa Sami Abdel. "The Human Reaction Toward the Interior Environment Design Element-Lighting." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. To design an interior environment is to improve the quality of life, to increase productivity, to protect health and provide safety and the welfare of its users. Acoustic, “lighting & colour”, temperature, all the environmental elements surrounding the human being, in any type of interior function, affect his way of life, his productivity and his mood. The main task of the interior designer is how to realise the proper combination of the interior environmental elements, to assure the best function of those interiors and the perfect productivity of those who use them. The research aims: to set and define clearly the proper “quantity &quality” as well as the effect of lighting on colour, in order to increase the productivity of the human being depending on his functional performance within an appropriate environmental interior. Methodology: The research is derived from related theories. It states that light, whether natural or artificial, is one of the most important environmental interior space elements, that it has a significant impact on the human body and that without it, we can neither see nor feel the influence of colour, as well as its environmental effect. Regarding the physiological reaction, experts in the medical field concluded that – light have a powerful physical force –, that it may penetrate the muscles and affect the internal metabolic processes. According to these facts, light has a health effect on the body; it is the base for leading a balanced life. This power of light leads us to another major environmental and health influence generated from the strong relationship between light & colour. Colour perceived through lighting effects, affects the human body and results in ‘Aesthetical & Emotional’ reactions. The study asserts that “Quantity & Quality” of “Light & Colour” are inter-related. They are important aspects to consider in “Lighting Design”, depending on space function and ways of its users’ performance to increase productivity, an issue that will be discussed in details in the full paper.
Ketizmen, Gokce. The Impact of Cultural Diversity in Architectural Design Education In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. 1. Research problemSubtitle: relation between cultural diversity and architectural design education. The research problem of the study is, ‘Is there any relation between cultural diversity and architectural design education?’ and if yes, ‘What are the effects of the cultural diversity on architectural design education?’ If no, ‘Should there be any relation between them? 2. Cultural/urban/architectural context in which study is conductedSubtitle: culture, socio-cultural issues, cultural diversity, architectural design education. Cultural diversity is about the recognition and celebration of the differences that exist in our society and is the strength of our social structures. At the cultural or societal level, diversity challenges us to broaden our ideas about what is right and good. Architectural design education as a whole, and particularly the architectural design studio, should be considered as sort of an initiation process where students are introduced to architectural knowledge and the activities with projects of the studio should emphasize the context at a community, regional and global level. Since the primary concern of architects is to produce three dimensional space and form, which is necessary to accommodate the human activities related to the daily life, the teaching process should focus on two concerns: first, is the balance between formal and socio-behavioral aspects and second, is the balance between students’ searching and thinking capabilities and their other mental activities.As it is obvious form these definitions that cultural diversity, architectural design education and accordingly teaching strategies essentially have connections. Around these for to make any correlation and determination it is necessary to manifest a study that contains the connection of cultural diversity with architectural design education. 3. Theoretical framework/relevant literatureSubtitle: Teaching methods, Topical areas, Disciplines/sub disciplines, Students’ cognitive stylesFramework will address these themes: 1. Teaching methods2. Topical areas3. Disciplines/sub disciplines 4. Students’ cognitive stylesSome of the relevant literatures are;1. SHOSHI, B. ve OXMAN, R., “The architectural design studio: current trends and future directions “,Design studio: The melting pot of architectural education Conference (2000)2. Sachs, A, “Inquiries in the Design Studio”, Design studio: The melting pot of architectural education Conference, (2000)329-3353. Uluoglu,B., Design Knowledge communicated in Studio Critiques, Design Studies, Vol:21, no:1, 20004. Oxman, Rivka, Think-maps: teaching design thinking in design education, Design Studies, Volume 25, Issue 1, January 2004, 63-915. Friedman, Ken, “Theory construction in design research: criteria: approaches, and methods”, Design Studies , Volume 24, Issue 6, November 2003, 507-5226. G. Lee, C. M. Eastman and C. Zimring, Avoiding design errors: a case study of redesigning an architectural studio, Design Studies, Volume 24, Issue 5, September 2003, 411-4357. Barker, Chris, Cultural studies : theory and practice; with a foreword by Paul Willis, London : SAGE, 20008. Mulhern, Francis ,Culture/metaculture, London ; New York: Routledge, 20009. Kathryn H. Anthony, Designing for Diversity: Implications for Architectural Education