Keywords Abstract
Kaiser, Franz X. Bogner. "A Competence Model for Pro-Environmental Change." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. One essential goal of education is to enable people to act and not only to pass on knowledge. In other words, education should advance individual competence, which involves abilities that allow people to cope successfully with real-life tasks and everyday challenges. In the context of environmental education, the goal should generally be promoting proenvironmental action. Up to now, environmental education primarily focuses on theoretically derived ecology-unspecific, general proficiencies, such as problem-solving or value-reflection, to promote pro-environmental engagement. Ecologyunspecific abilities are, however, often behavior-distal and thereby empirically rather irrelevant for individual action. By contrast, we propose a competence model that is grounded in ecology-specific, empirically derived abilities, that are not only behavior effective, but also accessible to education. “Environmental knowledge” is an ability that has no motivational force as such; it is however seen by many as a necessary precondition for pro-environmental action. We distinguish three forms of environmental knowledge: system knowledge relates to the operating of ecosystems and to environmental problems; action knowledge comprises knowledge about behavioral options persons can take; and effectiveness knowledge addresses the net-benefit for the environment that is associated with a particular behavior. In addition and as the motivational source behind a person’s pro-environmental performance, we propose people’s “appreciation for nature.” This pro-nature attitude (although labeled differentially in the literature) has been corroborated to be an essential motive for pro-environmental action by a growing body of research. Within our model, we recognize a person’s nature appreciation in his or her (a) reports of past activities that imply a bonding with nature (e.g., “helping snails to cross the street”) and (b) responses to evaluative statements that reflect regard for nature, such as “carving a tree feels like cutting myself.” From a database of 1.922 German students aged from 12 to 14, all instruments have been calibrated with different models from the family of Rasch models. The five ecologyspecific instruments measuring environmental system knowledge, action related knowledge, effectiveness knowledge, the disposition to connect with nature, and ecological behavior, revealed good scale characteristics in terms of item and person fit and the items for all instruments covered a broad range of difficulty. Using structural equation modeling, we confirmed our anticipated competence structure. While environmental knowledge revealed only a rather moderate behavior effect, people’s appreciation for nature turned out to be the expected strong predictor of pro-environmental engagement. Overall, we believe that an empirically derived competence model in environmental education will eventually lead to more effective ways in promoting sustainable patterns of behavior in individuals.
Kotaro, Matsumoto. A Consideration of the Environment Has the Property of Surrounding In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. This presentation will consider of the environment has the property of surrounding. Ittelson, Franck & O’Hanlon (1976) said, “The environment is literally that which surrounds. In this way of thinking, the environment is something that surrounds something else. And what does it surround? It is us, of course, so that there we sit.” Air, sky, ground, person, objects, plants, and city surround us concretely. Lawton & Nahemow (1973) said, “Ittelson (1970) defined a basic distinction between the environment and an environmental object: the defining property of the environment is that it surrounds the perceiver; it folds. No one can be isolated and identified as standing outside of and apart from it. Perceptual objects may be quite large, such as New York City seen from an airplane, but they are not environments unless the perceiver is embedded in them.” Consequently, we can conclude the perceiver is surrounded by the environment and perceives the environment. This presentation will discuss episodes that the elderly has experience when go out their house or institution, and considers the environment has the property of surrounding.
Kaufmann-Hayoz, Ruth. "A Model Framework for Action-Oriented Studies in Sustainability Science." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Sustainability Science needs a theoretical framework, or meta-theory, of human action that allows for integration of multidisciplinary research findings. A model framework of human action that assimilates the basic assumptions of ecological psychology – in particular its transactional and evolutionary perspective and its definition of agent-inenvironment as the unit of analysis – is outlined, and illustrative examples of possible applications are given.
Turkyilmaz, Cigdem Canbay, and Cigdem Polatoglu. "A New Design Education Approach Considering the Relationship Between Designing for All and Styles of Designing." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. We propose a new design education approach to reach a universal design attitude for all people. This new approach contains a set of visions, tools and reflections to stimulate students to design for all. It also aims to discuss some changes in the current educational methods and to challenge the barries to design for all in architectural design studios. To do this the study particularly interested in the relationship between designing for all and styles of designing. The main questions to be answered are: /• What are the characteristics of relationship between designing for all and styles of designing of the architecture students? /• How different styles of designing have influence on designing for all? /• What could be the new role of education to design for all? // With respect to those purposes, the study focuses on the design process and chosen products in Yildiz Technical University, Department of Architecture, 2009-2010 fall term, Architectural Design Studio-3. All chosen products were hand made architectural representation. Data analysis of the study is continuing and the results will be thoroughly presented in the conference.
Labbé, Sylvie Jutras Del, and Dominique Jutras. A New Measure of Residential Psycho-Environmental Priorities of People with Physical Disabilities and their Families In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. The well-being of individuals who have a motor disability is undoubtedly influenced by their home environment. For optimal quality of life at home, there should be a fit between the environmental characteristics of the dwelling and the residents’ needs. In households that include a person with a motor disability, the psycho-environmental needs of all the members of the household should be considered. From our review of the scientific literature, we conclude that little is known about the perceptions of individuals with a motor disability regarding the quality of their home environment. Even less is documented about the psycho-environmental needs of the people they live with. Exploring the views of those directly involved is an appropriate way to truly understand the needs that must be met in a particular residential setting (Heywood, 2004). With this aim in mind, a new measure was designed to explore the residential priorities of people with a physical disability and their family members. The theoretical basis of the measure is the psychoenvironmental model (Jutras, 2002; Steele, 1973), according to which the residential setting must meet six needs: shelter and security, social contact, symbolic identification, task instrumentality, pleasure and growth. Developed using the Q methodology, we wrote a Q-set of 48 items expressing a wide range of needs at home, including but going beyond ergonomic considerations. Since content validity is essential when developing a Q-sort, the items were based on the literature describing the experience of people with and without disabilities with respect to their home environment, and were written in collaboration with an occupational therapist experienced with clients with physical disabili- ties. To express their personal priorities, respondents are asked to assign each item a ranking position along a simple face-valid dimension (e.g. most agree to most disagree). They are also asked to assign a fixed number of items to each ranking position. The presentation will illustrate how the factor analysis of the rankings is used to develop profiles of priorities that could be useful in both research and psycho-environmental counselling. By establishing these profiles, it is possible to (1) identify and compare the priorities of all members of a household, (2) pinpoint the characteristics shared by respondents reporting the same priorities, and (3) potentially identify what is a priority for them all. The measure presented here was used in a study on the re-appropriation of the residential setting involving 27 individuals with paraplegia or quadriplegia and 27 persons living with them. After describing the results, potential applications of the measure will be discussed. In research, such profiles provide a better understanding of the issues related to the wellbeing of the different members of a household and help to identify principles for optimal co-housing. At the clinical level, the measure could contribute to support discussions between professionals and members of households about home adjustments needed in the rehabilitation process that may be well accepted by everyone and contribute to their well-being.
Park, Jinhee. A Particular 'housing Culture' Shaped by High-Rise Apartments and Its Socio-Spatial Impacts in South Korea In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. This paper aims to understand how a ‘housing culture’ as a predominant pattern can be shaped, and how it can contribute to socio-spatial outcomes in a market driven society which cannot make even economic development. A certain pattern of supply and demand, which may contribute to forming a particular housing culture, depends on the interaction between various actors in the market. As tracking these interactions in Korean housing market, the research tries to define a ‘housing culture’ using a mix of economic, sociological and cultural perspectives and to construct a conceptual framework of its impacts on questions of housing development. Korea has shaped a particular housing culture by certain relationship between the government and conglomeration during explosive economic growth since 1960s. Only large companies have been designated to the larger projects to achieve the mass production and to bring the large builders’ capital into urban housing markets, causing the predominantly standardised high-rise apartments and luxury producer-branded awareness with about 60% of national housing stock as dominant middle-class housing. These massive changes have been caused by ‘cultural cloning’ process that apartments culture has been cloned to everywhere. Old places are also followed by ‘cultural filtering’ process which transform the habitat of low class into new massive apartments culture of middle class and ending up segregation. Such phenomena would pose a question whether town-houses recently emerging in Korean market which have hitherto not been popular are to become accepted and how this will alter the predominant ‘housing culture’. Mainly, semi-structured interviews are undertaken to explain the emergence of a distinctive housing culture. Interviews are conducted with housebuilding companies, residents, policymakers, with complementary methods such as spatial analysis. This research attempts to provide a new way of thinking over existing housing research. Little research from a humanistic view has been carried at, and there is no question about why and how people prefer certain built forms, especially as high-rise apartments has been preferred and taken for granted during economic growth period. In consumer society, there exists another perspective of choice beyond ‘a housing pathway’ framework taken by Clapham as well as simple assumption of rational and universal views by mainstream economics. Certain interests and relationships of actors are important and the market’s role is increasingly pervasive to create distinctive lifestyles. Therefore, this paper suggests that a concept of ‘housing culture’ would be a key theme in housing research, and exploring a particular housing culture and its impacts on socio-spatial outcomes is an important agenda.
Keul, Alexander Guenter. "A Post-Occupancy Evaluation Series on Austrian Passive Housing Satisfaction." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. In the debate on appropriate human behavior to reach sustainability and slow down climate change, there is general agreement that energy-saving heating and ventilation of buildings constitutes a main issue. Passive housing reduces energy consumption/ emissions by its high insulation of walls/windows and controlled ventilation is also used for heating via a heat recovery system. The complex new technology needs user knowledge and cooperation to be run effectively. In 2006 and 2007, bigger Passive housing estates up to high-rise level entered the Austrian market. The author led a series of partly state-supported Post-Occupancy Evaluations on seven Vienna and Salzburg projects with 550 housing units (Muehlweg, Utendorfgasse, Roschegasse, Kammelweg B and E, Dreherstrasse, Samer Moesl and Franz Ofner Strasse). Together with one internal POE of a building association, 557 units were evaluated with a questionnaire return of 345 (62%). Housing satisfaction, environmental attitudes, passive house knowledge and sympathy, heating and air quality assessment as well as “technology mediation” (i.e. help for the understanding and effective use of the heating/ventilation system) were documented. Baseline data on satisfaction with conventional housing were collected at Vienna (149) and Salzburg (88) for comparison. In five of the eight estates, passive housing produced better user satisfaction than conventional housing. 35-90% of the occupants received sufficient subjective Passive housing information, 30 to 84% expressed Passive housing sympathy compared with 67-73% in conventional housing. Estates with the highest housing satisfaction, information and sympathy reported the best “technology mediation” (48-73% “good”). Two low satisfaction estates had under 35% mediation quality. In the first occupancy period, the heating and ventilation systems were succesfully adjusted in all estates (causing major communication problems in one estate). Several findings from the POE series were useful for architects, building associations and property managements: a) Possible selection of passive house-interested tenants, communication and trouble-shooting were crucial areas for the subsequent housing satisfaction, b) tenants did neither select the passive housing mainly for its energy-saving properties nor constitute a green-oriented group, c) passive housing satisfaction did not correlate with age, gender, household size or number of children and d) a simple directions- for-use was needed for the non-familiar heating and ventilation system. In a second project in one of the two new passive housing high-rise estates, diary data were collected for 14 days from 19 apartments under winter conditions. Subjective satisfaction with room temperature and moisture was compared for 12 apartments with cheap, user-owned thermometers/hygrometers and 7 without an instrument. User thermo/hygro data were checked against Vienna University of Technology calibrated measurements in 4 apartments and found to show falsely low moisture values. Prompted by low hygrometer readings, tenants with cheap instruments were highly dissatisfied with room moisture compared to the non-instrument apartments. Consequently, calibrated thermo/hygro instruments should be given to tenants to avoid this negative prompting effect.
Gray, Grant. A Qualitative and Quantitative Study of Social Housing Designs and Tenants Needs In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. The Scottish Government is proposing to increase its budget on Social Housing to £1.5billion over the next several years. This may or may not be sufficient to enable them to reach their goal of improving the availability and access to social housing, however, the question that would still remain is: “are the designs of social housing currently being constructed in Scotland meeting the needs of tenants?” The Parker Morris Report(1961); Homes for Today and Tomorrow, suggests the way to design rooms within social dwellings is dependent on the architect having some form of knowledge relating to, not only, the pattern of use in the room but the activities that go on in it and the furniture which will be kept in it. Edwards (1974) and Darke (1984) found architects expressed difficulty in designing for the people living in social housing and suggested the only way to design was to design from their own experiences and to their own preferences as the primary guide to the needs of tenants (Edwards, 1974; Darke, 1984). Recent research suggests this perception has not appreciably changed (Heijs, 2007, Popov, 2002) Environmental Psychology as an academic discipline is deeply entwined in trying to understand the mechanics of every day life, from using the spaces we inhabit to interpreting the objects we observe, handle, sit upon and generally use. In the process of this interaction it is important to understand how people appreciate their environments and how this informs their behaviours (Brebner, 1982). Examining how tenants judge the built spaces they inhabit and whether their needs are being met can be based on a number of variables, such as: preferences of room size or shape, aesthetic judgments of style and materials used in constructing the building, emotional links to the home and community, satisfaction levels, feeling of control, impressions of risk and safety. In the context of the residential environments, there are few studies that provide information on the transactions between people and their built environments in terms of social housing (Vestbro, Hürol & Wilkinson, 2005). The approach of this study is to use the method of triangulation of data from focus groups, individual interviews and questionnaires to compare tenants and architects perceptions on social housing. It is hoped that by investigating what a home means to tenants and architects in terms of design, how people use their homes and functionality of different rooms, to understand if there are gaps between their perceptions of social housing use and designs.
Noh, Taejin, and Sangeun Baek Jinky Paik. A Study on Outdoor Signs in Myeong-Dong on the Environment-Friendly Aspect In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. The urban image was completed from various elements such as buildings, sculptures, sign plates, and signs differentially, competitively, and complexly. Among outdoor signs, the signboard with differentiated designs and diverse materials including the flex type of a board, the channel signs, and molding signs. The present situation were resulted from restriction policy of flex sign, encouragement policy of channel sign, business marketing strategies, increase in facade sings, and changes in owners’ awareness. As the commercial and cultural center of Seoul, Myeong-dong has the most expensive land price, and the signboard improvement project of outdoor signs damaging urban beauty had been processed until Feb. 2009. The design institute in Inje University established the basic design guideline for signboards in Myeong-dong considering environmental aspects. This study compared and analyzed pre-and-post improvement of visual elements such as (1) type, (2) lighting, (3) color, (4) number and (5) size of signboard. As the result of comparison of outdoor signs in Myeong-dong, (1) As for the type, a boardtype flex signs had been used before improvement. Flex materials are difficult to dispose and don’t decay, so they are harmful to environment, and recycling is impossible. There were a lot of demand for flex due to its cheap price before, but its demand is getting decreased due to the recent government’s regulations. Regarding the harmony with surrounding environments, the facades are large and hidden by many signs due to excessive competition between stores. After improvement, channel signs with an eco-friendly material LED were used. They are reusable and the demand is increasingly growing due to the encouragement policy of the local governments. They are also excellently harmonious with the facades. (2) With regards to lighting, the fluorescent lamps that contained much mercury and lead, difficult to dispose, and harmful to human body and environment had been used before improvement. After improvement, an eco-friendly material LED was used. Its manufacturing is expensive, but it is eco-friendly material and harmless to human, so its demand is getting increased. (3) As to the color, strong colors had been used to draw pedestrians’ attention before improvement while the colors considering buildings and surroundings were used and more than three colors were not used after improvement. (4) Regarding the number, illegal sings and advertisement installations inhibiting walking were more installed than average quantity(2.4) before improvement while only one sign per shop was used after improvement. (5) With regards to the size, the width of signs was fixed within 80% of the width of store, or the maximum 10m in board type sign and within 45% of the width of store or maximum 80cm pre character sign was regulated within after improvement. As the result, a board type flex sign that is the representative anti-environment material was replaced with a 3-D channel sign that has the eco-friendly advantage of expressing the facades. As to the type of lighting, LED is actively recommended in the name of eco-friendly and energy reduction, which promotes the design changes in outdoor signs. Regarding the color, the no more than three colors could be used by considering the harmony of surroundings and facades while the size and quantity were used with limits to intensify attention and information transfer of outdoor signs. Eco-friendly materials con- sidering sound urban street environments were highlighted in terms of the manufacturing methods of outdoor signs. Therefore, the visual element of outdoor signs becomes ultralightweight and eco-friendly, so they serve as the core element to decide users’ choice. The systematic and constant studies on the sign improvement project are required to help improve the urban environment as one of ecofriendly policies.
Tzeng, Szu-Yu. A Study on the Impacts of Environmental Transfer Towards the Using Behaviors for Elderly in Day Service Center - by Case of a Mix-User Type Dsc In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. As the society is getting aged, the living and care problems for the elderly has become an important subject in country development. In order to carry out the ideal of “aging in place” and continue the old living style of the elderly in community, Day Service Center (DSC) for the elderly is anticipated to cost down the longterm care cost and prolong the lifespan of the elderly to live in community as long as possible. So the architectural planning and space design of DSC for the elderly is a critical task to being implemented community-base care in the future. In order to carry out the ideal of aging in place and continue the old living style of the elderly in community, so the architectural planning and space design of Day Service Center for the elderly is an important task to carry out community-base care in the future. Nowadays the majority of DSC for the elderly in Taiwan is “mixed care type,” which located the people with handicapped and with dementia together. Empirical research can be employed to modify design hypotheses. Based on this background, this research try to focusing on the reacted-relations among user, behavior and space, by the concept of time geography, this research will occur a observation by survey method of behaviormapping for the elderly in day service Center, by tracing the behavior contents, activity types and using spaces of the elderly, trying to compare and break down the characteristics of using behavior and differences of new and old environmental context. There are three main purposes in this study: 1) To compare the differences behaviors of the elderly between two different environmental context, before and after environmental transfer of Day Service Center; 2) To analyze the differences of stay spot, time, frequency and reactions with another for the elderly in different health conditions; 3) Try to conclude the impact factors of activity and behavior pattern of the elderly, and hand out some suggestions on spatial designs of common space and layout of the Day Service Center in the future. At the result, we found that activities participating type of the elderly in “Mix user” type DSC should be divided into ‘decision making by himself,’ ‘partly choice,’ and ‘arrangement by DSC’ three types. And interpersonal relationship behaviors should be divided into ‘positive-active,’ and ‘negative-passive’ two types. Finally, for answering the variety needs and activities scale of the elderly, and allow complex activities to occur in we same space, we suggest the activity room of “Mix user” type DSC should be designed with different atmospheres and furnishings. Besides the common curriculum of Day Service Center for the elderly for the handicapped and dementia elderly, should be with more flexibility and allow some free choices for users in the future.
Kim, Min-ji Choi Moon, and Jinkyung Paik. A Study on the Sign System Sized Parks in Seoul - Focused on Environment Friendly and Sustainability In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. This study looks into the current status of sign system in large sized parks in Seoul, and analyzes it focusing on the environment friendly design and sustainability that are currently being a social issue together with the climate changes caused by pollution. Among the large sized parks with the gross area larger than 2,500,000¡ in Seoul, Hangang Park, Worldcup Park and Namsan Park with more than 8,000,000 visitors annually were selected for research. Of the twelve districts in Hangang Park, the current status of Hangang Nanji Park with a recently renewed sign system by ‘Aesthetic Renovation Project of Park Facilities’ which is a part of Seoul development project, ‘Renaissance’ and the Worldcup Park with an independent sign system were examined, and a comparative analysis was carried out on the sign systems of Namsan Park before and after the renewal in accordance with the Integrated Sign System Manual for Parks in Seoul revised in 2007. The overall sign system was analyzed according to following items 1) Construction Method 2) Form 3) Color 4) Font 5) Spatial Use 6) Used Material 7) Recyclability. From the result of the analysis on Namsan Park before and after the renewal, 1) Construction method was same as before the renewal. 2)Form of signs change from an irregular form to a rectangular form with round corners after the renewal, and became smaller in size and lower in height. 3)As for the colors used, main colors such as green(5.5BG/2.7/3.8), blue(5.3PB/3.7/11) were used before the renewal but Seoul green(2.5BG/4/5), Seoul brown(7.3R/3.5/2.5) were used after the renewal. 4)Style of font was in Gothic style before the renewal and changed to Namsan style(San serif style/ official font for Seoul city government)/Hanyang Taeback Bold style after the renewal. 5) Spatial use of sign form didn’t change from before the renewal. 6)Material used changed from Metals to Wooden material(Metasequoia). 7)As for the recyclability, wooden material and assembly type which could be reused easily were used after the renewal. As for the current conditions of the sign systems in Hangang Nanji Park and Worldcup Park, 1)Both parks used Stand type/Attach type. 2)Both used rectangular form, Signs in Nanji Park became smaller in size and lower in height after renewal. 3)Nanji Park used Seoul dark grey(8.2GY/3/1.4), Seoul yellow(1.2Y/8/9) while Worldcup Park uses green(5.4G/3.7/6), yellow green(9GY/6/10) for main color. 4)Nanji Park used Hangang font(serif style/official Seoul font)/Gothic style font and Worldcup Park used Namsan font/Hanyang Taeback bold. 5)For spatial use of sign form, Nanji Park used 3 planes for explanation, guide and name, and 1 plane for regulation while Worldcup Park uses only 1 plane. 6)Nanji Park used WPC(Wood Plastics Composite) for the material of signs and Worldcup Park used metallic materials. 7)For recyclability, Nanji Park used WPC that is recyclable and can be reprocessed while Worldcup Park used reusable assembly type for its directional signs. From the research, it was observed that signs of stand type in rectangular form domi- nate, and use of assembly type that is reusable and use of multi dimension that can be viewed from different angles are growing. The size of signs became compact and lower in height so that goes with surroundings and provides open view to visitors. Also, for the case of integrated sign system in Seoul Park, it was impressive that the corners of signs were round thus preventing accidents. Natural colors like green and brown were used so that harmonized with trees and grass, and a consistent city image was constituted by applying official Seoul colors and Seoul fonts. As for material, from metallic materials, it changed to wooden material in assembly type that is reusable. Likewise, sign systems in large sized parks in Seoul are rapidly moving to environment friendly considering material use.
Cho, Eun Kil, Ka Yeon Lee, and Kwang Ho Son. A Trend and Expression Characteristics of Experience Design in Public Space In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. The norms of spatial value prioritized the purpose of functional and economical values in the past industrial era. It has now changed to prioritize the purpose of emotional and experience-oriented values in today’s knowledge and information oriented society. Accordingly, a marketing concept that actively utilizes experience was implemented to sat- isfy the diversified consumer demands of today. Experience design is a design that uses experiential factors of the human sensory organs to go through the process of cognition and stimulate the emotions based on the human conceptual system. Spatial experience acts as a stimulant for users’ emotions. Emotional stimulus places greater meaning in accordance with space. Public Space must strive to become a space where publicity and decency is realized. However, public space in modern city is seeing a declining trend of functionality despite an increase of quantitative supply. The public space must induce diverse activities and act as a chapter for mutual interaction and a user-oriented realm. Therefore, there is the need to study a theoretical foundation on experience design, which can increase and augment the value that public space should attempt to replicate. Nonetheless, the study on experience design is still new theory, and its field is rather focused on web design or product design fields instead of space design. This paper and those dealing with similar topics also mostly focus on the trend of expression resolved in architecture, while emphasizing visual effects exclusively. This study has the purpose of presenting the value of the design that public space must shoot for, by analyzing the tendency of experience design and expressive traits that occur in public spaces. Firstly, this paper will study the background of experiential designing and the trend of designing of global public spaces, in order to understand the situation where users obtain experience. Secondly, it will analyze what factors of experiential design the users utilize to experience public spaces, in order to comprehend the correlation between the increase of value in public space and expressive traits of experience design. For the third step, the paper will peer and focus into the design factors applied according to external and internal spaces when designing experience, along with expressive methods and traits used in the process. This is due to the fact that human experience differs regarding the subject in which to apply the design based on the interior and exterior of space, as well as the expressive method used in the process. The scope of this case study regarding this paper is limited to public spaces that have actually been utilized since the 1980s, when the concept of experience began to emerge. This paper studies the human experience formed in space, and proceeds to study the contents founded on the experience absorbed by actually visiting the sites. Therefore, case studies have been researched based on the contents that the researcher has directly experienced on site. The methodology of this study in achieving the above goals is to contemplate preceding studies and theoretical documents. This methodology will involve looking into the concept and value norms of public space, and to comprehend the expressive traits of experience design. Based on the aforementioned contents, the paper studies the cases mentioned above and analyzes trends that appear in public spaces from the aspect of experience design. Finally, the paper studies situations where the expressive traits of experience design differed according to indoor and outdoor spaces. The ultimate goal is to derive the conclusion on how experience design is applied with what type of expressive traits in the enhancement of public space’s value. The paper is also expected to be utilized as basic data with which readers can design public spaces where users can actively participate in spaces and create positive experiences.
Thompson, Catharine Ward, Susana Alves, Peter Aspinall, and Jenny Roe. "Access Outdoors and Quality of Life in an Ageing Demographic." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. There is a growing body of literature suggesting that access outdoors and use of public spaces in the local neighbourhood plays an important role for older people in maintaining and enhancing their quality of life (Sugiyama et al., 2009). In the context of increasing urbanisation and demographic change across Europe, it is important to know whether current policies for designing and renewing neighbourhood environments, especially where there are currently high levels of deprivation, provide appropriate support for an ageing population. Yet older people’s needs are often poorly researched in relation to urban regeneration initiatives. This paper describes findings from the first phase of a study to understand what kind of access outdoors older people have in deprived urban areas in the UK, what their experiences are, how this impacts on their quality of life, and how new policies for environmental change to such residential streets and neighbourhoods might make a difference. The current vision of urban regeneration is generally one where greater priority is given to pedestrians in public streets and squares. In the UK, the concept of Home Zones (originating in the Netherlands as ‘woonerf’) has been promoted in the last decade by government policies to create areas where pedestrians, cyclists and local residents’ needs are prioritised and where quality of life takes precedence over ease of traffic movement (IHIE, 2002; DfT 2005). It has been claimed that Home Zones will, inter alia, encourage a greater diversity of activity and use of the street by residents, reduce social isolation, particularly among older people, and encourage people to walk and cycle within their local environment but, as yet, much of the evidence to support this is anecdotal. There is very little evidence on the impact of such environmental interventions for older people, and some concern that such schemes may be disorientating and have negative as well as positive impacts on their access outdoors. This paper presents the initial analysis of interview data from 102 participants aged 65 and older from 9 different urban sites across mainland UK, where Home Zone type interventions to residential streets have been planned, all but one of which are in areas of high multiple deprivation. Ultimately, the study will examine the impact of the environmental interventions on older people’s outdoor activity, experience and quality of life. The data to date explore the baseline experience in existing urban contexts. The interview questionnaires included sections to elicit information on: a) Personal projects involving outdoor activities – what kinds of activities people prefer to undertake, where, and how they evaluate them b) Perceptions of the environment in relation to outdoor spaces around the home, local streets, and the neighbourhood in general. c) Quality of life and self-rated health, using previously validated and tested scales, including CASP 19 and EUROQOL d) Frequency of getting outdoors in summer and winter months. The findings will contribute to knowledge on the attributes of local streets and neighbourhoods that have an impact on older people’s use and experience on a day-to-day basis, and the way that such places are perceived and used in relation to overall quality of life.
Park, Jin Kyoung, and Chan Ohk Oh. Accessibility Evaluation of Nursing Homes for the Elderly In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. The Korean society is recently becoming the aging society at an unprecedentedly rapid speed. Following the increase of the older population, it is the tendency that the elderly population’s need for special care is also rocketing. However, due to the increase of working women, nuclear-families, and old persons living alone, new facilities for the elderly are urgently needed. Recently, many nursing homes for long-term care services or dementia patients have been provided. It is needed to examine if such nursing homes are properly designed for the dependent elderly to live, especially to access. This study was carried out using by field survey including observing and measuring. The subjects were 13 nursing homes which gave positive responses for walking through their facilities. The items for observing and measuring were made based on the law for improving the facilities for the disabled, the elderly, and the pregnant. Whether each item fits the law or not was examined. The nursing homes were categorized into 10 areas: driveway, entrance, hallway and corridor, stair, elevator, ramp, rest room, bathroom, shower and locker room, and bed room. Two researchers per one facility carried out field survey. It was founded that while the degree of fit was more than 90% in driveway, elevator, and stair, less than 50% in rest room and bathroom. In case of ramp, there were many cases which did not install the ramp for wheelchair users in interior space except for building entrance. Also, only 30% of bathrooms were installed handrails around bathtub. Among the items which showed more than 50% of unfitness, installation of braille sign for indicating on use, floor information, and room information in entrance, stair, and rest room was included. Also, the emergency bell for the hearing impairment was also unfitted in bathroom, bedroom, and entrance. The arrangement of each room and the width of space including door width were relatively well designed. However, the lack of ramp, emergency bell, and braille sign suggests that more consideration for the characteristics of the elderly was needed.
Ergenoglu, Asli Sungur. "Accessibility of Historical and Cultural Heritage of Istanbul: Historical Peninsula Example." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. As the city of countless civilizations and cultures throughout history, today Istanbul has a meaning and importance for significant amount of people of various historical, cultural and religious backgrounds. Being designated by The Council of European Union as European Capital of Culture for 2010 together with Essen and Pecs, Istanbul is now going through another kind of time course. As Artistic Director of Berlin European Capital of Culture Nele Hertling stated, ‘knowing the needs of our city and using this formation as a tool’ is needed to have good results in the process. Having accessibility to all of these heritage is obviously the first emerging necessity for being The Capital of Culture. With this purpose, ISOM - Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality Center for the Handicapped has decided to gather a document about Historical Peninsula, to be implemented within the scope of 2010- The Capital of Culture. For this purpose a study has been conducted in the scope of two courses of the Architecture Departments of Yildiz Technical University and Istanbul Technical University. Materials and Methods Architecture students, taking the course ‘Effects of Accessibility on Design’ in Yildiz Technical University, Department of Architecture formed one of the two groups. The other group of students was also Architecture students taking a similar course in Istanbul Technical University. Both of the courses are elective. First of all, Historic Peninsula has been parted into areas that each area covers a historical building/ place, a landmark or a place of interest of another kind. Then, students have started to analyze each area from the accessibility point of view. In each area, two or three routes are determined so that the routes lead to the particular historical building/place, landmark or the place of interest, starting from a point of a bus landing area, a car park, etc. As the main concentration point was to maintain accessible routes for ALL, leading to areas and buildings of an ultimate importance like Hagia Sophia, the current situation of those routes is detected and suggestions are developed for every aspect of the route by means of accessibility for all. Results and Conclusions It was a challenge for both lecturers and students to make propositions of alternative solutions for this extremely historical area that already have made its own decisions about its roads, pavements, stairs, etc. for over a millennium. Also known as the city on seven hills, the topography of Istanbul is always a challenging factor from the point of creating accessible transportation and circulation routes. As for the Historical Peninsula, the topography was even more challenging than other parts of Istanbul. The paper outlines the current situation of the determined routes, explains the routes’ whereabouts and reasons for these whereabouts. Drawings, sketches and photographs of the probable solutions are also given and explained in the paper.
Thompson, Catharine Ward, Susana Alves, Affonso Zuin, and Catherine Millington. Active Ageing in the Community: Examining Older People's Everyday Physical Activity in Relation to Outdoor Access in Deprived Uk Settings In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. This presentation is part of the I’DGO (Inclusive Design for Getting Outdoors) research project, focused on older people’s access outdoors and how this contributes to their quality of life. It is recognised that maintaining a good level of physical activity is a key component of healthy ageing (Mazzeo et al, 1998) and that getting outdoors and accessing the local neighbourhood is important for social and mental well-being as well as for physical health (Sugiyama and Ward Thompson, 2007; 2008). The over-arching question addressed by this study is whether recent sustainable urban design and planning policies in relation to residential streets are likely to provide an appropriate environment to support healthy outdoor activity into old age. The paper presents objective and subjective evidence of levels and types of outdoor activity for older people (aged 65+) living in deprived neighbourhoods across different parts of the UK. The project as a whole involves a longitudinal study to investigate how an environmental intervention in people’s residential street affects levels of activity and patterns of outdoor use. The environmental intervention under scrutiny is proposed modifications to the residential street to create an environment based on pedestrian-friendly, shared space principles such as ‘Home Zones’ (DfT 2005). The overall aim is to examine older people’s perceptions and use of their local outdoor environment, and to record their levels of outdoor physical activity, before and after the implementation of any change in their residential environment. This paper focuses on baseline data consisting of objective (accelerometer) and subjective (activity diary) measures of physical activity and patterns of outdoor use in locations with conventional residential streets, prior to any environmental intervention. The selec- tion of study sites was based on the criterion that some residential streets in the neighbourhood were planned for Home Zone type environmental modifications in 2009/10. This provided nine sites across England, Wales and Scotland which, with one exception, were all in areas of comparatively high multiple deprivation. The data collected from 54 residents aged 65+ who used the activity monitors and from 58 participants who filled in the activity diaries are combined to examine: (1) older people’s patterns of physical activities undertaken outdoors (2) the relationship between getting outdoors, type of activity (e.g. walking) and level of physical activity level (i.e. light, moderate, and vigorous); and (3) what kind of environmental features in the street environment are associated with physical activity. The paper concludes by discussing the opportunities and barriers offered by traditional residential streets and neighbourhoods in promoting older people’s physical activity.
Koerth, Jana, Athanasios Vafeidis, Horst Sterr, and Achim Daschkeit. Adaptation and Adaptation Intention to Coastal Flooding and Sea Level Rise by Risk Area Residents in Northern Europe In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Climate change and sea-level rise are expected to lead to an increase of extreme flooding events. This increase could be combined with possible changes in the frequency and intensity of storms, thus leading to more frequent and higher storm surges in the coastal areas of Northern Europe. However the magnitude of such changes remains uncertain. This uncertainty might be reflected in the risk awareness of the public. Experts are arguing for the need of adaptation to climate change at both public and private level. Anticipatory adaptation is cost efficient when compared to reactive adaptation. Nevertheless, private anticipatory adaptation in Northern Europe still seems to be the exception rather than the rule. This paper addresses the actual adaptation and adaptation intention to the risk of coastal flooding and sea-level rise, at private level, in three Northern European Countries: The Netherlands, Denmark and Germany. A survey using a standardised questionnaire with closed response formats, addressed to residents in risk areas, is conducted during the storm surge season. The project consists of three parts. The first part intends to quantify the status quo of anticipatory adaptation of risk area residents. Therefore, various options of private anticipatory adaptation are classified. This approach allows a differentiated view of adaptation, which varies in detail. Adaptation options are distinguished according to their costs and efforts in the two categories soft adaptation and hard adaptation. In the second part, scenarios of several futures are designed in order to explore which adaptation options would be realized according to different possible futures. In the third part, the project intends to develop insights in the intention to adapt in the future and to identify the primary influencing factors of this adaptation process. The Protection motivation theory (PMT) (Rogers 1983, in Prentice-Dunn and Rogers 1986), which originates from the field of health psychology, has been used here to design a questionnaire exploring such factors. According to PMT, self-protective behavior depends on risk perception or threat appraisal as well as on the appraisal of adaptation or coping appraisal. Demographic data and data, which refer to the housing situation of people, are also collected in order to clarify, which factors explain actual adaptation and adaptation intention in a better way. The theory and methods employed in this project are discussed and the preliminary results of the survey are presented. Related Conference topic: 1.b, 4.c or 5.b, presentation at young researchers workshop
Pelling, Mark. "Adapting to Global Environmental Change in Urban Latin America: Resilience, Transition and Transformation." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Cities have moved from being thought of as sanctuaries from risk to crucibles of hazard and engines of global environmental change. Despite this recognition, academic work has been slow to re-position cities and think through how best these new responsibilities and challenges for urban life might be approached. This paper presents a review of three ways in which existing theory can be applied to explore just one aspect of the relationship between cities and global environmental change: adapting to the risks of climate change. Empirical evidence in particular from Latin America is provided. The model presented identifies three possibilities: resilience, transition and transformation. Each pathway draws from systems and political-economy theory to draw out lessons for adaptation research and policy. Resilience seeks to maintain the status quo. The aim is to use risk management to protect established interests and processes in the city, current inequality is a cost to be paid for stability and the prospect for economic wellbeing this might bring. This is the dominant mode of adaptation with resilience and adaptation almost becoming synonymous. Transition seeks to promote good governance through the promotion of claims on rights that exist in law abut may not be routinely practiced – such as demanding transparency in building standards. The exercising of rights will likely cause changes in the operating and vision of governance systems and the possibility of progressive incremental social change as part of risk reduction. Transitions also unfold at the technological level. Diffusion and socio-technological transitions literature can help provide a framework for identifying the pathways and barriers to transitional change. Importantly, these literatures see external pressure (e.g. Global Environmental Change) acting upon existing regimes as a key motor for change. Transformation seeks to overhaul dominant development regimes, including political systems and the distribution of power across the city as part of adapting. Transformation can occur at the level of individual consciousness and institutional regime. Transformation is the most costly form of adaptation but in specific circumstances has been forced in the past (e.g. Mexico City following the 1985 earthquake) suggesting that transformations will be forced in the future as pressure from global environmental change grows, unless adaptation as transition and resilience can be seen to meet social and political as well as environmental risk gaps in the city. The implications of this analytical lens of adaptation and global environmental change for cities is not to argue for any one pathway as preferred – context and the viewpoint of stakeholders will determine this – but rather to make the more fundamental arguments that: (1) social and political power need to be considered when addressing risk and its management in cities, (2) that power dynamics will influence the extent to which proximate or root causes of risk are included in assessments of risk and its management, and (3) that social thresholds are as important and physical thresholds for helping identify where established urban socio-ecological systems may experience collapse and renewal.
Bonfim, Zulmira Aurea Cruz, Idilva Maria Pire Colaço, Luciana Lobo Miranda, Andrea Carla Filg Cordeiro, Renata Calabria S. Costa, Gabriela Sales Barreira, and Leticia Leite Bessa. "Adolescence and Youth in Fortaleza (Brazil): Vulnerability and Resilience." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. In Brazil, it is impressive the number of teenagers and young adults living in situations of personal and social risk, such as poverty, improper housing conditions and lack of education and work opportunities which jeopardize their healthy development. Several limitations imposed by social context make Brazilian youth particularly vulnerable to undesired paths in their growth and social well-being. Although a risk environment may lead to risk behaviour, it’s necessary to stress that it is not a linear equation since personal, historical and cultural conditions create different possibilities of coping with and resisting to risky circumstances. In order to understand Brazilian youth reality in depth and contribute to the improvement of actual public policy a large scale research about youth populations in Brazil has been conducted by the academic work group « Youth, resilience and vulnerability » entailed to a national association of research in Psychology (ANPEPP- Associação Nacional de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Psicologia). The first stage of this research occurred between 2005 and 2008 and involved 7400 youth between the ages of 14 to 24 of different regions of the country. An extensive questionnaire embracing a large number of factors of personal and social risk and protection was applied. Today the second stage of the research is carried out in Fortaleza, the capital of the state of Ceará, by a team of researchers from the Psychology Department of Universidade Federal do Ceará. The sample is composed by 1000 youth which respond to the same instrument briefly modified. Part of these subjects also participate in three qualitative studies based on environmental psychology, narrative psychology (autobiographies) and media issues. The quantitative survey suggests new perspectives on vulnerability and brings new results from present data, such as the concept of socialenvironmental vulnerability, defined as the spacial coexistence or superposition among populational groups which are very poor and highly deprived (social vulnerability) and areas of environmental risk or degradation. As in the first stage, the main objetive of the study is to obtain a biosocial and demographic profile of Fortaleza’s adolescents and youth between the ages of 14 and 24, from public schools, focusing aspects related to family, education and work, health and quality of life, risk behaviour and social and personal factors of risk and protection. A few methodological changes are being planned and introduced at the moment such as the inclusion of participants from district areas not defined by low income or low human development indicators, inclusion of students of private schools, formulation of other qualitative issues for research, improvement of the questionnaire to explore specific topics which were not studied earlier. At the moment, researchers are discussing the results of a pilot study conducted with 64 students in two public schools in Fortaleza (one which offers further social support for students through artistic training and help for school homework and the other which offers formal education for students out of regular age). Basically the results have been useful to formulate new hypotheses to be explored throughout the survey: there is a positive correlation between the number of home residents and social vulnerability; all the subjects belong to a socially vulnerable population with an average family income less than 180 euros per month , and a significant percentage of students abandon school early to work and help increase family earnings. Researchers are also starting to conduct the qualitative studies by collecting data about environment, media and life history topics related to social and personal risk for teenagers and young adults.
Schäfer, Martina. "Adressing Homo Oeconomicus, Homo Sociologicus Or Homo Oecologicus? a Comparison of Different Strategies for Consumer Related Interventions in the Field of Climate Change." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. A change of individual behavioural patterns is seen as one of the main elements in confronting the challenges of global climate change. During the last two decades there have been a lot of efforts of informing the consumers about the importance of adapting to new habits in the fields of nutrition, mobility and energy use. In all of the three fields interventions with different elements – offering information or consultancy, using incentives, giving feedback etc. – have been carried out by different actors (city councils, NGOs, public transport companies etc.). However, so far it cannot be observed that there have been changes of the habits of everyday life to a greater extent. The presentation wants to give an overview about the intervention strategies which have been applied in the field of climate change or sustainable consumption in Europe concentrating on measures which are addressing the individual consumers. The interventions will be categorized according to their focus and the underlying assumptions about adequate strategies of motivating behavioural change. Many interventions, for example, concentrate on offering information or consultancy and address the rational, responsible consumer. Others offer incentives like vouchers, free tickets etc., trying to reduce transaction costs of behavioural change. A third strategy consists of motivating groups of neighbours or colleagues to enter into a competition about environmentally aware behaviour, relying on the effect of social norm. More complex interventions tend to combine several elements. Intervention strategies in the three fields, mobility, nutrition and energy use will be compared and conclusions be drawn whether certain types of interventions dominate according to characteristics of the fields. Although many interventions in this field have not been evaluated, the presentation will try to compare the existing results about the outcome of different types of intervention strategies.
del Aguila, Mark, Mike Lewis, Nigel Foreman, and Judith Phillips. "Ageing in Place and Neighbourhood Environment Walkability." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Ageing in place is defined as an individual’s functional interdependence within their neighbourhood environment, their cognitive, affective and behavioural functioning in their residence and residential location, and interdependence with formal and non-formal networks contained therein. With mobility and travel becoming more limited with age, studies examining neighbourhood walkability are of increasing importance for the urban development of countries with ageing population demographics. The present study examines the relative contribution of older adults’ navigational strategies and active health in the relationship between walkability of their residential location and ageing in place. Latent variable partial least squares data analyses indicate diversity and accessibility of land use mix, street connectivity, and aesthetics of the walking environment are important for ageing in place while infrastructure and safety for walking, and the presence of traffic hazards and residential density evidenced a negative relationship. Both active health and navigational skills make significant and independent contributors to the relationship between neighbourhood environment walkability and ageing in place. Overall, the results highlight the important mix of the built environment and older adult’s cognitive and physical attributes to ageing in place for active place design.