in the Twenty-first Century, Journal of Architectural education, May2002, Vol. 55 Issue 410. Schermer, Brian, Client-Situated Architectural Practice: Implications for Architectural Education, Journal of Architectural Education, Sep2001, Vol. 55 Issue 1 4. Research questions, objectives and/or hypothesesSubtitle: What is the meaning of cultural diversity? How diversity is perceived and valued by architecture faculty members?What is the meaning of cultural diversity? How diversity is perceived and valued by architecture faculty members? How diversity is being addressed in the educational process of architectural design education? How diversity is practiced?As to find out the answers of these research questions two hypothesis are proposed: 1- Architectural schools are often acquire in the literature that they place emphasis on functional, technical and formal issues in their education processes while being largely unconcerned with cultural diversity. 2- If some schools of architects introduce cultural issues there is a serious lack comprehensive understanding of how to go about introducing diversity and teaching practice.5. Research strategy/methodology developed for tackling researchSubtitle: Content analysis, Questioners Surveys Observations, Curriculum reviews The aim of this study is to investigate the relation between cultural diversity and architectural design education. Initially, the descriptions of the main themes of the study; culture, diversity, cultural diversity, socio-cultural issues and architectural design education will be performed. After the general analysis of these concepts the examination of the diversity as practiced in schools of architecture (only 2 schools) will be used as to construct the case study of this study. Briefly the methodology of the study based on: a- Content analysis b- Questionnairec- Surveys d- Observations e- Curriculum reviews The content analysis of the study will based on: Literature review of books, journals, reports in order to understand how diversity is integrated Teaching methodsTopical areasDisciplines/sub disciplines Students’ cognitive stylesAccordingly, sub-themes like,globalization; linked to cultural condition in this global world; teaching methods; related to architectural design education and system; students cognitive styles; related to teaching methods and architectural design educationwill be investigate as to point out the meaning and statement of culture and cultural diversity around architectural design education. 6. State of development of thesis: research proposal (theoretical framework, literature review, hypothesis), data collection Subtitle: Architectural schools are often acquire in the literature that they place emphasis on functional, technical and formal issues in their education processes while being largely unconcerned with cultural diversity.The development of the thesis will be based on:1. Theorical framework:Content analysis: General investigations of the main themes: culture, cultural diversity and architectural design education and sub-themes: globalization, cognitive styles and teaching methods.Observations: Relation between cultural diversity and architectural design education in architectural departments in different countries. 2. Case Study Survey: Questionnaire: will be achieved as to find out and compare at least two different architectural schools in different countries and will be performed by online and with people. The content of the questions will based on to find out the relation between cultural issues and teaching methods in the architectural schools. Data: The results will be examined by, •Positive tendencies •Negative aspects •Potentials (there are smt. for diversity but they don’t do)•Constraints – what limits as an educators from introducing cultural diversity
Mohr, El, and M. Ibrahim. "The Interconnection of Electrical Systems in the Arab World." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. This paper presents the global view of power development in Arab countries, the present situation of energy sectors, and its future expectation. The paper emphasized the main types of Electrical Interconnection, the advantages, the problems, and the importance of contracts and framework agreements for energy exchange between countries. The main worldwide interconnections have been mentioned and the present situation of electrical interconnections in the Arab World with Euro-Afro-Asian systems has been also illustrated. Sustainable development of a society depends on the availability of energy resources and on how efficiently they are utilized. Secure reliable supply of electricity with minimum cost to different sectors of the Arab economy is the main concern of electricity and energy authorities. To fulfill this target, a strategy has been set since the beginning of the eighties, focusing on energy efficiency, institutional restructuring of the power sector, enhancing the utilization of new and renewable resources, localization of electrical equipment and electric interconnection with neighboring countries. The main sources of electrical energy generation are hydro, natural gas and oil; the total installed capacity of the power plants in 1990, was 72889 MW out of which 30813 MW was natural gas. In 2003 the installed capacity reached 110775 MW with growth rate of 3.3 %. The electrical energy production has increased from 247 TWh in 1990 to 495.96 TWh in 2003 with growth rate of 5.5 %. Over the past few years, electricity peak demand in Arab nations has been tremendously increased, from 49930 MW in 1990 to 87495 MW in 2003 with growth rate of 4.4 %.The main pattern of electricity consumption is different from one country to another in the overall pattern for all Arab nations; the residential consumption is about 42 % of the total consumption, followed by the industrial sector 30 %, while the commercial sector is 10 % and finally agriculture and land reclamation 18 %. The forecasted peak load up to the year 2010 indicates that it will reach about 135765 MW with an average annual growth rate of about 4.3 %.Conclusions and Recommendations1. Energy development necessitates greater interdependence and the regional cooperation between countries in order to promote technology transfer towards energy efficiency, competitive renewable energy resources and energy trade.2. Environmental indices must be considered as a main part of planning and operation. It has been recognized that through economic growth, the developing countries can contribute in the long term to global environmental considerations.3. Environmental issues caused by the combustion of fossil fuels are the present concern of the world. With the encouraging results of the Egypt-Zaire interconnection study, it has become interesting to extend the interconnection to Europe for the import of clean hydroelectric energy to replace fossil fuel burning power plants.4. The idea of the power pool of the Mediterranean Sea countries represents the first step in the integration of the European electricity system with the developing system of the countries of Northern Africa. The fulfillment of this integration will make it possible for increasing imports of clean electricity from Africa. 5. It is proposed that the electric utilities in the two continents of Europe and Africa should work closely and cooperate in the implementation of the hydroelectric projects in Northern Africa and the integration of the power systems of the two continents.6. The International Association of Electricity Generation, Transmission, and Distribution (Afro - Asian Region) could create working study groups for multi-regional and inter-continent interconnections and long distance bulk power transmission.
Samra, Heba Abdelhafee. The Interior Architecture of Care Centers for the Mentally Retarded in Egypt In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. "Mentally retarded cases: have a difference between their retarded intelligence and their real age physical abilities.Interior design should deal with this issue :their real needs as children according to the level of intelligence ,and their body dimensions. Particular considerations for children are those related to safety and comfort in designing interior architectural elements and; furnishing; such as stairways, ramps; railings on stairs, balconies, floors, bathrooms, doors, windows, walls, and ceilings. Caring for Mentally Retarded: in Egypt, it has its roots in Pharaonic, Coptic, and Islamic times. Medical texts produced by scholars at the school of Medicine in Alexandria are still preserved today .Medical writers (from the medieval times ),such as AL-Razi , AL-Majusi,Ishaq Ibn Imran and ,Ibn Sina,were among many who borrowed from Galen ( Alexandria,2nd Cent.AC),and other ancient authors, who broadened the scope to include a more thorough investigation into mental disability and illness (Lababidi 2002).The first Islamic hospital incorporated wards for the insane, and was built in Fostat( Old Cairo) in 872 by Ahmed Ibn Tulun However, the best known was built in 1284 by AL-Mansur Qalawun.Such hospitals were called "maristan(s)" . From The eighth until the fifteenth centuries, AL-Azhar University took lead in teaching the disabled. Modern Egyptian achievements: Social welfare endowments "the Wakfs" during the reign of Mohamed Ali and Khedive Ismail in the nineteenth century made possible the expansion of hospitals for the mentally retarded , but they were used as a last resort ;the family was considered , by the society, to be the first responsible of taking care of her disabled child . Beginning of the twentieth century,charitable societies focused on helping the deprived and the disabled.In 1940,the Egyptian Ministry of Education directed its attention to educating the mentally retaded.In 1953,the Ministry of Social Affairs stipulated the Social Security Law (No.116) under which the disabled and handicapped could find services that would help to prepare them for suitable jobs. In the1990's, the NGO community in Egypt has played an important role in its advocacy for the protection and development of children.The research aims were: To identify the structural relations between socio-psychological factors related to the interior design, meaning and use of housing for the mentally retarded for children and youth (age6-18years) The methodology required: POE of eight care centers, four cases are from private sector, and four cases are from the government sector. They are newly designed to accommodate the mentally retarded. The selection was based on social levels, and available facilities, in term of interior design determinates such as: the adequacy of spaces in relation to the activity it is designed for, the appropriateness of furnishing , furniture arrangement and type of furniture used in each space , the fulfillment of design considerations set in the standards for mental health facilities.Procedures and instruments: of data gothering were based on direct observation notes on the actual state of the interior spaces and furniture , sketches of furniture layout and photographs. Interviews conducted randomly on the working staff were about: Age groups and number of inmates accepted in the facility. Types of mental disability dealt with Care services provided in the facility. Working and daily schedule. Activities performed in each space; individually? By groups? Involvement of parents in some activities? Which ones? How? Special design, equipment or feature used for a specific function related to the mentally retarded? Maximum number of persons/ room? The caring mother's bedroom in relation to inmates. The survey covered each zone in the building ( the entrance, reception area, classes, work shops living area, speech therapy clinics, gymnasium, kitchen, restaurant, corridors, court yard cafeterias, bathrooms, and multi purpose areas); according to its furnishing, and the finishing of its elements. Results were compared with the standards of designing for mentally disabled people, to reach design guidelines for property functioning care centers."