Choi, Moo Hyuck, Chan Hee Jung, Jae Hoon Yoon, and Han Ho Lee. "An Analysis of Green Afforestation Policy of Large Cities in Korea as a Counter Measure for Urban Heat Island Intensity." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. This paper aims to consider Three matters (1) how urban structure effects on the climate change (2) how climate change like as heat island have an influence to the vulnerable low income household and the elderly in terms of lifestyle and economic life in urban area (3) the execution of afforestation campaign by local government and its economic and cultural social implication to the urban. Firstly, urban heat island phenomenon is deeply influenced by the urban structure which includes physical characteristics of urban structure and industry and the natural characteristics of the city like as the green axis of and ratio of green field of inner city. The cost for maintaining amenity in household has increased continuously and effects on the preference of residential type. Secondly, Cities of Korea like as the process of urbanization in developing countries have concentrated on its expansion of artificial urban structure. Therefore cities have got an inadequate environment to scope with natural changes like as climate changes and heat island phenomenon in urban area. These phenomena gave significant effect on residential environment in vulnerable urban area like as the change of lifestyle and increasement of individual expenditure to control the temperature of household and to maintain its amenity. Thirdly, local government adopted afforestation campaign as a countermeasure for heat island mitigation in urban area like as ‘Planting ten million trees’, wall surface afforestation, and making park in the center of the city. After adopting this policy, the temperature of Daegu was decreased by 1.2°C on the average compared with highs of average year. Even though the effectiveness of its policy, the social, cultural, economic implication of adapting the method of afforestation campaign should be described. This paper explore the relationship the environment with urban structure and human life in a macro view through the understanding that climate can be influenced by the urban structure and also climate change gives direct impact to human in cultural, social, economic aspects.
Schill-Fendl, Monika. "An Approach to Apply Maple/d and Bpe to Laboratory Buildings." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. The purpose of this chapter is to show the link of evaluation methods such as BPE and planning and design methods such as MAPLE/D illustrated by the example of laboratory buildings. During a two-year research project sponsored by the DFG (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft) the Method for Architectural Planning and Design MAPLE/D was developed. The purpose of the method is to support architects dealing with complexity. Students were already taught to use the method within the framework of university studio teaching successfully. The method is also applicable for practicing / professional architects engaged in complex planning and design processes beginning from the first impulse to the point of the final draft. Against the background of teaching and practice of evaluation, planning, and design methods, two issues emerged: 1. What kind of link is there between MAPLE/D, and BPE? 2. Can BPE give further impetus to MAPLE/D, and vice versa? // To illustrate these issues, the author supervised a thesis of diploma with the title “POE of a laboratory building”. The student applied standard BPE methods and resolved the deficits of the building by using the MAPLE/D method. The POE was conducted as a case study at the Paul-Ehrlich-Institute, Federal Agency for Sera and Vaccines, a large laboratory bio-safety level 1-3 building complex with an area of about 88.000 square meter total floor space. The paper deals with the meta-method MAPLE/D, with the methods of BPE that is to be universalized in Germany, and with the special building type of laboratory buildings with its particular requirements such as fast-changing research environments, bio-safety level codes and standards, and high-level technical building equipment and installation. As a result, the paper will show the characteristics of a POE applied to laboratory buildings and its links to MAPLE/D.
Alves, Susana, Catharine Ward Thompson, Peter Aspinall, and Affonso Zuin. "An Ecologically Situated Methodology to Examine Older People's Outdoor Experiences." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. This paper draws on the work conducted on I’DGO (Inclusive Design for Getting Outdoors) examining older people’s perception and preference for neighbourhood outdoor spaces. It comments on the increasing interest in using an ecologically oriented approach to research and theory in environment-behaviour studies. I’DGO addresses positive approaches to ageing, examining older people’s behaviour in relation to different ecological units. In this paper, we stress that a contextualized understanding of older people’s outdoor activities near to their home environment necessarily requires a combination of research methods and we present research findings to demonstrate how these methods can be effectively combined in the same study. A questionnaire was used to examine perceptions in relation to different scales of outdoor spaces close to home, including nearby natural environments, local streets, and local neighbourhood. Open-ended questions and in-depth interviews were used to explore particular places older people visit, their motives for visiting them and the importance attributed to them in the context of their lives. Finally, we illustrate the use of choice-based conjoint analysis, where trade-offs between competing environmental attributes can be estimated. This paper shows how quantitative and qualitative tools help address different aspects of people’s experiences and different scales of their environments. It further discusses the theoretical and practical implications of favoring a multi-method approach and a transactional understanding of person-environment relations.
Sung, Li-wen. An Experiment of Community Development to Response Global Change— How the Concept of Creative City Has Been Applied in Tamshi Township, Taiwan In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Tamsui is a historical town on the northern Taiwan where has been voted as the most popular tourism site five times in a row by Taiwanese. Because Tamsui has been experienced many important historical events and has beautiful landscape, there are more than seven million tourists visiting this town every year including Taiwanese and foreigners. However, the abundant tourism and highly developing real estate cause the decrease of life quality and the cultural atmosphere and it could not turn back. The town needs an alternative strategy for its further development, and the theory of creative city might be a solution. In the past, Tamsui township administration have used to spend a great deal of fund to invite local artists, students and communities to participate the activities held by the town, but it brought lots of complain because the students and community members were required to spend their leisure time to prepare. In the beginning of 2009, the township administration held a three-day master workshop and invite people from different groups, including artists, communities, schools and town staff, to develop the main agenda about the next activity for the town. Besides, three British artists from Brouhaha International (Liverpool, U.K.) were invited to give lectures and share their experience in the workshop. After all representatives share opinions from their own point of view and had lots of discussion, they decided the main theme together (Tamsui’s history and environmental protection) for the next festival and defined the duty of their own group. In addition, the way to organize the activity has been structurally changed. The township administration should play the role of resource supporter (major funding, space coordinating, paperwork, etc.) instead of dominator. Local artists were paid to help school teachers to develop projects with students, and help local residents to create projects in community center. Besides, the architecture students of Tamkang University would have projects on the site of the festival to emphasize the theme of environmental protection. A local theater company would organize an environmental theater played by Tamsui citizen, not professional actors, to interpret the Sino-French War (1884 AD-1885 AD, Tamsui was one of battlefields). Seven months later, the festival was held on September and it was extremely successful, and the environmental theater has caused a great sensation. There is a great deal of Tamsui citizen from different communities wearing the costume made by themselves to join the festival, and show their proud on the street. On the other hand, many elders (some of them are sixty or seventy years old) practiced for the environmental theater twice a week just for playing a solider fighting on battlefield, their performance showed great spirit of the community. These activities became medias offering people a reason to come out and know each other, and regain their local identity living in this town. The case becomes a great example to the other towns in Taiwan for demonstrating how a township administration could work with communities to develop activities that all participating groups are benefited. It is worth to mention that the architecture students of Tamkang University took recycled plastic bottles and bicycle frames as construction materials to create four projects. Those projects show the possibilities to apply recycled materials to construct space or environmental sculpture which does not require complex skill but still could turn out some interesting public facilities. To these tomorrow’s architects, it was a wonderful opportunities to learn how to use materials and design our environment carefully that is more important than how great the projects they had done. However, the study process and the projects would be introduced and the influence on environment would be discussed.
Ebert, Annemarie, Ulrike Weiland, and Ellen Banzhaf. "An Indicator Based Flood Vulnerability Assessment in Santiago De Chile." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Urbanization and especially megaurbanization is one of the most prominent phenomena and at the same time one of the great challenges of the 21st century as it leads to the evolution of increasingly complex urban settings. Spatially seen urban growth is frequently associated with an expansion of impervious surfaces, the loss of areas with higher infiltration capacities and therewith a severe impact on the ecosystem. Resulting land use/land cover changes frequently lead to an increase of hazards, such as floods, landslides and heat waves. At the same time, the growing amount of people and goods located in hazard prone areas intensifies the vulnerability and finally the risk towards natural forces. The understanding of risk and risk generation is regarded being a fundamental prerequisite for the induction of prevention and mitigation measures. Vulnerability analysis forming one part of the risk analysis in this study is understood as the analysis of physical and social fragility towards and a lack of coping capacities with the hazard. Vulnerability is regarded being a multi-scale and highly dynamic issue that can only be estimated using a variety of input data from different sources and on different spatial scales. The focus of this research is set on the analysis of urban vulnerability towards floods in the case of a river catchment in Santiago de Chile, where regularly occurring flood events pose a threat to people and urban infrastructure. Urban planning does neither consider the flood hazard nor the resulting risk in a sufficient manner. The potential of using planning tools as an instrument to prevent hazards is not tapped. With the goal to raise awareness for the possible lack of coping capacities of the elements at risk, a tool to identify areas with different vulnerabilities is being developed. Using an indicator-based approach, the complex problem of vulnerability is addressed in from an interdisciplinary background. Physical and natural aspects as well as demographic and socio-economic aspects are combined in a comprehensive indicator framework. Methods of GIS, remote sensing and spatial statistics are applied to analyse a variety of data sets from different sources in order to obtain information about the vulnerability of those elements located in the hazard zones, both people and urban infrastructure. One research goal is to investigate the potential use of VHR satellite data for physical and social vulnerability analysis by comparing them with socio-economic census data and results from field surveys. The result from this part of the study is a vulnerability map for the study area considering precipitation events of different probabilities. Using multi-criteria analysis, the indicator values resulting from the analysis of remote sensing, GIS, census data and information obtained during field surveys are rated and analysed consequently. A web-based assessment tool is being developed to allow for an active involvement of stakeholders in the study area and to furthermore provide the results of the study to interested parties.
Lord, Sébastien, Philippe Gerber, Christophe Sohn, Jean-Pierre Hermia Thi Eggerickx, Christian Kesteloot, and Filip de Maesschalck. "An Innovative Approach to Grasp Temporal and Spatial Evolution of Social Inequalities." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. This paper presents a methodology that allows classifying the population along a socioeconomical continuum from a lower level to a higher level of social precariousness. Going beyond the complex layered issues of the poverty concept, it rather explores the notion of deprivation with social inequalities, which are observable according to primary dimensions related to socio-economical life. This paper is part of a broader research – DESTINY project – focusing on spatial and temporal evolution of social inequalities in Belgium and Luxembourg. This empirically-based project addresses socio-inequalities and precariousness in an individual perspective using disaggregated data from eight data bases; 4 from Belgium and 4 from Luxembourg. This point of view allows the analysis of the entire population from both countries on a ten-years interval (1991 and 2001). The method is based on the national censuses, the only comprehensive national data available on an individual basis. These data have been connected to the European Union - Study on Income and Living Conditions Panel (EU-SILC) that includes detailed information on household income. The EU-SILC panel has been used as a proxy that reveals social inequalities according to three individual key-dimensions in censuses. This combination giving access to economical information from EU-SILC makes possible to transpose it to national censuses for nearly 11 millions of peoples. The method ranks individuals according to their social position related to 1) education level, 2) the socio-professional status, and 3) the housing conditions. // This position has been examined in relation to each census by the following characteristics: type and size of households, age, gender and nationality. The main objective was the construction of a typology of social groups related to the position of each individual within the global social continuum. The paper will expose, after the presentation of the DESTTINY framework, the individual ranking results on the basis of temporal and spatial dimensions of precariousness evolution. These results will be discussed in relation to changes in economy, society, and respective welfare programs in Belgium and Luxembourg.
Shibata, Seiji. "Analysis of the Categories and Characteristics of Perceived Restorativeness in Everyday Environments." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Studies of restorative environments have mainly focused on the restorativeness of natural environments, and very few studies have examined the restorativeness of other types of environment. Although many studies showed that natural environments were more restorative than urban environments, it doesn’t mean necessarily that an urban setting is not at all restorative. Even in an urban environment, there should be some restorativeness, supposedly ranging from low to middle or high. This study was conducted as a first step to the research of restorativeness in various environmental settings, especially, people’s everyday settings. The aim of this study was to find out what types of environment people feel restorative and which aspect of it is more important, they think, to their perception of restorativeness of the environment, and then to examine the relations among those aspects. In this study, a questionnaire, which contains four free-answer questions and the 26-item Perceived Restorativeness Scale (PRS), was distributed to university students. On top of the first page of the questionnaire, a scenario was given to the participants. The scenario described a student experiencing mental fatigue in preparing end-term exams and doing a lot of assignments. Participants were then instructed to imagine the scenario given was that of their own, and to answer the following questions. Around 300 questionnaires were distributed at the end of classes and 220 complete answers were collected. The four free-answer questions included in the questionnaire were on (1) the places where they think the most restorative and the least restorative when they have mentally fatigued, (2) simple descriptions about each places answered in question 1, (3) their feelings while being there, and (4) the behaviors they would do to restore in those places. The contents of the answers to these four questions were grouped into a small number of categories, and the answers to the questionnaire were binary dummy coded to quantify using the categories. As for the restorative places, the frequent categories of answers were such as ‘their own home,’ ‘a place with nature,’ and ‘a park,’ and for non-restorative places, the frequent categories were ‘a place with too many people,’ ‘at school,’ and ‘downtown.’ The results of correspondence analysis with dummy coded data of free-answer questions showed that the categories of restorative environment were much more diverse than those of non-restorative environment in its characteristics. It was also suggested that the categories of the restorative environments can be grouped into several subcategories. Also, according to the general analysis, the most significant difference between restorative and non-restorative environment was physically or psychologically being away from the source that causes mental fatigue. Further detailed results of the analyses on the differences in characteristics among each subcategories of restorative environments will be discussed.
Schmuck, Peter, and Swantje Eigner-Thiel. "Applying Sustainability Science Principles on Initiating Renewable Energy Solutions in German Communities." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. An interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary action research project applying sustainability science principles and aiming at the conversion of the energy supply of a German village in Lower Saxony from fossil fuels to biomass is reported. From 2000 until 2005 the preparation and technical installation in the bioenergy village Juehnde in Lower Saxony was performed. Until 2008 further research activities explored the consequences regarding economic, ecological and social aspects. Psychological hypotheses were predicting changes in psychological variables like social support self reported environmental behavior, self efficacy and well-being as a consequence of the activities of the villages´ inhabitants. Results of a longitudinal study (once before and once after the conversion) with a broad sample of villages´ inhabitants (questionnaire study) and a subgroup of inhabitants of the bioenergetical village who were extraordinarily engaged for the project over longer time (semi-structured interview study) are reported. The data of the latter mentioned study show evidence for the increase of social support and well-being during the project time. Further activities which were inspired by the successful implementation of the first bioenergy village in Germany are reported: In the district of Goettingen from 2006 until 2009 four further villages (Reiffenhausen, Wollbrandshausen, Krebeck and Barlissen) followed the model of Juehnde, supported by the university team. The German government started in 2008 a follow up grant program supporting networking activities in 25 bioenergy regions in Germany. Actually, in the biosphere sanctuary region Schorfheide in the federal state Brandenburg the process of initiating a bioenergy village has been started. In these projects the authors are active as initiators, basing their activities on the application of own results of scientific research. This double role of scientists within sustainability research is discussed as an approach to cope adequately with the challenges of the global ecological crisis.
White, Mathew, and Sabine Pahl. "Aquatic Environments and Psychological Well-Being." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Research suggests that people generally react more positively to natural than manmade/ built environments. Natural environments appear to aid both cognitive and emotional restoration and measures of revealed and stated preferences suggest people are aware of this. These comparisons have, however, been subject to a systematic, though no doubt unintentional, bias. Whereas water or aquatic features (rivers, coast, lakes) are frequently present in research stimuli representing the natural environment they are rarely, if at all, present in built environment stimuli. This appears to be an oversight for two reasons. First, many towns are located, for good historical reasons, near lakes, rivers and the coast and thus naturally occurring aquatic features are actually commonplace in many urban environments. Second, theorists have long suggested that water may be particularly important for restoration though very little research has explored this possibility directly. The current research addressed these issues by systematically constructing a set of 120 photographs of both natural and built environments. Half the images in each environment contained Aquatic elements. The proportions of Aquatic, Green (trees/ grass) and Built (buildings/roads), elements in the scene were controlled as was the content in terms of animals, people etc. These images were then rated in terms of preference and affective reactions (Study 1) and perceived restorativeness and willingness to pay for a hotel room with the particular view (Study 2). In line with previous conclusions, adding purely Green elements to Built environments led to significant improvements in all measures. Moreover a simple dose-response relationship emerged; as the proportion of Green space increased, responses became more positive. Importantly for present concerns however, two further patterns emerged. Both natural and built scenes containing water were rated significantly more positively than those without water on all four measures. Consequently our data found no significant differences between Built scenes containing water and purely natural Green spaces with no Built or Aquatic elements. That is, people’s preferences, affective reactions, perceived restorativeness and willingness to pay for hotel rooms with views of Built environments containing water were just as high as totally Green space environments. Nevertheless, fully Aquatic scenes were rated less positively than scenes containing approximately 2/3rds water and 1/3rd Green space. Water by itself is not as attractive as the interface between land and water in natural settings. Since the aim of the current research was to investigate whether water might have particular psychological benefits we are unable to answer the more theoretical question of why this should be. Although our findings appear consistent with evolutionary perspectives which argue that the presence of water is crucial for survival it is unclear why views of sea-water should be equally preferred. Drawing on Attention Restoration Theory we speculate that aquatic environments may be particularly good for human well-being because they have the potential to restore two separate aspects of working memory in a way that other environments may not. We are currently conducting research to test this possibility directly.
Windsor, Ahuva, and Orna Blumen. "Attitudes Towards Fee Charging in Nature Sites." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Open spaces are fast disappearing and consequently contact between people and nature is diminishing, thus contributing to current concern regarding human alienation from nature. In recent years public and governmental financing of parks and nature reserves steadily decreased, forcing local authorities and managing organizations to seek other sources of income, and start charging entry fees in sites that had been previously free of charge. Concerned that this policy may further widen the gap between people and nature, the Society for Preservation of Nature in Israel (SPNI) initiated a study of public and visitors’ attitudes to fees charged in nature sites in open spaces. Findings revealed strong opposition to charging fees in beaches and forests, and some support for charging at nature reservations (stronger support among visitors to the sites, interviewed as they were exiting the sites, than in the general public). Rrespondents justified charging fees for maintenance and educational activities but not for parking and entrance. The most frequently mentioned reasons against charging fees in open spaces were “These are asset that belong to all of us” (50% of the general public) and “The government should pay for maintenance, not us” (44% of visitors). Three methods of payment were presented to respondents in both samples: Payment per car, payment per person (including concessions to specific groups), and voluntary payment (currently not applied at all in Israel). While the general public sample divided evenly between methods (each one preferred by a third of the sample), site visitors showed clear preference to payment by car (45.5%). A statistically significant correlation was found between preference of the voluntary payment method and low level of support for payment in open spaces. In contrast, preference for the other two methods – the “sure payment” methods – was related to high support for charging fees in the sites. Finally, the research found that the public indeed sees charging fee in open spaces as an obstacle to visiting them: not only was the fee mentioned specifically as a deterring factor to making such visits, 73% of respondents attributed free entry in some sites to efforts to encourage visits to the parks made by park authorities.
Radja, Abdul Mufti, Suzuki Takeshi, and Yoshizumi Yuko. Bale Bale' as Identity in the Built Environment: Case Study Social Activities in Lae Lae Isle Makassar In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. One of the challenges faced by humanity is Global change phenomenon caused by mankind activities since the mid of 20th century. Global change resulting in global environmental change includes climate alterations; land productivity, oceans and water resources, atmospheric chemistry and ecological systems those could alter the earth life sustainability. The changes will impact on social or demographic, culture, food resilience, health, and poverty, water, and security issues. Makassar city-the gateway of national development in eastern part of Indonesia- and its surrounding areas got the impact. This nearby 0.22 km2 isle named Lae lae is one of several in Spermonde region, southern part of Sulawesi Island. Lae lae is located 1.25 km from Makassar and takes about 10 minutes by motorized boat. In 1997, the authority of Makassar city intended to put the island on commercialization. Investors might utilize it as recreational island by moving its resident to a new developed fishing village in the district of Biringkanaya, Makassar. The plan has failed due to resident reluctance. Initial observation of community activities in the Island found that in spare time during the day, gathering as the main activity usually carried out in various places. It involves infants, children, youths, elderly people, male and female, performing various activities such as sitting, sleeping, playing cards, gossiping, etc. There are three places are often used to gather, they are: ‘bale bale’ (place for sitting and sleeping), ‘lego lego’ (terrace on a stage house) and on the walkways. ‘Bale bale’ commonly located at siring (space under the stage house), terrace, courtyard, sidewalk, and along the beach. Not every house has ‘bale bale’ while ‘bale bale’ belongs to a family could be placed anywhere out of owners’ house, so neighbors and visitors may utilize it at anytime. Author is encouraged to conduct research by this trend on the study of ‘bale bale’ as an identity in a built environment to support social activities of community on the Lae lae island. Settlement pattern of Lae lae island is formed by the pattern of ring road and the linear pattern extended from southeast to southwest of the island. There are no specific spaces for gathering; it is encouraged residents to provide ‘bale bale’ for gathering purpose by utilizing useful material around. It is alleged that the space establishment on the ‘bale bale’ for gathering involves a fairly complex behaviors neither with regard on territories, space separation, or social levels. Research questions are raised: 1) what are the behavior settings on ‘bale bale’ as a gathering space in the populated island named Lae lae? 2) What are the factors those influence behavior such as gathering space settings? 3) What kind of territory formed on the ‘bale bale’? With a population of 400 heads of households within 1507 residents, research method will apply rationalistic paradigm with 3 stages methods. Firstly, positivistic methods through questionnaire surveys and quantitative inductive analysis through SPSS techniques; followed by a rationalistic methods through indepth interviews, qualitative inductive analysis using categorization techniques and interpretation; and finally, phenomenological method to explain the social phenomenon of community activities in Lae lae isle. Results are expected to construct contributed ideas, solving the problems of global change, particularly some solutions to guarantee the community sustainability of its social life along with the environment.
Siregar, Laksmi Gondokusum. Balinese Life in Public Spaces as a Respond to Tourism and Modernization in Globalization Era In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. In the 1930s, anthropologists Margaret Mead and Gregory Bateson, and artists Miguel Covarrubias and Walter Spies, and musicologist Colin McPhee created a western image of Bali as the most culturally exotic place, and how western tourism started to grow on the island and the image of paradise lost which represents the ideal type of Western Idealism had been internationalized since then. At present time, the advancement of air mass transportation, easier immigration process and the needs of the Indonesian state to have economic benefit from tourism have place Bali as a perfect example of how international tourism and capitalism blend in what I may call as globalization. The experience of becoming modern for Balinese people through close encounters with tourism is striking in comparison to other Indonesian ethnic-groups. However, Balinese people are also known for their persistence in maintaining their traditional customs, symbolical system as if it had not touched by modernization. Family rituals, village rituals, offerings and prayers are example of daily activities which still exist in modern Bali today. Does it mean that they have developed cultural strategy to make a distinction between sacred and secular-profane meaning in as a way of living? This paper would like to discuss the psychological tension within Balinese society in responding to modernization in the context of global tourism today, which is seen through how they use, manage and give meaning of their present social and public spaces. The data was collected particularly in Trunyan, a remote village which is believed to be the first Balinese people arrived in the island.
Elali, Gleice. Be Careful (With) School? In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Based on the understanding ‘’ think globally, act locally’’, and considering school as a micro social universe, the understanding of the actions that take place in the school’s environment may represent a step towards better comprehension of broader issues, once the life quality of students, teacher and staff is significantly affected by that place’s quality. Following this line of thought, the same way that it happens in urban space, the social-physical qualities of the school’s environment represent a type of ‘’hidden curriculum’’ which leads the educational community to a continuous learning that includes laws and social behaviors. However, it is evident that, in the last decades, violence has increased in schools and this has happened in small and big communities all over the world, demanding the taking of action which many times means more violence, for example, when police interference is needed. Widely studied in the context of today’s social issues, especially on its increasing vulgarization in everyday life, in school the violence is manifested through physical and verbal aggression related to people and the property. The media reports this kind of vandalism with shocking pictures of: spray-painted walls, broken furniture/equipment, doors forced open, destroyed or stolen lamps, the general use of bars on the doors and windows . This situation has many interpretations, such as: (i) protest; (ii) lack of hope for a better future; (iii) ways of trying to get attention to, educational system’s problems, especially public; (iv) revolt because of the lack of facilities and services offered. Environmental psychology can help understand this issue by drawing analyses that join together the comprehension of the social climate and social and physical characterization of institutions, emphasizing the value given by the users to the space and its socio-environmental image. In a project of research that investigates this phenomenon in order to come up with strategies to stand up to and prevent the vandalism against scholar buildings in medium sized cities, an initial step was to hold focus groups with teachers and students. The activity pointed out as key-factors to be investigated: (i) integration of schools in the city and neighborhood, especially its opening/permeability to the local community; (ii) school’s size; (iii) social and physical densities; (iv) security conditions (property and personal), decreasing the entry of weapons and drugs; (v) ways of occupying the glebe area, mainly the reduction of places where the social control is difficult; (vi) construction material and its conditions to maintenance; (vii) quality and quantity of the furniture and equipments available; (viii) conditions of environmental comfort inside and outside( lights, acoustic, shades, ventilation); (ix) possibilities of students and teachers effective participation on the school’s management, including interference on its physical arrangement. Furthermore, participants emphasized the needs for some space to discuss “non-scholar” subjects, brought up by the social context in which students are involved and consider important to them. Considering the environmental issues faced globally, the study of schools may seem to be to give attention to a single drop of water in an ocean of huge and urgent problems to be faced. However, the lack of care for the social and physical ambient of our schools clearly represent what is going on with the planet. If we cannot keep a place that is often frequented healthy, expanding the scale and complexity of the problem to global dimensions will only make it more abstract and less palpable. So, perhaps it is exactly by understanding these smaller universes that it will become possible to define strategies for coping with larger issues.
Kuhlicke, Christian. "Being Vulnerable Or Being Resilient? Pitfalls in Adapting to Future Environmental Surprises." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. The purpose of the paper will be to engage with concepts that are widely used in the discourse on water and risk; that is vulnerability, resilience, uncertainty and surprises. The paper wants to establish some linkages between these concepts both in a conceptual and in an empirical sense. It departs from outlining the central challenges associated with the enormous uncertainties connected with projecting the consequences of climate change. In a second step it introduces Wildawsky’s differentiation between the concepts of anticipation and resilience to outline two different ways of how to deal with such uncertainties (1991). While anticipation assumes to know the future; resilience expects – paradoxically – the unexpected. In this line, the concept of resilience seems more relevant in developing an adaptation strategy, which is aware of uncertainties about future developments. Yet, an empirical case-study on the 2002 Mulde flood (Saxony, Germany) will reveal that strategies of anticipation are by far more dominant then resilience-based strategies both on the side of citizens and decision-makers. Based on the previous argument the paper outlines a fundamental paradox: While a resilience-based adaptation strategy seems appropriate to adapt to unexpected developments, it is confronted with a deficit of implementation and acceptance (it is a rather unworldly approach). An anticipation-based strategy, on the other hand, is the accepted and dominant adaptation strategy and at the same time produces the condition for an increasing vulnerability (since it assumes to have valid knowledge about the future). The paper concludes with elaborating a possible strategy that is aware of the paradox that resilience is on the one hand desirable but not easy to implement and anticipation on the other hand not desirable but established practice.
Evensen, Katinka Horgen. Benefits on Attention of Indoor Natural Elements – an Experimental Study In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Research on work environments and health within environmental psychology has mostly focussed on stressful elements in the work setting. Physical characteristics of the environment that might have a positive effect on work performance or health have not been studied to the same degree. The present study focuses on the possible beneficial effects of indoor plants and window view on attention. There is a growing interest for how passive contact with nature can have a positive impact on cognitive functioning. The Attention Restoration Theory (ART) (Kaplan & Kaplan, 1989) is based on the assumption that natural environments can have a restorative effect on attention. Studies on the relation between passive contact with nature and attention have given various results (e.g.; Laumann et al., 2003; Berman et al, 2008). However, the studies are characterised by inconsistent use of attention measurement instruments, assessing different attention functions. Thus, there seems to be a need to differentiate between the tasks and the attention functions in question, in order to broaden the understanding of the human- environment transaction. Objective: The project aims at examining possible effects of indoor natural elements on cognitive performance through a series of controlled experiments. The cognitive tests will be based on the attention model by Michael I. Posner (”orienting”(OF),”alerting”(AF) and ”central executive”(CEF) functions) as described in e.g. Posner & Rothbart (2007). The studies will examine which of these three processes of attention; the capacity of orienting attention, sustain attention over time and the capacity to plan and execute action, is the most vulnerable to environmental factors. By using various attention tests it also seeks to further explore the ART and test its applicability. Methods: The project will comprise of five independent studies. Tests tapping the three differentiated attention functions will be administered under various environmental conditions. The main question to be answered through the series of experiments is whether the environment has an impact on cognitive performance measured by the tests. Secondly, we ask if the quality and/or quantity of natural elements indoors are a moderating factor. Finally, we ask how the potential effect occurs; i. e. the impact of the environment on attention while working versus under pause in between work. Experimental design: An ordinary office setting with systematically different degree of natural elements, such as indoor plants and access to window view to nature, will be utilised. The conditions are assessed by an independent group in a pilot study. Participants will be normally functioning adults, recruited from the student population. The participants are tested individually. Attention capacity is measured three times in interaction with computer; immediately after entering the office, after performing a demanding cognitive task (proof reading), and finally, after a 5 minutes pause. Finally, a short questionnaire on how they experienced the tests and the environment is presented. The total procedure lasts approximately 60 minutes. Results and preliminary results will be presented.
Mathers, Alice, Ian Simkins, and Kevin Thwaites. "Beyond Participation: the Practical Application of an Empowerment Process to Bring About Environmental and Social Change." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. The ability to communicate empowers individuals, enabling them to share information, needs, experiences, thoughts and feelings with others (Cockerill, 2002). For the majority of us, society’s general reliance upon verbal and written communication goes unnoticed and unconsidered. For the more vulnerable minority (including people with learning disabilities) physiological, psychological and social barriers make traditional means of communication extremely frustrating, limited or impossible, thus excluding them from participation in decision-making society. Nevertheless, communication as a means to an emancipatory end has come under recent scrutiny, particularly regarding the debate surrounding communicative rationality. Although not yet developed across the academic arenas of architecture and landscape architecture, theorists in the field of planning practice have for over a decade been involved in the rise and critique of the role of communication, through the advance of communicative and collaborative planning (Healey, 1999). Critics of this approach have voiced concerns that communicative rationality continues to ignore the more underrepresented sections of the community and provides no guidance on how their involvement might be achieved (Tewdwr-Jones and Allmendinger, 1998). In response, supporters have replied that through collaborative approaches we can envisage that ‘individuals might learn new identities and construct their interests differently through social learning encounters’ (Healey, 1999). For the learning disability community this is a key issue. Currently some of the most vulnerable members of society as a result of communicative isolation, often accompanied by financial and social deprivation, it might be seen that people with learning disabilities would be at an extreme disadvantage when trying to enter into the arena of public debate. In order for the participation of vulnerable people to occur in matters of environmental decision-making, we suggest that as professionals we must turn our attention to the hierarchical system that has constrained such an approach. Due consideration must be given to the communication barriers that separate and divide our professions, communities and those in policy. We need the means by which we can generate ‘a common professional language to research and report on environment…[which] need not eliminate poetic expression in favor of technical jargon, but it would establish separate more general terms of reference with which to build knowledge’ (Habraken, 2005). In this paper we do not seek to replace the role of the professional. Instead we argue that by employing a process that values difference, with the capability to augment and challenge current consultation techniques, we now have the means by which underrepresented communities can be understood, empowered and involved as key players in environmental decision-making. Through the empirical example of a qualitative fieldwork study into a UK city’s local public transport system, we show how this process facilitates partnerships across academia, vulnerable communities, practice and policy to result in positive environment and social change.
Bonnes, Mirilia, Giuseppe Carrus, Massimiliano Scopelliti, and Angelo Rizzo. Biodiversity and Psychological Restoration in Protected Natural Areas: a Study in the Cilento National Park in Italy In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. The literature on restorative environments (Hartig, 2004) has consistently shown the cognitive and affective beneficial effects deriving from people-nature transactions in a variety of environments, ranging from human-made to completely wild ones. An issue which has not been empirically addressed yet has to do with the restorative potential of natural settings showing differences in terms of natural (water, plant and animal species) and environmental (openness, view, accessibility, human-made features) elements. Van den Berg, Vlek and Coeterier (1998) found positive responses to biodiversity in natural sites, even though differences between groups of users emerged. Horne, Boxall and Adamowicz (2005) argue that preference for biodiversity in natural recreation sites should be matched with the specialisation of settings management, in order to fulfil the users’ different needs. We developed a research project in the Cilento National Park (the largest protected area in Italy), supported by the Municipality of Moio della Civitella, a small town settled within the Park boundaries. The aim is to explore the restorative potential of different typologies of natural settings in the Park (in relation to variables such as presence of water, plants and animals, human-made elements, openness, view, accessibility, etc.) across different groups of users, and the role played by different experience modalities (contemplation, picnicking, walking, hiking, etc.) in the restoration process. As a preliminary step of the project, we conducted semistructured interviews in order to explore the restoration experience of different stakeholders in the Park (visitors, residents, forestry experts, politicians, etc.), and to identify the specific sites in which positive outcomes can be better experienced. Interviews were content-analysed, and relevant environmental and experiential features emerged. Respondents stressed the role of biodiversity, natural sounds, peacefulness, perceived safety and accessibility/walkability of areas to promote restoration. Sites showing a high restorative potential were selected and classified in terms of relevant environmental features identified through the interviews. They will be compared in terms of restorative potential in the ensuing phases of the research program (still in progress). The project will be carried out through two subsequent phases: 2) Laboratory study: photos and videos gathered from the selected sites will be used as experimental stimuli in order to assess the role of specific environmental features (presence of water, human-made elements, natural sounds, animals) in the restoration process. Both psychological and physiological measures of stress will be considered as dependent variables. 3) Field study: the restorative effect of on-site experiences in the different sites will be tested in a field study involving groups of actual users. Both psychological and physiological measures of stress will be considered as dependent variables. // The findings will be used to help the Park and Municipality authorities in developing more sustainable and restoration-oriented management strategies for the area.
Carrus, Giuseppe, Massimiliano Scopelliti, Francesca Cini, Francesco Ferrini, Luigi Portoghesi, Giovanni Sanesi, Fabio Salbitano, and Paolo Semenzato. "Biodiversity, Perceived Restorativeness and Well Being: a Study on the Psychological Processes and Outcomes of On-Site Experience in Different Urban Green Areas in Italy." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. The study of restorative environments has gained increasing attention in environmental psychology because of its implications for health and well being. Traditionally, this research topic has been addressed through the comparison between the restorative potential of natural and built environments, showing a higher impact of the former on well being. Conversely, the potential for restoration of different typologies of nature has remained a somewhat undeveloped issue. The role of biodiversity seems to be an important aspect to be considered in this respect. In addition, a consistent amount of literature has focused on the outcome of being in contact with restorative environments, while less attention has been paid to the process leading to restoration. In this study, we selected five typologies of urban green spaces in Italy, ranging from a minimum of biodiversity and a maximum of man-made elements to a maximum of biodiversity and a minimum of manmade elements. The environments were an urban plaza with green elements, an urban park, a pinewood, a botanic garden, a peri-urban natural protected area. A convenience sample (N = 125) was contacted in the city of Padua (25 participants for each of the five different typologies). A questionnaire focusing on people’s experience in the environment (length and frequency of visits, activities performed, perceived restorativeness, affective qualities of the place, perceived well being during and after the visits) was administered. The five typologies of green spaces considered were compared for their perceived restorative properties (e.g., being away, fascination, extent, and compatibility). Also, the relationship between individual exposure to green spaces (activities performed within the green spaces, duration and frequency of visits) and perceived well being, as well as the mediating role of perceived restorativeness and affective qualities, were tested. Results showed that the perceived restorative properties are higher in the peri-urban green areas, and significantly increasing as a function of biodiversity levels in the environment. Moreover, the activities performed in the environment impacted both perceived restorativeness and respondents’ well being. Finally, frequency and duration of visits positively predicted self-reported well being. As expected, a significant mediating role of both perceived restorativeness and affective qualities upon the relationship between duration and frequency of visits and individual well being was detected. The theoretical implications in the analysis of the process leading to restoration are discussed, and potential guidelines in view of a more healthy management of everyday urban and peri-urban natural environments are envisaged.
Yoshioka, Yohsuke, Jun Munakata, and Takaharu Kawase. Biological Effects of Short Time Exposure of Bright Light in Human Health In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. This paper deals with a method for using daylight in a building lighting system. The use of daylight is one of the most effective methods to cut costs and energy for building lighting. And exposure to bright light at the critical times of the morning improves some mental and physical health problems that the disorder of biological clock causes. In this study, we performed a simple experiment in order to investigate the biologic effects of the short time exposure of daylight. It is expected that the Bright light treatment would be also applicable in a rest space where people stop at only for short break. The experiment was carried out in February of 2009 in Japan. 16 healthy young college students participated in this experiment for 5 days. They maintained a regular sleepwake schedule beginning from 3 days before the experiment period and throughout the experiment period. The subjects performed a task-set program on the flat panel display during the 1 hour working sessions, from 9:30 to 10:30 (session 1), 11:00 to 12:00 (session 2), 13:00 to 14:00 (session 3), 14:30 to 15:30 (session 4), and 16:00 to 17:00 (session 5). The light intensity in the working space was set below 700 lx by the fluorescent lights every time in the experiment period. In the resting space, the light intensity was controlled with the window blind. In the Two days under the non-circadian condition, the light intensity was set below 700 lx by pulling down the window blind. In the other three days called the circadian condition, The light intensity was controlled by the window blind to be within a range from 1600 lx to 2400 lx during the break between session 1 and 2 (from 10:30 to 11:00), session 2 and 3 (from 12:00 to 13:00). The light intensity was gradually decreased to 700 lx by closing the window blind slowly after session 3. In order to check the phase of cortisol secretion rhythm, a serial saliva sampling was taken at each interval between task sessions (at 9:30, 12:00, 13:00, 15:00 and 17:00). Furthermore, the saliva samplings were also taken at midnight (at 23:00 and 24:00) over the experimental period. And in order to check the sleep efficiency, the body movements of the subjects during the sleeping (from 24:00 to 7:00) were measured with the 3D Accelerometer (AirSense: Bycen). Based on the results of the experiment, the following effects of Short time exposure of Bright light in the morning on the Resting time were clarified. After the short time exposure of the Bright light in the morning in the resting space, 1) Almost all the peaks of the amount of the cortisol secretion were at 9:30 in the morning. Under the circadian condition, the amounts of the cortisol secretion during Day2 was larger than Day1 in the morning (p=0.017). Under the non-circadian condition, the amounts of the Cortisol secretion during Day2 was smaller than Day1 in the morning (p=0.005).By comparison the amounts of the cortisol secretion in second day under each condition, the amount of the cortisol secretion under circadian condition was significantly larger than that under the non-circadian condition (p=0.003). These results suggest that the arousal level of the subjects in the morning to improve under the controlled lighting conditions with the short time exposure. In order to further observe this tendency, it might be necessary for the subject to spend more than 2 days under the controlled Bright lighting conditions. 2) The sleep efficiency during the bedtime from 2:00 to 7:00 was derived based on the determination (Figure 4). Under the circadian condition, the sleep efficiency of 15 subjects except for one subject was higher than that under the non-circadian condition. Including the data of the subject, the significant difference was found between the sleep efficiency of the first day of non-circadian condition and the sleep efficiency of the first day of circadian condition (significant level 10%, p=0.098).
Scopelliti, Massimiliano, Giuseppe Carrus, Francesca Cini, Francesco Ferrini, Luigi Portoghesi, Giovanni Sanesi, and Paolo Semenzato. "Botanical Gardens as Restorative Environments: a Study on the Relationships Between On-Site Experience and Well-Being." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. The literature on restorative environments has analysed the positive effects of people’s transactions with different natural (wild areas, urban parks, etc.) and built settings (museums, monasteries, historical towns, etc.). To date, little attention has been paid to the analysis of the restorative potential of botanical gardens, which are characterised by a high level of biodiversity and human-made elements at the same time. Recent findings support the idea that biodiversity can play a major role in users’ evaluations of green areas (Chen, Adimo, & Bao, 2009; Lindemann-Matthies & Bose, 2007) and may increase the psychological benefits associated with experience in nature (Fuller, Irvine, Devine- Wright, Warren, & Gaston, 2007). In addition, little is known about the process leading to restoration, as studies have mostly addressed the analysis of positive outcomes of restorative experiences. Botanical gardens with distinct physical properties were identified in four Italian cities, namely Padua, Florence, Rome, and Bari, and considered for the study. We administered a questionnaire focusing on people’s experience in the botanical garden (length and frequency of visits, activities performed, perceived restorative properties and restorativeness, emotional response, perceived well-being) to an opportunistic sample (N = 127) contacted at the different locations. ANOVAs were conducted to analyse the relationships between the physical properties of the four botanical gardens and people’s on-site experience, in terms of perceived restorative properties, emotional response, perceived well-being. In addition, we analysed the effect of group characteristics (gender, age, working activity) and of activities performed on users’ experience in the botanical garden. A multiple regression analysis predicting perceived well-being was then carried out to test a model including several sets of variables: structural (e.g. distance from home, working activity, etc.), experiential (length and frequency of visits, activities performed), and psychological (perceived restorative properties, emotional response) ones. Results showed that the physical properties of botanical gardens affect the perception of the restorative properties and the emotional response toward the environment. Also activities performed play a role in shaping the experience of users: the more users spend their time in the botanical garden, the higher is the perceived level of the restorative properties and the better is the emotional response. Finally, multiple regression analysis showed that well-being experienced in botanical gardens is predicted by variables from the different sets included in the model, with perceived restorativeness and emotional response playing a key role. In particular, our analysis outline a mediation role of perceived restorativeness and emotional response in the relationship between experiential variables and perceived well-being. Theoretical implications for the study of restorative environments, and suggestions for the management of botanical gardens are discussed.