Itoh, Shunsuke. "The Mobile Phone's Effect on Everyday Social/physical Spaces: Use of Mobile Phones and Perception of Space of Japanese University Students." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. As in many parts of the world, mobile telephone is a widespread communication device in Japan today. According to a government survey, more than 90% households in Japan owned a mobile phone in 2005. Considering that this figure includes elderly households, it can be assumed that mobile phone ownership is close to 100% in younger generations. Manners regarding how a mobile phone should be used (or not used) in public places, especially in trains, have been a topic of debate. It is generally accepted that one should not talk on the phone in trains while text messaging is allowed. However, younger generations such as high school and college/university students are frequently blamed for “shamelessly” talking on the phone in trains and other public places. This is too often understood as young people showing no respect to manners. However, some argue that young people do (can) not distinguish private and public spaces therefore they are able to expose private conversation in public, while others interpret that they crave for a sense of constant connectedness. Along this line, it seems possible to discuss the effects of the mobile phone on perception and experience of space, instead of viewing it as a matter of social norms. There is yet little research conducted in Japan from this viewpoint and this study aims to provide some basic material for discussion. A number of different surveys were conducted on university students on their use patterns of and attitudes towards mobile phones. Though people conversing on the phone are more annoying than people talking with each other in general, students tended to be more tolerant to strangers talking on mobile phones around them than older generations. Analyses of use patterns showed that mobile phones are most frequently used to communicate with friends they actually meet nearly every day. Results imply that the device is used to enhance social bonds in a relatively small range and may lead to a reduced interest to the real surroundings. Further, experiments on perception of personal spaces and observations of behavior while talking on a mobile phone are to be conducted. The results will be put together in a discussion on how the mobile phone affects the structure of social and physical dimensions of the environment.
Chatzicocoli, Sophia, and Theodoros Syrakos. "The Need for a Healthy City Program in Greece." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Greece is a country-member of the European Union, located at the South-East Europe. Greece is also characterized by a long history with extreme periods in culture and resources, leading from its glorious past, the base of the, so called, Western Civilization, to dark ages of wars, disasters, distractions, enemy occupations and the final liberation. Today, the enthusiasm to catch up with the developments of “western” countries, the unquestioned acceptance of the overestimated foreign “authority” on many aspects of social life, the eagerness to adopt developing world patterns and the related social, economic and political changes have resulted, also, among other things, in numerous problems. Some of these problems are related to distinctive urbanization patterns and processes and to related health and environmental problems. This paper will attempt to identify these problems through the study of the available statistics in connection to several social, economic, cultural, environmental, etc issues such as:• The rate of changes in the rural and urban population and its tendencies • The rate of growth of the Greek cities and their characteristics • The relation between the growth of the Greek cities and their central planning intentions• Unemployment rates• The sustainability of urban development• Urban population and its health, education, economic, etc, disparities• Opportunities for healthy life style activities and entertainment• Demographic and epidemiological factors• The structure and characteristics of the existent healthcare system• The level of community participation in decision making• The level of respect for the rich historical and cultural heritage• The development of tourism and its implication on the physical and cultural environment• Levels of natural resources pollution• Policies for waste recycling and management• Etc With the evaluation of the problems as they derive from the above statistical data we will try to recognize and identify the need for development of a healthy city program in Greece. The level of severity of these problems is connected with the level of urgency for a “healthy city” program in Greece.