Chen, Fei, and Ombretta Romice. "Bridging Past and Future: a Design Method for Fast Transitional Places." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. The urban design of a place can reveal its complex social, economical, cultural, political and environmental characteristics; its appropriate development is crucial to maintain place identity and continuity for inhabitants. How to deal with the tradition and past of a place is therefore important for designers and decision-makers, especially in historical contexts pressured by fast-paced transformation under the impact of global change. This paper will introduce a method based on theories on western building typology and urban morphology as a design approach to maintain and rebuild place identity, cultural and social sustainability in historic areas undergoing rapid transformation. Such theories have been developed and tested in the European context for more than two hundred years to analyse the morphological character of a place over time. This paper is a study of their potential relevance and applicability within the Chinese context – it consists of a documentary phase (1), which uses typomorphological theories to trace the formation and transformation of urban form over time (a process to date not fully explained), and of a design phase (2) based on historically and culturally significant urban elements (seven) identified in phase 1 at hierarchical scales. These are general plan; significant silhouettes at the city scale; streets and street networks; urban blocks at the district scale; urban public spaces at the block scale; public buildings and houses at the building scale. The evolution and cultural significance of each element is examined across several periods and is based upon concepts of type, typological process and morphological region. The rationale of this study is that tradition should be perceived as a dynamic process carrying cultural continuity, and that urban form is a strong vehicle to deliver such continuity because it is shaped over time by social, economical, political and demographic changes. The paper will present in detail the conceptual framework and methodology for fast transitional places in the Chinese context, with a focus on historical urban areas under strong pressure of modernisation. In Phase 1, a case study of the oldest region of Nanjing, which has more than 2500-year history of urban construction and strong historical presence, will be briefly documented in terms of its physical and spatial characteristics. The outcome of Phase 1 on the case study place informs the design phase in order to carry on those long-lasting characteristics in further development of the region and maintain its cultural identity. The paper will discuss the impact of design suggestions generated in Phase 2 on design control, management and decision-making, coding, bylaws and public participation. Moreover, the paper will discuss the versatility of the method at various scales on the basis of its elements-based structures. This might in turn open the possibility to apply the principles of the method not only to historical areas, but also entire cities in different contexts.
Okamura, Cintia. Building the Local Environmental Agenda: the Expierence of São Paulo In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. The world of the 21st century is one of a global civilization in crisis. The environmental destruction that symbolizes this crisis is not limited to physical degradation of the environment but it also refers to social degradation and specifically to social inequality, poverty and human misery—all fruits of the same predatory model of development. Only our active participation in the process of elevating the quality of life on the planet, through our embrace of new knowledge, values, attitudes and behavior, can enable us to bring about not just a new model of development, but the new model of civilization that we urgently need. Working for the secretariat for the environment of the state of Sao Paulo in Brazil, one of my focuses has been the development of socio-environmental plans of action that adopt a philosophy of working with the people, not simply for the people. The Rio Earth Summit in 1992 saw the launching of Agenda 21, the most significant global attempt to date to promote, on a planetary scale, a new model of “sustainable development.” Agenda 21 is a process and an instrument for participatory planning that prioritizes local action in recognition of the fact that it is at the local level that things actually happen. It is very difficult to imagine such a participative effort taking place in a city the scale of Sao Paulo. The metropolitan region of Sao Paulo has over 20 million inhabitants, making it the third largest city in the world after Tokyo and Mexico City. The city is characterized by its complexity and by the shifting dynamics of its population and spatial organization. Its boundaries are constantly expanding. Our urban reality is one of numerous distinct areas with their own specific characteristics. The setting up of local Agenda 21s in Sao Paulo began in 2005. It brought into partnership government environmental agencies at local and state levels, the sub-prefectures, other governmental agencies and civil society organizations. We began with a process of decentralization, creating Working Groups for the macroregions of the north, south, east, west and center of the city. In these macro-regions, seminars helped to mobilize and inform the sub-prefectures, the technical experts in different areas of government, and representatives of the private sector and civil society. The next step was to engage the general population and create local discussion forums through a process of exchange and awareness-raising. There are now Agenda 21 processes in almost all 31 sub-prefectures of the city and we have ensured that disadvantaged groups are represented throughout. Our approach is to focus not on what people have, but on who they are as human beings. From this many partnerships have developed, opening a space for dialogue and leading to integrated, effective action. As an example, cooperation in the “Macro-East” region, a peripheral area of great poverty, culminated in a decree by the secretariat for the environment which requires that recycled construction waste be used as aggregates used in public works and street paving projects throughout Sao Paulo. Agenda 21 allows for cooperation between the different branches of government and with the other sectors of society, enabling a paradigm change and stimulating integrated initiatives. It helps end conflicts and increases the possibilities for action. Instead of being limited to a passive role and the presentation of demands to the government authorities, civil society begins to assume joint responsibility for action taken. It makes the concept of the environment workable, enlarging its scope from “green” issues to issues such as housing, health, waste treatment, education and transport. The level of environmental and human degradation is alarming, and to change the direction of events not easy. However, it is our great responsibility as human beings, to contribute to this change.
Neto, Ingrid, and Hartmut Günther. "But the Sign is in the Wrong Place - Justifying the Unjustifiable: Excuses for Violating Traffic Rules." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. The increase in population constitutes a central challenge of global change. However, in developing countries, this challenge does not imply simply an increase in number of individuals, but, particularly an increase in the number in the number of those who want to partake of the benefits of modern life: better and more diversified food, more comfortable housing, more convenient transportation. While the implications of dwindling resources are becoming clear in parts of the first world, and in some parts of the developing world that lives as if they were part of the first world, this is not necessarily the case in those regions that still aspire to reach the living standards of the first world. Using the example of adjustments necessary to increased density and complexity in urban transportation, this study proposes a theoretical model to explain excuses made in the context of traffic violations. The paper closes with a reflection about a possible extension to other environmentally necessary changes in behaviour. Using a multi-method approach, three studies were conducted to investigate excuses given by drivers to justify traffic violations. The point of departure was Bandura’s Moral Disengagement Theory, which proposes four groups of justifications to account for various kinds of wrongdoing. (1) Moral justification, advantageous comparison and euphemistic language are used to justify the inappropriate behaviour as such; (2) distortion of consequences deals with the effects of the wrongful behaviour; (3) dehumanization and attribution of guilt “blame” the victim and (4) displacement, as well as diffusion of responsibility both justify the wrongful behaviour and its consequences. Three different studies investigated the extent to which this theory might be applicable to a different set of behaviours (traffic) and cultural context (Brazil). In a first study, 563 drivers answered a moral disengagement scale, based on Bandura’s theory adapted to traffic violations. In a second study, 161 traffic policemen identified the most frequently heard excuses from drivers out of a list based on the previous study. The third study analyzed 129 appeals by traffic offenders. Based on the results of the three studies, a model is proposed that describes the psychological mechanism used by drivers to justify traffic violations: (1) displacement, as well as diffusion of responsibility both present justifications by distorting the behaviour of the driver; and its consequences; (2) moral justification, advantageous comparison and euphemistic language are used to ‘reconstruct’ the circumstances under which the traffic violation took place; and (3) a novel component, the Brazilian jeitinho entered in an attempt to sensitize, and/or threaten and/ or invoke prestige vis-à-vis the authority. Given the country’s history, jeitinho is identified in the Brazilian anthropological literature, as a specific strategy, based on a mixture of deceit and flattery, to obtain whatever one wants in one’s interactions with others. The implications of the findings and the model of justifications are clear as far as traffic and transportation is concerned, in that they point to the need to develop education and enforcement actions that prioritizes offender accountability for their acts, because they almost always exclude their participation and responsibility in the violations. However, the questions raised by the study extend to other ecologically important, yet day-to-day behaviours, such as choice of travel mode, energy saving, domestic water use, waste disposal and recycling, or eating habits. Understanding the mechanisms of justifying the unjustifiable will contribute to develop effective strategies of behaviour change.
de Campos, Camila Bolzan, Enric Pol, and Bienvenido Visauta. Can the Environmental Management Systems Affect the Environmental Behaviors of Workers Outside the Company? In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. The decision making process and the step forward through the implementation of the environmental value inside organizations is relatively recent. Nowadays the ISO 14001 Standard is the most common certificate used by organizations aiming the responsibility concerning nature and its environment. The fact is that this kind of implementation process and the maintenance requires a sort of changes, new practices and inversions in its interior and moreover in its people. Generally, the Environmental Management Systems (EMS) are based in a series of environmental behaviors that reflect on the workers routine and perhaps in their environmental behavior outside the company. It requires a sort of changes in its process, structures and human resources and also attempt to adopt and identify with the sustainability values, explicit in the establishment of the environmental policy (Pol, 2002). Furthermore, as Pol (2003) says, Environmental Management is the responsible of the incorporation of the values of the sustainable development in the social organization and the corporative goals of the company or the public administration and its role in the development process of interest and concern about the environment is quite significant. Ecological behavior is defined as actions that contribute towards environmental preservation and/or conservations, including recycling, energy and water conservation, political activism, consumerism and so forth (Kaiser & Fuhrer, 2003). Stern (2000) refers, that the environmental behavior should be defined by its impact: the extent to which it changes, the availability of materials or the materials or energy from the environment or alters structure and dynamics of ecosystems or the biosphere itself. The aim of the present work is to analyze the effect of being used to EMS in the environmental behavior of Brazilian workers. Data collection took place in 2008, in Brazil, having workers from certified organization (n=232), non certified organization (n=153) and non certified with environmental policy (n=169). The analysis points that the there are significant differences between environmental behavior of the three groups. Also was possible to identify, with the contrast test Scheffé, that there were significant differences between the means of the certified group and the others two groups. The results can be used as starting point to emphasize the important role of the organizations and the institutions in the process of development of environmental concern in their workers. It is a fact that there is a lack of studies that examine the relationship between these variables in Brazil in a workers sample, so, this research intent to contribute with this continuum construction of this line of investigation and future practical interventions in that country.
Jang, Woo Seok, Kyeong Yoon Byun, and Kwang Ho Son. Case Study of Houses Using Recycled Building Materials In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Flammable organic chemicals, formaldehyde and other hazardous substances emitted from building materials raise social problems Subsequently, increased demand for nontoxic eco-friendly buildings calls for the interest in implementing recycled materials and advanced techniques in architecture. As a matter of fact, people are becoming more interested in the fundamentals of environmentally-friendly architecture in the modern era. Whether organic or inorganic, building materials consist of limited natural resources. For this reason, it requires the designer considerable thinking before designing one’s building materials. One must spend substantial amount of time when deciding whether to reuse materials that lost its original function or to scrap them permanently. In direct link to material wealth leading on to high quality in living in recent years, the amount of trash we produce has skyrocketed resulting in the change in both quality and amount of garbage we throw out. Moreover, increase in chemical combustion and energy usage due to economic growth on top of air pollution and global warming is amplifying the need for conceptual change in understanding our energy sources. This trend has resulted in the construction of more sustainable, ecological buildings. As a matter of fact, use of recycled materials in building design has taken a variety of forms in other countries and many researches have previously conducted on this topic. Consequently, this research will shed light on specific cases where recycled materials are used in architecture, and strive to popularize the use of recycled materials in building design. First, we will define relevant terms and examine different traits and types of recyclable supplies via document analysis and internet research. Purpose of this study is to generalize reprocessing techniques in architecture through evaluation of case studies in which recycled supplies were used. By offering a multidimensional analysis of building materials and their characteristics from various perspectives, this study reaps following results. First, some creative people either out of need or personal interest have taken the notion of recycling to the next level, transforming old stuff into new structures. Yet, this tech- nique is still limited to those interested-few. Second, by studying an array of factors - durability (resistance to heat and endurance) and green technology (ventilation and circulation of air) in addition to aesthetics, this research concluded in specific qualities of recycled architecture. Third, thatching was found to be extremely efficient in terms of its excellent durability, adiabatic effect and air ventilation whereas. Also, curved roofs would only make sense if the walls were mud-brick, adding the building’s exterior aesthetic value. Forth, this study endeavours to popularize recycled architecture by informing readers about potentially exploitable building materials that can easily be found in our environment as opposed to conventional materials.
Millington, Catherine, Catharine Ward Thompson, and Peter Aspinall. "Challenges in Objective Environment Auditing for Walkability." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. There is growing recognition of the role of the physical environment in influencing physical activity and consequently public health. Planners are interested in the potential for environmental interventions to have population-wide effects on walking levels. However, although an association between the physical environment and physical activity has been identified, evidence on causality between specific characteristics of the environ- ment and physical activity has proved much harder to establish ( Handy, 2005). Developing audit tools to measure objectively the street-scale and fine-grain attributes of the physical environment in urban or suburban contexts relevant to physical activity is a challenge in a number of dimensions. The characteristics of the environment relevant to walking will vary according to climate, landscape, built form and cultural traditions, and audit tools should be sensitive to such differences. Audit tools have been developed in Australia (e.g. Pikora et al, 2002), North America (e.g. Brownson et al, 2004) and Europe (e.g. de Bourdeaudhuij, 2003), but problems remain and it is unclear how transferable different audit tools are from one urban context to another. The difficulties in developing a tool to audit environments such as residential streets and neighbourhoods in relation to their support for walking – their ‘walkability’ – occur at a number of levels. Firstly, it is difficult to define an appropriate neighbourhood or range of environments that are relevant to each individual. Where they walk, whether for transport or for leisure, will depend on age, employment, family circumstances, income and lifestyle. Secondly, determining what to measure objectively is not simple. While certain aspects of the environment are known to be likely to influence walking levels and may be straightforward to measure and record, other aspects, such as aesthetics or safety (Croucher et al, 2007) are less readily or meaningfully measured in objective ways. Audits of green space and natural environment factors are particularly difficult. Thirdly, related to this, the reliability of different items in an audit often varies considerably. Fourthly, finding sufficient variability in the physical environment to allow for adequate reliability testing of each element can be difficult. Fifthly, it is not straightforward to establish how the audit data for each participant’s neighbourhood area or walking route(s) is to be meaningfully summarized prior to comparing it with walking levels. Finally, such audit tools may involve collection and analysis of very large and unwieldy data sets. This paper will explore these issues, drawing on the authors’ experience of developing and testing the Scottish Walkability Assessment Tool (SWAT) (Millington et al., 2009) in Glasgow, Scotland.
Höhnke, Carolin. Challenges of Public Transport Governance –The Case of the Public Transport Reform in Santiago De Chile In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. In almost every Latin-American mega-city the environmental situation worsened dramatically and congestion level rose by reason of the increasing use of private cars due to the positive economic development and rising incomes. This development causes in Santiago de Chile on one hand a negative impact on the public transport rate which decreased hardly in the last decade and on the other hand negative effects for the air quality and the urban climate in general. The public transport was in general in a very poor condition and negatively evaluated by the users. Against this background it appears as a big challenge to preserve the current rate of public transport which is in comparison to Europe still high though. To reach this aim the national government of Chile, a highly centralized state, implemented an ambitious reform project called “Transantiago” to modernize the public transport supply in the whole mega-city. The project is based on a city-wide Bus-Rapid- Transit System (BRT) and reorganizes the entrepreneurial structure and the operational as well as the financial system extremely, what means to abandon the old deregulated system and start to integrate public transport modes for improving the quality of urban life. For the first time ever the public transport system of a whole mega-city was changed completely in a very short period at least on the American continents. Therefore the experiences made in Santiago can not only be useful for the improvement of the Chilean case but also for the successful implementation of innovative transport projects in other cities. However, in the implementation process of “Transantiago” difficulties appeared which pointed out to problematic coordination and inappropriate power constellations instead of technical problems. Nowadays after some years of operation it is acknowledged that a too centralized planning and implementation process – i.e. the lack of responsibilities of local actors as well as the neglect of local demand and mobility patterns – was and still is a major source of huge problems “Transantiago” is dealing with. Hence, “Transantiago” opens up a perspective onto specific problems of urban transport policy that can arise due to a lack of decentralization. But to understand what really went wrong in this case study and how to improve the implementation of such policies it is key to study the political context, the interests of the actors, the process of decision-making and implementation – in short: to study governance issues. This study is based on three sources: first several guided expert interviews to get insights into the planning process, second a review of academic articles in order to interpret the current discussion and thinking about (public) transport, and third a review of newspaper articles for understanding the public discussion. The first results show that the still centralistic political system of Chile is one of the mayor obstacle that “Transantiago” is facing: The interests of the main actors, the president of Chile and the national transport ministry, have to be interpreted on the background of the strong neo-liberal focus of the Chilean politics in general and also of the objective be a developed, not anymore developing, country with the positioning of Santiago in a worldwide competition. The research has shown that these findings together with the lack of an authority in charge for metropolitan issues influence the whole planning and implementation process, so that local demand and opinions from citizen were marginal in the end. It is a moot question whether this can lead to a reduced car use and to improve the urban life in Santiago.
Zabawa-Krzypkowska, Joanna. Changes in Public Space: What is Public Space in a Residential Environment? a Case Study in the City of Gliwice, Poland In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. This paper presents relationships and interactions between habitants of Multiple Family Housing Units and their surrounding spaces. It reviews the problems regarding the usage of public and semi-public spaces in the neighborhoods. The surrounding areas and their images have a major influence on the quality of life in MFHU, therefore the close surroundings of living space was taken under analysis. Our conventional picture of the city doesn’t really exist, what it was once a densely builtup space where all possible functions were to be found and in which one can experience feeling of density. City of today has still those dense points but lot of function has moved out to the outskirts or even to the countryside, we use Internet for more and more tasks, we move everywhere by car, the city center slowly start dying since the vital functions has moved out so are the people. We can imagine a lovely town with streets, squares, shops and churches full of people and life, we have a picture of it in our mind, from long time ago, from travel, but a picture of this urbanized landscape doesn’t exist. We don’t identify ourselves with our cities. Observations of the area around apartment blocks show that they are unused and are empty the majority of the time. On the one hand, there are communication issues that are unsolved, gridlocks caused by the abundance of vehicles and a lack of parking spaces. On the other hand, areas that don’t belong to anyone, “no-man’s-land,” are left unused and are taken over by the homeless and the hooligans. There are some short term and chaotic approaches that appear, but no resolution of which is based on long term planning to solve the problem. The article attempts to recognize existing issues and monitors the changes that are being made. It also shows the positive and negative results. In this example, we show reasoning for improvements, the impact that it has on the environment, and how tenants are using them. Because space designed with habitants in mind often turns out to be space unfriendly, the study covers the area in terms of its functionality and its specific use by the tenant. The work contains analysis of change in order of space and the functional use of it. Problems that are occurring are in great connection with economical and social shifting, migration and simply with the passing of time. Study factors of integration and isolation, openness and closeness particular structure with regards to territorial issues. The intent is to create a better and more attractive place to live, which will build a feeling of safety, coexistence, and overall happiness within all habitants. Because people identify themselves with the place of their existence; their home, the area and surroundings around our buildings need to change so they can become more pleasant and useful.
Thronicker, Ines, and Sylvia Harms. "Changing Newcomers' Mobility Behavior: Effects of Pre-Move Interventions." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Reducing people’s car use and increasing the proportion of rather sustainable modes of transportation effectively by interventions is challenging. Mobility behavior is supposed to be mostly habitual behavior and habits are difficult to change as long as their contexts remain stable. Therefore, an intervention needs to tackle the central maintaining condition of a habit: context stability. Alternatively, the intervention design can take advantage of significant context changes, for example those which naturally occur in the course of life. Following this line of argumentation, the presented study focuses on house moving situations. These situations often go along with considerable spatial as well as social and/or individual changes in a person’s life, which in turn often require a conscious adjustment of one’s mobility patterns. Thereby, mobility habits supposedly are weakened or broken for a while. Within this window of opportunity a soft policy intervention consisting of information and incentives to use alternative modes is implemented in this study. There is a considerable body of studies taking the same starting point and whose results support the assumption that house moving situations can be promising windows of opportunity to change habits. At the same time, the understanding of the character of habits and its interconnectedness with the context they are embedded in is still at its beginning. What are the main and interaction effects of the moving situation itself and the implemented intervention? When does a habit start to weaken or break – with the moment of relocation or already before in anticipation of it? How does a habit influence decision making, that is which role does a mobility habit play when choosing the new living place? How long and under what conditions can a habit outlast alternative behaviour? Referring to such questions, the talk will present empirical data from a quasi-experimental field study conducted in Leipzig, Germany, from 2008-2010. Newcomers to Leipzig answered to a 3-wavesurvey before their move (N=156), shortly after their move (so far: N=51) and half a year after their move (so far: N=16). One sub-sample received the intervention (information and incentives) before the move, another sub-sample right after the move, a third subsample did not receive the intervention. Also habitants participated in a 3-wave-survey (N1=663, N2=262, so far: N3=73), with one half of the sample receiving an intervention. In addition, an online survey is running addressing people who want to move but did not yet decide for a certain apartment. Thereby, we intend to present some quantitative data about the role of habits within the search process. Not only should the results offer new input to the development of the habit concept, but also provide a sound contribution to the discussion about the generation of effective soft policy interventions to lastingly change habitual behaviour. Eventually, referring to the robustness of habits in a stable environment, an intervention should dare to strive not only for the breaking of a habit, but, moreover, for the creation of a new (desired) habit.
Idrus, Shaharudin, Abdul Hadi Harma Shah, Ruslan Rainis, D.E. Forsythe, and Ahmad Fariz Mohamed. "Changing Vulnerability of Housing: from Inefficient to Sustainable Human Habitat." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. This paper discusses vulnerability dynamics due to housing and neighbourhood expansion. The vulnerable situation arose out of separate individual decisions developing housing areas haphazardly. These decisions determine the efficiency of the final patterns of flows and emerging land uses. Using water consumption over 15 years as a representation of housing expansion, we argue that that the accessibility, or lack of, to basic amenities such as clean water is impacted by the pattern of housing expansion. The extent of the vulnerability is dependent, among others by impacts on livelihoods, accessibility to a range of basic infrastructures, and the effectiveness of different institutions and organizations in providing social infrastructures, acting as an important buffer or defence in the face of shocks and stresses. The core question guiding the research behind this paper is how patterns of vulnerability have change in the period of 1992 – 2007 for over 350 housing estates that made up about four hundred thousands people living in the study area. The paper uses the Seremban Municipality area, situated in the State of Negeri Sembilan in Peninsula Malaysia, and currently experiencing vibrant economic, social and physical developments, to illustrate the housing and neighbourhood dynamics. This paper presents preliminary analysis of findings that gathers views from urban planners, managers, developers, and residents on the vulnerability of the housing areas. Using a complexity approach to develop a better understanding of the planning and current status of changing housing vulnerability, the paper also presents a series of maps of changing housing vulnerability.
Mackett, Roger. "Children's Independent Mobility and Physical Activity in Urban Areas." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Children interact with urban environments in different ways to adults in several ways, for example they tend to combine travel with play and they can learn from their experience interacting with the environment. Being out without adults present offers them the opportunity to gain skills such as way finding and making decisions about crossing the road safely. However they have less choice about where they go than adults do, because parents control many of their trips, and children are often not allowed to travel unescorted by an older person, so there tend to be interdependencies with other people’s travel. Since everyday travel and activities offers children the opportunity for physical activity, these restrictions have implications for their health. There have been a number of changes in the factors that influence children’s travel and outdoor behaviour in recent years, including the development of car-oriented lifestyles, increased numbers of mother in employment, and changes in attitudes towards children’s independent mobility. The purpose of this paper is to examine the nature of how children interact with the local environment, and the implications of this for their volumes of physical activity and so for their health, and how these have changed over time. The barriers that need to be overcome in order to encourage children to travel and play in ways that enhance their health will be considered. This paper will draw upon research carried out on projects carried out at the Centre for Transport Studies at University College London: /• ‘Reducing children’s car use’, in which the various surveys were carried out including questionnaire surveys of children and their parents and fitting a sample of children with accelerometers and asking them to keep diaries; /• CAPABLE (Children’s Activities, Perceptions and Behaviour in the Local Environment) in which children were also fitted with GPS (Global Positioning Satellite) monitors. Much of the emphasis was on looking at children’s independence; /• A comparative study of children’s independent movement in Britain, Denmark, Finland and Norway (led by the Transport Economics Institute in Oslo). // Trends in children’s travel and activity patterns and how they can influence their health will be considered briefly. Then the changes in the factors that influence children’s travel behaviour will be examined, including the growth in car use, changes in children’s activity patterns, changes in parental behaviour and attitudes, and the growth in home-based attractions. The ways in which these can be overcome will be considered in terms of lifestyles, lack of motivation and difficulties in making healthy trips. Conclusions will be drawn in terms of what is likely to encourage children to walk and cycle more and to be outside more, and which policies are likely to be successful. Conclusions will also be drawn about the forecasting methods used by transport planners in Britain and elsewhere with their emphasis on economic efficiency is biased towards car use. This makes getting children out of the car difficult; it is concluded that other overall objectives such as health and quality of life may be more appropriate than economic efficiency in transport planning.
Improta, José Pinheiro R.. Children's Perception of Brazil´s First Large-Scale Wind Farm: a Photographic Data Gathering Strategy Providing Insightful Approach of Adults In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. The implementation of renewable sources of energy due to the growing concern about climatic change has brought about transformations to the surroundings and landscapes of certain communities. A clear example of this is the community that lives near Rio do Fogo Wind Farm (in Portuguese: Parque Eólico do Rio do Fogo - PERF). It was set up a few years ago in the northeast of Brazil. PERF was the first wind farm in the country and – as far as we could tell - there were no other studies about social-environmental impacts of national wind farms, still less involving children population. This wind farm is located on the Atlantic coast of the state of Rio Grande do Norte, near the beach village of Zumbi, whose inhabitants live with a very low income, under deficient health and education conditions. Therefore, there were contrasting realities between a high-tech enterprise and the conditions of life of local population. We wanted to approach the members of local community to get their perceptions and opinions about PERF, but were concerned about the reception we could receive. Inspired by the multi-method tradition of our research group, we decided to start our approach of those residents by the children. “They often respond more immediately to environmental conditions, freer of the overlay of symbolic, cultural, and past experiences that may obscure or distort adult reactions” (Altman & Wohlwill, 1980). In addition, children are the present day representatives of future generations, therefore with a fundamental role when sustainable life styles are considered. The participants in our study were three girls and two boys recruited at the local school, ages from nine to twelve, living nearby PERF. While having already incorporated the values of their local community, they were still young enough to express themselves more freely. Besides being capable of identifying and registering local aspects of their environment, somehow significant for the purposes of the study, they could easily handle a simple photographic camera, a highly motivational task. In accordance with the principles of the auto-photography technique, they were given one camera each and asked to take pictures of six places they liked the most and six places they liked the least, in a time frame of one week. With all colour photos developed and enlarged to postal card size, oneto- one interviews were performed, when children were asked to comment on the pictures they had taken, without knowing our research purposes were related to PERF. At the end of this stage of the study, we conducted a group interview with all the children and (again) asked questions about the photos, while everyone’s pictures were visible on panels. All five children took pictures of PERF as a place that they liked; when asked to rank the photos for preference, the wind farm was always in first or second place. When asked to choose one of the pictures to send to a (fictitious) relative who had never been in their community, two children chose scenes involving views of the wind farm. In sum, children presented a positive evaluation of PERF, as a symbol of progress and beautiful scenery. This research shows that the task of taking photos change in a pressure, motivated and game-like activity. The photographs were also used in the interviews with the adults, who were inquired about possible motives children had in taking them. Information gathering from the adult population received an additional input with such procedure, which also helped to establish a friendly atmosphere to their interviews. In sum, both the children and the strategy of using photographs were important elements in our evaluation of social and environmental impact of the wind farm. Our results suggest that both could (and should?) be used more frequently in environment-behaviour investigations, particularly in the case of environmental evaluations.
Collado, José Antonio Co, Lisbeth Bethelmy, and Lorenzo Esther. "Children´s Stress in Urban Settings and the Nearby Nature." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Nowadays, children spend less time in direct contact with nature than they did a few decades ago and it is having negative effects on their development and health. There is a growing body of literature showing evidences of these negative effects including physical, psychological and environmental consequences (Ozdemir y Yilmaz, 2008; Wells, 2000). Experiences that imply direct contact with the natural world are essential to people. Not only adults and children prefer to spend time in natural places rather than in urban ones (Castonguay & Juntras, 2009) but they also obtain benefits from the time spent in natural environments. In regard to children, those who have more access to nature show greater self-discipline (Taylor et al., 2002), better cognitive functioning (Wells, 2002) and more adult concern and behavior related to the natural environment (Wells & Lekies, 2006). The present study intends to explore the positive effects that nearby nature has on children, specifically the aim is to search for evidence of how nature increments children´s resilience, and to improve the quality of the urban design. It is known that nearby nature acts as a buffer of the stress produced by daily adversity (Wells & Evans, 2003; Corraliza, Collado & Ferrer, 2008). Children are able to cope with problems better if they have access to nearby nature and therefore their stress level is lower than those who do not have the daily possibility to experience nature. In order to get a better understanding of nature´s buffering effect, the nearby nature of 172 children aged between 10 and 12 was measured by a designed natural scale, as well as the nature they perceive, their frequency of exposure to adversity and psychological distress. Four primary schools were chosen according to the amount of nature present in the school and in its surroundings and the 172 children´s residential areas were visited. Our results support the Buffering Hypothesis showing empirical evidences of higher resilience in children whose access to daily nature is higher. In other words, among children who are exposed to the same frequency of stressful events, those who have daily direct contact with the natural world are able to cope with the stress better and therefore their stress level is lower than children whose daily surroundings are less natural. Furthermore, the protective effects of nearby nature are stronger for the more vulnerable children. The results give us an idea of the profound power of nature as a beneficial factor in children’s health and the importance of taking into account the amount of nearby nature in cities designs.
Stevens, Quentin. "City Beaches in Germany: Grassroots Urban Regeneration, Or Gentrification with Sand?" In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. This presentation draws on a wider research project investigating the rapid spread and great social and economic success of artificial ‘city beaches’ as an interim use of empty urban sites throughout Germany. The city beach’s unique range of materials, built elements and event programming, its physical and locational flexibility, and its extremely low set-up and operational costs all define it as a distinctively new type of publicly-accessible space which demonstrates creativity in the production of place and which suits limited finances and a rapidly changing built environment, a type which provides great bodily comfort and a diversity of behavioural affordances for a wide cross-section of the community. At the same time, this place type’s formulaic application throughout Europe, the basis of most such projects in private-sector gastronomy, and their generally up-market clientele all suggest that as a form of open space, the city beach may be little more than a themed environment which stimulates conspicuous consumption, and the latest, most extreme trend in a necessarily rapid cycle of novelty and planned obsolescence within the hospitality and tourism industries. In this context, the city beach may be neither local nor sustainable, but rather a landscape form that is well suited to a culture which is superficial, transient and disposable. The presentation explores the tensions between the apparent liveability gains that these city beaches offer for local residents, specifically in neighborhoods undergoing regeneration, and their role as commercialised venues for seeing and being seen which are in social terms highly stratified. The presentation draws upon behavioural observation, a survey of site managers with follow-up interviews, site analysis, and the scant secondary literature.
Tanaka, Yasuhiro. Classification of Urban Large Scale Condominiums from the Viewpoint of Residents' Relationship In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. It is estimates that about 13 millions people, that is to say about 10 percent of people, are live in condominiums in Japan now. Especially in urban area, because of concentration of people, many large scale condominiums have been built, and are being built. Some condominiums are large housing complex type where more than 1,000 families live, and others are tower type which are over 30 stories buildings. These condominiums are too large. We need to clarify how large scale condominiums influence residents’ lives. The purpose of this article is to clarify relationship between residents’ relations and condominium’s attributions such as scale, location and so on, in urban large scale condominiums around Tokyo. We conducted interviews and questionnaire to residents of condominium for this purpose. The subjects of the interviews are 7 people who live in condominium around Tokyo. We clarified that opportunities to get to know others in condominiums were categorized into following 4 groups through interviews. (1) Spatial proximity; living next door and in same floor, meeting with at EV. (2) Commitment to activities about home owners association. (3) Participation in events and circles which are carried out in condominium. (4) Existence of mediator, especially children. The subjects of the questionnaire are 21 urban large scale condominiums, and we analyzed 2,052 questionnaires. 21 condominiums were categorized into 4 groups by cluster analyses from a viewpoint of the number of close friends and acquaintances. We found that attributions of building were different in each groups. We call each group as follows. (a) Suburban housing complex type; residents tend to have many close friends and many acquaintances. (b) Urban housing complex type; residents tend to only have many close friends. (c) Suburban tower type; residents tend to only have many acquaintances. (d) Urban tower type; residents tend to have neither many close friends nor many acquaintances. After this cluster analyses, we considered the difference of opportunities to get to know others in condominiums by each group. We found that opportunities to get to know others have following characters. (1) Spatial proximity and (2) Commitment to activities about home owners association; These opportunities are more effective in (a) Suburban housing complex type and (c) Suburban tower type than in (b) Urban housing complex type and (d) Urban tower type. (3) Participation in events and circles; this opportunity is more effective in (a) Suburban housing complex type and (b) Urban housing complex type than in (c)Suburban tower type and (d)Urban tower type. (4) Existence of mediator, especially children; this opportunity is most effective in (a) Suburban housing complex type. Like these, we can found that residents’ relations differ from condominium’s attributions. We can consider that (1) Spatial proximity and (2) Commitment to activities about home owners association influence to get to know others, and that (3)Participation in events and circles influences to make close friends, in urban large scale condominiums.
Krellenberg, Kerstin, and Dirk Heinrichs. "Climate Adaptation Strategies of Latin American Agglomerations." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Induced by a growing consensus that climate change is inevitable (IPCC 2007), cities worldwide – being both, key sources of greenhouse gas emissions and highly vulnerable to the consequences of the changes - are starting to initiate action to both reduce carbon emission and to confront the anticipated effects. Latin America, the most urbanized of all developing world regions with more than 80% of its population living in urban areas, is no exception. A number of cities are starting to take local action. On the one hand, this provides the opportunity to draw first lessons on how local climate action addresses a whole range of challenges i.e. dealing with uncertainties, engaging in long term orientation and integrating sectors. On the other hand, there is question what prevents other cities from doing the same. This contribution studies the state of ‘formal’ adaptation strategies of four Latin American agglomerations: Sao Paulo, Santiago, Buenos Aires and Bogotá. While Sao Paulo has recently passed a legislation to enact its ‘Plano Municipal de Mudanças Climáticas’, the other three city regions have not yet formally engaged in local climate action. Nonetheless, an intense discussion in all three agglomerations is ongoing with several initiatives. The comparative study consists of three elements. First, it offers an analysis on the level of urban or city regions regarding their specific local climate, the expected future changes and their challenges of response action to climate change. Second, the contribution provides a systematic understanding of the complex interacting processes between climate change and exposed urban functions, sectors and population on the local level. Related questions are: What pressures are driving climate change, how are they interacting, and what consequences or impacts are observed or expected? And how are existing strategies and local action plans responding to these impacts? Third, the contribution intends to make explicit how existing adaption action works and to explain the range of response options adopted by the four case cities along the way they attempt to conceptualize the relationship of the city with ‘nature’. Fourth and finally, based on all three different viewpoints, differences and similarities, as well as challenges and constraints between the different cities are worked out. The contribution ends with a discussion and evaluation of what can be learned from these examples regarding ‘good local climate change action planning’. The research is based on official documents, expert interviews, literature reviews and analysis of statistical data.
Fischer, Anke, Tony Craig, and Carlos Galan Diaz. "Climate Change and Energy Consumption: Behaviours and Coping Strategies." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. The seemingly inevitable advent of climate change has been one of the prevalent policy discourses of the beginning of this XXI century. Human activities are indisputable contributors to the problem but, interestingly, we as a species do not seem to realise the urgency with which changes have to happen to address climate change effectively. Despite numerous psychological and sociological studies on attitudes towards and behaviours related to climate change, we still do not seem to understand why we as humans, while seeing an imminent threat to our well-being, are not acting on it. Our study takes this lack of understanding as a starting point and asks, first, how people actually make sense of climate change, to test the hypothesis that there might be a gap between the dominant policy discourses and the mental representations held by the public. Second, we hypothesise that people’s reactions to climate change might also be masqueraded into a number of coping mechanisms. That is, this apparent lack of action could actually be an active coping mechanism that allows people to get on with their everyday lives. We present results from a survey of the Scottish public (n=500) that explored what participants’ perceptions of “eminent and current global threats” were in order to asses if climate change is indeed socially represented as something we must act upon with urgency as the media and political discourses suggests. We also identified specific coping mechanisms and their relationship to relevant behaviours, lifestyles and other constructs. The results are interpreted in light of coping and adaptation theories which, on the general level, advocate that coping can be seen as the “thoughts or behaviors that people use to manage the internal and external demands of situations that are appraised as stressful” (Folkman and Moskowitz, 2004, p. 747). As such, in order to initiate coping behaviours there is a conceptual as well as a practical requirement: something must be appraised as stressful or threatening in order to evoke coping behaviour. However, the inherent problem of climate change as a global and complex environmental change is that there is no clear and immediate feedback on the consequences of our behaviour, including coping. This is demonstrated by the coping literature which, according to Folkman and Moskowitz, has always been based on past or concurrent stressors and only formally included proactive or prospective coping after almost 30 years of research. We thus support other research efforts which see environmental and other global problems, in our case climate change, as sufficiently stressing to merit coping behaviours (see Homburg, Stolberg and Wagner, 2007), and expand on this arguing that one of the most daunting issues of climate change is its ubiquity and lack of prompt feedback that creates coping mechanisms such as denial (e.g. Carver, 1997) or deproblematizationfocused coping (Homburg et al, 2007) that prevent people from taking the immediate actions required to solve the issues related to climate change.
Whitmarsh, Lorraine, and Saffron O’Neill. "Climate Change Icons and Imagery: Understanding, Communicating and Responding to Climate Change." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Images which the public tend to associate with climate change are more often distant in space and time (e.g., melting ice caps, impacts on future generations), but are also often underpinned by strong moral conceptions of human degradation of the natural world. Although most people accept the need to tackle climate change, most do not see the issue as personally relevant and are unwilling to change their lifestyle to address the issue – despite numerous government and NGO communication campaigns to engage the public with the issue. Communication of climate change by the mass media and other communicators (e.g., policy-makers, NGOs) tend to rely on dramatic and alarmist images and language. Fear appeals in climate change are prevalent in the public domain. Polar bears stranded on ice floes have become iconic of climate change, and those depicting human struggle are evident in the famine and water shortages depicted in the climate campaign literature of charity Christian Aid. Yet, recent research suggests that while these commonplace dramatic, sensational, fearful, and shocking climate change representations can successfully capture people’s attention to the issue of climate change and drive a general sense of the importance of the issue, they are also likely to distance or disengage individuals from the issue, tending to render them feeling helpless and overwhelmed. In this paper, we review communication efforts to engage the public with climate change and present findings from a mixed-methods study to investigate the efficacy of a design-based approach to communicating climate change using more personally motivating climate change icons and images which attempt to overcome the psychological distance individuals experience in relation to climate change.
Bertoldo, Raquel Bohn. "Climate Change Social Representations: Implication and Context Effects." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. According to specialists, human carbon emissions are responsible for present changes in climate. In order to attain a sustainable development with low carbon emissions our society’s behaviors towards the environment have therefore to be effectively changed. Considering that these changes rely on personal efforts – such as giving away certain comforts – they require considerable personal involvement; that is considerably lower in climate change (Lorenzoni et al, 2007; Lorenzoni et al, 2005) than regarding other prominent issues (unemployment, violence or health). A change at the behavioral level would be therefore the reflex at the personal level (Doise, 1982) of changes in the sociological level – by means of a social representations reconfiguration. This study aimed at observing the impact of induced personal involvement and interpersonal context on the experienced personal involvement and the ‘climate change’ social representation’s structure. Within a 2 X 2 between subjects plan, we manipulated (1) the representation’s enunciation context (a student’s or a national climate agency research) and (2) the induced involvement with climate change (strong of weak). Were measured (1) experienced personal involvement and (2) social representation structure. One hundred students at the Psychology Department of the Université Paris Descartes composed our sample. The context manipulation was based on the study presentation. In the student and official research conditions the researcher’s approach as well as the questionnaire style were different. The personal involvement manipulation was based on a small 2007 IPCC report paragraph stressing climate change’s consequences either on biodiversity or on mankind. The experienced involvement was measured with an implication scale; and the social representations’ structure was identified with a characterization questionnaire composed by 12 elements previously identified as part of the representation in focal interviews on climate change. Results: the representation is clearly structured around elements such as ‘heating’, ‘ice sheet melting’ and ‘sea level rise’. The context affected elements’ organization within the social representations’ structure: in the ‘formal research’ condition, the elements ‘pollution’ and ‘human action result’ are much more connected to other elements than in the ‘student research’ condition. This structural reor- ganization is even clearer when induced involvement is higher. Conclusion: a re-framing of climate change, increasingly accentuated by an induced personal implication, could lead to a representational reconfiguration that would eventually support more concrete conservation behaviors.
J. Hipp, Aaron. "Coastal Restorative Environments and Environmental Change." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. This research explores the hypothesis that gradients in environmental parameters influence the relationship between the nature experience and latent measures of psychological and physical health. The experiences of natural environments elicit numerous health benefits. These include health outcomes associated with physical activity as well as salutogenic psychological health benefits correlated with contact with natural environments and the removal of oneself from stress-inducing and fatigue-associated built and urban environments. As specific health attributes of natural environment visitation are further elucidated, it is time to consider the health costs linked with constraints in natural environment visitation. The present study aims to fill the knowledge gap regarding influences of environmental gradients on the nature experience and health outcomes relationship, with a primary focus on climate change. This is an opportune time to address this gap due to climate change vulnerabilities and the WHO’s study revealing neuropsychiatric diseases the number one burden of disease. The objectives of the study were to survey visitors at coastal parks where there are current, measurable environmental gradients and elucidate the relationship between perceived restorativeness of coastal environments and gradients in environmental quality. Adult visitors (n = 1,153) to three California State Parks and Beaches were surveyed on 75 randomly selected dates across all months of 2008. Participants completed a questionnaire on park visitation; perceived weather, environmental quality, and crowding; stress and perceived restorativeness; and demographic characteristics. Visitors perceived a greater environmental restorativeness when (1) temperatures were at or below monthly maximum temperatures; (2) mean sea level was below average; and (3) air quality/ozone concentrations were government-rated ‘Good’ (compared to ‘Moderate’ or worse). Visitors’ environmental quality perceptions were positively correlated with perceived restorativeness. The healthier the self-perceived air and water quality in park, the greater the environment was rated on the Perceived Restorativeness Scale. Finally, visitors on days with ambient temperatures above average were significantly more likely to state they would ‘Visit for a shorter time’ or ‘Definitely not visit’ when presented with hypothetical warmer temperature scenarios. Given results, projected global climate change could constrain the psychological health benefits associated with coastal park visitation. One of the most salient findings of this research is that the foremost environmental parameter contributions to perceived restorativeness in natural parks were perception of water and air quality, temperature difference from monthly mean, and sea level. Each of these parameters is projected to be adversely affected by global climate change. These impacts are likely to increase as climate change progresses and population density increases. Warmer ambient temperatures, with less space due to sea level rise, and less healthy environmental quality will surely offer a different experience within coastal parks. The significant contribution of both perceived and actual gradients in environmental parameters to the perceived restorativeness of coastal park environments has broad implications. Overall, the results advance the understanding of how environmental quality contributes to human – environment experience and explicates the need for further research to ascertain thresholds within parametric environmental gradients beyond which public participation in psychologically restorative activities is significantly impaired.
Lord, Sébastien. "Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Methods in Housing Research." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. The choice of a qualitative or quantitative method in research is often a false debate. More than a methodological choice, this choice positions the researcher within a paradigm defining its disciplinary references. Studies truly linking quantitative and qualitative are still uncommon. Lack of time and financial resources are typically invoked for not using the combination. Mostly fundamentally, true limitations are linked to the complexity of endorsing such a dual approach from the research object construction to data gathering and analyses. Indeed, epistemological, theoretical and empirical difficulties are constant obstacles to be confronted. This communication presents a reflection at the heart of these challenges. It was developed in the context of a doctoral thesis that aimed at describing and understanding the evolution of mobility during the aging process, in both its behavioral and experiential dimensions. The research was conducted with a multiple epistemological and methodological standpoint, tackling the object of study at once from an individual and longitudinal perspective. The presentation discusses the challenges of crossing qualitative and quantitative approaches, namely during the formulation the research questions/hypotheses, the construction of the theoretical framework, as well as the empirical work itself. The relevance of such combined approached, but also their limitations and most needed improvements are discussed in the conclusion.
Berglund, Ulla, and Kerstin Nordin. "Communicating Experiences and Interests in Local Urban Planning - the Method Children's Maps in Gis." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Since 2002 we have successively developed “Children’s Maps in GIS”, a method for children’s and young people’s participation in spatial planning. We have carried out several pilots in schools of different urban settings, and by divers means we have evaluated the function and the trustworthiness of the method. Our studies show that 10-15 year-olds are capable of using a GIS-application for communicating their experiences and interests into the local urban planning process in a stable and useful manner. In an applied study for the Swedish Road Administration we adapted the method to better catch matters concerning traffic safety and the use of roads. This version became our standard tool, as it showed to work well for children of different ages and also suited the demand from local authorities for information on for example school routes. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the method in connection to its social context. If information produced by children is really going to influence the urban planning process all links in the communication chain must function. In this light we will describe the method and the rationale behind it. We will discuss our experiences concerning access to hardware, programme, databases as well as place and time for contribution, children’s and teachers’ competence to read maps, to handle computers, the schools willingness to cooperate etc. In the paper we will shortly discuss why and how children can be given the opportunity to participate in the planning process. We will focus on the benefits and problems with using GIS for this purpose and on working in schools. As a background we will shortly describe the role of GIS in urban planning in Sweden today. To illustrate the current situation in the development of the method we will report some experiences from a recent test in a real life context. In 2008 “Children’s Maps in GIS” was used by the local authorities in a Swedish municipality to gather information from over 600 children as part of a comprehensive planning process. The amount of information required new solutions for the presentation of data. Functions within the local administration dealing with social matters also took interest in the information, which demanded new interpretations and considerations concerning the possible and suitable applications for the method and the presentation of results. So far we have been using laptops for collecting information. As the method now is going to be transferred into Internet we are now addressing new issues especially about administration and technical support. A new interface with some possibilities that we have been missing in the laptop-version is being developed and will be tested in a pilot in spring 2010. Access to GIS-programme and digital maps are also crucial as well as finding ways of storing data in an ethical and secure way. So is the need for detailed instructions for the supervisors and users when we ourselves will not be at hand. These issues are also on our current agenda will be touched upon in the paper. Finally we have some critical remarks about the method, things need further development. Although children provide information, they are not in charge of the presentation of their interests. The distribution of power and responsibilities among professionals and children involved will be discussed as well as the very power that is connected to maps and how this can be dealt with it in the Internet version of the method.
Rambow, Riklef. "Communication of Architecture - the Emergence of a New Discipline?" In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. The conditions for architectural practice are dramatically changing. The increasing complexity of architectural design that arises from the accelerating technological change as well as from a highly volatile structure on the side of the client bodies and from the pressing need to consider ecological demands leads to a number of demands that can only be met through new forms of practice that rely on interdisciplinarity, network structures, and participation. The individual architect will more and more be dependent on functional cooperation with professionals from a high diversity of disciplinary backgrounds. Additionally, as the enormous impact of the accumulated building stock on the overall energy consumption and the implied effects on climate change have increasingly become regarded as an important aspect of programmatic political action, architects find themselves in the duty of becoming energy experts. Taking Germany as an example, it can be shown that the number of laws, prescriptions, and regulations concerning energetic aspects of new and existing buildings has risen enormously over the last years, and so has the need for architects to integrate rapidly changing new knowledge into their designs as well as to communicate their competence accordingly. New certification systems for sustainable architecture are an additional means for dealing with the new complexities. But they, too, increase the pressure on architectural practices to publicly show that they can competently integrate the diverse demands into a coherent design solution. These changes, that here can only be hinted at, make it necessary to think about how the education of architects can be modified to prepare them adequately for the requirements from their future practice. Aside from a closer integration of engineering subjects that deal directly with questions of sustainability and ways of reducing energy demand in buildings, one possible approach relies on the strengthening of the communicative abilities of architects. Insofar as the architect’s role is more and more becoming one of an organizer of interdisciplinary networks and of a mediator of conflicting public and private interests, it becomes all the more often necessary to communicate across disciplinary borders. The architect, in all phases of the design process, must be able to explain, to show, to describe, and to argue for his design to people of very diverse knowledge levels, expectations, goals, and interests. He must be able to use all kinds of visual and verbal media in a way specially tailored to the needs of the respective target group or person. He must therefore have a flexible set of communicative strategies and tactics at his disposal. Surprisingly enough, in contrast to other cultural fields like music or arts, there has been rather little systematic research and conceptual development in the area of communication of architecture, in spite of the fact that it seems quite obvious that architecture, as a subject, is specific enough to let it seem unwise to simply rely on strategies developed in other fields. In the presentation, the concept of “Architekturvermittlung” will be described, which has been developed and tested as one approach towards the integration of communicative competencies into architecture education and practice. The concept has by now a certain prevalence and popularity in the German-speaking countries, so it can be examined if it might make sense to think of “Architekturvermittlung” as an emerging new sub-discipline.
Wojcik, Deborah. Communication, Cognition and Adaptive Capacity in a Changing Context: Water and Wildlife Resources in the Okavango Delta Region, Botswana In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. In the semi-arid Okavango Delta of Botswana, livelihoods are inextricably tied to a highly variable natural environment. While humans have developed adaptive strategies to address variability in seasonal precipitation, global change has the potential to exacerbate vulnerabilities and challenge existing strategies. Variability in the overall amount of rainfall has increased, and climate change model predictions indicate that water resources could decrease by as much as 25% in the region over the next several decades (IPCC 2007). The people of the Okavango Delta rely on water resources for consumption, household use, food production, and to sustain wildlife populations essential to local tourism-based livelihoods. Anticipated changes in precipitation are predicted to affect wildlife populations, their abundance, locations, and migration patterns (Malcolm et al. 2002), which has the potential to increase conflicts between humans and wildlife as competition for limited resources increases with decreases in rainfall. Furthermore, many rural communities receive benefits from wildlife tourism through Community-Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) programs. With joint goals of poverty reduction and natural resource conservation, changes in wildlife population densities and movements could greatly impact livelihoods in communities where benefits from CBNRM are of critical importance. Global change adds further complexity and uncertainty to an already delicately balanced ecosystem and human habitat. This transdisciplinary research is based upon the premise that information is a critical currency for adaptation, and to begin to understand how humans may react to anticipated climatic and environmental changes, we must investigate how people access and integrate information from various sources. The study employs social network analysis and cognitive mapping exercises to investigate information flows to and among community members and the influence that this incoming information has on individuals’ mental models, the cognitive representations of one’s environment and experiences. Since decisions are based upon an individual’s interpretation of available information, the investigation of information flows and cognition can importantly inform our understanding of vulnerability and adaptability of rural populations facing global change uncertainties. This study specifically addresses water and wildlife resources in four rural villages participating in CBNRM in the Okavango Delta region of Botswana. While there are national government ministries that influence the management of both water and wildlife resources in Botswana, communication around these resources differs. Decisions about water are often made at the micro scale, with information exchanged within households and family groups. In contrast, wildlife resources are managed at the community level, with information disseminated through CBNRM governance structures. The investigation of variables affecting information flows can contribute to more effective communication strategies about the resources themselves, as well as people’s rights with regard to these resources. Results indicate that many variables affect information flows, the integration of information into mental models, and the decisions people make. Information sharing can vary with trust among information providers and receivers, the potential for elite capture of information, the size of the community (both number of individuals and geographic extent), the ethnicity of the community member, and the management structure of the resource in question (CBNRM for wildlife, not water). Understanding the communicative connections among people, their perceptions and decisions, provides vital information about how individuals can learn from others, become empowered through enhanced communication, build adaptive capacity for greater socio-ecological resilience, and ultimately make more informed decisions.
Bonet, M. R., A. Castrechini, M. Sahagun, and R. Zapata. "Community Participation in Public Space Transformation: Debating Public Square Through Media." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. There is an ongoing discussion on the design of public spaces and participatory planning (Horelli, 2002; an exposition of processes in these dynamics in Vidal, 2008), that sometimes elicits paradoxical situations with the essence of participation: the planned process —imposed—, which can be used as a medium with clear political interests that can lead to exhaustion and distrust of citizens (Castrechini, 2008). Moreover, the discussion above mentioned is closely linked to participatory experiences of people in every each city. Community design requires more than what urban designers are typically called upon to do; it requires the active participation of others (Brower, 2005); in fact, involving local communities in the —city or neighborhood— design processes can play a role in creating responsive environments and achieving community satisfaction (Romice, 2002). The purpose of this communication is to examine the role of the press during the period in which the urban regeneration of Barcelona’s Lesseps square became visible until the moment of its inauguration. After three years of intensive work, the subject gained a significant place in the media as matter of public debate. Along with the reactions generated by the project, the complex participatory process of the project and its presence in the media provided an ideal setting for analyzing this public debate as a case study. Our analysis is aimed at delimiting the ways in which the public debate on the subject has been mediated and objectified. This study is part of a research that seeks to answer the following questions: a) are participatory procedures able to guarantee an optimal result in the production of public space?, and b) which aspects should be taken into account when introducing citizen’s demands, needs and expectations into public space design processes? The analysis included a thematical categorization of contents in a sample of 101 items of news published in four newspapers (El País, La Vanguardia, El Periódico, and Avui), from 05/01/2008 to 07/03/2009. The analytical categories were organized in the form of a “triangular approach” exploring (a) objects (urban public space, the square in general and its components, the participatory process, people, other objects); (b) positions (actors, events, adjectives, values, arguments, things unsaid, implicit beliefs, images and usages); and (c) interactions (conflicts, collaborations, lack of interaction, key moments and effects). The analysis was conducted with the aid of ATLAS.ti software. The debate generated by the press fosters a selective magnification of some facts, a reductionist view of events linked with the history of the square, and an oversimplification of ongoing debates about public space design. On one hand, the press offers little support to measures of preservation and improvement regarding the achievement of a design more adjusted to the neighbors’ expectations. Additionally, there is a low contribution of media to disseminate new formal proposals in the construction of public space emphasizing, thus, the negative aspects of the debate. On the other hand, the press tends to focus the debate on the hidden intentions of the participatory process instead of assessing the strengths and weaknesses associated to the process (content, time, effort invested) with the aim of improving future participatory process. This study underlines the need for thorough approaches to the “know-how” of the participatory process conducted in the framework of the public space design. This contribution belongs to the symposium “A plural psycho-social view of Barcelona’s public space nowadays: experiences of risk, participation, and leisure”, that summarizes the main results of the project “Conflictive experiences in public space: New modes of coexistence, uses and opportunities for the participation in urban cohesion” (reference SEJ2006-08975/PSIC; Director: E. Pol), supported by Spain’s Ministry of Education and Science.
Feuerbach, Frank. Community Planning in Shrinking Cities. Between Top-Down and Bottom-Up – the Case of Reitbahnviertel in the City of Chemnitz, Germany In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Many East German cities are being shaped significantly by population loss and aging as well as drastic changes in the local economy. These phenomena are consequences of the political and economic transformation that has occurred in Central and Eastern European countries since 1989. In many places, this process has created a new type of post-industrial cityscape: the aged, shrunken, and fragmented city. In the field of urban geography, there has been a shift from the classic orthodoxy of topdown planning towards a grassroots urban development at the community-level. The empowerment and increased involvement of semi-regulated and private participants have also been characterized as a shift from government to governance - a concept which needs to be linked to the internationalization of local economies and the reshaping of state apparatuses according to neoliberal concepts. Nevertheless, this shift also seems to accord with community-oriented conceptions of society such as civil society or even communitarism. In the context of shrinking and aging cities, this shift creates various dilemmas which are counterproductive to the success of participatory communities sharing the respon- sibility for various endogenous revitalization processes. First of all, local initiatives for community management depend heavily on funding from superordinate agencies such as the EU, or the federal government resulting in an actual power transfer from a city’s urban planning commissions to the treasury. In addition, research on governance in East Germany detects a persisting top-down-conception of how to revitalize neighborhoods among planners and politicians. As a consequence, additional funding sources might not be tapped sufficiently. Secondly, the scope and influence of community organizations are limited and also depend on their grade of institutionalization. Therefore the professionalism of the involved citizens determines their interplay with different actors at higher levels, endowed with various accesses and means to different forms of power. Thirdly, empowering local residents is difficult because the neighborhoods in question tend to become more and more demographically and socio-economically homogenous, with residents who are rich in human capital moving out of the neighborhood. On the one hand, it is important to note that consensus is more likely to be achieved in homogenous communities. On the other hand, heterogeneity is conceived as crucial for the resilience of neighborhoods and their social fabric. In the case of Chemnitz, there is an inner-city neighborhood called “Reitbahnviertel”. Newcomers to the area include students and individuals who might be considered “pioneers of gentrification” – a constellation which should be welcomed by the city’s officials. So far, however, the city has not fully acknowledged this new group as a viable partner in revitalizing the neighborhood. Furthermore, long-time residents (often senior citizens) have not gained the support and instruction needed from professionals in order to become involved in neighborhood planning. As a consequence, conflicts may increasingly arise between the involved stakeholders in the future. Focusing on the topic of shrinking and aging cities, the paper discusses exemplarily the recent redevelopment of the inner-city neighborhood “Reitbahnviertel” and its effects on the constructed as well as the social environment that shapes the social fabric of a neighborhood despite its age or income structure etc. Drawing upon the conflicting logics of planning and the dilemmas outlined above, the main purpose of research is to search for institutional constellations and planning methods that foster participation and equity in neighborhoods most affected by negative aspects of demographic change. Qualitative interviews, secondary statistical analysis and active involvement in community organizing activities at the “Reitbahnviertel” will be conducted in this problem-driven research. One of the guiding assumptions is that new growth or economic revitalization should not be the initial impetus of the dialogic planning methods suggested. To the contrary, the main question is how participatory or community planning represent adequate means to build capacities that make neighborhoods more resilient to further decline. The findings of the paper are part of a dissertation that focuses on community planning in shrinking city regions in Germany and the USA.
Tanaka, Kenji, Fumihiko Yamada, Ryuji Kakimoto, Fujimi Toshio, and Terunori Ohmoto. "Community-Based Risk Management System Based on Plan-Do-Check-Action Cycle in Kumamoto, Japan." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. It is widely recognized that community-based flood risk communication among residents, regional communities, and administrative authorities is central to effective flood risk management. A risk management process based on the Plan-Do- Check-Action (PDCA) cycle helps in sharing information about what is required for each community and in designing a plan that fulfills residents’ needs. To make disaster information services more familiar to end users, community-based risk communication based on the PDCA cycle is indispensable. However, it is also important to inform residents of the hydrological and rainfall conditions of not only the target area, but also of the surrounding areas because of the nature of the spatial and time scales of meteorological phenomena, as described below. Therefore, this study aims to develop tools to support community-based risk management that meets the needs of local residents for flood risk preparedness. Activities on flood risk communications in the central of the Kumamoto city, west of Ja- pan, began January 2006. In the first cycle of the PDCA cycle, the community based flood hazard map was produced as PLAN step. The flood prevention drill (DIG) practice was held as DO step. As a CHECK step, a flood evacuation drill was held, assuming that some roads blocked. Each participant brought the cellular phone equipped with GPS receiver in order to track the evacuation route. After the analysis of tracked data, questioanaire, and discussion, it is found that it was hard for elder people to go up the steep slope on foot inside the community. Throughout the risk communication with local residents, the major needs from local residents were as follows: 1) temporary evacuation spots should be established for each block 2) real-time information, especially that regarding inland flooding, is insufficient 3) ways to ensure the safety of vulnerable residents who need support during evacuation need to be considered. // To address the concerns of local residents revealed by these results, we developed support tools for risk management as part of the second PDCA cycle. The database management system consists of the master server installed at Kumamoto University and mirror server at the Kumamoto City Office. Realtime hydrometeological observation data, provided from the national government and Kumamoto Prefecture, were retrieved automatically. After analysis, the distribution of detail rainfall and water level displayed on web interfaces: with a resolution smaller than 5 km, detail enough to resolve the convective rainfall. An inland flood observation system was installed at the central of the Kosen community area. Precipitation measured using tipping-bucket rain gauge and water level monitored by water gauge and web camera. The local residents can get the real-time information by connecting their personal computer, cellular phone, and FM radio. The safety confirmation system was development as a tool for ensuring the safety of vulnerable people inside the community. First, an alert e-mail is sent automatically from the database server to decision makers. After receiving the alert email, the leader confirms the status of the vulnerable residents of each community block. Once all such vulnerable residents in a community block are evacuated safely, the community leader in charge will then send a confirmation e-mail using their cellular phone’s web interface. Next, the evacuation status of the local community is automatically updated on the Geographical Information System (GIS) in which the blocks that have started evacuation activities are surrounded by a yellow border, while the shaded blue areas denote blocks with all vulnerable residents already safely evacuated. After the test at the evacuation drill held in October 2009, it was found that the system basically worked well. The system will be expanded other communities in near future.
Jimenez, Bernardo. "Compact City and Downtown Regeneration: the Case of the Park Morelos." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. I will discuss the relation between the concepts of public space, compact city and urban regeneration and present a study about a central park in downtown Guadalajara where the mayor office proposed a regeneration project for downtown Guadalajara in the context of the building of an Olympic Villa for the Pan-American Games in 2011. The project was defined in the frame of the compact city principles and with the aim of situating the city in the global scenario, taken the example of other well known cities. But the citizens and the neighbors were not properly informed, nor included in the process of decision taking, nor consulted when the project was in the making. They only did it afterward when needed to buy their houses or receive their approval. When the mayor went to present the project as something good for them and for the city through the experts invited with that purpose, the neighbors angrily rejected them and the project. The study was done for defining the problems of the park in the experience of neighbors and users and for consulting them about the architects winner project for rehabilitating the park who asked the study and were open to changes proposed by the neighbors and users. Mapping, participatory observation, conversational, deep and group interviews were done. The results were delivered to the architects and to the neighbors and incorporated in the project. And at the end the neighbors had a meeting with the architects for discussing the project an exchange their ideas. The experience was successful but it didn´t led to influence the decisions taken by the mayor office regarding the regeneration project that then changed completely forced by the crisis. The lack of proper participation as a key factor in any regeneration project and the need of a symmetrical approach where people experience and knowledge is incorporated into the regeneration projects is discussed and the end of the project is described.
Leslie, Julien, Stephen Gallagher, and Anja Schumann. Comparing the Use of Information, Social-Interventions and Incentives as Possible Applied Behaviour Analysis Intervention for Promotion of Recycling Behaviour in Students In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. The preservation and restoration of the natural environment, such as the conservation of natural resources and prevention of pollution, is currently one of the most important topics in global, national and local politics. Due to limited natural resources (e.g., fossil fuels) and the degree of the growing pollution of our environment, immediate measures need to be taken to reduce the negative impact mankind has upon the environment. Several strategies are suggested by global, national and local institutions, both, private and government funded, like the Kyoto Protocol or the Carbon Disclosure Project. In the very essence of each of these projects we find the aim of altering human behaviour. Only by changing human behaviour towards the environment, will carbon emissions, waste and the use of resources be reduced. As Skinner put it in “Beyond freedom and Dignity” “…the environment will continue to deteriorate until polluting practices are abandoned” With the introduction of European Union regulations on waste targets, the UK is committed to reducing waste, recycling and reusing policies. Applied Behaviour Analysis Antecedent Strategies aim to influence factors that may influence behaviours before they occur, such as information, goal setting and modelling. Consequence or reinforcement strategies mainly offer rewards for the performance of a pro-environmental behaviour, for example prizes and monetary incentives and also feedback in the form of continuous information upon recycling. The present study focused on recycling behaviour among a population of students. The use of continuous feedback as a possible intervention to decrease the level of contamination in blue recycling bins was implemented. Each student household was equipped with a recycling bin and levels of contamination therein were measured. Continuous feedback, in the form of blue tickbox sheets was introduced. Results indicate that continuous feedback decreases the level of contamination from about 40% to less than 2% respectively. The use of an incentive raffle scheme to increase appropriate bin movement was tested. Households that placed their recycling bin at the collection point when bins where emptied had a chance to win vouchers for a local supermarket. Results showed an increase of participation from baseline behaviour of 0% to 20% respectively. The techniques of prompts, social interventions and continuous feedback were tested with varying success on the continuous output of recyclables.
Payret, Clio. Comparison of Social Representations of Collective Environmental Risks of Littoral Areas In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Global climate change poses new problems with regard to natural risks, in particular in coastal zones. It is anticipated that rising sea levels, amplified by the greenhouse effect, will increase the frequency of coastal storms and lead to permanent submersion of many areas, and thus present a major risk to the inhabitants. The aim of this research is to look into the confrontation between the human population and the collective environmental risks of littoral areas, in the context of a study of social thought. In the framework of the structural approach to social representations theory (Abric, 1987, 1989, 1994), this work aims to understand the representations of the coastal populations facing natural risks. In this approach, the main characteristic of a social representation is that it is organized around a central core. This core consists of one or a small number of fundamental elements which provide the overall meaning of the representation and serve to organise the other elements of the system. The central core is completed by a peripheral system which, by allowing interindividual differences, adapts the representation, regulates it and protects it from concrete reality. The peripheral system takes into account the experience of each individual and his relationship with his environment. The interest of this kind of approach lies in the fact that social representations are the result of a process of co-construction of reality carried out by a given social group. Social representations underline, on one hand, the variety of modes of expression and experiences of each individual and, on the other hand, the similarities in the meanings and modes of reasoning associated with an object within a particular group. This study compares the social representations of natural risks held by coastal populations from different administrative regions of France. We will be looking to extend this research to include the coastal populations of the Netherlands. A previous study (Baggio & Rouquette, 2006) on flooding, as well as a preliminary study of the coast of Languedoc-Roussillon, suggested the existence of “site effects” in the construction of the representation. We therefore expect to find different attitudes towards the risks at different locations as well as more or less elaborate representations. In this light, we have chosen to observe, by means of a questionnaire, the variation in the structure of the representations held by the inhabitants of the French coasts according to their city and the seriousness of the environmental problems they face. We selected two coastal cities for each study region (Aquitaine, Brittany, Languedoc-Roussillon and Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur). Firstly, the results from each pair of cities reveal differences in the representations of these risks within the same region. Secondly, the comparison between regions highlights differences based on geographical specificities and cultural customs. These differences provide an estimate of the distance between perceived risk and effective risk and demonstrate the existence of “site effects” on the representations. In addition, we are also looking at the role of the emotions in the perception of these events, because emotions are known to impact the way we perceive and build the reality which surrounds us (Rimé, 2005 ; Guimelli & Rimé, 2009). The purpose here is to estimate the role that emotions play in the construction of the social representations of collective risks, of which littoral risks are a part.
Corraliza, Jose Antonio, Lisbeth Bethelmy, Esther Lorenzo, and Silvia Collado. "Connectedness with Nature and Environmental Concern in Urban Environments." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. The aim of the present work is to highlight the importance of the Connectedness with Nature (CNS) in relation with environmental concern, as well as the proposition mediating role of the CNS between the relationship of psychosocial variables and the environmental concern, specifically, the Inclusion of Nature in the Self (INS), the New Human Interdependence Paradigm (NHIP) and the Affinity Towards Diversity (ATD). Also, frequency of visits to natural spaces is included in the model. Participants are 137 graduate and postgraduate students of the Autonomous University of Madrid (20,4 % men and 78,1 % women, age mean = 23,5). A questionnaire including all the proposed variables has been designed. Comparative and correlate analyses by demographic and psychosocial variables, multiple regression and path analysis were done to know the direct and indirect effects proposed in the hypothesis. After the analyses, the connectedness with nature (CNS) included a homogeneous factor that describes the feeling of uniqueness, emotional nearness, and sense of oneness with the natural world, explaining a type of ecocentric identity and of interrelationship of the person with nature and his/her position in relationship with other living organisms. Beliefs of the New Human Interdependence Paradigm produce one factor that involves the integration of the notion of the new environmental paradigm and the anthropocentric vision in the managing and use that people makes with the environmental resources, within the notion of the sustainable development. Regarding Affinity Towards Diversity, the best arrangement describes only one factor that expresses different kinds of diversity: cultural, sexual, political and biological. The multiple regression analysis using environmental concern as criteria variable shows that the first predictor is the variable connectedness with nature and the frequency of visit to a natural space is the second one. Beliefs of the NHIP is related with the CNS only across the mediating effect of the affinity towards diversity. The mediating effect of the connectedness to nature is confirmed. Beliefs of NHEP and Affinity Towards Diversity seem to act only through the mediating effect of the feeling of identity and oneness that people establish with the natural world. Thereby, the environmental concern would be a kind of postcognitive effect caused by an emotional response in interaction with nature. High levels of emotional response produce high levels of the environmental concern in the same way. In addition, the inclusion of nature in the self is a strong predictor for all variables of the model, except the frequency of visits to a natural space, with which it shares a significant association. Therefore, the visit to a natural space in the urban environment appears as a powerful action for the establishment of guidelines and identities that there promote educational programs of links and respect to the natural available resources.
Röderer, Elisabeth Hefler Kat, Margarete Huber, and Renate Cervinka. "Connectedness with Nature – a Promising Link Between Ecosystem Health and Human Health." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Recently, environmental psychology research has focused on human-nature relationships; thereby the promising concept of connectedness with nature (CN) was investigated in detail. Empirical evidence suggests CN predicts conservation behaviour, psychological well-being, and leisure time preferences. Results from quantitative as well as qualitative studies show a preference for nature and natural settings, compared to built ones. We propose CN as important predictor in leisure time behavior and human health, currently not being considered in research as well as in practise according to its importance. The aim of this presentation is to show results from quantitative as well as qualitative studies on CN. All studies were carried out in Vienna, Austria and its surroundings. Participants were part of the general population aged between 16 and 84. First, we explored the relationship (N=547) between CN, different domains of well-being (WB) and time spent in nature for recreational purposes (TINrp). CN was assessed with two measures: the connectedness with nature scale and the connectedness with nature singleitem scale. Further, we applied a set of measures for WB and TINrp. CN was found to be related with psychological WB, vitality, the personality factor meaningfulness as well as transcendental aspects, even when controlling for effects of age and sex. TINrp correlated even higher with CN compared to WB and was less prone to confounding. Second, we investigated motives for being in nature, evaluations of environments and preferences for indoor or outdoor setting using a mixed quantitative and qualitative approach (N=130). Participants´ motives for being in nature differed significantly according to the participants´ level of CN. While these low on CN sojourned in nature for utilitarian or social reasons, participants high on CN sojourned in nature for rather restorative reasons. Outdoor settings were perceived as more restorative as the indoor settings. Moreover, they were preferred and evaluated as more positive. In summary, we identified CN as relevant for mental health and health related behaviour. As being outdoors is perceived and evaluated highly positive, being in nature contributes to individuals´ recreation and well-being, especially for those high on CN. CN should be considered in health education and health promotion, analogous to its account in the environmental domain. Further, we suggest introducing CN as a relevant moderating factor in restoration. So far, our findings are in line with prior research, provide new insights into underlying mechanisms and are subject of suggestions and recommendations. However, some open questions remain. “What are peoples´ inner images of nature? What do they associate and expect when being asked to think of nature?” These questions are topic of an ongoing qualitative study with participants (N= 80) from the general population.
Röderer, Renate Cervinka K.. Connectedness with Nature – a Sparkling Psychological Construct! In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Recently, environmental psychology research has focused on human-nature relationships; thereby the promising concept of connectedness with nature (CN) was investigated in detail. Empirical evidence suggests CN predicts conservation behaviour, psychological well-being, and leisure time preferences. Results from quantitative as well as qualitative studies show a preference for nature and natural settings, compared to built ones. CN is proposed as important predictor in leisure time behavior and human health, currently not being considered in research as well as in practise according to its importance. The aim of this presentation is first to show hitherto existing results from quantitative as well as qualitative studies on CN. All studies were carried out in Vienna, Austria and its surroundings. Participants were part of the general population aged between 16 and 84. Second, an outlook on ongoing qualitative research approaches will be given. In a first study, motives for being in nature, evaluation of environments and preferences for indoor or outdoor setting were investigated by using a mixed quantitative and qualitative approach (N=130). Participants´ motives for being in nature differed significantly according to the participants´ level of CN. While these low on CN sojourned in nature for utilitarian or social reasons, participants high on CN sojourned in nature for rather restorative Moreover, they were preferred and evaluated as more positive. As being outdoors is perceived and evaluated highly positive, being in nature contributes to individuals´ recreation and wellbeing, especially for those high on CN. CN is suggested as a relevant moderating factor in restoration. So far, these findings are in line with prior research, providing new insights into underlying mechanisms. However, some open questions remain. The discussion on the core of the construct CN is still controversial. “What are peoples´ inner images of nature? What do they associate and expect when being asked to think of nature?” These questions are topic of an ongoing qualitative study, dealing with the underlying construct of “nature” from the perspective of the research participant and participants associations with and expectations to this construct. In a questionnaire study, participants (N=80) were asked fundamental questions about nature itself, their cognitive and affective evaluations and motives for being in nature. These questions were generated based on prior quantitative and qualitative research. Answers will be coded independently to detect relevant categories. There are three categories being hypothesised – cognitive (thoughts and opinions concerning nature), affective (feelings concerning nature) and behavioural (activities in nature). A fourth category could consist of certain images of nature like “trees, mountains, grass, birds, animals “ etc. The discussion will focus on methods, results and implications for further research studies.
Edgerton, Edward, Jim McKechnie, and Sharon McEwen. Constructing a Survey Tool to Measure Users Perceptions of their School Environments In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. The current project is based on a school building programme currently underway with a local authority in central Scotland. This local authority has begun a £100 million project to build six new secondary schools. With the support of the Local Authority, the Psychology Division at the University of the West of Scotland have undertaken an evaluation study of this building programme. This evaluation aims to measure students’ and staff perceptions of their old and new school environments. The focus of this paper was to construct a survey tool to measure how students and staff evaluated their school environment. In order to identify what aspects of their school environment were considered important by staff and students, a series of eight focus groups were conducted across two schools. In both schools, a focus groups was conducted with students at S1, S3 and S5 levels (approximately 12, 14 and 16 years of age, respectively) and with teaching staff across a range of disciplines. The number of participants in each year group ranged from 7 to 11 participants, with a total sample of 51 students and 14 members of staff. The focus groups lasted for one hour and followed a semi-structured protocol that was designed by the researchers drawing on earlier research findings (Edgerton & McKechnie, 2004). In each focus group, users were provided with a map and plan of their school and asked to talk through a ‘typical day’ at school i.e. arrival, movement between classes, standard classes, intervals, toilets, practical classes and lunch. Additional topics where added to capture each users experience of all of the facilities within their school such as the library, assembly hall, toilets, extra curriculum facilities and security. The protocol also included an ‘icebreaker’ task. This required participant’s to work in pairs and list the aspects of their physical school environment they liked or disliked. This was fed back to the group and discussed. A closing task required participants to work in pairs and write down what they would like in their new school in relation to aspects of the physical environment. Throughout the focus groups, staff and students were encouraged to present their own views/experiences and to use these to facilitate group discussions. A content analysis was conducted to extract pertinent themes from the focus group discussions. The themes from the student focus groups were grouped into 10 categories and the themes from the staff focus groups were grouped into 9 categories. These categories formed the basis of the survey tool that assessed users’ perceptions of their school environments. These survey tools were then administered to staff and students in a number of schools before, during and after the construction of the new schools. The findings showed between school differences, reflecting the different school environments and a general consensus amongst users groups within the schools. The results are discussed within the context of the validity of the tool as a measure of the physical environment of schools form the users’ perspective.
Castro, Paula, and Raquel Bertoldo. "Context Influence on the Expression of Conservation Normativity." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Global threats to sustainability – like biodiversity depletion or climate change – are increasingly dealt with through global treaties. The commitments signed in these treaties originate new national laws for trying to promote environmental conservation. However, behavioral changes at the individual level only take place once they are internalized as integrated personal laws (Thøgersen, 2006), observable at both attitudinal and behavioral levels (Castro et al., 2009). This norm internalization process depends on supra-individual aspects – like the in-groups level of conservation behaviors (descriptive norms) and varies according to the contexts (public or private activities). It also depends upon intraindividual processes, such as personal implication with conservation issues. In this context, this research resorts to the experimental self-presentation paradigm of the socio- cognitive approach (Dubois & Beauvois, 2005) in order to explore to what extent and how these norms are internalized. The study to be presented aims at answering the following questions: (1) are pro-conservation attitudes and behaviors already internalized – or normative – among Portuguese students? Are they seen as something one needs to show and perform in order to be positively judged by others? (2) Is this process contextdependent, i.e., are there some contexts in which positive appraisals of the self are to be expected for a pro-conservation stance, and other contexts in which this is not the case? For answering these questions 120 Portuguese students answered a scale measuring behaviors and attitudes towards recycling three times sequentially. The first time, they were asked to honestly give their own opinion; then they were asked to answer the same questions by trying to pass a positive or a negative impression of themselves (the order – positive or negative presentations – was controlled for). For 40 students, the three answers (own opinion, positive and negative presentations) did not have a presentation target – students were simply asked to pass a good or bad impression of themselves. The general hypothesis is that the positive presentation condition will increase the levels of pro-conservation attitudes and behaviors, as compared to own opinion condition, and the negative presentation will decrease them. Another 80 students answered three times the scale (own opinion, positive and negative presentations) but by presenting themselves to two different targets: a public university employer and a financial agency employer. We hypothesize that conservation will be more normative in the university context than in the financial context. The contributions of this study to the Norm Focus approach (Cialdini et al, 1991) and to the social identity approach to attitude–behavior relations are discussed and so is the moderator role of social representations.
Sposato, Robert Gennaro, and Renate Cervinka. "Coping with Commuting - How to Commute the Healthy Way." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. One of today’s biggest challenges on the way to a healthier environment is the reduction of private car use, which is at the heart of environmental problems like global warming and increasing pollution. One measure in order to achieve this aim is the promotion of public transport and other forms of sustainable mobility. An essential portion of individual mobility behavior is dedicated to commuting. Official statistics show that commuters rather choose to travel by car, than to use public transport. Despite the efforts to promote public transport the percentage of car users among commuters is steadily rising. Even in cities like Vienna with a well-developed public transport system and good connections with the environs, more than half of the commuters choose to travel to work by car. Commuting behavior becomes particularly interesting if one considers it to consolidate mobility behavior choices, which may spill over into other facets of daily mobility. A substantial number of studies have addressed commuters and their daily experiences, mostly concentrating on causes of stress and determinants of travel mode choices. Stressful effects of commuting by public transport were reported repeatedly. These findings are not in favour of promoting sustainable mobility. Especially if travelling by car is found to be more pleasant. There is no doubt that these negative effects exist but little effort has been made to see where the benefits of commuting with public transport lie. It seems that current research sees commuting stress as a reaction and mainly concentrates on potentially stressful contextual variables. This approach lacks the study of possibly attenuating effects of coping strategies. Therefore a look at the influence of potential coping strategies and how certain means of transport may allow for those strategies to be utilized and others do not, appears to be apposite. Our goal is to investigate possible advantages of commuting with means of public transport, whilst still giving a comprehensive overlook of positive and negative effects of commuting with various means of transport. We reexamine the role of variables such as length of the commute, controllability and predictability of the commute, number of changes on the commute, etc., all of which were found to be crucial to describe the relationship between commuting and stress in previous papers. We also introduce new factors such as information seeking and amount of activities during the commute in order to attain a broader comprehension of the above-mentioned relationship. Not only do we look at the immediate stress outcome of commuting, using a scale developed by Evans & Wener (2002), but we also examine possible effects on the quality of life using the german version of the WHOQoL questionnaire. Data will be analyzed using multiple regression. Based on calculations with G-Power our sample size must be higher than 130. We will report effects of the above-mentioned variables on commuting stress and quality of life. Furthermore, we will present the effects of information seeking and the amount of activities during commuting on commuting stress. Finally, we will clarify the relationship between commuting stress and quality of life.
Bichard, Erik, and Aleksandra Kazmierczak. "Could Non-Cash Rewards Motivate Homeowners to Protect their Houses from Flooding?" In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. This paper addresses the maintenance and improvement of liveability of cities under climate change. It reports on research carried out within the ‘Resilient Homes’ initiative which has been promoted and funded by the Environment Agency for England and Wales. The overall goal of the Resilient Homes project was to examine the potential of a non-cash reward scheme to increase the adoption of flood protection measures by the house owners. It is estimated that 5.2 million properties in England, or one in six homes, are threatened by floods. Within this number, nearly half a million properties are located in areas subject to a significant (greater than 1 in 75 years) risk of flooding. While many of these properties are protected through existing or planned structural defences, it is estimated that about half of the households currently in areas identified as at significant risk of flooding might remain unprotected. Furthermore, the number of people at risk of flooding is significant and is likely to grow with the progressing climate change as the projections identify increase in winter precipitation. Therefore, for many houses, property-level measures could be the only flood protection available to owners in the future. To date the uptake of property-level flood protection improvements in England and Wales has been minimal and less than 5,000 homes have adopted these measures. The reason for this is primarily cost, but also because most people do not believe that their property will be flooded. The cost of flood protection can range between £4,000 and £30,000 per house. The State may be able to subsidise low-pay households, but a national scheme would be prohibitively expensive. This study found that non-financial incentives (e.g. vouchers for fruit and vegetables or free bus travel) may be effective in influencing sustainable behaviour, and represents a more inexpensive alternative to full financial incentives. They also can bring additional sustainability benefits. In order to show that non-cash incentives offers an additional policy option to governments, the research team carried out attitudinal surveys with 1,043 home owners living in flood risk areas in England and Wales, and house-to-house inquiries in a deprived area of North West England. The surveys investigated respondents’ awareness of climate change, and their perception of the risk posed by floods. It also tested their willingness to install and pay for flood resilience measures and their willingness to accept non-cash rewards for doing so. The results suggest that while cash incentives are the preferred motivation option for respondents, nearly 60% would be motivated to install flood-protection measures if they were offered non-cash rewards. The rewards that were tested included fruit and vegetables, free meals at restaurants, and free travel by public transport. There were positive associations between factors such as the level of concern about climate change, awareness of living in flood risk area, perceived future risk of flooding and feeling of responsibility for protection of one’s property, and the willingness to accept non- cash rewards. Encouragingly for policy-makers worried about the cost of an incentives programme, 80% of those who would accept non-cash rewards would be happy with receiving rewards to the same value as their investment in flood protection measures. In addition, those willing to pay more for flood protection measures said they woud accepts a lower value of rewards in return. These results suggest that non-cash incentives could be used to promote the propertylevel flood protection measures. Furthermore, non-cash incentives could be financially more feasible than cash subsidies. However, the current level of awareness about the threats posed by climate change risks needs to be raised first to improve the chances of success for incentive schemes. The Environment Agency has agreed in principle to carry out a field trial to test whether the attitudes reported in the study translate to actual take-up of rewards.