Batel, Susana Alfama. The Neighbourhood Or the Neighbourhoods? the Relevance of Social Psychology and Environment In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. "Sustainable development in the middle of social representations and social and place identities: I am mainly interested in studying the relations between social representations and social and place identities in their influence for different notions and practices of community and sustainable development in urban settings. Bairro Alto: differen spaces for different groups: To attain this main goal, I am conducting my research in a Lisbon historic neighbourhood (Bairro Alto), inhabited by different social groups, with different ways of thinking and acting in the space. This neighbourhood is an excellent case study to better understand the inextricable net between space organization, the individuals’ representations about it, departing from different "social histories", and their sustainable behaviour in the place where they live. Sustainable development through Social and Environmentalchology: Environmental Psychology, adopting a transactional approach, is now defined as the study of the dialectical relationship space-individual, and their reciprocal dependences. Nowadays, these dependences and their implications to sustainable development are the focus of Environmental Psychology (Rivlin,2003). The actual debate, with the help of the psychosociological approach, is getting place in the sense of assuring sustainable behaviour (Uzzell,Pol&Badenas,2002). Therefore, the think global, act local, is now taking into account the importance of the group/community to this debate, and in this way, of spatial and social identities (Bonnes&Bonaiuto,2002). Moreover, it has been shown the importance of the perceptions and representations, as contextualized knowledge(Moscovici,2001), that people have about environmental issues, as a way to ensure the environmental intervention processes along time. Finally, the role of space in this debate is also being studied, namely, through Space Syntax, concerned with the study of the social organization of space and the individuals experience on it. Social Representations, Identities, Place related variables and Space Syntax: In this way we have three main objectives: to understand, through the dialogical approach of Social Representations Theory, how the same space is able to fulfil the needs of different social groups and how these are able to fulfil the needs of one same space; to understand how the answer to this latter question is related with place identity and other place related variables (attachment, identification, social cohesion and place satisfaction), and how these are able to promote the place's preservation and sustainable development; and finally, to use Space Syntax as a way to enrich this analysis with the analytic theories of spatial configuration. Methodologies: To attain these objectives, first, we will resort to the socio-demographical characterization of the neighbourhood dwellers, bearing in mind the follow-up of this process by the local authorities. We will then use methodologies that emerge in the convergence of Social and Environmental Psychology, such as narrative and episodical interviews, focus group, surveys and space syntax. Public participation and the management of contradiction: At this moment we are analysing a case of public participation concerning the built heritage of this neighbourhood, aiming to understand how the relations between the technical and the lay systems may impact upon the planning of cities, and specifically, how this relation affects the community participation. In the last years, the participation of citizens as partners in decisions that affect their communities has acquired normative formal status, as a way of fostering more transparency in the relation between the individual and the society (Campbell & Jovchelovitch, 2000). However, the process of turning this norm into practice has been slow, creating a contradiction between norms and facts. Several socio-psychological approaches, namely, discursive (Moloney & Walker, 2002; Billig, 1985), attitudinal (Jonas, Broemer & Diehl, 2000) and social representations approaches (Moscovici, 1976), attempted to explain the instrumentality of drawing from ambivalent and hybrid representations fields over the same issue. One of them is the notion of gnitive polyphasia (Wagner, Duveen, Verma & Themel, 1999; Jovchelovitch & Gervais, 1999) and we will resort to it too. Cognitive polyphasia and public participation: The case analysed here concerns the transformation of a XVII-century Convent, located in Bairro Alto, into a closed luxury condominium. The project was accepted by the local authorities technicians without consulting the dwellers and an intense public debate started when a group of dwellers organised protests against this transformation. In this study, through press analysis, the surveys answered by the dwellers and the interviews with the technicians, we re-construct the representational field of this controversy. The interviews show us that the technicians look at this controversy from two different identities: citizen and technician. When they step in the citizen's shoes they argue in favour of public participation, but when assuming their identities as technicians they oppose this public movement, dismissing the dwellers goals. The notion of Cognitive polyphasia is used to examine how they manage this contradiction. The survey allows us to look for the diversity of the dwellers positions. Technicians and the planning of cities: Finally, we discuss how the technician's anagement of this contradiction may impact upon the planning of cities."