Gross, Matthias, and Alena Bleicher. "Creating Useful Ignorance: Dealing with Unknowns and Surprising Events in the Remediation of Contaminated Sites." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. The management of risk has become a standard for decision making to transform the future into a calculable object. However, besides risk assessments there are many circumstances where actors are aware or have some insight that there is a lack of knowledge and that unexpected events need to be expected. This appears to be especially true for environmental decision making where growing knowledge on environmental processes opens up ever new knowledge about what is not known. Ignorance is therefore actively created alongside knowledge, and has therefore been characterized as the normal other side of knowledge: non-knowledge. This paper discusses some of the strategies used to cope with ongoing situations involving ignorance using examples from the remediation of areas containing multiple contaminant sources and plumes related to past industrial activities. Analysis of these processes of dealing with the unknown indicates that planning and policy making benefit when limits to knowledge are openly acknowledged and communicated and when scientific-technical risk assessments are calibrated with these limits in mind. Such processes can be seen as a lynchpin of successful remediation processes on contaminated land.
Reis, Antônio, and Celina Dittmar. "Crime on Streets and Residences, and Streets Segments Attributes." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. This paper examines the relationship between the occurrence of crime on residential areas, namely street robbery and residential burglary, perception of security and streets segments attributes such as connectivity, length, street lighting, appearance, escape routes, presence of security guards, residences visual and physical barriers, visual and physical connections between residences and the public open space, land use and type of housing unit, in the residential boroughs of Menino Deus and Rio Branco in Porto Alegre. Crime has been related not only to socio-economic or political variables but also to physical or spatial variables in distinct urban environments. Some studies have shown that urban configuration tends to play a role in increasing or decreasing opportunities for crime in distinct cities. However, it is necessary to better understand their effect on street robbery and residential burglary, specifically, in the context of residential boroughs in a Brazilian city, and considering a high resolution analysis on the level of a street segment. This type of analysis has been developed and initially used by Hillier & Sahbaz in their paper entitled ‘High Resolution Analysis of Crime Patterns in Urban Street Networks: an initial statistical sketch from an ongoing study of a London borough’, where they emphasize the importance of high resolution analysis of crime patterns in urban street networks to which many physical variables are related. Data related to occurrence of street robbery and residential burglary were collected in the Public Security Department of State of Rio Grande do Sul, for a period of ten months and through questionnaires applied to a sample of 123 residents in Menino Deus Borough and 86 in Rio Branco Borough. This method also allowed the gathering of information concerning residents’ satisfaction levels with security. Street robbery was measured considering the ‘time risk’ which takes into account the length of time a moving person spends on a segment, this being, a function of its length. Residential burglary was measured considering the ‘true rate for the risk bands’, that is, the total number of burglaries over the total number of residential units for each band, each being made up by segments having a common number of dwellings. Land use, identified as residential or non residential, and types of housing units, if houses or flats, were obtained in the Local Department of Planning. Segments characteristics such as street lighting, appearance, presence of security guards, visual and physical barriers, visual and physical connections between residences and the public open space, were obtained trough physical measurements carried out in some segments with higher and lower crime rates. Data was registered in ArcGIS, allowing the generation of maps and the consequent visualization, for example, of the spatial distribution of the two types of crimes, as well as in the SPSS/PC software, where data was statistically analyzed according to the street segments. Segments connectivity and length were numerically and visually generated in the Depthmat software, where a segments map was produced from the axial map representing the street network of the two boroughs. Results reveal, for example, the impact made by segments characteristics such as connectivity, land use and type of housing units on occurrence of crime on residential areas, allowing a better understanding of the relationship between street robbery and residential burglary and some physical characteristics of the urban space. Moreover, not only the occurrence of crime but also the perception of crime on residential areas is related to the use and qual- ity of urban space. Therefore, these results help to deepen the understanding of how to better design for urban security in residential areas.
Zaborska, Katarzyna. Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design - Implementation in Poland In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Gated communities are a new and recently recurring phenomenon in larger cities in Poland pertaining mainly to Warsaw where in 2004 there were 200 gated housing estates, the number doubled to date. An important objective and challenge is to find different ways of multi-family housing settlement planning and development, which could become an alternative to gated communities. A possible solution may be the program Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED), which is based on appropriate spatial planning and territorial division at the project design stage, so that the space itself becomes safe. Additionally the program includes suggested forms of interactive neighborhood activities aimed at development of social ties within local community. Assumptions of the CPTED program base on Oscar Newman’s theory of ‘defensible space’. He distinguished certain characteristics of space, which contribute to diminishing vandalism and crime. These involve: territoriality- presence of actual or symbolical barriers separating the areas; surveillance- possibility to observe suspicious activities; image – visible attention to the area i.e. general cleanness; milieu – traces of frequent presence of housing estate dwellers. // The trial study was conducted at the sample gated communities and at the settlement known as ‘secured by design’ in Poland. The results indicate that the gated communities experience the alienation of neighbourhood ties, and effectively a lower identification with the settlement space comparing to the communities ‘secure by design’, while the safety indicator is similar in both.
Casakin, Hernan, and Esi Abbam Elliot. "Cultural Metaphors and Place Identity." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Place identity is a fundamental aspect that contributes to shape the identity of individuals and communities. The present study advances the understanding of the influence that place identity has on individuals and communities, by exploring how self-congruence can be achieved by matching place identity to self-identity. While identity is the foundation to a sense of belonging, place identity can be defined as “those dimensions of self that define the individual’s personal identity in relation to the physical environment by means of a complex pattern of conscious and unconscious ideas, beliefs, preferences, feelings, values, goals, and behavioral tendencies and skills relevant to this environment” (Proshansky (1978, p. 155). Self-congruence, on the other hand, is defined as a mapping of relationships between self-image, or image that a person has about him/herself, and the image of the place (Sirgy, 1982). This construct, has been shown to affect how people relate to and interact with places. Self-congruence becomes particularly relevant in physical contexts where cultural metaphors play a role in shaping place identity. The term metaphor refers to associations between abstract concepts and physical things, and is used to construct conceptual understandings of the world (Lakoff 1987; Lakoff and Johnson, 1980). Cultural metaphors are therefore associations with abstract concepts that relate to a particular culture “as they are instantiated in social action through behavior, speech, organization, artifacts, and thoughts” (Denny and Sunderland, 2004 p.1458). Existing research has focused on self-congruity and place identity in public spaces (Proshansky, 1978; Proshansky, Fabian & Kaminoff, 1983; and Proshansky & Fabian, 1987). The scarce attention given to the influence of cultural metaphors in place identity provided the basis for our research Questions about the influence of cultural metaphors for explaining phenomena as complex as those concerned with place identity remain open. To this end, the study intends to achieve the following goals: 1) Explore whether and how cultural metaphors contribute to strength place identity in public places such as servicescapes; 2) Investigate in what ways environmental places with a strong identity contribute to enhance users’ identity; 3) Explore to what extent self-concept plays a role in this relationship. To examine the contribution of cultural metaphors in the identity of public places and servicescapes, an empirical investigation based on grounded theory approach using a multi-method (interviews and field observations) inquiry of cultural metaphors was conducted in the Pilsen community in Chicago. The study emphasizes phenomenological interviews and longitudinal observation to reveal perspectives, meanings, and behaviors about the relationship between cultural metaphors and place identity. Accounting for the relationship between cultural metaphors and place identity offers a number of advancements. First, it extends current literature to include metaphorical associations with place identity that are interpreted and acted on by users in public spaces, and servicescapes. Second, the consideration of self-congruity as a mediating variable captures the ontological perspectives embedded within many ethnic cultures and acknowledges the importance of these perspectives in understanding place identity.
Gurgel, José Pinheiro F.. Curbside Recycling Program in Natal, Brazil: Exploring Socio-Environmental Determinants of Pro-Environmental Behavior of Residents of Three Districts In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. The generation of waste and their final disposal after consumption constitute one of the serious urban problems faced not only by Brazilian cities, but also by urban regions of the whole world. The growing body of information available about the global environmental deterioration has helped to increase the awareness about the repercussion of actions at the local scale, as in the case of consumerism and natural resources exploitation. The selective collection of garbage represents one alternative of reducing the environmental problem of waste disposal; however, it is a complex phenomenon, of multiple dimensions, determinants e social actors (residents, formal and informal collectors, political authorities, and so on). The general purpose of the study was the analysis of residents’ participation in the program of door-by-door collection of recyclable waste in Natal, to verify whether their involvement in the program could be attributed to environmental commitment. A special relevance may be attached to this study for there are few investigations in Brazil on the resident’s point of view about the selective collection of garbage. Data collection involved three municipal districts and was performed in three stages, with complementary methodological strategies (observation, questionnaire, and interview), and characterized by self-evaluation, by residents, and hetero-evaluation, by collectors. In order to help in the analysis of residents’ adherence to the program, social, demographic, situational/contextual, and dispositional data were identified. Additionally, documents were examined and municipal managers were interviewed to gather information about the “official” side of the program. The conception of the program by municipal authorities was basically aimed at social inclusion, providing job opportunities and income for the collectors. At the same time, middle-class and upper middleclass districts of the city were chosen to be included in the program of door-by-door collection of recyclable residuals based on the volume already known of their regularly produced garbage. It is important to mention that previous campaigns by the municipality of installing of Points of Voluntary Delivery (PEVs, in Portuguese) of recyclable residuals did not succeed; residents’ personal convenience and logistic of the program were responsible for its failure in the past. Two forms of motivation towards participating in the program were found: environmental and social. Despite the first being more frequent, it was associated to lack of a full social involvement with the program. Separating and delivering recyclable residuals (at the front door to the collector) were the most frequent type of residents’ participation, which demonstrates their low level of appropriation of decisions related to the program, taking part on it as passive agents. Questionnaire responses expressing environmental awareness related to the process may imply a mere reproduction of pro-environmental discourse. Motivation towards social issues was strongly connected to philanthropic forms of help. Knowledge was revealed as an important predictor for participation, as well as social networks, formed by neighbours, relatives and friends. Despite the social emphasis in the design of the program, some residents also perceived its environmental implications, possibly as consequence of a knowledge originated outside the program. Even so, we could not find any mention to reduction of consumption, a much more ef- ficient measure against residuals generation, but with a high cost in behaviour change. The perfectioning of the municipal program should include initiatives of environmental education and information in order to minimize the allegation of lack of knowledge as justification for non-participation. Similarly, joint actions of municipal management and population would be welcome, to promote participatory decisions towards lifestyles more ecologically sustainable.
Kita, Ayako. Current Administrative Assistance Offered to Citizens Working on the Ecological Environment Through their Living Conditions In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. 1. Background and purpose of this study There is no need to pause to think about the Kyoto Protocol but the importance of being concerned about the global environment and trying to work on improving the environment on a daily basis has recently been widely acknowledged. People have been more and more aware of the issue, but environmental activities have not been fully in place and taken root. Authors have conducted research studies about efforts relating to environment-friendly styles of personal living and the actual situation of such efforts. As a result, it was found out that promotion and establishment of such conscious efforts at a personal level is limited because what lead to saving tend to be implemented more positively by individuals and also because there is financial restraints. We investigated in this study the administrative assistance measures currently offered to citizens who intend to work actively on the global environment through their living conditions in order to promote further diffusion, and we extracted issues relating to these measures. 2. Research approach A total of 107 municipalities in Osaka, Kyoto (16 municipalities to the south of the city of Kyoto, hereinafter “Kyoto Prefecture”), Nara, and Hyogo (9 municipalities to the east of the city of Kobe, hereinafter “Hyogo Prefecture”) Prefectures will be studied. The websites of municipal governments from which citizens can most easily obtain information will be examined and the support activities of each municipality will be organized on a data sheet. In order to see what affect the difference of support activities, the relations between the support implementation situation at each municipal government and various statistical indicators will be explored. Next, hearing will be conducted with municipalities based on the information obtained from the websites in order to clarify their public relations activities other than websites as well as supplemental information and their future policies. The website study will be conducted from June to September 2008, and hearing from October to November 2008. 3. Summary of information regarding housing and environment on municipal websites The summary of the findings of this study are; (1) All prefectures provide rich support for the , , , , and categories. (2) At the same time, municipal governments/prefectures showed some contrast in the support measures in some categories. (3) For and , which are close to the point of this study, many municipal governments do not even provide sufficient information. (4) Statistical indicators for and are considered to have close association with the support situation of municipal governments, among which is considered to be most influential. (5) But there are many cases where (4) does not apply. Municipal governments like Ikoma City in Nara, Toyonaka and Ikeda Cities in Osaka, and Amagasaki City and Inagawa Town in Hyogo have established their own funds or other financial assistance regardless of population and actively worked on many supporting measures. In a mountainous area in Nara, measures that are more focused on natural conservation rather than the establishment of earth-friendly living environments are in place due to its geographic conditions.
Colbeau-Justin, Ludvina. "Dealing the Safety Needs of People at Seismic Risk: Feed-Back from Awareness Campaigns." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. The security stakes face to the seismic hazard are no more to be demonstrated in the French West Indies as well as in some other Caribbean islands. The potential impacts, as the Richter exercise of simulation (November, 2008) was able to demonstrate, would concern the all social organization and would affect the economical sphere, the mobility and the usage of the space, the family organization, the places of life, etc. The researches made in Guadeloupe and Martinique since 10 years underline that the positioning of the populations towards the seismic risk is elaborated. It is centered around precise needs and demands and around syncretic representations integrating scientific knowledge and faiths. It is also in line with a high risk perception but also results in a bad estimation of the personal efficiency to cope. The challenge which the public authorities have to deal with is: On one hand, the dissemination of preventive information adapted to the specific needs of the people at risk and on the other hand, the development of new techniques of communications based on the empowerment and the mobilization of the population. In Martinique, awareness campaigns have been conducted since five years. Previous researches have underlined the level of risk perception and the knowledge about preventive behaviors. After a recent earthquake, a survey enlightened the level of preparation of the population and the non-efficiency of the awareness campaigns.
Ritchie, Louise, Edward Edgerton, and Duncan Sim. Dementia Friendly Living Environments: a Comparison of the Redesign of Two Living Areas in Dementia Care Homes In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. The living area of a care home is very important for residents with dementia as research indicates that this is where they spend the majority of their day (Barnes 2006). Despite this there is a lack of research that looks at the design of these areas and their effects on the behaviour and well being of people with dementia. Guidelines for designing environments for people with dementia indicate that spaces should be open plan to compensate for memory deficits through improved visual access and to eliminate potential barriers (Judd, Marshall and Phippen, 1996). In addition, living or social spaces should be small in size and provide a choice of areas rather than one large room (Calkins, 2001). The research to be discussed in this paper focuses on the living areas in two different care homes. Care Home A is a modern purpose built dementia unit, and Care Home B is a dementia unit within a ‘traditional’ care home. Care Home A has an open plan living and dining area while Care Home B has a large enclosed room as the main living area and a separate room for dining. Behaviour mapping was carried out in both of these care homes for a period of three weeks to observe the overall usage of these rooms and the types of behaviours displayed in them before any changes were made. The redesign of both rooms took place by rearranging the furniture to create a number of smaller areas within the large areas with the aim of providing a choice of areas for people to use. The spaces created were an area to watch television, an area to look out of the window (“edge spaces”, Chalfont, 2007), a social area and a quiet area to sit alone. Behaviour mapping was then carried out for a three week period in both locations after these modifications had been implemented. The results indicated a range of positive changes in behaviour in both care homes as a consequence of the changes; these included an increase in social interactions between residents and a decrease in resident agitation. The results are discussed in terms of theoretical perspectives on environmental design and dementia. They also address the differences in the resident groups and the treatment philosophy of each care home. This research highlights the importance of the design of living areas in care homes and provides empirical evidence to inform the future design of these areas.
Ritchie, Louise. Dementia Friendly Living Environments: Evaluating the Redesign of Living Areas in Dementia Care Homes In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Care home residents spend between 65-72% of their day in the living area of the care home (Barnes 2006). Despite this, there is a lack of research examining how the design of these areas can influence the behaviour of residents, especially those with dementia. The importance of the design of care home environments for people with dementia has been realised over the past three decades and a significant amount of research has been carried out in this field, however research examining the design of living areas within dementia care homes has been neglected. Lawton (1979) suggests that making small changes to the environment of a dementia sufferer can have disproportionate, positive effects on their independence and well being. This study aims to assess the behaviour of dementia residents before and after the redesign of six different living areas across three dementia care homes. The modifications in each living area are based on the principles of creating a choice of space using furniture arrangement (Calkins, 2001) and incorporating “edge spaces” into the design to provide a visual connection to nature (Chalfont, 2007). However, the exact changes that were made in each of these spaces was influenced by what the existing physical environment allowed. The study employed a pre/post modification design with data collection periods lasting 3 weeks at both points. The main data collection method was behaviour mapping, to record the overall usage of the space and behaviours of the care home residents. The main behaviour categories observed were agitation, active behaviour, passive behaviour and social interactions. Data was also collected from staff and relatives of the residents in the form of focus groups and questionnaires, to ascertain their perceptions of the existing environment and also their perceptions of the changes made to the living areas and its effects on the residents. The results indicate a number of positive changes in behaviour following the redesign. These include a decrease in agitation, an increase in positive social interaction between residents and an increase in contented behaviours. The results will be discussed in relation to current research and theories of environmental design and dementia. Similarities and differences across the six living spaces will also be highlighted and explained, drawing on data collected about the existing physical environment and the treatment philosophy of each care home. Overall this research provides important empirical findings that can reliably inform the future design of care homes for people with dementia.
Butler, Andrew, and Ulla Berglund. Democratising the Landscape Through Perceptions – a Theoretical Discussion of the Need for Inclusion of the Public's Perception Within Landscape Assessments of Urban Regions In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. This paper aims at identifying methods and tools suitable for incorporating the public’s perceptions of their everyday landscapes in to the planning process. This is undertaken primarily through a literature study to ascertain participatory methods appropriate for such a task; and further weighing these methods against criteria derived from theories and practices associated with public participation. We will further highlight the necessity for this knowledge to be part of any meaningful landscape assessment if truly democratic planning of the limited landscape resources is to be achieved across urban regions. Landscape can be considered an integrating, holistic concept, which can help bring diverse disciplines to a common arena where shared problems can be realised and conflicting issues addressed. Landscape is more than just a physical entity, more than just an area of land, the actual perception of landscape being as relevant as its physicality. This should be taken in to account when assessing or evaluating a landscape. The consideration of the people whose values and perceptions are tied to the landscape, need to be seen as central to any debate concerning future land use. The implications of this are significant in urban regions, where there is increasing competition for land from the different users. Landscape is a construct of present day society, catering for the needs and desires of the moment, thus its development is a process of constant change. It is these changes which have created the cultural landscapes which society values today. Yet the rate and extent of change is significantly affected by global influences which have at the same time moved the focus of governance from local actors to major global players. These changes can be difficult for local inhabitants to comprehend and accept. Change to the landscape has been parallel with increased realisation of change within the political and economic order through the later half of the century 20th as western populations have been seen to become increasingly disillusioned with the traditional, aggregated model of democracy. This has in turn influenced planning theory and practice. The recognition of the potential for tension and conflict between individuals and groups, heightened by cultural diversity through coexistence within complex social and economic networks, has moved focus towards practices which can alleviate conflicts. This has resulted in change in impetus from traditional technocratic practices towards the realisation of more inclusive and participatory processes, reassessing the meaning of democracy within the planning system. This realisation is mirrored within the European Landscape Convention (ELC) where the need for raised awareness of landscape among the civil society and the establishment of procedures for participation of the public within landscape policies is at the forefront. The need for tools to mitigate conflicts within the landscape is heightened by the development of increasingly multifunctional landscapes in expanding urban regions. This reintroduces multiple meanings and values which heighten the potential for conflict as an increased number of users with varied uses compete for increasingly limited landscapes resources. At present most landscape assessments tend to be technocratic, outsider appraisals, where “experts” act as unreliable judges of what people care about in the landscape which miss the insider or public perceptions. It is widely realised that for successful participation within planning, inclusion should be instigated as early as possible in the process. This points to the need for the involvement of stakeholders at the stage of assessment or analysis prior to planning, where the diversity of interests, values and knowledge can be voiced. To truly address the multifaceted nature of landscape the multiple perceptions attached to it must be addressed. To consider these insider views requires a change of democratic practices within planning, where as some form of general consensus is commonly considered desirable, at the assessment stage it is perhaps deeper understanding rather than accordance which is most suited.
Niezabitowski, Marek, and Adam Bartoszek. "Demographic Aging in the Context of Urban Changes in Silesia. Case Studies of Chosen Residential Environments Within Polsenior Project 2007-2010." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Demographic aging is the phenomenon which is accompanied by some other social processes. Some of them are associated with contemporary urban changes which have something in common with globalisation. Many residential environments undergo such processes which are viewed by seniors in different ways (not necessarily coherent). The attitudes of this particular social category towards such urban changes were the subject of research titled “The social capital of elderly people in various urban environments. The problems of adaptation of habitat and its infrastructure to the needs and activity demands of an aging population” (conducted by Prof. Adam Bartoszek, University of Silesia – director, Prof. El|bieta Niezabitowska, dr Beata Kucharczyk-Brus, dr Marek Niezabitowski – Silesian University of Technology). This was in turn carried out within the nation-wide project titled “Medical, psychological, sociological and economical aspects of aging in Poland” (Polsenior 2007-2010). Some opinions of elderly inhabitants of two researched residential environments to some extent correspond with the issue of urban change in globalisation times. These are the Superunit settlement in the centre of Katowice and Zatorze district in Gliwice. Both habitats belong to post-industrial region of Silesia (Southern Poland) which is rapidly stepping into information era. Such changes cause modification in spatial structure of towns and cities and create social polarisation and segregation. In the process of redefinition of space and place elderly inhabitants who are accustomed to the past are endangered by the loss of identity, sense of security and belonging. Their social world may then at least partially disappear. They notice some aspects of privatisation of space in their residential environment. Another factor that has a significant impact on their perception of their place of living and its surroundings is increasing mobility of people. Such is the reason for demographic aging of researched urban environments – especially the Superunit settlement in Katowice. Young generation move out, the older stay there. The world which is created or changed around seniors should be discussed with them as participants. Unfortunately, usually it is not the case. Mostly changes are not widely consulted – they are just put into practice. Weather elderly inhabitants try to influence or initiate some improvements was studied in our subproject of Polsenior 2007-2010. The implication of fast changes occurring in the towns of Silesia is that some districts can not live up to the expectations of information era and new economy. The same has to do with lifestyles. The question is: are the changes accepted by elderly inhabitants of impoverished districts? Do they think about living somewhere else? How they accustomed to the place if they did so? To address the issue of seniors’ adaptability to the changes and challenges it is worth knowing their social and cultural capital and some aspects of their activity. The relation of social characteristics and life orientations to the context of demographic aging of researched urban environments can help us to estimate in the future if elderly inhabitants have enough capital to cope with their problems and to be valuable for a local community. As regards to the potential change of the place of their living, physical efficiency is very important for their life quality – that is why care about it can be considered an element of cultural capital as well.
Güney, Hulya Turgut Yil. "Demographic Change and Urban Transformation: the Challenges of Residents' Attitudes." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Cities around different regions of the world have been subject to important social and cultural alterations due to ever increasing affects of globalization process. The cities in Turkey are no exception to this urban transformation with different physical and social structures emerging as a result of the economical, political, socio-cultural and technological developments. Especially during the last thirty years, the increased linkage of the country to the global world has been even felt in smaller cities in the form of new local developmental opportunities in different sectors including industry, international trade, tourism and real estate. Ever since the 1950s, one of the major components of urban transformation in Turkey has been the migration of masses that changed the socio-cultural and economic structure of the cities and eventually led to rapid transformation of the existing physical environment and created new spatial formations. As such, the topic of the urban transformation of cities while protecting both its physical as well as socio-cultural values, which is also intricately linked to sustainable regeneration and architectural identity issues, has been a hot topic of recent architectural discourse. The ongoing demographic change due to relocation process from rural to urban areas and from smaller to bigger cities, as well as due to industrialization and increasing concentration of people in urban areas, have accelerated socio-cultural and spatial differentiation and diversity, while bringing about some continuity and development trends in urban housing environments. This situation concerning housing environments show a dramatic transition procedure from past to future, from tradition to contemporary while at the same time living through changes in the residents’ perception of home and urban environments with different perceptions for people from different backgrounds. In this context, the city of Istanbul is a good example to observe and evaluate the physical reflections of a mutual interaction between the architectural identity of the city and its social structure and dynamism. Cultural synthesis is more in evidence here than in most other Turkish cities. However, the concepts of social, cultural, spatial diversity and complexity especially in housing environments differ in smaller scale Anatolian cities such as Balikesir where the city center, which always included major housing stock of the city as well, has kept its location and prominence as the only center while the city boundaries has been constantly growing and expanding. In recent years, the city started to change with an ever increasing rate causing the city to have a multi-centered organization while the historic city center is becoming more deteriorated with each day. The housing stock in the center has become a derelict area causing it to be the home for the people migrated from small villages around with low socio-economic status, which is a major threat for the restoration and renovation and later on protection of the cultural heritage of the city. Based on an ongoing research, the paper aims to comparatively examine and describe the changes in social, economic and political structure of smaller and bigger cities of Turkey, and discuss how these changes are reflected in urban identity of cities of different scales and influenced the preservation of the cultural heritage of these cities. The focus of this discussion will be the socio-cultural dimensions that have been ignored while focusing on physical rehabilitation of the cities, such as the residents’ attitude towards the city and the urban environments and social responsibility felt towards heritage preservation. The paper consists of three main sections. The first part will introduce the cities and the concepts that are examined. After the second section that explains the proposed conceptual framework the third section will presents the results of the analysis of the citie.
Norlin, Måns. Demonstrating Professional Vision in the Planning Process of Sustainable Urban Development: Studying the Work Practice of Urban Planners at the Municipality Level in Sweden In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. The focus in planning theory has up to date mainly been on how to plan, with normative notions at the core of a theoretical approach. Not much has been written about how professional city planners work when in the process of creating a city plan. Discussions of the theory/practice relation – such as the treatment of reflective practice and the discussions of the centrality of tacit knowledge in professional and everyday practical competence – has had a profound influence on the dominating conception of professional competence in many fields. What still needs to be analyzed and systematically described is what the planning practice actually is, as a practically occasioned phenomenon, something that has not yet been done in this field but in many others. The aim of the project is to investigate the performance of the planning process, with regards to the ways in which participants are made accountable for the ways of seeing and reasoning in the situations of planning. That is, this project aims at investigating how professional planners see and create a city in terms of a professionally competent vision with special regards to sustainable solutions. The study has the potential to contribute to the theoretical notions of reflective practice and tacit knowledge as well as to the concept and methods of sustainable solutions. Sustainability as a concept for city planning has been under scrutiny during the last decades and the studies have been directed upon what is ascribed to the concept, but also here this discussion has been on a theoretical level. This study aims at analyzing how professional planners perform as they are planning cities and therefore also at how sustainable solutions are put into practice and how the concept is discussed and included into the planning process as it unfolds before the practitioners’ eyes. The project therefore has the opportunity to contribute both to the theoretical level of how planners tacitly conduct planning and regard sustainability, how the concept of sustainability is practically applied and how the routine-like ordinary knowing-in-action is transformed into a professional planning process; the study will be relevant to work processes generally and to planning processes specifically. Studying practitioners at work makes it possible to get to the tacit knowledge that practitioners have, but is problematic to describe without looking at the practice itself. This study studies the practice of planning itself and can therefore help to reveal the tacit knowledge of practitioners. Methodologically, the study is placed within the tradition of ethnometodology, in this tradition the data can be collected during the actual process of work, i.e. during the work itself. The collection of data as the actions unfolds ’in situ’ is often done with the help of video recordings. This makes it possible to analyze the material with the actions and semiotic resources that the participants make use of at the core of the investigation. These recordings of the actions performed by the experts as they are in the process of planning puts the researcher in a passive role during the collection of Abstract Måns Norlin, Young Researchers Workshop, IAPS 2010 data. But the material can also be complimented with field notes and/or other metods included in the above examples if the material is question begging. When studying work processes the professional vision of the participants can be studied. Since the practical elements in the to be collected data of the planners work is to elaborate with different kinds of material in close collaboration with others, ’seeing’ professionally becomes a highly complicated communicative social practice. This dense material of a highly complex task that the planners perform is thereby studied in the tradition of ethnometodology and communication analysis.
Maleetipwan, Pimkamol. Design and Validation of an Instrument for Measuring Human Perception of Lighting Control Devices In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Human behavior is one of the major factors affecting the energy use of lighting in the built environment. Since factors such as the perception of the environment or objects may guide human behavior, the perception of lighting related objects may have an impact on the change of behavior towards energy saving. This study aimed to develop a questionnaire for measuring human perception of different design features of lighting control devices. The assessments were conducted in order to investigate if participants’ responses (n = 304) to the devices corresponded to a set of 7 criteria for designing lighting control devices in public spaces. A 30-item questionnaire concerning the 7 criteria was used. Through a factor analysis, the criteria were checked, resulting in a revised 16–item questionnaire in relation to the 6 criteria i.e. Readable and Intuitive, Safety, Encourage users’ environmental concern, Users acceptance and satisfaction, Easy to see and Hygienic. Reliability of the criteria varied from ±.70 to ±.89 except ±.47 for the factor hygienic. The questionnaire will be used for a pilot study of users’ perception of lighting control devices in a laboratory study where participants will use the different devices to control artificial light.
Wilson, Caroline, Katherine M. Irvine, and Greig Mill. Designing Communication that Changes Behaviour In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. It has long been acknowledged that changing attitudes and norms can be a successful route to adjusting unsustainable consumption habits in the developed world. What is less clear is how communication campaigns work towards encouraging these changes. This paper details how combining constructs from two well-respected theories, one from the field of social cognition and another from the field of communication study, could deliver enhanced communication effectiveness for those in civil society charged with ensuring the long term viability of their communities. Data were gathered from participants engaged in a range of activities aimed to change environmentally significant behaviours. These activities were organised either by a nonprofit environmental action group which developed out of the Agenda 21 programme, or by the local government body for the area. Both organisations belong to a strategic partnership of individuals and groups whose purpose is to help everyone working or living in their community to achieve a one tonne per capita reduction in the carbon dioxide emissions by 2010/11. The activities were directed at adjusting behaviours associated with consumption in the fields of domestic energy use, food sourcing, travel behaviour or waste. The aim was to investigate the relationship between variables from Petty and Caccioppo’s Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM), such as perceptions about a message and its source, and the variables proposed by Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) as being key to behaviour change, such as subjective norms and attitudes. From a communication professional perspective, the ELM adds vital specification to the TPB in explaining behaviour. While communicators need to be mindful of psychological factors influencing the targets of their communication when they devise programmes, they more usually have direct influence over external variables such as message and source. Two questionnaires were used to capture variable constructs for both theories. These were drawn as much as possible from survey items found to have high reliability in previously published research. The first questionnaire was conducted at the time participants took part in an activity. The second was conducted between four and five weeks later and included questions about behaviours since activity. Analysis was conducted using standard multiple regression to test the strength of relationships between the predictor variables listed earlier and the outcome variable of behaviour change. Moderation and mediation analysis were used to investigate the relationships between the predictor variables. This paper reports the findings of this analysis and concludes that the impact of communication and social cognition predictor variables, along with their capacity to modify or mediate the impact of other predictors, provides communications designers with a checklist of issues to consider, and guidance for their relative importance, when designing environmentally significant behaviour change communications.
Soo-been, Park. Designing Ubiquitous Learning Environment for the Children In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Digital technology called ICT (Information and Communication Technology) has changed our environment in many ways with the facilities such as a sensor infrastructure, a networking system, and ubiquitous display. It improves learning environment as well as teaching-learning methodologies and its contents. It is also expected that ICT will redraw the physical boundaries of the classroom, enable more teamwork, allow learning to be a continuous time-independent process, and realize multi-level knowledge creation. The long-term and short-term impacts of ICT on the users, especially the young students and their learning environment and school life, however, have not been measured. This research focused on uses and needs of teachers and students who are the actual users of ICT as to establish the design guidelines reflecting the changes in the learning environment by ubiquitous computing. It prospect how digital technology affects learning environment and how the user responds to the learning environment built in ubiquitous digital facilities. The study performs in two processes. One is done by literature review using available data from the reports and documents and the other is done by field research accompany with survey of the users. Multi-disciplinary approaches integrating educational paradigm, ICT, and the architectural design are applied to the ubiquitous learning environment design. Design modules and modernization efforts for the school design to present new design guidelines are investigated. The survey research is conducted targeted on users, the students and teachers of middle schools and high schools in Busan. It measures uses and needs of ICT in schools and accounts all the facilities on the checklist. It includes the use of the computer and internet as well as up-to-date facilities at the classroom, the multi-purpose room and the playground. The users are grouped in four, middle school students, middle school teachers, high school students, and high school teachers. The responses of each user group are compared by the statistical procedure such as crosstabs, t-test and one-way ANOVA. The results are as follows. All the user groups anticipate that the current classroom goes side by side the uclassroom, one of the multi-purpose rooms and u-classroom does not replace the current off-line classroom. Both teachers’ and students’ response to equipment utilization are positive presented in “comprehension,” interest,” “concentration,” “satisfaction,” and “participation.” The advantage of u-classroom is proved as enhancement of interest and participation through a variety of equipments available and the disadvantage is caused by difficulty when the equipment is failed. The needs of ubiquitous facilities are significantly differed by the characteristics of each group. In conclusion, the uses and needs are important in learning environment design not only for the user satisfaction but also for the effective resource application. The matter of acquiring user-friendly and easy-accessible environmental design should be an important issue. Improvement of ICT design guidelines for learning environment gives an advance strategy for the future school design.
Yang, Sehwa. Desired City Images of Households in Ulsan, Korea In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Ulsan is the largest manufacturing city located in the Southeast of Korea. Many global companies, such as Hyundai and other large oil and shipbuilding companies are headquartered in Ulsan. The city, which used to be more agricultural, was designated by the government as a manufacturing city in the early 1960s. Since then, a huge population moved to Ulsan, which now became the largest manufacturing city as well as the sixth largest city in Korea. Ulsan can be divided into the metro area, which includes the old residential district and the new residential district, rural area, and the industrial area, where all the major plants are located in. The uniqueness of each area is differentiated based on the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the inhabitants, and it also influences the housing values or demand. The study was conducted to analyze the desired city images of households in Ulsan. The housing values were studied in each district and were used to compare the desired household image based on any demographic and socio-economic characteristics. From July 25, 2007 to August 20, 2007, 600 households were chosen as intentional judgment sampling and 500 of those were used for the analysis. The data was studied through descriptive statistics, cross-tabulation analysis, and analysis of variance. The household value did not vary significantly depending on the district and the common values were health, convenience, safety, privacy, economics, and family centurism. Households in the metro area considered site, symbolism, and economics as the most important factors, whereas the households in the rural area had the highest value in health. Overall, the desired city image was to achieve an eco-friendly city, especially supported by the households in the rural area. The fact that the households in the largest manufacturing city are supportive of an eco-friendly environment will be beneficial when creating the most ideal city image of Ulsan.
Medvés, Dóra. "Developing Effective Pro-Environmental Slogans: the Role of Social Value Orientation, Perceived Criticality and Environmental Attitudes." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Solving global environmental problems are emphasized as collective interests of mankind. Not just natural sciences, but social and behavioral sciences have to deal with the topic of environmental changes. Environmental Psychology is also interested in explaining the determinants of pro-environmental behavior. Previous researches revealed that one important personal determinant is social value orientation and the research of Van Vugt, Meertens & Van Lange (1995) supported this notion. Their findings showed that prosocial people have higher propensity for commuting by public transportation in general, while proselfs exhibited greater preference for it just in case of taking advantage of using public transportation. Gärling, Fujii, Gärling & Jakobsson (2003) regarding to different types of social value orientation and awareness of environmental consequences found that proselfs were more influenced by awareness of environmental consequences for themselves. These results can contribute to addressing people with different kind of personal characteristics effectively in connection with pro-environmental behavior. Effective pro-environmental interventions (having behavioral changes in several fields of proenvironmental activities) play significant role in generalizing new habits among people. Thus our current research tries to explore the effectiveness of different forms of communication in modifying environmentally significant behavior. Our current research is focusing on manipulating the level of perceived criticality and types of environmental attitudes and observing how they influence participants’ propensity to behave pro-environmentally. The conception of examining these phenomena in connection with pro-environmental slogans is based on our previous studies. On the one hand we explored that both in social dilemma situations and in survey questions different level of perceived criticality (Chen, Au & Komorita, 1996) affected differently proselfs and prosocials in connection with contributing to the environment. The decision of prosocial people wasn’t affected by perceived criticality, but it influenced the decision of proself people: they increased their contributions in case of high perceived criticality. And on the other hand adopting Environmental Attitude Inventory (Milfont & Duckitt, 2006) we revealed that prosocials and proselfs form different kinds of attitudes in connection with the environment: prosocial people are less motivated by anthropocentric aspects of environmental protection. Therefore based on these results we conducted a study examining the role of the aforementioned factors in pro-environmental slogans. Our results confirmed that perceived criticality has impact on contributing to the protection of the environment. The most effective slogans highlighted that even few people can have significant effect on reducing domestic waste by choosing products with environmental friendly packaging. The interaction of perceived criticality and social value orientation was also shown: proselfs judged slogans with high level of perceived criticality more effective. Finally, emphasizing different aspects of environmental protection in proenvironmental slogans had significant impact on people with ecocentric and anthropocentric attitudes.
Valera, Sergi, Perez Felix, and Anguera Teresa. "Development of an Observational Instrument for the Evaluation of the Uses, Environmental and Psychosocial Characteristics of Public Spaces." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Some global trends (economic crisis, juvenile dispossession, unemployment, ethnic diversification, new types of social fractures, etc.) are exercising a direct impact on the complexity of uses and occupations of the public spaces and, therefore, on its governance (Brown, Perkins, & Brown, 2003). The fact that a major complexity of uses seems to be related to an increase of the conflict in the public spaces and of the perception of civil insecurity (Fernández, & Corraliza, 1996), is paying to a major interest for the development of technologies that allow to evaluate the environmental quality of these spaces and the uses that the citizenship does of them in an attempt of promoting public effective policies. This paper presents an instrument to evaluate uses and environmental characteristics of public spaces, as result of perfecting and fitting the technique for recording information based observational category systems and the implementation of Field Formats (Anguera y Blanco, 2003; Castellano, 2000; Gorospe, 1999; Ardá, 1998;Hernández- Mendo, 1996; Anguera, 1979) -a technique widely used in Sport Psychology (Gorospe et al, 2005; Castellano y Hernández-Mendo, 2000) but unprecedented in Environmental Psychology. Its creation is the result of an effort to provide systematizing and rigorous to the observation tasks of public spaces. The instrument EXOdES has been used for the evaluation of the uses of various public places in the Guinardó neighborhood in Barcelona. This research has been supported by the Barcelona’s City Council, and the Prevention Services Agency. Further analysis of the data with specific GSEQ software (Bakeman y Quera, 1996) has allowed a description of the types of actors that use the space, the activities it carried out and evaluation of certain environmental indicators as environmental features, or both social and physical incivilities (Lagrange, Ferraro & Supancic, 1992; . Psychosocial indicators referring to environmental quality, perceived satisfaction with the place, and fear of crime have also been introduced in the analysis (Robinson, Lawton, Taylor, & Perkins, 2003). Part of the results are compared with some of the existing literature regarding the characterization of the dangerous places and the fear of crime (Jackson y Stafford, 2009; Carro, Valera y Vidal, 2008; Amerio y Roccato, 2005; Pain, 2000). Finally, the emphasis is in the process of preparing the instrument for collecting observational data intended to be useful for the proliferation of new studies based on observational analysis of public space.
Tanaka, Kenji, and Fumihiko Yamada. "Development of Community Based Flood Risk Management System." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Community-based risk management is increasingly recognized as a useful procedure for the mitigation of local-scale flooding. The purpose of this study is to develop supporting tools for flood risk management which match the demands of the local residents of a community in the town of Kosen in Kumamoto prefecture, Japan. The result of three years of community-based flood risk communication activities, including workshop discussions and evacuation drills, indicated the need for 1) sharing flood hazard zone information within the community, 2) tools for the realtime monitoring and alerting of local weather and hydraulic conditions, and 3) schemes for the confirmation of the safety of residents who require the support of others during evacuation. A real-time data acquisition and analysis system was developed which could embed the residents’ requested applications.
Frisman, Efim, Vera Kalmanova, Alexey Kolobov, and Rita Kogan. "Development of Urban Dendroflora Design: Selection of the Scenarios Providing Stability at Global Environmental Changes (On the Example of Birobidzhan)." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Vegetation is an inseparable part of urban environment, its condition playing a great role in the sustainable development of urbanized territories. Green plantations add to the town’s aesthetic shape and they appear to be a sanitary and recreational factor performing definite ecological functions: absorption of pollutants, soil protection, improvement of the atmospheric air, reduction of the noise level, impediment to the unfavorable wind regimes. The optimal space distribution and availability of green territories is one of the ways helping to decrease social tension and ecological risks. However, it is vegetation in towns that suffers badly from the complex effect of global climatic changes and local urbanization processes. Our investigation is aimed at the analysis of changes in the urban vegetation condition, caused by changes in the climate and by anthropogenic activity; model forecast of the urban dendroflora dynamics; search of some optimal scenarios for the development by varying the greenery planting size and structure, selecting those species which might withstand the approaching environmental changes. The research was made in Birobidzhan, which is the administrative center of the Jewish autonomous region. The town is situated in flood-lands of the Bira-river (left-bank tributary of the Amur-river) in the south of the Russian Far East. The basic global climatic changes in this territory are resulted in a rather considerable process of the Amur and its tributaries recession of level. The Bira raising of water level, that had even caused flooding of some territories in the town and took place in summer 2008, was of short duration and not indicative as referred to general tendencies. The negative tendencies enhanced after the dams and hydroelectric power stations had been built at the Amur left-bank tributaries of Zeya and Bureya. We have analyzed the character of changes which occur in the total area green community, as well as in the structure of species in Birobidzhan, distribution of green zones over its territory, availability of green plantations for common, limited and special use. The ability of dendroflora to perform its basic functions –ecological, sanitary and aesthetic - was investigated. The dendroflora living condition was evaluated by changes of morphologic characteristics displacement or omission of phenophases (developmental stage), specific damage of bark, leaves and roots. The change in morphologic characteristics is accompanied by accumulation of heavy metals in bark and leaves. It is shown that only 15-20 % of green community is healthy, and this vegetation is basically located in the suburbs with a minimal anthropogenic load. The model forecast of the urban dendroflora dynamics was made by us. In order to make it we elaborated a mathematical model, based on the ideas of energy balance and describing trees growth in the community. The model accounts the influence of surrounding vegetation on individual trees growth in the conditions of competition for life resources. The model adequacy was checked on a set of tables showing the process of growth. The model curves approximate to real data with a high degree of accuracy. Within the given model frames some possible scenarios for the urban dendroflora development have been analyzed. The processes of the competitive substitution of species are de- scribed. The model makes it possible to choose combinations of species and optimal planting density for vegetation to successfully survive in the urban territory, forming its aesthetic beauty, serving as a sanitary and recreational factor and performing important ecological functions. This work was supported in part by Far Eastern Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences and by No23 of Presidium of RAS (project FEB RAS 09-I-P23-13), Russian Foundation for the Basic Research (project 09-04-00146).
Komar, Beata. "Developmental Strategies of Katowice Housing Cooperative in View of Global Changes." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Katowice is a relatively young city, as it was granted the town charter in 1865 and until 1922 was part of Prussia. In the Inter-War period the city underwent a transformation from a provincial industrial town to the biggest economic centre in Poland, where, together with the influx of capital, new infrastructure facilities emerged. It did not suffer much from World War II, nevertheless, due to the ensuing political changes after the War, the city was faced with a great shortage of flats. In the postwar years it received 50417 repatriates. Accordingly, in 1957 Katowice Housing Cooperative was founded in response to the demand for flats and the politics of the authorities. KHC is the biggest cooperative in Katowice and its assets include 17 housing estates. The scope of the paper is the discussion of the strategies of KHC in response to global changes affecting the city of Katowice. The 1950s and 1960s were marked with a great demand for flats, migrations of labour and rapid reconstruction of the country of Poland and its industry after war damages. Monitoring the changes, KHC started its operation in several parts of the city. Flats for “working people” became a priority. It was then that some prewar urban development plans were carried out and new concepts concerning further development of the city implemented. As a leading housing cooperative, KHC exerted a big impact on the city centre. In the 1960s and 1970s the following tower-blocks were constructed: “The Super- Unit”, “Haperowiec”, and housing estates: “City Centre”, “Centre-I” and “the Star”, shaping a new image of Katowice. In 1979 the biggest number of flats emerged, nevertheless, in the following years the boom for housing slowly began to fall. In the 1980s heavy industry declined. On the one hand, ecology became a very important consideration and the city of Katowice started fighting air pollution, yet, on the other one, there was a 30 % unemployment among coal mine workers. The paper describes those conditions in terms of flat rent payments, flat maintenance and the provision of habitation for the inhabitants. The 1990s brought about the change of the economic and political system, the opening of borders, labour migrations outside of Poland, the free market economy, the emergence of a strong developers’ market, and, consequently, the shrinking of housing cooperative incentives. Since 1992 the number of the inhabitants of Katowice has been falling, which translated into serious challenges for KHC, especially in view of the diminishing role of housing cooperatives in Poland. Accordingly, the paper presents the strategies of KHC adopted to face the current problems. It should also be mentioned that at that time the city centre was degrading. Car traffic increased, leading to congestion problems, which also concerned the housing estates under KHC’s supervision, forcing the cooperation with the city authorities to solve the congestion problems, especially around the downtown tower blocks. Nowadays the city of Katowice is entering a new era. KHC is building fewer and fewer new homes. Its operation is focused on upgrading the quality of the existing housing resources and, thus, acting in compliance with the global trend aimed at the improvement of the living conditions and energy-efficiency solutions. In spite of the dominating developers’ market, KHC still tries to present an attractive offer. In 2007 new housing facilities were commissioned at “Zgrzebnioka” estate in compliance with modern architectural and urban planning standards. KHC also develops services. In 2009 new houses were erected. KHC exceeds other housing cooperatives and building societies with its renewed facades which are detectable in the landscape of the city of Katowice. Accordingly, it is worth to investigate the history of its operation to assess its strategy adopted in response to global challenges, especially new business opportunities and hard times coming for housing cooperatives in Poland.
Gumpert, Gary, and Susan Drucker. "Displaced Identity." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Does Wi-Fi, the Internet, the mobile phone, satellite communication, the I-Pod, flat screen television, wireless devices, Skype, Face Book, Twitter, virtual communities, iaptops, kindle, alter a sense of identity within the built environment? What do mobile technologies mean with regard to place attachment? This neglected area of exploration within environment behavior studies will be the focus of this analysis. Contemporary existence is located in the interstices of physical location and virtual development. We argue a degree of media determinacy in which any development in the media landscape forecasts a change or configuration of the person/environment relationship. Digital media promote supplanting communities of space with communities of interest or communities of place. This paper will explore will propose taxonomy of the relationship of people to places in a media rich environment. The taxonomy offers as classification system clarifying the need to examine the impact of media technologies on the people/environment relationship. This reflects not only how people’s use of space and place have changed as a result of the proliferation of laptops and iphones, but also what this means in terms of how they connect or disconnect with their physical surroundings.
Becker, Thilo. Distribution of External Costs from Transport In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. External effects in transportation are effects from activities which are not bared by the traveller himself, but which are instead shifted to other people, other times or other regions. Examples are accidents, damages by space separation or air and noise emissions. The current research is already well developed in the field of external effects in transportation. Areas which are barely covered by the research so far are the following questions: Which socio-economic groups cause more effects than average? Which socio-demographic groups have to bear more effects than others? Systems in a free market economy are based on decentralized decisions of independent stakeholder concerning the use of scarce goods and resources. The individual costbenefit consideration of the market participant concerning the decision determines the behaviour. The price paid for an output represents the expenditure. The price does not represent the complete expenditure in case of external costs and a non-optimal level of transportation is consumed. Aditionally, external costs impose a second important problem on society: the environmental burden caused by transport activities is not distributed evenly neither between different socio-economic groups in society nor between regions. The goal of the PhD work is to represent the distributional effects external transport costs cause in society. The impact course starts with the generation traffic and its environmental effects by certain socio-economic groups and geographic regions, continues with the route choice and ends on the side of the affected individuals which can be categorized by socio-economic groups and regions again. The result will show which groups cause economic losses of certain magnitudes among each other. The analysis is currently done for a large German city. This scope is expedient because the serious environmental effects like noise or air emissions have a direct impact on the liveability in the city. Many approaches to improve the situation were tested during the last few decades. They were only partly successful and road pricing is seen as a more promising tool today. However, concerns about social equity of a road tolls are often raised in science and local politics. More knowledge about today’s distributional effects is needed because it plays an elementary role for the design of a charging model and the distribution of the revenues. The research design has three levels. Level 1: The city council has a transportation model which can be used to derive traffic flows between all zones and on all links. A system is developed to combine traffic flow with the socio-economic background of the travellers like gender, age groups, nationalities, income and level of education. By complementing the data with information about the registered vehicles, the traffic on a certain link can be allocated to the generating socio-economic group. Level 2: Maps showing the different effects of traffic already exist and each one of them is compiled and joined with Level 1 by using GIS (e.g. noise maps for EU- environmental noise directive). Level 3: An appropriate zoning design has to be developed for each type of effect in order to determine the socio-demographic groups which are affected. The residents next to the road in case of noise are one example. At this point, level three has to be joined with the other levels and it is possible to follow the whole course of effects from the generator all the way to the affected individuals. The PhD project is still in progress. An extensive literature study will be completed soon and first calculations for level 2 and 3 are currently done. A few results from the analysis are already available. The paper will focus on the planned research design and the methodology to measure distributional effects of external costs. Results from the literature review will be presented and some preliminary findings from the data analysis will be shown.
Kabisch, Nadja, and Dagmar Haase. "Diverging European Cities – the Trajectories of Urban Population Development and Demographic Change Illustrated 1990-2008." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Ongoing population trajectories in European cities are diverging. Besides population growth, an increasing number of cities faces decline. In this paper, we explore the overall population development of 278 European cities between 1990 and 2008. The analysis presented in this paper seeks to uncover some of the main population trajectories and their related driving forces on the national and individual city level in Europe. In order to understand the probably diverging and highly interlinked forces making for urban population growth, we group European cities according to their population development patterns within the last two decades. We hypothesise that these growth patterns significantly differ across clusters of cities located in different regions in Europe, but also within countries in so far that cities population development might not necessarily follow a strict national way. To illustrate this divergence, we conduct case studies of the major cities in the UK, an established and in Poland, a new member of the EU. We examine the main drivers of their specific population development which can be important economic, social and political forces at both national and regional level. Looking more closely on the impact of drivers related to the demographic change we show how they differently affect the cities of Poland and the UK. Notably in advanced economies of the industrialised Western European countries demographic changes that stem from the Second Demographic Transition started in the early 1970s, earlier than in countries of Central and Eastern Europe, which have started to display classic signs of demographic changes accelerating during the recent decade. Our results did not show one stringent development path of European cities at present. Rather, a combination of different patterns contributes to a specific development of a city which must not be similar to others in the same country. We found that recent population trends not only reflect contemporary socioeconomic adjustments but supranational path dependencies such as demographic change or the transition to market economy. Although Polish cities have rapidly started to experience processes of the SDT since the early 1990s which are similar to those having affected the UK more than 30 years ago, there is evidence that these trends are differently represented in the cities of both countries.
Klöckner, Anja Beisenkamp, and Sylke Hallmann. "Do Reports About Climate Change Evoke Emotional Reactions in Children and How do These Reactions Relate to Wellbeing and Behaviour?" In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. This presentation is based on an exploratory study conducted in autumn 2007 on a representative sample of 2.013 fourth to seventh graders in the German federal state of Hessen. 9-14 years old children were asked to describe their emotional responses to the media coverage about climate change. A system of categories of emotional responses to environmental risks proposed by Böhm (2003) was adapted and extended by two nonemotional categories to categorize the children’s responses. The results show that unlike adults children mainly experience consequence-based, prospective emotions like “fear of destruction” (21.1%) and ethic-based, self related emotions like „a bad conscience“ (32.5%). Emotions that are ethicbased, but related to others like “rage” are rare among children (1.7%). Consequence-based, but retrospective emotions like “sadness” were named by 13.3% of the children. Non-emotional reactions were grouped into coping oriented responses like “disinterest in the topic” (16.7%) and not coping-oriented (29.9%). Only children that named responses in the coping oriented, non emotional category had a slightly lower general well-being. In addition a significant but small negative interaction effect between knowledge what to do against climate change and consequence-based, retrospective emotions can be shown. The children have a high level of general knowledge about actions that could mitigate the effect of climate change, which could be an explanation for the small effect of negative emotions on general well-being. However, about one sixth of the children reacts to the climate change discussion with denial or rejection (coping oriented responses). These children have significantly less knowledge about climate protective actions. A path analysis shows that the different emotional responses have an impact on self reported conservation behaviour mediated by the individual motivation to actively protect the climate. Supporting theoretical expectations ethic-based, self related and consequencebased, prospective emotions have a higher impact. Availability of knowledge, frequency of nature experiences and perceived behavioural control are additional relevant predictors. Age of the children and a background of migration have a negative impact on conservation behaviour. Against expectations no significant interaction between knowledge how to act against climate change and the different emotional reactions on the individual motivation to protect the climate could be shown. The same holds for the expected interaction between perceived control and the motivation to protect the climate on self reported behaviour. Taken together, the results of this explorative study show that most children seem to react emotionally to reports about climate change and that these emotional reactions can lead to protective behaviour. The emotional reactions seem, however, not strong enough to impact children’s general well-being. Not having knowledge how to act available might be a reason for showing coping centred reactions like denial.
Teräväinen, Helena. "Does the Place Matter in the Global World?" In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. The globalized world is shrinking: almost simultaneously we get the information from other side of the ball we are familiar with global possibilities but also global threats. Today’s people are encouraged to view themselves as global consumers rather than participants of communities or localities. In the beginning of the era of network society people use to think that the place isn’t any more important, but now there is also a marked movement towards individualization and need for locality. The locality (plural localities) is lifting up the significance of “place” at least in two different ways: the locality as having a position in space and localities as the features or surroundings of a particular place. “Locality” and “sense of community” can be seen as values that could be used to bring together a number of elements, such as commitment, trust and identity. It is possible that these different ways of approaching the concept of community will also overlap in particular instances. Place-based and interest-based communities may well coincide geographically, for example in places where many inhabitants use to work in the same industry, such as was the case in early industries ad e.g. mining villages. We may add a third theme to the locality that of attachment – as communities of place or interest may not automatically have a sense of shared identity. People construct their communities symbolically, making it a resource and repository of meaning, and a referent of their identity. Therefore communities are best approached as ‘communities of meaning’: community plays a crucial symbolic role in generating people’s sense of belonging and identity. Research questions in this paper: Does the place matter in today’s global world? How is it possible to design places where people can feel the sense of community and shared identity today? Is it possible that places can change their identity and become more important? In a long lasting case study of Old Paukku I have researched the identity of a former industrial site which was made a cultural centre (my dissertation 2006: The Old Paukku in Lapua -- re-built and re-spoken. Discursive formation of the cultural heritage in built environment). When making the regional plan in Southern Ostrobotnia I also have studied the meaning of built environment for the regional identity (2002-2003). Recently I have been involved in a large trans-disciplinary and international research project (InnoSchool 2007-2010) and I had a possibility to investigate children’s meaningful places in Finland and California, and how they in collaboration can describe these to each other. The meanings of places may be rooted in the physical setting and objects and activities. There are no places that have no identity: But identity of place is not only the product of its main components but it is socially structured (Berger & Luckmann 1967). In other words, identity varies with the individual or group. One place can even have many different identities to one person- and the identity of place varies with the intentions, personalities, and circumstances of those who are experiencing it. On the other hand individual images have been and are being constantly socialised through the use of common language, symbols, and experiences. In this context I argue that the Old Paukku (Old Factory) was already “a place” and after the process in which it became a cultural centre - which one could call developing of localisation- it became a place with new meanings, still having its own special identity. The process of culture (when people are using the culture centre; the library, art and music school, many museums) opened the place for people and made them accept the place not earlier familiar them as “meaningful” and significant for them (and their identity). Places are localised- they are parts of larger areas and are focuses in a system of localisation. But a place is just not “where” of something; it is the location plus everything that occupies that location seen as an integrated and meaningful phenomenon.
Perez-Lopez, Raquel. Dwelling as a Symbol of Personal Identity In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Theoretical framework. A dwelling is not simply a space where people live. As Tognoli (1987) pointed out, the house is also a cognitive space. Csikszentmihalyi and Rochberg- Halton (1981) proposed that home is a place linked with feelings and emotions; furthermore, Rapoport (1972) considers houses to be social institutions. Hence, houses are psychosocial spaces (Aragonés & Rodríguez, 2005) where people arrange their lives. Residents modify and adjust the places where they live according to their preferences and tastes (Rapoport, 1972). This is related to Becker’s idea of personalization in which he pointed out that personalization of spaces allows residents to leave their own marks in said places (Becker, 1974). There is a group of studies that have demonstrated that daily environments are able to communicate much about their residents. For instance, Wilson and Mackenzie (2000) proved how people were classified in terms of age, socioeconomic status or family situation groups through analyzing their decorations. Other studies have also found that daily spaces such as rooms or offices are expressions of inhabitants’ personalities. Gosling, Ko, Morris and Mannarelli (2002), and Wells and Thelen (2002) discovered that places where people spend time every day are linked with aspects of the Big Five of Personality. In light of research revealing dwellings as crucial primary spaces that reflect personal and social identities, dwellings warrant further study that reveals more about links between inhabitants and their environments. This study primarily aims at researching how bedroom owners express their personal and social identities in their rooms through the personalization behaviours that occur within these rooms. Aims. The general aim of this research is to study how people establish links with spaces where they spend most of their time, and that are under their control. Hence, this research looks at feelings, thoughts and behaviours that occur inside of primary spaces. The supposition that residents adjust space according to their preferences could lead to the hypothesis that personal and social identities could be located by observing bedrooms. In this way, observers of such rooms could guess the personal traits of residents by analyzing the decoration of the bedroom. These personal traits would be tied to the factors of the Big Five. Methodology. The research will be carried out using students and old people. Participants will be required to fill out questionnaires that aim to reveal more about their feel- ings, activities and thoughts inside their bedrooms. In a second research, raters have to complete a questionnaire containing a list of adjectives (Saucier & Goldberg, 1996) that permits them to judge residents’ personal traits. These judgments will be documented after the raters observe slides of different bedrooms. In addition, personality questionnaires will also be filled out by the residents of these spaces. State of development of thesis. Results This thesis is based on several studies, some of which are still ongoing. However, several results have already been reported. Results from studies confirm the hypothesis that people are able to create links with daily spaces that reflect their identity. Residents experience emotions such as control, identity and intimacy in their bedrooms, and they consider these spaces mirrors of their personalities. Significant differences were found between male and female room owners in frequency production of categories related to affective aspects. Additionally, another study shows that raters point out more personal traits linked with Conscientiousness and Extraversion than with Agreeableness.
Lay, Maria Cristina D.. "Economic Sustainability: the Impact of Home-Based Work on the Function and Design in Social Housing." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. The study looks at the provision of adequate design attributes to allow for home-based income-generating activities in social housing, focusing on the spatial and social-economic impacts of home-based work on the function and design, at domestic and urban scale. It aims at identifying the spatial features related to the different types of income-generating activities taking place in selected low-income housing schemes with different urban location, street grid and dwelling type and clarifying these aspects through the study of configuration, location and availability of the types of incomegenerating activities informally introduced in social housing. It was designed in order to investigate the most frequently adopted means of income generation used by low-income residents, which include physical modifications in the dwelling and common areas carried out to adapt these spaces to informal jobs, and to identify the spatial features affecting resident decision-making on location and types of income-generating activities introduced in the housing scheme. Moreover, it evaluates the recent initiatives taken by public sector to meet residents’ needs. Methodological procedures consisted of post-occupancy evaluation and configuration analysis of five low-income housing schemes located in the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre, Brazil. Data was collected through questionnaires, interviews, observations and physical measurements. Space syntax measures were used to analyze the spatial configuration of home-based work. Findings indicate the most frequently adopted means of income generation used by residents, which include physical modifications in the dwelling and common areas in order to adapt these spaces to informal jobs. The type and quantity of modifications taking place are related to the degree of spatial flexibility, according to each dwelling type, which affected residents’ satisfaction with appearance of the housing scheme. Dwelling location within the urban area and neighbourhood added to its linkages to public infrastructure impact the characteristics of home-based work and the usage of the dwelling for income generation. The number of shops or services generated in each category varied according to demand and the scale of the urban areas they intend to serve, on the flexibility of dwelling type and on the characteristics of the urban context. A comparative account of income-generating activities distribution allowed for a classification of the various types and sets out in what ways they came into being. The location patterns are compared with configurative analysis of the street grids in the areas in which the housing schemes are located. The relationships investigated highlight the important role provision and adequacy of income generating activities play on performance evaluation and economic sustainability of low-income housing schemes. Evidence provided indicate that part of household income generation in social housing in Porto Alegre originate from informal entrepreneurial activities carried out in the dwelling, resulting in a number of physical modifications in the dwelling as well as the creative usage of space and occupation of common areas. It is highlighted the importance of location of income generation activities in and/or near the dwelling, as a mean to provide job and income alternatives and to guarantee better living conditions to low-income residents. This contribution is meant to help to base guidelines for good practices in the design of social housing and broaden policy makers’ knowledge to plan for housing to meet the diverse income generation needs of low-income households.
Fattahi, Sara. "Ecosystem in Silent Crisis, Case Study: Bushehr as a Coastal Area in Iran." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Today, millions of people are already suffering because of climate change. The deathly silence of this crisis is a major impediment for international action to end it. Climate change already has a severe human impact today, but it is a silent crisis. Climate change will affect the basic elements of life for people around the world, access to water, food production, health and the environment. Hundreds of millions of people could suffer hunger, water shortage and coastal flooding as the world warms (Nicholls, R.J., 2007). Some of the people and places affected by changes in ecosystems and ecosystem services are highly vulnerable to the effects. Indeed, many of these people and places are already under severe stress from environmental, health, and socioeconomic pressures, as well as new forces involved in globalization. (Roger E. Kasperson, 2006) 1. Effect of vulnerability through the human lens At a global level, various efforts over the past several decades have defined vulnerable indexes. It is obvious from the notion of vulnerability that three major dimensions are involved: • Exposure to stresses, concern, and shocks; • The sensitivity of people, places, and ecosystems to stress or concern, including their capacity to anticipate and cope with the stress; • The resilience of exposed people, places, and ecosystems in terms of their capacity to absorb shocks and concern while maintaining function. (UNDP, 2007) // The most vulnerable people are those whose livelihoods directly depend on nature and on the ecosystem services that nature provides. 1. a. Why do Ecosystems matter to Disaster Risk Reduction? Ecosystem degradation reduces the ability of natural systems to sequester carbon, further worsen climate change related disasters. Healthy and diverse ecosystems are more strong themselves to extreme weather events, and are therefore more able to continue to provide benefits to communities in post-disaster situations. (Akihiko Morita, 2007) Ecological systems or ecosystems are responsible for lifesupporting environmental services, such as the hydrological, nitrogen and carbon global cycles. They are essential for the survival of human beings because of the natural goods and services they provide, including water, food, and medicines. However, human interactions can have profound impacts upon the biological, chemical, and physical processes essential to maintaining the structure and functions of ecosystems. (Andrew Clarke, 2003) Ecosystems are fundamental for human well-being and provide crucial services and options for communities to buffer the impacts of environmental disturbances, extreme events and change. They also provide aesthetic and cultural benefits. (Victor Galaz, 2008) 2. Case study reason: Iran, Bushehr The people are now trying to adapt to the climate change and the impact, but there is one big difference between developed countries and developing countries. While developed countries have the financial, technological and human resources to deal with the consequences of a changing climate, such capacities of developing countries are severely limited. Developing countries particularly in Bushehr in south of Iran, near Persian Gulf is likely to suffer the earliest and most because of its geographical location. Coastal Area Sensitivity Evaluation is in fact, the evaluation of an extraordinary ecological rich region. This study has been based on established criteria and values in the Bushehr Province coastline region. This Paper firstly analyzes the vicious spiral between climate change impacts, ecosystem degradation and increased risk of climate-related disasters; secondly, defines the central role of ecosystem management in climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction specially in Coastal Area; and thirdly, discuss about one of the developing country Province, Bushehr as a high potential city for natural resources that are in danger; and try to find some method or solution.
Lukas, Michael. Edge-Urban City-Building Through Large Scale Development Projects. Actors, Interests and Institutional Change in Santiago De Chile In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Since two decades or so urban development in megacities around the world is increasingly put forward through publicprivate, large scale modernization and investment projects. Examples are super-modern highways and toll roads, industrial enclaves and entire new towns (master-planned communities) on the outskirts of cities. Especially the dimensions and design characteristics of the latter have been described in case studies for Asia and Latin America. Due to the parallel emergence of the phenomenon in many large cities around the world, the global similarities in terms of concept and design (following mostly US-examples) and the involvement of international financial capital, projects are often labelled as a product of globalization. Furthermore, the often involved transfer of planning power from public to private actors and the privatisation of beforehand public space is seen as an expression of neoliberal urban governance and the neoliberalization of urban space respectively. While it might hold true that neoliberal globalization is a structural root cause of new forms of urban development on a general level in cit- ies around the world, more is needed to understand and explain the emergence and implementation of projects in concrete and particular places and the consequences for particular groups of people, especially the most vulnerable ones. Furthermore, from a sustainability perspective it seems especially relevant to ask which role the state and civil society - potential defenders of some form of public interest – actually play (and might play in the future) in planning processes which are shaped by powerful private interests. Detailed case studies are needed that look at the complex interplay of different groups of actors, their interests, strategies as well as the outcomes of decision-making. Taking political ecology as a general research framework and sociological institutionalist/ relational governance analysis as a methodological device, in this paper I will try to shed some light on these issues using Santiago de Chile as case study. Here large scale greenfield development projects are realized and planned in a number unprecedented in Latin America. Projects on superficies altogether bigger than 9000 hectares and an investment volume higher than 10 billion dollars have been constructed since 2002 or are in their final planning stage. In my PhD-project I focus on the two communities of most intense project development in the last years, Colina and Pudahuel, and here the story of two emblematic master-planned communities, Piedra Roja and Urbanya. Through qualitative methods as semi-structured interviews and document analysis I study the logics and rationalities that explain the actions of the involved actors and the power configurations at play leading to concrete outcomes of planning and negotiation processes. I am especially interested in the strategies of public authorities and civil society to get a grip on privately led development. Actually, the projects are based on the introduction of planning obligations into land-use planning (in Chile the respective instruments are called ‘Conditional Development Zones, ZODUC’, and ‘Conditional Development Projects, PDUC’), profoundly affecting the way urban development is and will be negotiated in the future. While the first generation of projects negotiated under the new scheme (Colina) ended up as elite enclaves hardly considering public interest in any form, the second generation of projects (Pudahuel) is socially and environmentally more sound and does consider local communities and some sustainability criteria which can be explained through strong local leadership and community mobilisation in Pudahuel. This highlights that large projects are at the same time expression and driver of more generalized changes in the realm of planning principles and procedures on the local, regional and even national scale with important impacts on people and their environments.
Shirotsuki, Masahiro, Miho Sonoda, and Satoshi Otsuki. "Effect of Sense of Place on Property Owner's Behaviour for Maintaining Historical Building; a Case Study in Eyam Village in Uk." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Cultural heritages are fundamental to our history and could be central to our ‘sense of place’. These heritages located worldwide have been facing severe risks in recent years. One of the most significant risks is the threat of natural disaster as seen in Southeast Asian and South American countries. Moreover, socioeconomic changes occasioned by human activities have been surfacing as manmade disasters in present times. We can find a common criterion in both cases: ‘neglect’ can be a significant factor risking the conservation of cultural heritages because of natural as well as man-made disasters. In the UK, a majority of the listed buildings, monuments, and parks are privately owned. Thus, landowners are the most likely to neglect heritage objects or places falling under their ownership. Unfortunately, ‘cultural heritages generally lose their particular purpose for which they were originally designed and have very little market value’ (English Heritage, 2008). This means that landowners have very few incentives for conserving the sites. This study primarily intends to determine if an owner’s behaviour with regard to neglecting or maintaining heritage sites is affected by sense of place, by focusing on the case of Eyam village in the UK. This study aimed to achieve the following two major objectives: 1) Identify how a homeowner’s sense of place affects his/her attitude and behaviour towards the conservation of historical buildings 2) Identify politically manipulatable variables that are linked to the sense of place variables
Khsawneh, Akikazu Kato Fahed, and Gen Taniguchi. "Effective Common Place Design Implied by Behavioral Evidence: Fresh Perspectives to Facility Management Research Promoting Environmental Friendly University Campuses." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Quality and economy are the goal of all higher education institutions, applying the principles of Facility Management helps such organizations to achieve their goals. Yet any initiative taken to create more efficient buildings within the context of a campus may be considered on the long run a precious contribution to the efforts aiming to save the global system’s balance, a trend followed among higher education institutions all over the world. A delicate global system governs the state of the environment in our planet; this system is the responsibility of all humans and all divisions of science to handle wisely. Architects and facility mangers should be more sensitive to this issue as they shape the built environment and particularly in terms of the design and the planning of campuses which are considered to be the show case of development and the incubation of future generations, such institutions should be a life embodiment to the prevailing trends of environment friendly architecture that strives to stabilize the delicate balance of global system and not to weaken it consequently leading to its decay. The campus design in itself would affect the life styles of its users including the students, faculty, and visitors and in fact the whole community surrounding the university campus. The design that considers the environmental concerns of today would serve to improve the quality of life of its users and act as a life educational monument on the benefits of applying such environmental trends. This is where the issues of efficiency and effectiveness arise; they integrate with the environmentalist’s notion of wise resources management. Within this context this research tries to study the university dining facilities from the point view of common place. University campuses provide students with spaces of formal and informal learning, dining facilities are where most informal interactions would occur in a campus. Based on qualitative research methods, the study focused on analyzing the actual patterns of use giving meaning to common place within the dining facilities. Data from five dining facilities of three universities campuses was collected and studied to understand the needs of users and the patterns of behaviors in relation to the available physical features. The use of common place was studied by holding several observation sessions conducted by video recording supported by behavioral mapping of selected dining tables being uncovered by the footage. This study aims to come up with solid recommendations that would form the guiding principles to design better future campuses and also to try to consider ways to improve current campuses; as an out-come of the study it can be said that the dining facilities should incorporate more seating alternatives taking into account the groups of users served, also the notion of common place can be supported by creating flexible meal blocks and easing congestion. The facility managers in a campus should take actual use and behaviors of its frequent users into consideration to create effective dining facilities that promote efficiency leading to sustainable and environment friendly campuses on the long run.
Demarque, Christophe. Effects of Binding Communication on Future Time Perspective and Decision Making Facing a Pro-Environmental Behavior In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Theoretical framework Our research is intended to study the impact of binding communication, procedure crossing persuasion and commitment, on Future Time Perspective (FTP) and individuals’ decision making in the field of environmental protection. Since proenvironmental behaviors often involve, by their nature, an investment directed towards the future (Joireman, 2005), we hypothesized that time perspective, traditionally regarded as a personality trait, could be modified in a situation of social influence. The goal is to make people more sensitive to long-term consequences of their behaviors since this sensitivity leads to an increased setting up of pro-environmental behaviors (Joireman, Strahtman & Balliett, 2006). - Procedure Subjects were asked to read a document about environmental issues. Once they had accepted to read it, they completed the first part of our FTP measurement tool (T1, 4 items of the Consideration of Future Consequences scale (CFC, Strathman, Gleicher, Boninger & Scott Edwards, 1994) and 5 items of the Future dimension of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI, Zimbardo & Boyd, 1999)). We then delivered the subjects a persuasive message about consequences of pro-environmental behaviors and their benefits for future generations. Three experimental conditions were used (N=57): - Direct presentation of the message, without preparatory action (condition1 « classic communication », N=20). - Presentation of the message after a committing procedure involving the accomplishment of a preparatory action. The action consisted in producing arguments stressing the importance of environment preservation in order to protect future generations. 2 strengths of commitment were used, either: No-choice (condition2 « weak commitment », N=19) or Free will (condition3 « strong commitment », N=18). A group of subject was not presented with the message (control condition, N=20). At the end of their reading, subjects were asked their opinion on the text and had to fill the second part of the FTP measurement tool (T2, 7 items of ZTPI and 3 items of CFC scale). We finally asked them if they would accept to hold a stand for the ADEME. Subjects were female students at the Université de Provence. The document used was the so-called new awareness document about environmental issues developed by the ADEME. Dependent variables: 1) Mean differences between T1 and T2 2) Commitment to hold the stand ADEME - Results 1) T2 average scores were higher than the T1 average scores (3.51 vs. 3.65, t(56) = -2.37, p <.05) in the three experimental conditions difference but not in the control condition. However, there is no significant difference according to the experimental conditions. Differences in the CFC items (3.46 vs. 3.83, t(56) = -3.83, p <.001) account for most of the average score differences. This can be explained by the construct measured by the CFC, more congruent with arguments presented in the message. 2) More subjects accepted to hold the stand ADEME in the experimental conditions than in control (Experimental, 17 subjects out of 57 (29.82 %); Control, 1 subject out of 20 (5 %)). Again there are no significant differences according to the experimental conditions. If we consider our results, the message had an effect both on our FTP and decision making measures but which is not modulated by the strength of commitment. We will discuss theoretical implications of these results (time perspective status and commitment procedures) and practical implications in the field of awareness to environmental issues.
Imanishi, Mineko, and Tomonori Sano. Effects of Street Patterns on Pedestrian's Route Recognition and Wayfinding: Comparisonbetween Grid and Non- Grid Street Patterns In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. When urban spaces are classified into two types “grid” and “non-grid” by their street pattern, many people think that a grid street pattern makes it easier to find one’s way than a non-grid street pattern. However, while people stroll in urban areas for shopping or for sightseeing, etc., it is more important to recognize the ways to go than to have a precise cognitive map. This study investigates the effects of street patterns on the wayfinding by the experiment which conducted in the two actual urban districts, one has a gird street system and the other has a non-gird street system. There were twenty-eight participants (age 19-25). Fourteen participants walked in a residential district which has a gird street system (hereafter referred to as “the grid district”) and the other fourteen participants walked in a district area which has a non-grid street system (hereafter referred to as “the non-grid district”). Both districts are located in the Tokyo, Japan. The experimenter showed the participants a specific path from a specific origin point to a specific destination point. After they learned the path, the experimenter showed the photos of the intersections or the intersections at the actual location. Some of these intersections are on the path and some are not. The participants were asked to answer whether they passed the intersection or they did not. Results : The participants of the non-grid district answered much more correctly than those of the grid district. In particular, the participants of the non-grid district answered the intersections which they did not pass with more confidence than those of the grid district. The participants of grid district did not recognized some intersections which they actually passed. Nineteen Participants (age 19-26) learned a path in the same way as in the Experiment I. The paths were also same as in the Experiment I, however the directions of it were inverse of it in the Experiment I. After they arrived at the destination, they were requested to trace backward it, i.e. from ‘the destination point’ to ‘the origin point’ for themselves. As they walked, the experimenter followed them and took motion pictures. After they arrived at the origin point, they filled out a questionnaire. Each participant walked both of the paths in the grid and non-grid districts. Results : There was no significant difference in the attainment of reaching the origin point between in the grid district and in the non-grid district. However the participants of the grid district stopped more often and longer time than the those in non-grid district. In the grid district, the participants tended to use the information in their cognitive map, such as the direction to the origin point and number of blocks they had passed. On the contrary, the participants of the non-grid district memorized and used the views, the objects and the landmarks on the path. The views and the objects in the street can be used more to find the way to go in non-grid districts than in grid districts. In contrast, the direction to the destination on the cognitive map and number of passed blocks are useful in grid districts. However, this type of information needs a series of memories which are obtained at more than one spot on the path and needs for people to connect each other and translate to the information to decide the way to go. This process can be a heavy burden for people. The failure of this process makes people to stand for long period of time at intersections to find their way to go in the grid district. According to the result of this study, when people stroll in urban areas, they can find their way and memorize their way easier in non-grid districts than in grid districts.
Susumu, Ohnuma, Hirose Yukio, and Sugiura Junkichi. "Effects of Value Similarity and Procedural Fairness on Social Acceptance: a Case Study of Tram System in Nuess." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. This study investigated the effects of value similarity and procedural fairness of citizen participation on social acceptance of environmental policy decision in a case study of tram system in Neuss city, Germany. Value similarity between citizens and the authority is related to trust, particularly trust in authority, which is one of the significant factor on social acceptance. Procedural fairness and its antecedent factors with regard to citizen participation also affect social acceptance. However, it is uncertain that which factor (value similarity or procedural fairness) has s stronger effect on social acceptance. We argue that the importance of each factor depends on the participant’s involvement in the issue. In the sense, value similarity would be more influential on the acceptance for those who are highly involved in the issue, while procedural fairness would be more influential on the acceptance for those who are lower involved. We carried out a case study investigating tram system in the city centre of Neuss. In Neuss, the city center was too narrow and dangerous because the trams went through the main street. There was a big controversial debate of whether the tram should remain or be removed from there. After a decade of discussion - there were many opportunities of citizen participation and referendum during the years, the city mayor had decided the tram line to become a single track from double track on the section of the city center. Although the decision seemed a workable compromise, those who had strong opinions about the tram to remain or to be removed might not be wholly satisfied with the decision because their opinions were not perfectly reflected but half reflected. In the case, value similarity would play an important role, that is, people will accept the decision if they feel their value of policy for the city center and public transportation, which are the points at tram issue, is similar to the mayors’ policy. On the other hand, those who did not have strong opinion about the tram policy would weigh more on whether the procedure of reaching the decision was fair or not. To investigate how residents evaluate the decision process and to explore what factors influence people’s acceptance of the decision, a mail-out survey was conducted in Neuss using random sampling. Research hypotheses were a) Value similarity between respondents (citizens) and authority (the city mayor) would influence the acceptance of the decision mediated by the trust in authority, b) procedural fairness would influence the acceptance, and the main antecedent factors of procedural fairness would be information disclosure, representativeness and opportunity of voice, c) value similarity would have a stronger effect on the acceptance for those who are involved in the tram issue, while procedural fairness would have a stronger effect on the acceptance for those of lower involvement. // Results showed that hypotheses a) and b) were mostly supported, consistent with previous studies. Hypothesis c) was approximately supported. Both value similarity and procedural fairness determined the social acceptance. Value similarity with the city mayor had a stronger effect on the acceptance for those who are highly involved in the tram line issue than for those of lower involvement. However, both procedural fairness and trust in authority had strong effects on the acceptance even for those of higher involvement. Furthermore, not only trust in the mayor but also trust in the interested parties directed their activities for remaining/removing the tram correlated with acceptance of the decision particularly for those of higher involvement. The result also showed that even those who oppose to remain the tram tended to accept the decision if they evaluated the process as fair. The different roles of value similarity and procedural fairness will be discussed.
Kumazawa, Takayuki. "Effects of Visual Communication Technique on Raising Risk Awareness and Familiarity in Disaster Management." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. One of a visual communication technique to learn disaster management is a mean of video teaching material. Videos demonstrating disaster management techniques have been developed in order to help people to cope with disasters. When a disaster strikes, victims have to help each other until a rescue team arrives. In such a situation, it is important that victims who are not severely injured help other victims. However, victims who are not severely injured but have not been trained in survival techniques would be incapable of providing any assistance. People should learn disaster management techniques through such videos in order to cope with disasters. However, for a long time, videos teaching disaster management techniques did not deal with the provision of assistance to victims of a disaster, while considering “risk awareness” and “familiarity”. In fact, it is difficult to teach disaster management techniques while considering “risk awareness” and “familiarity”. Learners would be disappointed when victim’s “risk awareness” was too emphasized in teaching materials. On the other hand, learners could not understand victims when “familiarity” was too emphasized in teaching materials. Videos teaching disaster management techniques have to have appropriate balance of “risk awareness” and “familiarity” in training. In this study, influence of videos with “risk awareness” and “familiarity” on learning disaster management was investigated by experiments. Therefore, a video that had two characteristics was developed to resolve such problems. First, the video contained footage from the documentary Hanshin Awaji Great Earthquake, which struck at 5:46 a.m. on January 17, 1995 in order to have “risk awareness”. Second, the video contained two computer-animated characters —an instructor and a student—in order to increase “familiarity” and make the video entertaining. Further, the impact of the video on citizens, these characters, and footage was investigated through questionnaires before and after the video had been viewed. The title of the video is “Let’s Learn about the Functions of a Residents’ Organization from a Disaster Documentary.” The differences between the pre- and post-evaluation results were analyzed statistically. The postevaluation results were higher than the pre-evaluation results with significant differences in three measurements. These measurements were “victims’ ability to image themselves in a disaster situation,” “understanding of actions taken by victims in a disaster situation,” and “eagerness to learn disaster management.” These results demonstrated that the video with “risk awareness” and “familiarity” had a positive influence on imagination, understanding, and eagerness to learn. Besides, in order to analyze the evaluation of the video, the correlation between the measurements was analyzed. Consequently, the “popularity of the video” was found to be correlated with ““familiarity” with computer-animated characters,” “intelligibility of content,” and “eagerness to learn disaster management.” These results demonstrated that “familiarity” with computer-animated characters, intelligibility, and eagerness to learn disaster management had a positive impact on the popularity of the video. The findings indicated that the video with “risk awareness” and “familiarity” had a positive influence in helping people learn disaster management. Teaching materials should have “risk awareness” such as footage of disaster documentary and “familiarity” such as computer-animated characters to learn disaster management. Computer- animated characters can facilitate learning in the workshop. Currently, this video is used by citizen groups and the administration in Japan.
Marchand, Lean-Luc Salagnac D.. "Efficiency of Communication Instruments to Prepare Population and Stakeholders at Flood Risk in Two Regions of France." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. The need for information has for long been acknowledged as a major issue to cope with flood situations. Consequently a huge number of printed or electronic documents are accessible. They for instance deal with before-during-after flood situations or vulnerability assessment/reduction. Is it enough to have such easily available information to build prevention, adaptation, protection capacity? Is this information known? Do we know how this information is used? By whom? What for? Is this information pertinent for concerned people? In order to examine these questions, CSTB carried out a qualitative inquiry by a panel of stakeholders in two French regions (Ile-de-France around Paris and Languedoc- Roussillon in the south). They are both vulnerable but Paris has a faint memory of flood-risk while the memory in Languedoc-Roussillon is frequently revived by flood events. This action was based on published documents (both printed and electronic) concerning after flood repair and vulnerability assessment methods. The survey was carried out according to a classical method in environmental and social psychology. We met (1) stakeholders belonging to public bodies known to actively disseminate these documents and (2) stakeholders who were not recipients of these documents. The first results of this enquiry demonstrate that: • vulnerability reduction is an emerging issue for French local authorities. • more targeted information according to stakeholders groups is needed. • a territorial approach in risk assessment and vulnerability reduction is required. • the acceptability of the risk, which varies depending on several variables, must be acknowledged. • the capacity to adapt the content of documents to local territorial contexts must be developed. • tools of communication are not effective enough to inform or to raise awareness; it is necessary study the condition of their appropriation. • the culture of flood risk must be elaborated with consultation strategy, by associating concerned stakeholders (public, professional, political, technical, etc.).