Zabihollah, Youssefi, and Mohseni-Bandpi Anoushirvan. The Occurrence of Trihalomethanes in the Drinking Water Reservoirs In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water: There has been very little information available on the nature, distribution and typical concentrations of DBPs in Iranian drinking waters. This paper summarizes and completes an investigation into the occurrence of trihalomethanes ( THMs) in public water supplies and reservoirs in North of Iran. The investigation was conducted in five cities of Mazandaran Province, North of Iran. Disinfection of drinking water: Disinfection of drinking water sources is of priorities importance for the prevention of waterborne diseases. Unfortunately, an unwanted side effect is the formation of by-products such as THMs. Currently, chlorine Gas and Calcium hypochlorite are the agents used to disinfect major drinking water supplies in Iran. The formation of trihalomethanes ( THMs) and its species which form from the reaction of chlorine with humic substances have caused much alarm because of their carcinogenic and dangerous health effects. Most water authorities in Iran do not routinely monitor DBP concentrations, with only a few analyzing for THMs alone in research works. Methodology of THMs detection: Samples were collected from nine reservoirs of Sari (Two reservoirs), Gaemsahr(one reservoirs) , Babol (one reservoirs), Amol (four reservoirs) and Tonkabon (one reservoirs) and from the distribution systems of these cities.All samples extracted with chloroform, and analyzed by GC-Chrompack medel. Results: The existence of concentrations of THMs ranged from 13.74 to 111.04 ppb, in the reservoirs water of fmaximum of THMs potential in these cities were between 105.65ive Cities. The average of minimum and to 595.60 ppb. The residual chlorine in water entering these pipelines is in average 0-1.5 ppm Information of the quality: Most water authorities in Iran do not routinely monitor DBP concentrations, with only a few analyzing for THMs alone in research works. Accordingly, there has been very little information available on the nature, distribution and typical concentrations of DBPs in Iranian drinking waters. The results of this paper will causing to having a proper program for water monitoring.
Tomohito, Soyama, Mei-huei LI, and Kaname Yanagisawa. "The Poe Research on Gunma International Academy." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. "POE survey for new school in Japan: Japanese new schools tend to be very characteristic in design, planning and education because of the educational revolution toward individualization and diversification in 21 century. Gunma International Academy that we planned was opened in April 2005, it is one of very unique schools in Japan introducing new educational system. The school building is also very uniquely designed for children with ecological and sustainable concern. The aim of this research is to conduct POE survey to show how new educational system and building work, and to propose new ideas for solving current problems in Gunma International Academy. The system of Gunma International Academy: This is the first research on Gunma International Academy providing new unique educational program called "immersion education". In this program lessons except Japanese language are taught in English by Japanese and foreign teacher. The school building is specially designed for this unique educational system as follows. Every three grades are grouped in "Neighborhood". Every "Neighborhood" has three units called "House" with same grade. Each "House" has a closed classroom, an opened classroom, an art & science corner, three class bases, a quiet room and a teacher station. Observation of activities and behavior: We observed activities and behaviors of children and teacher. We plotted the position of children and teacher to create plotting maps for evaluating the space. We also interviewed teacher and director to understand the current problems for using space and facilities. Relationship between activities and spaces: The parts of findings were follows. 1. Teachers and children could use various spaces according to the activities they do. 2. "Home base" was used well for various learning and living activities such as communication and relaxing. It was also used by connecting to adjacent common space. However some problems happened among children due to the separation of their home and learning space, for example children were often interrupted by other children to get there belongings. 3. There were various kinds of furniture for flexible use in different learning activities. However we found these furniture was always in the same position. It means that teacher didn't use furniture effectively. In spite of advanced ideas and challenges in this school for new educational system, a part of space was not used effectively. We would like to let staff know the possibility of space and propose new ways of space using. It might improve educational system, too."