Johansson, Maria, Anders Raustorp, Cecilia Boldemann, Maria Kylin, Catharina Sternudd, and Fredrika Mårtensson. "Emotional State After the Trip to School and Associations with Children's Attitude Towards Sustainable Mobility Patterns." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. A sustainable development of the built environment asks for changes in urban residents’ mobility patterns. The extensive use of the car contributes to sedentary lifestyle and negative environmental impact in many respects. Children living in urban areas are faced with limits of their independent use of the environment both in terms of travel and outdoor play. Many parents hold favourable attitudes towards sustainable ways of mobility for their children, at least as long as the children are accompanied by an adult. In reality however many of the children’s daily trips are carried out by car. Parents’ are thereby also risking that their own present unsustainable daily mobility patterns are transferred to the next generation. Our modal choice is partly a result of affective factors. Nilsson and Küller (2000) showed that urban residents who expressed affection for their car also travelled more by car. Gatersleben and Uzzell (2007) showed that commuting by cycle to work was beneficent for the commuter’s affective state. Children seem to like to walk and cycle, to move around by kick bikes and skateboard. How does physical active travel influence their emotional state? Is the children’s emotional response towards their way of travel also associated with their attitude towards different mobility patterns in travel and play? These are some of the research questions that are to be analysed within the interdisciplinary research programme “Children on foot”. The research is carried out in cooperation between The Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Lund University, Karolinska Institute and The Linneaus University. Theoretically the study departs from Küller’s (1991) model of Human-Environment-Interaction stating that a person’s successful interaction with the environment can be seen as a result of a basic emotional process that takes into consideration the activity to be carried out by a person, characteristics of the physical and social environment with consideration for individual factors. In the basic emotional process, the core affects of arousal and pleasure are two crucial components. These core affects have been shown to be the basic units of emotions and are linked to distinct patters of brain activity. During one week in September 2009 over 200 10-year old Swedish children reported how they travelled to school and assessed their emotional state by a paper and pencil test as soon as they arrived at school. At one point during the week the children rated their preference of various travel modes and leisure activities in a separate questionnaire. The travel modes and activities had previously been assessed by experts to give rise to different levels of energy expenditure. Moreover data was collected for the children’s daily physical activity by pedometer. The paper will within the symposium “Sustainable everyday mobility patterns in urban childhoods” present the results of correlational analyses of these data and discuss the implications of possibilities to travel to school for development of sustainable mobility patterns among children in urban areas.
Schweizer-Ries, Petra. "Energy Sustainable Communities: an Ideal Field for Sustainability Science and Action Research – the Case of Universities." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Sustainable energy use is an increasingly important topic including three action strategies that have to be investigated inter- and transdisciplinarily: consistency, efficiency and sufficiency (Kleinhückelkotten, 2002). System knowledge has to be developed of how our energy supply and demand is actually designed, how it is perceived and how it creates energy use patterns. On top of this analysis, transformation knowledge can be designed to support sustainable development in the energy sector (see Klein et al. 2001 for the further explication of system knowledge, transformation knowledge and target knowledge). Energy investigations and action research, carried through at three universities, will be presented. This includes the speciality of transdisciplinarity including researchers and actors in the same organisation. Results will be presented from the ongoing process of investigations with standardised online questionnaires, qualitative interviews and workshops supporting the action research design. The socio-technical energy system of these universities as well as the energy consciousness of different actor groups like students, teachers and service personal will be described, compared and predictions will be made on how they probably further develop in the energy sector. This will be done according to the systemic and transactional model of behaviour change (Kaufmann-Hayoz, 2008; Schweizer-Ries, 2008), including discussion of research methods and scientific quality standards under this special inter- and transdisciplinary conditions. On the right track - Intelligent traffic information and individual sustainable mobility Renate Cervinka, Robert Sposato, Margarete Huber und Kathrin Röderer Applying sustainability science principles on initiating renewable energy solutions in German communities.
Andrade, Luísa Lima Cláu, and Marino Bonaiuto. Environment and Well-Being: Adaptation and Validation of a Hospital Environment Quality Perception Measure In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Person-environment fit refers to the quality of the relationship between the person and the environment. A way to operationalize this relationship is to evaluate environment quality perception (Horelli, 2006). In hospitals, physical environment is not simply a backdrop for the delivery of healthcare (Harris et al., 2002) since research has shown that healthcare physical environment attributes affect users’ satisfaction and well-being (e.g., Leather et al., 2003; Becker & Douglass, 2006). The general aim of this PhD project is develop a theoretical model in which this relationship is mediated by environmental quality perception. Specifically, this research project pretends to: a) adapt and validate a measure for assessing patients, visitors and staff perceptions of hospital environmental quality, b) explore the relationship between environmental attributes, users’ environmental quality perception and well-being, c) identify the physical environmental attributes that impact the most on hospital quality environment perception of different kinds of users, with different needs; and d) test, in laboratory and field settings, the impact of modifications in hospital environment (alternative design solutions) on users’ hospital environmental quality perception and well-being. The aim of the first study described here is to validate a measure on the perception that patients, visitors/companions and staff have about the quality of hospital environment (Perceived Hospital Environment Quality Indicators (PHEQI); Fornara, Bonaiuto & Bonnes, 2006). PHEQI contains four indicator scales on perceived hospital environment quality, three evaluating different physical environments and one evaluating a social environment: (a) spatial–physical aspects of proximal external spaces of the hospital (16 items); (b) spatial–physical aspects of the care unit (21 items); (c) spatial–physical aspects of the in-patient area and of the out-patient waiting area (18 items); (d) social– functional aspects of the care unit (16 items). Statistical analysis revealed a total of 12 PHEQI factors of quality environment perception. In a recent version of the instrument authors present only three perceived hospital environment quality indicator scales. These scales were translated from Italian to Portuguese, using the translation and back-translation method, and pre-tested. The scales were then completed by users using one in-patient area and one out-patient area of four hospital’s orthopaedic units with different spatial and physical conditions, in Lisbon. Also these four orthopaedic units were described and evaluated with respect to various design attributes that cover the same issues as the PHEQI scales concerning spatial-physical aspects. This evaluation was done by two independent judges with a theoretical background in architectural design issues. The first objective is to explore factorial structures of the scales for Portuguese population and test for convergent and discriminant construct validity and criterion validity. This will allow to verify how design and socio-functional attributes are organized (more or less connected, more or less distinct) in users’ cognitions. Second objective is to develop a shorter version of PHEQI. This version can be useful tool in future studies and also in post-occupancy evaluations. Third objective is to make use of the cumulative risk model methodology to analyse the features and specific elements of the physical environment of healthcare facilities that significantly contribute for the perception of patients, visitors/companions and staff about hospital environmental quality. At the present stage we are collecting data. To discuss it will let us prepare future studies.
Duvier, Caroline, and Florian Kaiser. "Environmental Attitude, Attitude Toward Nature, and Environmental Conservation." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Is a nature lover automatically an environmentalist, or does the love of nature lead to environmentalism? Classical notions of attitude toward environmental protection and attitude toward nature do not distinguish between nature and environmental protection as two attitude objects. Implicitly these notions, thus, presume appreciation of nature and appreciation of environmental protection to fall into the same category. We argue that this is a misconception and propose a model in which the two attitudes are distinct concepts. In this model, we use attitude measures that are based on Campbell’s paradigm (see Kaiser et al., 2009) to test our hypothesis. Participants in our study (N = 1336) were mostly recruited through newspapers and Internet platforms. Their mean age was 30 with a female proportion of 44.8%. Our survey entailed three instruments: a classical environmental protection measure (the New Ecological Paradigm scale by Dunlap et al., 2009), a Campbell paradigm-based attitude towards environmental protection measure (the General Ecological Behaviour scale by Kaiser and Wilson, 2004) and a Campbell paradigm-based attitude toward nature measure (proposed by Brügger et al., 2009). While the first measure is a widely used traditional attitude measure, the last two measures were developed within Campbell’s paradigm, which states that attitudes are behavioural dispositions, and that behaviour and attitude are axiomatically rather than causally linked (Kaiser et al., 2009). As such, attitudes can be captured by inspecting people’s past behavioural performance. A multidimensional Rasch model (similar to a confirmatory Factor analysis) was implemented to test the anticipated itemfactor structure, specifically, whether the items are better represented by a two or a one-dimensional model. The model fit for the two-dimensional model was statistically better than the one for the one-dimensional model: D2(3) = 2’094.86, p < .001. However, when looking at reliabilities, both the two-dimensional and one-dimensional model yielded good results: rel. > .80 for all versions. Model accuracy seemed comparable as well: predicting actual responses with a onedimensional model was nearly as accurate as with a two-dimensional model: attitude towards nature p = .610 vs. p = .624, attitude towards environmental protection p = .686 vs. p = .695. Finally, all three measures correlated with each other substantially (ranging from r = .35 to r = .59; these correlations are corrected for measurement error attenuation). Our results indicate that technically, the two attitudes could be collapsed into a one dimensional model. Reliabilities and model accuracy gain only marginally with a two-dimensional model. However, since someone who appreciates nature is probably also more likely to favour environmental protection and vice versa, we had to expect a fairly oblique factor structure. Unsurprisingly, we also found correlated attitudes, which made the technical distinction progressively more demanding. From a practical point of view it, nevertheless, seems important to keep the two attitudes separate. Attitude towards nature might be malleable and, thus, a crucial factor when we aspire to promote more environmental engagement.
Pinheiro, José Q.. "Environmental Care as More than Just Terminology. a Review of Brazilian Studies on Conceptual Gains, Methodological Implications and Interdisciplinary Relations." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. The investigation of pro-ecological commitment has seen a clear development during the last decades, with an increase in the understanding of the conditions under which people perceive, represent, and act upon environmentally relevant issues. In recent years, our research group opted for the inclusion of a somewhat “loose” term in data collection instruments, “environmental care”, for several reasons. Lay people (the respondents of our research inquiries) can easily understand its meaning and use it to refer to the sections of their life we are interested in understanding. Applied fields that deal with the relationship people-environment – such as Environmental Education – use it in their communication pieces. The implicit positive affect contained in the term “care” is well known as referring to situations of human relations such as motherchild, for example. In our research team we value such positive approach, which is particularly relevant in the context of Portuguese and Spanish languages, in which the usual “environmental concern” of the English-written literature, typically becomes “environmental preoccupation”, even though both languages accept its alternative (and much more positive) translation as environmental “interest” (Pinheiro, 2002). Another important reason for the adoption of this positive approach is its constructive and proactive fitting into an ecologically sustainable lifestyle. The basic procedure we adopt for research projects on the subject requires data collection in two steps. In the first part of the questionnaire, we ask for characterization information about the participant plus open questions; the second section usually contains the structured items of scales of interest. Purposefully, we triangulate strategies in the hope of getting complementary information on the subject under investigation. In the question of interest for this presentation, we ask whether the respondent practices some form of environmental care. In case the “yes” alternative is marked, he/she is invited to briefly describe such type of environmental care, which allows for qualitative content analysis, but also quantitative associations of caretakers/noncaretakers with other measures employed in the study. Besides offering opportunity for exploring participants’ conceptions of environmental care, the requirement of a description in case of an affirmative answer also acts as a partial control for the inherent social desirability; even though we usually add other controls for such purpose (Pinheiro & Pinheiro, 2007). This basic procedure has been used in several studies of our research team, without any complaint of lack of understanding of the question. The typology of environmental care that has emerged from these studies clearly shows the strong influence of the media, in general, and the prevalence of activities related to garbage destination and recycling, ratifying previous reports in the literature of the area. Our heuristic purposes of combining a spontaneous indication of environmental protection/conservation with traditional measures provided statistically significant results. Environmental care was positively associated with concepts such as ecocentric environmentalism (Thompson & Barton, 1994) and consideration of future consequences (Strathman, Gleicher, Boninger, & Edwards, 1994), and negatively with individualism (Triandis & Gelfand, 1998). In addition, it showed expressive differences in the construction of semantic networks about “wind energy” and proved directly related to the social perception of pro-ecological commitment, as measured by the indication of classmates. The strategy presented here allows for a better understanding of people’s commitment to environmental issues, but also may ameliorate the communication process between researchers and final users of the knowledge so acquired, such as environmental educators and policy makers.
Cerina, Veronica. Environmental Changes for the Elderly: Coping Strategies and Environmental Competence In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Today Italy is one of the countries with the highest levels of longevity, but residential facilities for elderly adults need to be developed yet. The present contribution concerns a research project still in progress that focuses on the topic of change of residence in old age, either temporarily or for longer periods. The aim of the study is to analyze and to compare the elderly’s experience of residential relocation with reference to different type of structures such as sheltered houses, geriatric healthcare structures, hospitals, and healing centres as thermal centres and beauty farms. The conceptual frame of reference is the Complementary-Congruence Model of person-environment fit (Carp & Carp, 1984) that is based on Murray’s (1938) notion that adaptation depends on satisfaction of personal needs by the environment. This model tries to explain relevant changes in person-environment relationship during the life-span, with particular attention to the processes of ageing. Starting from this model, the purpose of the present project is to identify the role of some psychological and socio-physical dimensions as determinants of the attitudes towards environmental changes. Such dimensions include relocation motivations, differentiated between content (person, physical environment, social environment, other external or societal) and level of need (basic needs, anticipated basic needs, higher-order needs, strategies of coping (i.e., assimilative vs. accommodative), environmental competence, residential satisfaction, perception of control on the environment, personal or collective identity, psychological well-being, attachment to places, quality of socio-physical environments (in terms of architectural and socio-physical features of residential settings such as level of humanization, presence of affordances, restorative potential, level of stimulation and coherence, etc.), situational factors (e.g., life events), and place of living (i.e., urban vs. rural). Specific attention will be paid to the role of the intentional choice of environmental mobility and of temporal perspective to characterize the complex experience of environmental change in old age. The research schedule will include a) a preliminary focus group, in order to gather useful information for the following phases, b) a survey study, whose participants will be approximately 200 over-65 aged individuals living independently alone or with a spouse, in both urban and rural contexts, c) a field study to be carried out in different types of residential structures, in order to investigate the actual experience of environmental change in the shift from the old to the new setting (about 100 participants are expected), and d) an experimental study (with about 80 participants) to investigate the strength of implicit attitudes and beliefs regarding the relocation experiences. Validated tools or ad hoc adaptation of pre-existing scales will be used for measuring the investigated dimensions. Expected results are the significant correlations between: intentionality of environmental mobility and residential satisfaction; tendency to use assimilative coping strategies and positive attitude to relocate; context of provenience and level of autonomy, psychological well-being, social network, preponderance of personal or collective identity and attitude to relocate; level of humanization of the residential setting of destination, attitude to relocate and residential satisfaction; intentional choice and attachment to places; length of environmental change and attach- ment to places; level of residential mobility during past years and attachment of elderly people to their home. It is also expected the mediating role of environmental competence in the relationship between motivation and attitude to relocate. Outcomes of the present research can be useful to add empirical knowledge about relevant dimensions that influence decisions on relocation in elderly adults.
Ryu, Heeseon, and Heykyung Park. Environmental Color Application for Regional Differentiation in Subway Stations of Seoul, Hong Kong and Fukuoka In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. As subway transportation is in the limelight for the ecological and economical reasons, it is considered as a major public transportation in many cities for the future. Therefore, subway lines, stations and users are increasing every year, but there are more possibilities for users having trouble with finding present locations or destinations because of the confusing environment of subway stations, caused by similar space structure or crowdedness of advertisement. Positive color application in interior environment of subway station is considered as an effective place indicating method for its function of communication and identity. The purpose of this study is to understand the characteristics of color applications in subway transfer stations of 3 cities in east Asia which are Seoul, Hong Kong and Fukuoka by field investigation. The investigation has been proceed on 31 transfer stations of Seoul, Hong Kong and Fukuoka from February to August, 2009 by taking photographs and measuring wall colors with ‘Spectrophotometer’(Minolta CM- 2600d). Colors applied in subway stations are measured from 5 consisting zones (platform A, waiting room A, linking passage, waiting room B, and platform B). Main colors of interior walls were extracted based on the proportion of color application. The data were obtained by Munsell color system, and analyzed in terms of the using states of ‘hue’, ‘value’, and ‘saturation’. And the areas of investigation were limited to the interior walls which affect most to the perception of users among interior surfaces. The results are as follows: 1) In terms of ‘hue’, the dominant colors for Seoul are Y(43%), GY(26%) and YR(22%), for Hong Kong are Y(29%), PB(20%) and R(19%) and Y(60%), G(20%) and YR(13%) for Fukuoka. These results indicate that higher variation of colors are shown in Hong Kong where different groups of ‘hue’ are introduced, compared with Seoul and Fukuoka mainly applying colors close to group ‘Y’. And, it can be explained by Chinese cultural heritage which consider yellow as noble and divine power and red as auspicious occasion. 2) In terms of value, Seoul(7.73) and Fukuoka(7.42) shows similar average of value which appears to be higher than Hong Kong(5.72). 3) In terms of saturation, the average saturation of Fukuoka(1.67) appears lowest among the 3 cities, followed by Seoul(2.26) and Hong Kong(5.91). Hong Kong shows highest saturation which indicates that vivid colors are applied in large proportion of the wall for main color while soft and pale colors are applied in Seoul and Fukuoka, and it can be explained by Chinese traits of preferring vivid colors. 4) Regional differentiation in color application appeared generally high in Fukuoka and low in Seoul and Hong Kong. In some stations in Hong Kong, minimum as 1 or 2 colors are applied to whole 5 regions of stations and cause low regional differentiation. For Seoul, multiple colors are used in various areas but the application method are similar between 5 regions and cause low regional differentiation. For Fukuoka, different colors are used in each regions which cause high regional differentiation.
Farias, Tadeu. Environmental Education and Community Healthcare in Northeast Brazil Reality: a Human Sciences Professional Facing Environmental Problems In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Environmental education towards sustainability is a permanent acting purpose which seeks to change the relation between individuals and other environment elements. Moreover, it highlights the interdependence of the human life processes and the environment where they occur. This paper concerns to an environmental education experience report during an internship for graduation at Psychology for the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. The internship happened in 2008 and was bound to the Program for Sanitary and Environmental Education of the Cidade Nova Neighborhood (PESA), which is a community at Natal, located at Northeast Brazil. This work was related to an effort that has been done, in a Brazilian context, to insert human sciences professionals in a practice which is traditionally directed to healthcare and social professionals. Furthermore, it tries to emphasize the relation between environmental problems and public healthcare and the interdisciplinary possibility as a way to manage this reality. As an environmental education purpose, the experience gathered an action set that aimed to long term effects for the local and global environment preservation, with the locals implication on thinking and action, according to their realities. The neighborhood environment interest is justified because it gathers a share of an environmental protection zone and it has a high parasite-related and infection-related death toll due to poor sanitary conditions. Also, there are flooding zones located at the neighborhood, due to garbage on the streets and to a poor forestation. Thus, this program has as goal to continually educate the community, seeking to allow the social awareness and mobilization towards neighborhood environment defense and preserving. Regarding these objectives, the actions done at the internship year that I intend do show are as follow: Environment Gymkhana with neighborhood schools students, Friendly Sidewalks, Photography and Environment Workshop in a local slum and the creation of a drumming group with children from said slum. The gymkhana’s theme was dengue fever and the related environmental problems and we asked questions about knowledge on environmental care for the disease prevention. As for the Friendly Sidewalks, they are talking groups with locals in every part of the neighborhoods, in their own houses, to discuss the main local environmental problems and possible solutions. To them we presented the PESA and suggested that they evaluate the local environmental status to relate such conditions to their own health. The aim of the Drumming Group and he Photography Workshop was to create a dialogue link between locals and professionals regarding the slum environmental condition, to further accomplish other actions in a space with minimum life conditions. Some of the results of the Friendly Sidewalks works included: cleansing of some streets, residents grouping to complain to city departments responsive for paving and draining, tree planting and monitoring of the main waste producers of the area. At the workshop, the photographic material was miscellaneous, with pictures showing sewage on the streets, lacking of hygiene on food handling, waste concentration at the streets and people disposing of this trash. These pictures were discussed in groups and shown to the whole community. All of the exposed actions shown themselves as useful in a community context as they allowed residents to become protagonists in pointing the problems that affected them the most and to discuss solutions, in addition to ease the creation of a contextualized knowledge about the local environment.
Matoušek, Roman. Environmental Justice and Post-Socialism: Concept, Context, Issues In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Academic research and public debate of environmental justice spread from USA to other World regions including post-socialist countries. This paper specifically focuses on cases of environmental injustice in post-socialist countries and the differences from what is commonly understood as environmental injustice in the USA. Understanding the depth of these differences The context of environmental justice in post-socialism concerning patterns of residential differentiation, social structures as well as environmental problems differ significantly from the conditions in the USA. During complex transformations after the fall of socialism, increasing social differentiation changes the structure of formerly relatively egalitarian society. Environmental conditions and social practices are affected by path dependencies and newly created unique post-socialist conditions. As a consequence, environmental justice situations differ in both distributive and procedural aspects (causes, extent, duration etc.).. Selective and slow enforcement of environmental legislation and policies is one aspect of environmental injustice not mentioned in the literature. The importance of activities responsible for the pollution to wider society over the rights of a smaller negatively effected group is in the core of the dispute. Are these differences a temporal specificity of post-socialism or more permanent results of unique social and environmental processes? Examples of environmental injustice from Czechia are documented to support the argument.
Mercado-Doménech, Alejandra Terán Ser. "Environmental Preservation in Relation to Population Growth and Technological Development." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Sustainable development has been the main way of tackling environmental decay. Although this aim is adequate for improving the quality of the environment, by itself it is utopian, as it is surpassed by the natural craving of people for a better quality of life, and the growth of World’s population. During the evolution of man his adaptation relied on the development of technology. Humans depended less on change by mutation and natural selection as the development of technology became prevalent; which is a way of making the environment to fit human requirements. Sometimes humans even change themselves through makeup and surgery, which is different to doing it through intergenerational genetic changes. Thus technology became humans’ way of adaptation, and human cognition and motivation are attuned to it. We enjoy the power and pleasure achieved by each technological improvement, being one of the roles of culture, the transmission of the knowledge and the practices of technological development. The problem with technological development and industrialization is that more resources are used, taken from nature, and more pollution is produced. But this multiplies itself with population growth; which is explosive due to technological success. Nowadays, genetic engineering is visualized as a way of evolution; but then it doesn’t imply random variation and natural selection, but evolution by design. So, in our evolution Homo sapiens partially traded the natural form of adaptation, in terms of genetic variability and natural selection, for the transformation of the environment (or themselves) to get it to adjust to human requirements. Thus, people´s want for technological advances is rooted on the human species’ way of adaptation and there is a human craving for technological solutions. This view places demanding humans to resign of the benefits and joys of technological progress, as going against the very nature of the species. The undeveloped countries aim for development and the developed ones crave for even more. At the same time, our technological success has engendered the conditions of our astonishing population growth, without precedent. No species in the history of earth has had such scale of growth, nor has accumulated such amount of biomass. It is the only species with exponential growth. The production of huge quantities of food, and the success of medical technology have made such growth possible. Technological development combined with population growth creates our present environmental crisis. Under these circumstances, the only viable solution is to diminish, even to revert, population growth, and at the same time to aim for a non austere sustainable development. People must be educated in more rational ways of using resources and disposing of waste and byproducts. The decrease of population may be achieved through non punitive methods. Mexico had one of the world’s largest population growth indexes, over 7% and it decreased to 1% through persuasive methods. If this approach deepens and spreads out, World population can be decreased. The effects of shortage of human resources can be solved technologically, through more extensive use of robots.
Corraliza, Jose Antonio, Esther Lorenzo, Silvia Collado, Lisbeth Bethelemy, and Anto Lloveras. Evaluating Human Restoration Depending on Vegetation Quantity and Diversity on Urban Squares In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Nowadays, green and nature in urban spaces are becoming key factors in human restoration. More even, current studies are focusing on the relevance of nature in cities as a base for psychological equilibrium, as green eliminates a great deal of stress. This paper analyzes the aesthetical and physical aspects of urban green that are important in the human restorative process. Small squares of the city center have been selected to develop the study. 2 different criteria has been used to choose them. One is the amount of green and the other is the diversity of species. The study is presented in a series of short online videos that simulate a brief walk through the square. The evaluation of such squares depends on the preference and the restorative effect. Results show that the settings composition of nature is relevant in the election of a square and therefore in the restorative process. This parameter gives the importance of these green spaces in the large city centers. Key words: Restorative effects, urban green, vegetation diversity, pocket parks, environmental preferences
Kariptas, Füsun Secer, Senay Boduroglu, and Esin Sariman. Evaluation of the Traditional Turkish House from the Sustainable Design Criterion Point of View In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. The contemporary architecture is contemporary and stable from the intelligent interpretation of the materials and structure used, reflecting the way of life of the community to the location and building and environment relations to be integrated point of view. When the traditional architecture is analyzed in a intelligent way it could be seen that the ecological building approach has been adopted too many years before and the balanced solutions with the climate have been achieved. The sustainable architecture aims the reducing the required energy by selection of the proper material and structure to minimum and taking the properties of the territory of the building, climate conditions in the design in to consideration, providing the maximum efficiency of the energy used. The concept of the maintainable architecture created as the solution to the environment problems is routed to the traditional architecture as the system of the thinking. When the buildings which are taken in the consideration of territorial data, claimed conditions and natural environment, it has been understood that they have the similarities to the criterion of sustainability in the design. The technological developments which were accelerated after the industrial revolution caused the loss of the affect of the traditional structure created by the accumulations of centuries. In the design and application of the structures built in our accommodations today and the climate conditions are not taken into account. The harmony which was developed by the traditional architecture was diminished by the time and different climate regions were started to be structured by the building having the properties of same form, the order of location, crust and material. Today the production and design procedures of the buildings are started to be interrogated. It was accepted that adaptation of the data obtained from Traditional Turkish House samples to the current design and application procedures as a correct process. Turkish House location organization, material and component selection and order of location, are samples from environmental and climate factors evaluation as well as intelligent using of the structure system components. The Traditional Turkish Houses are the best samples explaining the values oriented to the human, explaining the traditional Turkish Architecture which has been made in a sustainable manner. By starting from that point of view it has been aimed formation of the traditional architecture according to the climate properties of the buildings sustainable design criterion and evaluation according to the relations between the traditional and ecological architecture.
Jaeger-Erben, Melanie, and Martina Schäfer. "Everyday Consumption and Having a Child - a Practice Theory Approach." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Research and practice regarding sustainable consumption are confronted with the fact that our daily consumption patterns are strongly affected routines that are not only largely unreflected, but also form an integral part of our everyday social life and are, therefore, difficult to modify. Research has already shown that life events, such as the birth of a child, can open ‘windows of opportunity’ for interventions in the field of sustainable consumption since people need to adapt to new situations and are consequently inclined to reflect upon their routines. The presentation will show how sociological theory and qualitative analysis can contributes to the overall investigation of changes in everyday consumption practices linked to life events and the role of external influences such as sustainability campaigns. The analyses is mainly be based on the approach of practice theory which is seen as a promising approach in the field of consumption studies (Warde, 2005). The smallest unit of social analysis are practices, where bodies and artefacts are seen as material instances and constitutive parts of human action. Social practices are meaningful bundles of activities (“doings”) and interpretations/ knowledge structures (“sayings”) that enable human agents to act. Everyday routines are seen as a constant repetition of social practices that conform to everyday demands and possibilities and facilitate a reliable and socially acceptable conduct of everyday life. Social practices are most important for understanding consumption since they “steer the process of consumption. They steer the manner of appropriation of items, the processes of learning about, identifying, appreciating and putting to use; they identify which items are to be preferred, and also often which suppliers be preferred” (Warde, 2004., 5 et seq.). Following Giddens (1984) everyday practices are routinized and unreflected, they form part of the ‘practical consciousness’. Changes in life or other ‘interruptions’ enable individuals to use their ‘discursive consciousness’. In such a mode of consciousness people are able to reflect upon their actions and to integrate new information and perceive alternatives in order to adapt their routines to a new situation. The research presented here takes the practice theory approach as an analytic tool to reconstruct consumption patterns as parts of social practices and how they are affected by life events such as the birth of the first child. Interviews with 23 parents have been conducted until now, focusing on everyday consumption activities in the fields of nutrition, energy and mobility and relate them to the conduct of everyday life and biographical changes. Until now the practice theory approach has been most helpful especially to understand inconsistent patterns of activities by analysing the specific practice the activity in focus belongs to. Of most importance for the idea of ‘life events as windows for opportunity’ to change consumptions patterns are those practices that are connected to or emerge in new phases of life. For example parents having their first baby start to heavily engage in ‘walking or promenading’ which allows them to discover their surrounding (including alternative consumption possibilities) from new. Practices such as ‘healthy/ responsible cooking’ or ‘eating with family’ become much more important requiring specific consumptive activities and re-organisations of everyday life The practice has promising qualities to complete approaches in the study of sustainable consumption. In the case of interventions it can help to show where to go when consumption as a part of social practices is happening and with what kind of material, goods and infrastructures involved.
Mathers, Alice, Ian Simkins, and Kevin Thwaites. Experiential Landscape: from Theory, Through Process to Practice In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. This poster details original research and practice work which: informs planning and design decisions; empowers, values and understands hidden voices; and supports change more likely than otherwise to result in environments which are conducive to good psychological health, are person friendly and experientially rich. Too often environmental knowledge generated in an academic context finds little translation into practical purpose. Likewise we see how in the planning and design professions, understanding of people-environment relations revealed by daily practice remains underutilised in research. It is this impediment in knowledge transfer regarding the environments that we research, discuss, design and inhabit, that this poster seeks to address. Through the example of recent work undertaken by Experiential Landscape, this poster achieves this by integrating the three strands of theory, process and practice. The cumulative product of this is the creation of socially restorative environments which emphasise the delivery of fulfilled lives in processes of environmental improvement. A socially restorative environment is a new concept which integrates people, their interactions and environmental settings collectively forming a basis for change in the physical environment and in social structures. The second strand utilises this theory to develop a process with the capability to reveal individual interests and shared concerns, increasing social capital in the form of self worth, self-esteem and social cohesion. This seven-stage process of inclusion provides a means by which we, as academics and professionals, can now understand issues often hidden from planning and design processes. In achieving this we recognise the value of social networks and the roles of individuals within them. The process unlocks the capability that such networks have for influencing change in the environment, responding to the way that urban settings form around the daily rhythm of social association. The process builds socially restorative environments by revealing and interpreting present experiences and aspirations in people’s ordinary daily life-patterns and how these have the potential to influence environmental improvement. The third strand of our work deals with the application of this theory and process into practice. Central to this is a commitment to valuing and understanding the experiences of people in their everyday environment. It is the underestimation and ignorance as to the worth of these, which leave all of us (but particularly already vulnerable communities) at our most fragile and unable to adapt to change. Our practice example, working with the disabled community in Sheffield, UK, shows how successful the entwining of these three keys strands can be.
Seebauer, Sebastian, and Angelika Kufleitner. Feedback of Household Energy Consumption with a Smart Meter: Evaluation of the €Co2 Management Project In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. EU action plans call for an increase in energy efficiency as well as for the installation of electricity meters that allow for real-time data readout of household energy consumption, so called smart meters. The €CO2 Management pilot study is a collaborative effort of smart meter producers, Austrian energy suppliers and scientific partners, who aim to explore the potentials of smart metering in Austria. The methodology of €CO2 Management shows unique features compared to other smart meter pilot studies: First, the automatic measurement of household energy consumption encompasses not just electricity, but also hot water and heating systems (including natural gas, fuel oil and district heating). Second, the technological component of the meter is complemented by personal energy consulting, monetary incentives and immediate feedback. Starting in May 2010, 280 households from different regions will participate in a one year test period. A smart meter featuring an in-home-display will be installed in these households. The sample will be representative for the Austrian population regarding type of housing, heating technology and household structure. The impact on household energy consumption will be evaluated with a before-after-design. In addition to the objective behavioural measurements provided by the smart meter, standardized personal interviews investigate the impact of motivation, information, habits, environmental attitudes and other decision factors on energy use. A baseline of past energy consumption is established using the electricity and heating bills of the last three years. A follow-up measurement 3-6 months after the test period verifies the stability of changes in energy use. Changes in household structure, employment, electrical appliances and insulation or renovation of the building are monitored to control for external factors on energy consumption. A reference group of households receiving only energy consulting without smart meter serves for further validation of the results. The 280 test households will be subject to different experimental conditions, in order to better understand the impact of the elements of €CO2 Management. Self-commitment to reduction targets, feedback on individual goal achievement and social comparison with other test households will be varied systematically. By the end of 2011, the evaluation will conclude in a comprehensive assessment of €CO2 Management for a future nationwide deployment in Austria. Its reductions in household energy consumption will be benchmarked with existing wellestablished intervention techniques. Our evaluation interconnects with a number of parallel socioeconomic research initiatives undertaken by the other scientific partners in the €CO2 Management pilot study: Further accompanying research covers user friendliness as well as information and motivation strategies throughout the development, testing, and demonstration phases of €CO2 Management. Moreover, a business model for micro emission certificates will be developed that offers households the opportunity to obtain ETS credits for their energy reductions.
Siedschlag, Daniela. Flood and Individual Precaution - Parameters of Private Precautionary Measures In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Object of investigation The flood in Central Europe 2002 indicated how vulnerabel societies are with regard to natural hazards. The poster presents the results of a research project which deals with the topic of private precautionary measures against flood. In this context private precautionary measures are defined as the knowledge, possibilities to react and the active measures of individuals or households to protect their property, their health and their life against flood. The study analyses which private precautionary measures people in flood prone areas know, how expedient they are and which parameters promote or prevent the individual preventive behaviour. It was analysed, if: • the knowledge about private measures • institutional factors (e.g. compensation payments after the flood 2002) • personal experiences with flood • socioeconomic factors affect personal precautionary measures. // Case study area The research was carried out in the old town of Grimma. Grimma is a medium-sized-town at the Mulde River in the Free State of Saxony. About 2,600 inhabitants live in the old town, which was heavily effected by the flood 2002. Theoretical framework The theoretical framework constitutes the concept of social vulnerability. Various definitions exist with regard to this concept. For the research about private precautionary measures against flood the concept of vulnerability by Blaikie et al. (1994) is applied. “By vulnerability we mean the characteristics of a person or group in terms of their capacity to anticipate, cope with, resist, and recover from the impact of a natural hazard” (Blaikie et al. 1994, p 9). This definition is suitable for the research topic because it focuses on the capacities to anticipate and cope with the impact of a natural hazard such as a flood. An example of a capacity are private precautionary measures. Method For this research a combination of two empirical methods for collecting data - qualitative and quantitative - was applied. First, in the explorative phase, information was gathered by semi-structured expert interviews with municipal decision makers. But the main method was the subsequent household-based questionnaire survey in the old town of Grimma. 250 questionnaires were distributed out of which 164 filled in questionnaires were collected and used for the interpretation. Altogether the quantitative survey presents 17 per cent of all households in the old town of Grimma. Results The most important results are: • The knowledge about private precautionary measures promotes individual preventive behaviour. • Extensive compensation payments after the flood 2002 do not determine individual preventive behaviour. • The extent to which a household was affected by the flood 2002 promotes the realisation of private precautionary measures. • Also a couple of socio-economic factors determine the realisation of measures. // Particularly tenants, households with a below average income and single-person-households implement less measures. This demonstrates that individuals and households have different capacities to cope with a flood and these determine the extent of their vulnerability. At the same time private precautionary measures are a chance to reduce the vulnerability of societies in regard to flood and other natural hazards.
Lieske, Heiko. "Flood Hazards, Urban Waterfronts, and Intergenerational Justice." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. By concentration of lives, of material and intangible values that are subject to flooding, cities by rivers are specific ‘risk habitats’ in the course of global change, and they are especially affected. The August flood of 2002 boosted attention to the vulnerability of these settlements and to the urgent need to meet flooding risks with protection measures. On the other hand the risen awareness for the vulnerability of riverside places coincides with the upsurge of urban waterfronts in public appreciation. In 2002 the old town of Grimma was one of the worst affected places in Saxony. The river Mulde reached an unprecedented level of 8.70 m, and flooded the old town up to a height of 3.50 m. The steep gradient of the riverbed caused a riptide, damaging up to 700 houses, sometimes up to the second floor level or even destroying them totally. The special topographical situation and the confluence of many smaller rivers upstream resulted in vastly rising rivers within a concentrated period of only 10-12 hours. To prevent Grimma from further damage, an initial planning proposal by the Dam Authority LTV – responsible for all flood control in Saxony – called for a 1200 m long concrete wall of up to 3 m height, blocking the river from the city. Alerted by the following controversial discussion, the authority is now pursuing a comprehensive and integrative approach for flood protection in Grimma. It hired our project team at Technische Universität Dresden as cooperating partner in order to bring together interdisciplinary expertise to recommend a flood protection system tailored to the needs of the town. Special points of consideration are: - Integrating flood control into the general urban development – realizing city planning opportunities entailed in changes that face the town, making the one-storey flood wall part of the fabric and image of Grimma, - Integrating flood control into the urban waterfront – facilitating public use of the urban waterfront to meet open space needs, and - Relating cultural heritage to flood control needs – with emphasis on the historic preservation and flood proofing of the historic city wall and the many heritage buildings. The approach departs from conventional engineering procedures by involving experts and local citizens in stakeholder meetings that explore and visualize consequences of various options. It involves (1) the setting of goals and objectives, (2) a development of options, and (3) an evaluation of options in (4) a process that is transparent and open to public scrutiny. // Through the design, visualization and evaluation of integrated alternatives the project is generating synergy effects between flood control and city planning. The approach is transferable to other places and adheres to the concept of sustainability. Inner city flood protection proves to be a highly complex political and planning endeavour concerning a great number of issues and interests. Its success today can only be ensured if extensive public participation is exerted and innovative integrative planning cultures are adopted. Meeting these requirements the liveability and functionality of human habitats exposed to flood risks can be ensured under the conditions of global change.
Brisson, Geneviève, and Mary Richardson. "Framing the Risk Communication and Public Participation in Environmental Health Management: Some Québec's Public Health Experiences." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. In Quebec province, environmental health topics are upon the state responsibility, and civil servants are dedicated to that in each of the 17 administrative areas and in the Central governement. Environmental risks and disasters are also managed by other civil servants and NGO organisations. National, regional and local actors are concerned by the process and a lot of those actors don’t work in public health, and don’t focus especially on this topic. Many of the organisations implicated develop their own standards of intervention, included how to communicate risk to the citizens or invite them – or not- in risk management process. Since 2003, environmental health interventions in risk situations are framed by common principles and strategies enclose in a document: “Cadre de reference en gestion des risques pour la santé dans le réseau québécois de la santé publique” (downloadable from Those elements are supposed to guide public health civil servants in their implication in case of risk management situations. This framework recognizes the importance of communication, and put it in the hearth of all the process. The signification of the communication notion is narrower of participation and commitment than a top-down information approach. The public health risk management framework also postulates that strategies of communication have to be considered for each phase of environmental risk management. Citizens and their knowledge, preoccupations and perceptions must be considered in each phase of risk management, and in commitment ways as participation and empowerment. But, on the field, how those principles become realities? Could public health officers impose their framework and a public commitment approach? Cases studies about recent environmental risk situations could help to answer those questions. In this presentation, the analysis is based on two case studies realized in 2007 and 2009 from an anthropological approach, included data from documentary sources, key actors interviews and participant observations. First case study is about coastal erosion disaster in a large area of Quebec’s North shore. The second case presents a changing behaviour campaign to prevent health risks of cyanobacteria blooms. Those situations put communication as an important issue in public debates in controversies. Each case shows that communication and public participation have not the same sense for citizens than for experts. In this last group, environmental health professionals are often a minority. Sometimes, they have to put some political pressions to be included in the process. Their framework is difficult to impose, especially their communication and participatory vision for the public commitment. This analysis allows understand the importance to develop a larger comprehension of what is communication and public participation in risk management. Case studies illustrate that that even if public health recognize the importance of principles putting society and citizen commitment in the middle of the risk management process, a lot of difficulties already occur in the implement of those mecanisms. More of that, the fact that citizens claims for more implication must be a strong driver to advocate from a commitment approach in the risk management process.
Marans, Robert. "From Energy Conservation to Integrated Assessment of Sustainability Practices: the University of Michigan Experience." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. As with households, corporations, and governments, universities are becoming increasingly aware of the long term implications of climate change and related issues of sustainability. Their recognition has been driven in large part by rising energy costs; some universities have taken steps to address the problem by retrofitting their physical plant, building new structures that follow LEEDS standards, establishing programs that reduce transportation costs, and promoting sustainability among members of the university community. Some have even conducted experiments aimed at modifying the behavior of students and faculty. In the winter of 2006, the University of Michigan (UM) launched a pilot study designed to better understand the behavioral aspects of energy use among its faculty, staff and students. It was suggested that more effective policies and programs could be established if UM decision makers knew more about the energy consuming practices of these groups and how much they know about sustainability and the energy conservation initiatives taking place within the university. At the same time, the pilot study could help evaluate the effectiveness of programs that were already in place. In the spring of 2007 UM launched a new initiative to capitalize on what was learned in the study. Three energy conservation and behavior change teams were formed to individually educate building occupants, implement energy saving measures, and promote behavior change on energy usage and sustainable activities. This paper first describes the pilot study that was conducted in five UM buildings over a 10 month period. Besides gaining insights about what occupants knew, what they did with respect to energy use, and their views about their environment and energy conservation, the pilot study served as test of data collection and measurement procedures that could be applied to buildings and their occupants throughout the university. Next, the paper describes how study findings have been used to encourage behavioral change. After a review of how these techniques have been coupled with tradition energy conservation approaches, the paper outlines a new UM program aimed at assessing the contributions of behavior change to energy cost reductions. This assessment is designed to be more comprehensive and focuses not only on buildings but also on transportation (commuting, inter-campus transit, walk/bike ability, tele-commuting), energy resources (solar, wind, biofuels), land and water (biodiversity, storm/waste water, fertilizer/pesticide, maintenance), food (local sourcing, organics, nutrition, composting), and purchasing (equipment, consumables, toxicity, reuse/recycle/disposal). This Integrated Assessment of UM Campus Sustainability includes a human dimension dealing with awareness, understanding, involvement, and behavior. Finally, the paper concludes with a discussion of possible applications to other organizations including governments, NGOs, and corporations.