Symes, Martin. "The Professionalisation of Expertise in Sustainable Development." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. "Who's Agenda?: The paper will consider the variety of processes by which knowledge about sustainable development is becoming a field of professional expertise in a number of European countries. It will point to the paradox that sustainable development is thought to require participation in decision making by consumers and users of the built environment, not private, professional knowledge. The impact of Non Governmental Organizations: Although the established professions are claiming ownership of much of the expertise required, and are often supported by government in these claims, an important factor, identified by anthropologists such as Douglas and Wildavsky, is that the environmental movement has been largely generated by non governmental and hence anti- professional, because anti-establishment, organizations.Interviews and Case studies: The paper will explore these issues with reference to interviews undertaken with founders of the movement in a number of European countries, and some of their "followers" who are putting the ideas into practice. It will show how their contributions interact in a number of case study sustainable development projects.Partial non-professionalisation: The evidence suggests that there are a variety of ways in which this type of knowledge is being created and then put into practice. It is being adopted as "conventional wisdom", but continues to be contested, as there are always alternative formulations which could have been adopted and alternative organizations who could have claimed ownership of the knowledge concerned. Sustainable development expertise is, and is likely to remain, the most political of professionalisms, and thus the most insecure. "
Malhis, Shatha. "The Question of Design Background that Operates Largely Below Consciousness: the Case of Amman." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Modern Amman: The city of Amman has been subjected to accelerated processes of change at every scale, creating a novel physical and socio-cultural environment, which bears little affinity with its older counterpart. Since architecture is a product of thinking, its problems need to be traced to their roots; attention needs to be focused on the thinking and consideration that inform its production. Discerning the professional issues that lie beneath the surface of the architectural expression: Within this context and amidst the representational varieties of Amman's' forms, the architectural research in this paper seeks theoretically to discern the professional issues that lie beneath the surface of such expression. Although architecture can be experienced collectively and individually by groups, it is hypothesized that the quality of built form's manifestations depends largely on the designer. Accordingly, the architects of Amman who designed the city's forms are primarily investigated. It is believed that the role of the responsible architect should expand to compensate for the cultural dilemma of society, to comprehend the environmental strengths of the city, and to fill the cultural gaps as they occur. The arguments of Neil Leach, Fredric Jameson and Bill Hillier are referred to. The architectural database and the professional argumentations: The database for this task consists of spatial and stylistic compositions of representative forms in addition to the argumentation of the designers of these forms. At the architectural level, the research goes beyond the compositions of elevations into their internal spaces, to understand how genuinely expressive and how consistent - compared to the past - these variations are. Spatial arrangements, environmental considerations, healthy atmospheres, and morphological evolutions are related to the stylistic expression of the forms. At the professional level, the way in which the different sub-groups of Amman's architects perceive the context of their city and the factors which compose their logic are traced back both to their architectural background and education. Conclusions: This research made reflections on the man-environment paradigm by methodologically interweaving the different aspects of the multiplicity of built form. It traced the complexity back to its roots and showed that the impacts of the cultural changes were very influential on the architectural arena. Architects and clients were saturated by the aesthetic values of the schools of thoughts both at the areas of their studies, and those of their exposure. People's experiences became disconnected from the city and individuality of the groups dominated the scenes of Amman. This research not only contributes to the architectural debate of Amman, but also provides a framework for addressing the complexity of architecture, whether as a subject taught in schools of design, or as a professional career.
Kuo, Chin Chin, and Terry Purcell. "The Relationship of Environmentally Relevant Values and Behavior of Environmentalists in Taiwanese Culture." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Biospheric-altruistic values have been found to be able to predict environmental behavior in the West, but a general issue of cultural bias of the relationship in other cultures is raised. To investigate the issue, Kuo & Purcell (2005) had studied the structure of, and relationship between, environmentally relevant values and behavior of a group of Taiwanese architects. The measurement used includes a set of traditional Chinese environmentally relevant values and behavior scales developed by Kuo & Purcell (2003), some previously validated Western scales (e.g., Stern, Dietz, Abel, Guagnano & Kalof, 1999) and some measures modified from previous research (e.g., Sako, Hirata & Gifford, 1998) to suit to Taiwanese culture. Distinct structures of Chinese, Western and Composite environmentally relevant values and behavior were found in the group. Chinese values were found to be able to predict religious rituals and simple lifestyle practices only; Western values were able to predict green consumerism only; and combined values were able to predict the same three already predicted behaviors. However, the amount of variance explained for most of the behaviors were not large except for the cultural religious rituals. The results of the study indicate that not all values predicted all the behaviors. Cultural values were important predictors of key cultural behaviors. It is possible the weak relationship between environmentally relevant values and behavior may be due to characteristics of the group, or constraints specific to the culture. The question of whether the findings are similar in other social groups within the culture merits investigation.This paper to be reported represents the study of environmentally relevant values and behavior of a different social group using Taiwanese environmentalists as subjects. It is a part of a larger program aimed at investigating the structure of, and relationship between, environmentally relevant values and behavior of various key social groups in Taiwan. The study found that Chinese values predicted only religious rituals and simple lifestyle practices; Western values predicted general recycling and policy support behaviors only; and combined values predicted religious rituals, simple lifestyle practices, general recycling, green consumerism as well as environmentalism (environmental activism, citizenship and policy support) behaviors. In common with previous research on the architectural group, the amount of variance explained for most of the behaviors were not large except for the cultural religious rituals. It is concluded that environmentally relevant values have limited power on environmental behavior. However, the structure and relationship between environmentally relevant values and behavior of the environmentalist group were found somewhat different from the architectural group. The influence of subculture on the value and behavior relationship needs to be studied if behavioral intervention is going to be implemented.
Nenci, Anna Maria, Renato Troffa, and Giuseppe Carrus. "The Restorative Properties of Modern Architectural Styles." In Environment, Health and Sustainable Development (IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom). IAPS. Alexandria, Egypt, 2006. Aims & Objectives: Several works have investigated the relationships between restorative capacity and aesthetic attributes of urban and not-urban environments (Galindo e Hidalgo, 2005), as well as the relationships between perceived restorative ness, environmental preferences, and perceived naturalness (Korpela, 1992; Korpela & Hartig, 1996; Peron, 2002; Peron, Berto, Purcell, 2002). Further studies have also investigated the different restorative properties of different typologies of natural settings (Tenngart e Hagerhall, 2004). By contrast, less studies have been devoted to the investigation of the different restorative properties of different typologies of built-up settings. In the present paper, the result of two studies will be presented, with the aim of further contributing to the understanding of the relationship between architectural design and human well-being. Context & Background literature: The concept of environmental restorative ness has gained increased importance for the study of people-environment-health relations, in the last years. Environmental restorative ness is usually intended as the capacity of environments to promote people's renewal of those physical and psychological resources that have been spent during interactions with the socio-physical environment (Hartig, 2004). Research on restorative ness has often focused on the different restorative properties of natural and built environments, respectively. At a general level, there is consistent empirical evidence showing that natural environments can be more supportive of individuals' restoration needs compared to built or urban ones. Method: Study 1 A first (preliminary) study dealt with the different restorative properties of different architectural styles: Liberty vs. Rational. N=100 undergraduate and graduate students of the Rome University participated to the study. Participants were asked to evaluate 12 slides of building facades (6 Liberty and 6 Rational), located in two different Italian cities (Rome vs. Cagliari), through the Perceived Restorative ness Scale (PRS, Hartig, Korpela, Evans & Gärling, 1997). Study 2 A second study (currently in progress) is focused on the restorative effects of modern architectural styles. Slides of 8 different typologies of buildings, differing for the degree of Complexity (high vs. low), the level of the attention