Wieczorek, Anna, and Aukasz Jochemczyk. "From Local to Global Sustainability Problems and Social Engagement. is There Really a Link?" In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Tuvalu is a small island on the Pacific Ocean. It will be flooded by water before 2050 when the water level raises along with the progressing greenhouse effect. Are inhabitants of other parts of the world ready to make a sacrifice and reduce emission of greenhouse gasses in order to help people living far away from them? Are the appeals of Tuvalu people to international community doomed for a sham support? Social psychology research suggests that people care most for the problems concerning their immediate neighborhood. The question of human behavior in sustainable resource usage has been thoroughly studied in many research projects. The results suggest that in dilemma situation the context of a situation strongly influences the behaviors of people engaged in the situation (Ross & Ward, 1995). On the other hand most of educational programs and ngo’s actions argue that we should start by “local” engagement into sustainability oriented behaviors and that the knowledge of and the attitude toward local problems will influence our behaviors towards global changes (e.g. the social, local impact on country policy). This contradiction between social psychology results and real life strategies may rise the question how local engagement influences our behaviors towards global changes? Is there any positive link that goes from local to global, and moreover goes beyond declared attitudes towards real behaviors? We conducted a computer aided study in which we examined the relationship between local attitude toward the place, general attitude towards environment, willingness to help distant communities, and real readiness to resign from one’s own needs to help these communities tested on behavioral level. In order to measure attitude toward the place on a local level (neighborhood) we have distinguished three different types of relation (instrumental, traditional, ideological), we measured also different types of social activity on local level, the general attitude towards environment was measured with the NEP scale (New Environmental Paradigm), the willingness to help distant communities was measured by the participant behaviors during the social dilemma simulation game that is described below. We designed a computer aided experiment that had a form a simulation, social dilemma game concerning the global resource management. Each participant played a computer game in which he or she had to decide to obtain resources (used for his or her individual needs) from a global common good. The game was designed in this way, that participants thought that they were playing with other people, whereas they were playing with computer driven characters (avatars). The conducted analysis had as objective to compare the participants’ engagement in their local communities, their attitudes toward the place and the displayed behavioral strategies and final individual outcomes of a simulation game. The achieved results show a complex relation between people attitude toward his/her local neighborhood and local community and his/her their willingness to sacrifice their needs in order to resolve problems of distant community and the behaviors displayed during the game.
Colbeau-Justin, Ludvina, Pierre Mouroux, and Thierry Winter. From Seismic Risk Assessment to Mitigation Plan: Experiences Conducted in European, Carribean, Algerian and Iranian Cities In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Impact of recent earthquakes in the world (Boumerdes, Bam, Sumatra, Pakistan, China …) as in France (Martinique 2007) and Italy (2009) has once more brought to light the problems related to: the fragility of the existing building stock, the influence of foundation, the difficulties in post-event emergency and relief organisation (a problem that is worsened by a lack of pre-disaster information and preparation), and the awareness and training of emergency rescue and civil defence organisation. In Caribbean region, even moderate magnitude earthquake may give rise to dramatic disasters if no efficient preventive initiatives to reduce the vulnerability of cities to earthquakes are rapidly implemented. Moreover, in present day’s context of globalisation, cities are actually becoming more responsible and autonomous for public information and awareness and risk and crisis management. In view of this, the pre-event simulation of “earthquake-loss scenarios” represents in as an efficient tool for systematic risk evaluation, management and reduction. Based on an inventory of the elements at risk, it consists of assessing the direct consequences in terms of cost and victims, and the correlated disruption of the city’s functioning with time and highlight areas where specific vulnerability factors could cause areas of great damage. The objective is to make the city actors sensitive to earthquake disasters, in order to prepare them to better react when faced with emergency situations or land-use planning and construction problems such as creating permanent teams with knowledge operational response to earthquake. Taking into account political and economic context, it will contribute to establish a risk-management plan (with ranked actions including emergency rescue preparation actions) over 1 to 3 decades. During that period the costs associated with the disaster, the number of casualties and the number of injured people could be significantly reduced. Regularly, city representatives can re-evaluate the costs of the same scenario for evaluating the efficiency of actions conducted and improve the initial risk management and actions plans. This approach is conducted by cities in France, Algiers and Iran. These experiences point out systematic features regarding implementation schedule from initial opportunities to action plan implementation throughout risk perception and risk appropriation phases. The main objective is to create an “Earthquake Safe City and Society”.
Lima, Sérgio Moreira Lu, and Sibila Marques. "From Social Exclusion to Social Inclusion: Using Social Psychological Tools to Promote Participation in Environmental Decisions." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. The decision-making process about the siting of important structures that affect landuses and community lives has changed in the last decades to be more participated by local stakeholders. Under these conditions, many companies had to modify the way they implemented enterprises such as dams. However, there is no systematized methodology to support those change processes, promoting higher public participation. This paper describes a methodology aimed at improving the participation in the decision-making process that has been applied in different case studies in Portugal (eg. siting of dams, airports, management of forests). To formulate our intervention, the situation was interpreted according to the social psychological model for understanding social inclusion and exclusion proposed by Abrams, Hogg & Marques (2005), that differentiates between an exclusive model (that fits the old process of environmental decision making) and a inclusive one (that fits the more participative one). More interestingly for intervention purposes, the model suggests that the exclusive model is supported and maintained by an ideology that favours the exclusion and by a stereotypical representation of those excluded from the process. In our case, the ideological basis for the exclusion model is a bureaucratic worldview (Douglas 1987) complemented with a simplified and infra-humanized (Leyens et al 2000) view of the community members. These perceptions have their counterpart in the community side with a fatalistic worldview (Douglas 1987) of un-empowered residents, alienated from the decision process (Zimmerman & Rappaport 1988). On the other hand, the inclusive model represents the social participation incorporated in the concept of sustainable development. In order to achieve this form of decision making, mutual representations have to change: the company has to develop a more complex view of the community as including different stakeholders that can be partners in the decision process; the community has to be more pro-active and empowered in order to contribute to the decision process. Our intervention (more complete in the case of two dam siting projects) was centred on the company’s needs and included projects that aimed at: - changing the organizational culture to a more inclusive content (eg. a one-day workshop with all the technical directors; specific training directed to the technical staff involved in community contacts). - constructing a more complex view of the local communities, providing the company specific information about the stakeholders (eg. a survey about the local attitudes towards the dam; identification and characterization of local stakeholders; identification of local values to preserve; characterization of the communities and observation of public spaces) - improving the communication strategies with the communities (providing information in less technical formats, diffusing and clarifying the opportunities to be included in the decision process) In order to address the communities’ needs in the intervention, we used interaction formats that allowed: - the maximum freedom for the local actors to express their views about the project without being constrained by a direct confrontation with experts or high status agents (Guinote 2007) (eg. direct interviews in the communities; local participative workshops organized in small groups where their arguments had visibility) - the opportunity of clarifying the occasions to be included in the participation process, motivating local actors to participate and overcoming some of the barriers to participation (Klandermans 1997).
Loeper, Kai Arne, and Gehad Ujeyl. "Gaining Flood Resilient Urban Environments." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Today global climate change counts among the most serious present-day and future problems of mankind. It will challenge all areas of (urban) life and needs many interdisciplinary and comprehensive efforts to keep the most unlikely anticipated consequences at an endurable scale. For instance, the frequency and intensity of storm surges, as well as the sea level rise and more intense rain events are expected to put coastal zones and delta regions under increasing stress. The fact that cities along the shoreline are in general areas of economic and population growth will further increase their vulnerability for such events in the future. To cope the expected consequences it demands new adaptation strategies in flood risk management. Today’s practice of flood management in coastal zones as well as delta regions and flood-prone riversides normally concentrates on dikes and flood barriers, but it does not include an effective risk management for the hinterland. As a consequence, the population behind the flood defence structures would be unprepared if the dikes failed and the hinterland was flooded. The contribution is the cooperation of two independent and interdisciplinary long-term research projects. The first one is the RIMAX research programme (flood risk management) of the Institute for River and Coastal Engineering / TU Hamburg-Harburg, directed by Prof. Dr. Erik Pasche (Head of Institute), which is part of the EU Flood Directive (EC 2007/60) and a BMBF initiative to tackle the impacts of climate change in coastal regions. A research team of urbanists and urban sociologists drive the other research. It is mentored and supported by Prof. Dr. phil. habil Dieter Hassenpflug (professor for sociology and social history of towns, Bauhaus University Weimar). The theoretical concept of “The Tolerant Landscape” is focusing on new planning and design principles for flood-prone urban areas that include approaches to compensate the negative impacts of climate change as well as to strengthen risk awareness and perception. First results of this project were already presented and discussed on the 5th World Bank Urban Research Symposium 2009 “Cities and Climate Change: Responding to an Urgent Agenda” in Marseille. A new flood risk management strategy for urban areas will be presented, which integrates the hinterland as a key area to reduce the social and physical vulnerability of lowlying districts to extreme natural events. It is based on the model of “cascading flood compartments” by the RIMAX Project. To achieve a resilient urban landscape an adaptation of the building environment towards a controlled temporary floodable structure is essential regarding the increasing limits of today’s adaptation practice in urban areas. The approach discusses the layout of flood defence measures as well as the transformation of the urban form and building codes towards an appropriate urban and architectural design. A significant focus lies on strengthening the risk perception and awareness of flood plain occupants to change their behaviour in the case of exposure to a hazardous incident. This contribution relates to the conference topics (2b) but it is also closely associated with other topics such as (1b) and (4b).
Owczarek, Dominik. Gated Communities as a Doubtful Adaptation to Global Change In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Global context and main issues Phenomenon of gating residential areas is one of the most significant ongoing process in contemporary cities all over the globe. Gating communities are build in almost all regions of the world and has been elaborated by researchers from many fields and points of view (environmental psychology: Low, 2003; Lewicka, 2004, Lewicka i Zaborska, 2007; urban sociology: JaBowiecki, 2007; geography: Glasze, 2006; political science: Ramirez dela- Cruz i Cardenas-Denham, 2009). Security reasons are the strongest and constantly repeated motivations for choosing this form of dwelling. Number of gated communities in urban tissue itself is also an indicator of generalized trust level defining social capital and inclination to social cooperation within particular social group. Other researchers and philosophers argue that gated communities are response to global changes like liquidity and uncertainty of post-modern world, unstable institutions, dynamic and ever changing life styles (Bauman, 2000), or as a trial to limit risk inscribed in functioning of contemporary societies (Beck, 2004). Two paradoxes My masters thesis (tutor: prof. Maria Lewicka), which was based on comparative (quantitative) research on 14 gated and non-gated housing developments in Warsaw, Poland (N=415, 2006), pointed out two paradoxical issues drawn from literature: 1. Community paradox; 2. Security paradox. (1) Gated communities arise in order to bring back the sense of belonging to community; they are aimed – among others – to step up social capital and place attachment, however their dwellers do not exercise this social practices as they declared at move in level and show no increase in interest about local community issues or civic activities. They are also not willing to undertake more actions for the sake of local community. (2) Academic discourse reveals disjunctive results of research projects: some of them confirm increase of sense of security in gated housing developments, but the other report emergence of ‘cycle of fear’ and escalation of sense of threat within gated area (Low, 2003). In this respect Blackley and Snyder used an expression of “enclaves of fear” (1997: 99). Main research questions were: What is the level of local social capital, place attachment and civic activity of gated residents in comparison to residents of respective non-gated housing developments? Do residents of gated communities feel safer than residents of respective non-gated housing developments? Referring to abovementioned paradoxes and questions, gated respondents in Warsaw’s research felt more secure, were less active (in civic and social terms), had lower level of social capital, were less attached to Warsaw (but more attached to their own apartment) and had more positive attitude towards gating than respondents from respective non-gated housing developments. Detailed results will be presented during IAPS YRW 2010. The quantitative research was the first comprehensive study considering this topic in Poland and provided initial handful of data. Further research project will be object of my PhD program. Work in progress Main objectives for further elaboration: - Understanding of sense of security issue (qualitative and quantitative inquiry) and collection of objective data on crime within gated housing developments - Better operationalization of local social capital and local activity (taking part in public/social live of town), introduction of bonding and bridging capital - Analysis of place attachment upon updated reports and findings (different types of place attachment) - Understanding of motivations to live in gated community especially taking into consideration polish (postsoviet) and global context - Introduction of environmental perception analysis within gated communities (analysis of spatial functioning of gated areas) - Introduction of legal and managmental analysis of gated communities - Enlargement of scope
Haase, Dagmar, Sven Lautenbach, and Ralf Seppelt. Geodemographics of a City Under Demographic Change – the Agent-Based Model Resmobcity In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Urban shrinkage has recently been coming into discussion more and more among urban planners and policy makers in Europe following demographic transitions in the form of fertility decline and out-migration. Shrinking cities are characterized by huge oversupplies of dwellings and resulting residential vacancies. Although existing worldwide, particularly the shrinking eastern German city of Leipzig has been identified as a challenge to study residential mobility and the creation of housing vacancy using modelling techniques: social scientists developed a novel concept of demography-related household types based on a range of empirical surveys that together form a unique base to build a data-based agent model. The major objective here is to simulate processes and patterns of residential mobility in a shrinking city grounded on the social science concept of household types and the related empirical data. By this we aim at fostering ABM development which covers human decision-making tested on independent data. Based on the development and application of a spatially explicit ABM – RESMOBcity – we derive scenarios of diverging population and household trajectories and analyse the resulting residential land use patterns. The spatially explicit agent based simulation model RESMOBcity presented here ‘translates’ empirical data upon ‘new and non-classical’ household types that find their origin in concepts of the Second Demographic Transition into household agents. Applying behavioural rules to each of the agents spatially explicit household patterns, housing demands, residential vacancies and demolition potentials emerge out of the system. With the model RESMOBcity we present the first complex model that describes household agents developed based on a social science concept that reflects demographic transition and that is able to simulate urban population growth and shrinkage processes. In the results we show that population will stabilise within the coming 20 years. The number of households is expected to further increase. Assuming that today’s residential behaviour is valid for the near future, we have to expect an increase in the spatial segregation of households in the city: the youngsters and very old concentrate in the centre, whereas families still direct outwards. Residential vacancy will decrease and level out at a 10%-rate in 2020. It will move from the Wilhelminian-time estates of the inner city to the 20-40ies and 60ies housing estates that lose attractiveness for most of the household types. We demonstrate that a selective demolition of vacant housing stock might counteract the enormous oversupply of dwellings and better level out both housing demand and number of available flats. In terms of model quality particularly the spatial pattern and trends of residential vacancy were found in good accordance with measured municipal data and estimates by experts. The model concept of RESMOBcity, we believe, is a useful one in terms of evaluating demographic scenarios and their impact on residential land use in urban regions. The model covers ongoing processes in many cities in the Europe.
Elali, Gleice, and Josemar Costa. "Giving a Plant Or Teaching How to Plant?" In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. One of the many socio-environmental problems affecting the planet is the reduction of the vegetal cover, which happens from a macro-scale (deforestation) to an urban scale, including individual habitations – where the presence of vegetation becomes increasingly rare, specially in the biggest cities. Such a situation is paradoxical, considering that spreading vegetation is one of the possible actions to reduce global climatic changes. Thus, in the fight for the “urban reforestation” (and for the addition of green places in our daily life), one of the actions is growing plants in public areas, and the incentive of this behavior in private areas. In this sense, since the 1990s the group “Nativas no Campus” (UFRN) has an extension project that carries out the planting of species from Brazil (such as pau-Brazil, ipe, maçaranduba and others) on the campi of the University, in order to promote the conservation of trees of “Mata Atlantica” (original Brazilian forest) and increase the quality of life in these places. The group, which has planted more than 5000 trees, also distributes seedlings for the external community during university events, such as the annual Week of Science, Technology and Culture (CIENTEC). Upon receiving the seedlings, the parties fill out a questionnaire with personal data, indication for future contact and questions about the urban areas. Using this material, this paper presents a survey conducted in 2007, which aimed to understand what happened to about 500 seedlings distributed during CIENTEC in 2003 and 2004. We used the initial forms to contact the participants, with whom we conducted telephone interviews using open and closed questions, some utilizing Likert scale. The first challenge was contacting the participants, of which only 20% were found and 10% (50!) agreed to meet us, mostly women (58%). In terms of occupation, they were students (54%), civil servants (22%) or teachers (14%). Although all respondents have emphasized the importance of urban tree planting and donation of seedlings, and 84% of them claim that their trees were planted, only 46% kept the plant, while 44% gave it away (to relatives, friends or neighbors), and 10% of these seedlings died before they were planted (the reasons were: forgot it in the bus, eventual crushing, or lack of care). Among those who didn’t keep the plants, the main reason for receiving it were “attracted by her beauty” (30%), “wanted to participate in the campaign” (20%) or “save the world” (18%). In turn, those people who kept the plants (63% women) did it at home (45%), in a public area (10%) and in the countryside (40%). Currently only 10% of these plants still receive care from the person who received and planted it and 23% are cared for by another family member, while the others do not receive special treatment. It is noteworthy that 90% of respondents do not consider cutting the tree, indicating that there would be no reason that would make them to do so. The data shows that the donation of tree seedlings is perceived as a proactive activity and encourages people participation and it can contribute to urban reforestation and improving the urban microclimate. However, the action itself is little efficient, probably achieving results that are less than expected (which is even more evident considering that much of the planting took place in the countryside, i.e. outside the urban center as planned). In this sense, our research indicates that, to ensure the desired results, there is a need to invest in broader actions of environmental education – more than donating plants, it is important to teach people how to plant and maintain them.
Portella, Adriana. "Global Change in Historic City Centres: How to Combine Commercial Activities and Historic Heritage in Urban Life." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. This paper addresses the liveability and functionality of human habitats, historic city centres in specific, under the conditions of global change analysing the influence of commercial signage in the appearance of historical streetscapes. In many cases, the commercial city centre coincides with the historic core, and the challenge of the local authority is to combine commercial activities with the preservation of historic buildings and public spaces. As part of the historic context of many countries, historic city centres have been through a process of physical transformation, which involves the satisfaction of new social and commercial needs. This transformation usually involves updating of historic buildings to accommodate commercial activities, and the insertion of contemporary architecture in existing streetscapes. This is a common process and there is nothing wrong with that; problems begin when historic buildings and places are harmed by this global change. This paper draws on three empirical case studies in two different countries – England and Brazil - to examine questions of commercial signage control, preservation of historic heritage and user preference and satisfaction with historic city centres on an international stage. The objective is to inform those factors that need to be taken into account in the development of commercial signage controls with regard to the preservation of historic heritage and global changes that affect the appearance of urban sites. The empirical investigation adopted the Environment Behavioural approach, which involves theories, concepts, and methodologies related to environmental psychology, architecture, planning, and urban design. An anonymous questionnaire was designed to analyse user’s satisfaction and preference with the appearance of a set of commercial street facades. Ideally, to ensure maximum realism, users from England and Brazil should observe the commercial streets of each case study on-site. However, because of the impracticality of bringing users from England to Brazil and vice versa, the experiment was based on colour photomontages. A focus group was also applied to explore what a pre-determined group of people think and feel about the relationship between commercial signage and building facade in a specific case study. The discussion was carried out in the case study where the commercial street facades chosen as the worst streets in terms of appearance (by respondents of questionnaire) are located. Nonparametric statistic tests and a content analysis were carried out to analyse these data. Results from the questionnaire showed that common views were found between users from the three case studies suggesting that the development of a general commercial signage approach, which helps national, regional and local authorities of different historic city centres design and implement commercial signage controls, is an essential initiative that should be integrated within urban design approaches. From the focus group analysis the evidence from indicates five factors that can increase visual pollution in historic city centres. These factors can be used in the operation of a general commercial signage approach as negative scenarios that should be avoided by local authorities in different historic cities. This study also identifies eight proposed actions that, according to user perception and evaluation, can improve the appearance of historic city centres, and convince shop owners and members of local communities to support commercial signage controls. These proposals can be used in the operation of a general commercial signage approach as strategies to reduce visual pollution in historic city centres of different urban contexts already affected by this problem.
Lienhoop, Nele, Volker Meyer, and Malte Grossmann. "Global Changes Impacts on Economy and Society in the Elbe River Basin: Results from Glowa-Elbe." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. GLOWA-Elbe is concerned with the impacts of global change, in particular climate and demographic change, on water availability in the Elbe River Basin. The aim of this paper is to identify water use conflicts, to assess economic losses caused by water scarcity, to develop suitable adaptation strategies, and to evaluate these strategies from an economic point of view. Economic impacts of water scarcity and adaptation strategies are assessed for the entire Elbe River Basin and for different disaggregated levels, e.g. sub-basins, individual time periods until the year 2052, and for individual water users. Scenarios are employed to handle uncertainties arising from the relatively large time horizon. A range of models was used to analyse scenarios of climatic and socio-economic developments. These include models to predict climate, water management, population, land-use and water demand. The main results are: • Agricultural irrigation, wetlands, freight and recreational shipping as well as hydro power generation are the most affected water users. These are water users that either directly depend on river discharge and/or face high levels of evaporation. At the same time they have little adaptive capacities to cope with reduced water availability. • Interestingly, water-intensive water users such as drinking water provision, industry and power plants are hardly affected by water scarcity. Explanations for this are that water demand tends to decrease in these sectors due to technological developments. E.g. the introduction of closed-circuit cooling in the power plant sector leads to serious reductions in water demand. These water users have capacities to adapt to water scarcity. • From a spatial point of view, it can be stated that the Havel sub-basin is likely to face large economic consequences. In the entire river basin economic losses will concentrate on few individual water withdrawal points. In dry year, only about half of these water withdrawal points in the Elbe River Basin will face an economic loss and less than 20% will bare the overall loss. Exceptions are hydro power plants and wetlands. Here almost all water withdrawal points are affected by reductions in water availability. • The findings suggest that there will be no area-wide increase in water scarcity in the Elbe River Basin. However, individual water users and regions are likely to be seriously affected. Furthermore, water users that are already affected by water scarcity in dry summers, e.g. freight shipping, have to expect a further increase in water deficits. With respect to the development of adaptation strategies, this means that one should concentrate on problems that already occur today. Adaptation strategies have been identified in collaboration with stakeholders. Adaptation is possible in the following fields: Reservoir management, water transition, wetland management and demand management in public water utilities. The economic impacts and costs of these adaptation strategies will be analysed until the end of the GLOWA-Elbe project in October 2010.
Kreutz, Angela. "Global Influences on Children's Local Cultural Identity Constructions Within a Rural Aboriginal Community." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. The formation of cultural identity and place identity is a process that displays fluidity through and movement across space and time. Within Australian Aboriginal cultures, people have constantly been adapting to both natural and humaninduced environmental changes throughout both pre- and post-contact periods. Consequently, Aboriginal people’s transactions with their local social and physical environments and their cultural, place and group identity constructions continue to change over time. With the accelerating effects of global change, however, individual cultural identities are becoming less defined by cultural discreteness, but rather by cultural interconnectedness. Acknowledging these changing cultural identity processes is particularly salient for researchers studying children and their environments. Children are frequently affected by the positive and negative impacts of global change, such as climate impacts, uneven economic developments and environmental degradation. The developing child will not only identify with her/his locality, but her/his identity constructions are also globally influenced. The present study explores Australian Aboriginal children’s experience of space and place within the rural community of Cherbourg. The current social and physical makeup of Cherbourg has evolved out of its complex multicultural and institutionalised past. Aboriginal people were deported to Cherbourg from different parts of the state representing almost every language group in Queensland. For a large number of residents their traditional land is distant and maintaining links to that land has proved difficult. This has resulted in gradual erosion of traditional cultural and local identity systems, which have been partially replaced by a Cherbourg place-based identity system. Despite the fact that these children are located within a physical space and place, their sociocultural space is not an isolated self-sustaining system; global political, economic, environmental and social constructs have a direct impact. Children construct their identity through and within the multiple cultures and the places and spaces they engage with, both locally and globally. This local-global complexity means that children are increasingly creating complex identities that are part of a global multi-cultural environment. Emerging results from the multiple qualitative and quantitative methods employed in this study indicate that whilst the children have a great degree of freedom to independently move around in Cherbourg, they are simultaneously confined and restricted by the hidden boundaries of their small, segregated, rural community environment. Cherbourg is the children’s home and affords identity construction through the children’s physical and socio- cultural transactions, yet in many ways this environment also constrains the children through factors of social exclusion and socioeconomic disadvantage, which have a very real impact on the children’s future lives. Despite global influences, this local environment does little to prepare children for other sociocultural environments which nevertheless continue to hold alternative ideologies and values. This current research study shows that children are critical of their local physical and social environment, yet simultaneously maintain a firm connection and display strong place-identity links. This connection to and dependence on their local environment, however, is coupled with the children’s desire to reap the benefits of global opportunities, which to a large extent remain out of reach.
Ghavampour, Ensyeh. Globalisation and Identity of Public Spaces: an Analysis of Natural Elements in Iranian Cities In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Historically, environmental factors (natural elements) have always played a significant role in the development of cities and civilisations in their physical building units. Today, environmental factors (natural elements) are viewed from many different vantage points, namely their physiological and psychological influences and also the role they play in maintaining environmental sustainability. However, with increasing urbanization and modernization of cities around the world and unification in various political, economic and cultural aspects, the elimination of boundaries has led to the loss of unique identities and sense of place in public spaces. The proposed research is focused on the country of Iran where the formation of urban spaces has been influenced by mythical and ritual symbols, signs, concepts and images. In order to study the formation of public space in Iran, this research is focused on historical public spaces in established cities - leaving purpose built squares and plazas intentionally neglected. To highlight the canons of Iranian public spaces, a comparison will be made between Iranian public spaces with instances of such spaces in other countries worldwide.
Bresse, Andrée Fortin Mar, and Carole Després. "Grieving for Home: Life After a Forced Relocation." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Whether it is because their environment is vulnerable to climate change or to make way for infrastructure or industry, one of the significant impacts of global change is that many people will be forced to leave their homes. This involuntary lost of one’s home is a taxing ordeal for those who have to experience it (Lev-Wiesel, 1998 : 107). A literature review of studies on forced relocations has identified four types of impacts: physiological, psychological, psychosocial and social. The review also pointed out several factors contributing to the greater or lesser resilience of these households, such as adaptability, residential satisfaction, socio-economic situation and characteristics of the new environment (Lemieux, 2007). In Stoneham, near Quebec City, Canada, 83 households are currently being forced to relocate by the government for the construction of a highway. The relocations began in 2006 and are still ongoing. Through a mandate granted by the ministère des Transports du Québec, the Groupe interdisciplinaire de recherche sur les banlieues (GIRBA) conducted a qualitative study to assess the psychosocial impacts of these involuntary relocations. How have these families experienced the relocation process? Which aspects have influenced their decision in choosing their new home? What are the impacts of the relocation process on their health, family and social life and the emotional relationship to their home? This paper attempts to answer these questions through the discourse analysis of 14 semi-structured interviews conducted with relocated residents in their new home. These interviews focused on their past residential experience and aspirations, lifestyle, identity and territorial space, reactions to the announcement of the relocation and the way it proceeded, satisfaction with the negotiation process, and socioeconomic characteristics of the household. Results suggest that, in most cases, relocated people were very attached to their original homes and that its loss is experienced as a form of grief. Moreover, depending on their age and the relation to their house, the relocation process and its impacts are experienced differently. For example, it tends to have a greater impact on family relationships for younger families and a greater impact on health for the elderly. While the reasons for choosing their new home are varied, the age factor appears to play an important role. Young households have sought to relocate in a similar environment to avoid disturbing the family lifestyle; the elderly also chose an environment to which they are attached. Young retirees have sought to relocate closer to the city and its services. Satisfaction with the new residence shows the complexity of the said grief. The relationship to the new house is always depicted in relation to the former. Generally, if the household was unable to relocate in similar conditions due to economic constraints, the satisfaction is low. Young retirees are those who most appreciate their new home, the elderly, those who appreciate it the least. In our study, age appears to be an important factor influencing the experience of involuntary relocation. We believe it is the emotional relationship to home, challenged by the involuntary relocation, which varies with life’s stage.
Verplanken, Bas. "Habit and Behavior Change: Theory and Practice." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. We seldom do things for the first time. A large portion of our behaviors are repetitive and are executed at the same time and at the same place. This has consequences for how we view “behavior”, the models social scientists use to describe and predict behavior, and interventions to change behavior. This talk consists of three parts. I will first redefine the concept of habit. Most psychologists equate behavior with “past frequency of behavior”. This conception is not only too narrow, it leads to circular reasoning. My conception of habit consists of three “pillars”. The first is repetition, which should remain a core feature of habit. However, while habits are executed repeatedly, frequent behavior is not necessarily habitual. Habits are also forms of automatic behavior, i.e., behavior that is not reasoned or deliberated, occurs with minimal awareness, and is often difficult to control. The third pillar refers to the fact that habits are cued by stable contexts. The second part of this talk addresses the question why habits are difficult to change. Each of the three pillars (repetition, automaticity, context stability) provides insights in why habits are durable and resistant to change. As for repetition, many events are recurrent and require similar responses every time a person encounters them. Habitual behavior has thus been found less strongly dependent on attitudes and intentions as prevalent models of behavior suggest. The automaticity aspect of habits implies that habitual choices require minimal attention. There is strong evidence that habits lead to ’tunnel vision’, i.e., attention to information (particularly new information) is minimal, and decision rules are shallow. Finally, context stability implies that habits are ingrained in the environment where behavior takes place. Control over habitual behavior is thus largely been delegated to the environment, rather than residing in individuals’ willpower. Habits have implications for behavior change programmes. The first is that, while information campaigns have only limited power to change attitudes and behavior, habits are even less prone to be changed by such campaigns. The lack of attention to information and the attenuated associations between attitudes, intentions and habitual behavior are paramount to that. Because habits are embedded in and triggered by the context in which behavior takes place, a logical consequence is that habit might be modified by changing this context. Context change may thus disrupt existing habits and open a window of opportunity for interventions. This has been designated as the habit discontinuity hypothesis (Verplanken et al., 2008; Verplanken & Wood, 2006). Context changes may occur in a natural fashion, for instance when individuals go through life course changes such as moving house, starting a family or retirement. Verplanken et al. (2008) provided results suggesting that environmentally concerned participants who recently had moved house were more likely to follow their environmental values by commuting less by car. Habit discontinuities may also be staged by interventions, such as changes in the infrastructure (e.g., reducing parking space or improving public transport). The habit discontinuity hypothesis, which is the focus of the present symposium, opens the way to the development of a new generation of interventions. References Verplanken, B., Walker, I., Davis, A., & Jurasek, M. (2008). Context change and travel mode choice: Combing the habit discontinuity and self-activation hypotheses. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 28, 121-127. Verplanken, B., & Wood, W. (2006). Interventions to break and create consumer habits. Journal of Public Policy and Marketing, 25, 90-103.
Oshima, Chiho, Hikaru Shimogaki, Kyoko Numata, and Kieko Kodama. Home Environment Improvement for Elderly People with Dementia by Family Caregivers In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. In 2009, Japanese population aging rate reached 22.7_. There are growing populations of aged people. The number of elderly people with dementia has also increased. In Japan, half of the elderly people with dementia who need to be cared for live at home. However, the practical applications of home environment improvement for their family caregivers are not established. And, from our previous studies, we think it is important to link between caring and home environment. In this study, we define home environment improvement as a set of change living of elderly people at home. These range from small alterations of furnishings to large home modifications. This purpose of this study is to investigate the current status of home environment improvements for demented elderly. In addition, I would like to show concrete examples of home environment improvement. 1) Targets: The samples were 13 households with demented elderly. These samples were collected from three areas in Tokyo and Kanagawa. In a lot of cases, interviewees were family caregivers. Some cases, interviewees were family caregivers and demented elderly. 2) Approach: We used hearing investigation from February to March2009. The investigators were researchers, architects, and graduate students. Our survey items were follows: elderly people’s conditions, housing conditions, and the content of home environment improvements. We took pictures home environment improvement. 3) Analysis: We divided into “the dimensions of home environment improvement” based purpose of home environment improvements. The dimensions of home environment improvement were developed our previous research with questionnaire survey. These dimensions were composed of eight dimensions; safety &security, understandability & usability, support functional abilities, enjoy comfortableness & stimulation, continuity of the self, maintenance of health, alleviation of confusion, and alleviation caregiver’s burden. The majority of the 13 sample members were female (84.6%). The average age of the 13 elderly people were 86.2 years old. From 13 samples, we identified one hundred sixty three home environment improvements. Out of one hundred sixty three home environments, the most home environment were practiced space were private rooms of demented elderly people and living room by family caregivers. In bathroom and entrance, a lot of home environment were practiced. For example, we found weekly schedule to support understanding of time and place, hanging one’s favorite creation for having attachment to own house, and making the air-conditioner remote control more accessible than ever before. We compared this study with “age-specific environmental dimensions” developed in the U.S. “Age specific environmental dimensions” were composed of eight dimensions; safe- ty, orientations, functionality, stimulation, personal control, social interaction, continuity, change. They share certain similarities in that both include 5 dimensions; safety, orientations, functionality, stimulation, continuity. Our next goal is to propose a study of developed home environment improvement, combining the both purposes of caring and home improvement.
Tiberio, Lorenza, and Massimiliano Scopelliti. "Homesickness in University Students: Multiple Place Attachment in Different Sized Cities." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. The study of homesickness after a relocation has become a relevant research topic because of its impact on people’s activities and psychological well-being (Stroebe, Van Vliet, Hewstone, & Willis, 2002). Fisher (1989) claims that homesickness should be investigated within a multi-causal model, in which personality, environmental, and situational factors concur. Multiple place attachment, with reference to both the old and the new place of residence, was found to be a relevant environmental factor in the development of homesickness (Scopelliti & Tiberio, in press). In this study, we also considered the size of the new place of residence, as Bonaiuto and Bonnes (1996) have outlined different peopleenvironment transactions in a mediumsized and a large city. A questionnaire focusing on personality factors (vulnerability to homesickness), attachment to the home-town and to the new place of residence was administered to a sample of 188 non-native university students living in Rome (large city) and Chieti (medium-sized city), and coming from the same geographical areas. A control group of 181 native students (100 in Rome, 81 in Chieti) was also included in the study. We first analysed the dimensional structure of vulnerability to homesickness, attachment to the home-town, and attachment to the new place of residence. The factors Expression of emotion/Seeking social support, Rigidity, and Earlier homesickness experiences emerged with reference to vulnerability to homesickness; the factors Identification, Lack of resources, and Social relations emerged with reference to attachment to the hometown; the factors Opportunities for personal development, Involvement, Affective Bond and Friends and integration emerged with reference to attachment to the new place of residence. Then we considered differences between natives and non-natives, and between nonnative students living in different sized cities. No significant difference between natives and non-natives emerged with regard to vulnerability to homesickness factors, both in Rome and in Chieti. This result showed that we actually measured personality factors, that are not supposed to vary between the two populations. Conversely, a relevant role of town size in non-natives’ residential experience was found: with regard to attachment to the home-town, students living in Chieti showed stronger Social relations than students living in Rome; with regard to attachment to the new place of residence, students living in Rome felt higher Opportunities for personal development, a stronger Affective bond with the city and higher Involvement than students living in Chieti. Finally, we tested a model in which actual homesickness was considered within a multicausal framework. The factors Rigidity and Earlier homesickness experiences, Social relations in the home-town, and Involvement in the new place of residence emerged as significant predictors of homesickness. Theoretical and practical implications in the study and prevention of homesickness are discussed.
Ojala, Maria. "Hope and Climate Change: Sources of Hope and Pro-Environmental Behavior Among Two Groups of Young People." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Global climate change is one of the most serious threats that humanity is facing today. Since this problem is intertwined with the global pattern of production and consumption, besides technical and political progress, it is vital to get the public involved in the strivings for an ecologically sustainable society. Because young people are those most likely to suffer the negative consequences of today’s global environmental problems, and since they are the future leaders of society, one could argue that this group is especially important to include in societal deliberations about this issue. Unfortunately, studies have found that although many young people think climate change is an important societal issue, feelings of hopelessness and helplessness are common. To find ways to instill hope could therefore be seen as vital. However, is hope positively related to engagement or is it only a sign of illusory optimism? The main aim of this study was to explore how well hope concerning climate change works in explaining pro-environmental behavior when controlling for already known predictors such as values, social influence, knowledge and gender. Other aims were to identify, on the one hand, which sources of hope about climate change are most common among these young people and, on the other hand, possible age-differences concerning hopeful feelings. Two groups of Swedish young people; one group of teenagers (n=723) and one group of young adults (n=381) answered questionnaires including questions about “constructive” hope evoked by positive re-appraisal, trust in different societal actors, and trust in the efficacy of individual action, as well as hope based on denial. Results showed that both groups felt hope mainly because of; a feeling that we as individuals together can influence climate change in a positive direction, a view that the awareness of climate change has increased considerably in society during later years, and trust in politicians. The most uncommon sources of hope in both groups were hope based on denial of climate change and hope related to seeking psychological support from friends. A comparison between the two groups revealed that the young adults were more hopeful than the teenagers, who only scored significantly higher on two sources of hope, hope evoked by trust in environmental organizations and hope based on denial. Most importantly, regression analyses showed that in both groups an aggregated scale of “constructive” hope had a unique positive influence on pro-environmental behavior when controlling for biospheric and altruistic values, social influence, knowledge, and gender. Hope based on denial, on the other hand, was negatively correlated with pro-environmental behavior in the two samples and was a unique negative predictor in the teenage sample. The conclusion is that hope is not only a pleasant feeling but also could work as a motivational force, if one controls for denial. The study shows that besides cognitive factors, such as knowledge, it is also important to take into consideration emotional factors when informing and teaching about climate change. The results are discussed in relation to psychological theories about coping and motivation that emphasize the importance of positive emotions. Practical implications for education about sustainable development are also discussed.
Parra, Diana. Household Motor Vehicle Use and Weight Status Among Colombian Adults: are We Driving Our Way Towards Obesity? In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide and is a condition no longer confined to high-income countries and populations. Epidemiological, nutritional and demographic transitions, coupled with rapid urbanization and globalization processes have been linked to the obesity epidemic in low-middle income countries. Time devoted to sedentary activities such as television (TV) viewing or private motor vehicle use has been positively associated with obesity. In Latin American (LA) countries such as Colombia, physical inactivity and sedentary behaviors are increasingly prevalent and have also shown to be related to adverse health outcomes, such as obesity and excess mortality. Moreover, although the rates of private motor vehicle ownership in LA cities remains low compared to rates in the United States, car sales have recently been on the rise. From 2004 to 2005, the percentage of car sales in Colombia increased by almost 50%. Given that mobilization patterns in LA cities are rapidly shifting towards the use of private motorized transportation, the relationship between motor vehicle use and obesity warrants exploration. The purpose of this study was to determine the associations between household motor vehicle ownership (cars and motorcycles) and weight status, among a representative sample Colombian adults residing in urban areas. Secondary analysis of data from the 2005 Demographic and Health Survey of Colombia was used. Height, weight and waist circumference were objectively measured in 49,079 adults, ages 18 to 64 that resided in urban settings. Abdominal obesity was defined as a waist circumference > 80 cm in women and > 90 cm in men. Polytomous logistic regression was carried out to examine the associations between motor vehicle ownership and BMI categories (overweight and obesity), as compared to normal weight. In addition, a binary logistic regression model was conducted in order to determine the association between motor vehicle ownership and abdominal obesity. Prevalence was 19.9% for motor vehicle ownership in household, 33.1% for BMI between 25 and 29.9 kg/m2 overweight), 14.4% for BMI > 30 kg/m2 (obesity), and 46% for abdominal obesity. Males reporting any household motor vehicle ownership were more likely to be overweight (POR: 1.6, CI: 1.4 - 1.8, p <0.001) or obese (POR: 1.8, CI: 1.5 - 2.2 p <0.001), and to have abdominal obesity (POR: 1.7, CI: 1.5 - 2.0, p <0.001). None of the associations were significant among women. The results of the present study indicate that among Colombian men, there is a cross sectional association between motor vehicle ownership and overweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity. If this association is proven to be causal, interventions and policies aimed at facilitating active transportation and reducing unnecessary and/or excessive use of pri- vate motor transportation could assist in controlling and preventing the ongoing obesity epidemic in Latin America. These include but are not limited to maintaining policies that promote active vs. motorized transportation. The low prevalence of motor vehicle ownership combined with the high population densities and land-use mix that are commonly found in most Latin American cities, makes these interventions feasible. A number of programs are currently in place in some Colombian cities, such as daily restrictions in regard to the use of private motor vehicles (pico y placa), improvement of public transportation systems, creation of a city-wide network of bike lanes (cicloruta), and the “ciclovía”, a policy that enforces the closing of selected roads within the city for recreational activities during Sundays and holidays. Studies determining the effects of these types of programs on health-related outcomes, such as the prevalence of overweight and obesity, will provide further support for their inclusion in prevention policies, both locally and in the Latin America region.
Duda, Tomasz. Housing Needs of Eldery People In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. The documents dealing with sustainable development in the urban context recognize imperative need to improve the quality of human settlements which profoundly affects daily lives and well being of people. The increasing number of older people os one the main demographic problems in Poland and affluent Western societies. As we are getting older there is an urgency to rethink. among other problems, housing needs of this rapidly growing segment of population. Whether adapting the existing housing stock or building new estates, the needs of elderly people must be recognized and articulated. There is variety of special houses for elderly people in Europe an in the USA, but in Poland this problem is not very well recognized. This project attempts to bridge this gap. The main problem of this research is how to build environment that is friendly for elderly people, which satisfies all their needs and allows for high quality independent life event in advanced age. Methods Research conducted participants of age 60+ mostly living in Warsaw and quite well educated. The questionnaire included queries about - housing situation - everyday activity - trust in other people // Additionally card sorting method was used to measure relative importance of housing needs of respondents. Cluster analysis reveled three different types of elderly people. The first type consists of people who are living in big flats, They participate in cultural life but are not religious. Their housing needs include living in pretty surrounding with good access to internet and culture. The second type - people who do not participate in cultural and religious life. Their housing needs are concentrated on facilities of disabled people such as, lifts, ramps and good access to medical services. Almost all males where in this group. People living in small flats not adapted for elderly constituted the third group. They are very religious, Their housing needs are concentrated on culture, good access to medical care and special facilities for elderly people. The results of the present studies underline the relative importance of diverse housing needs that vary as a function of social characteristics of elderly people. Characteristics of the three detected types of elderly people proved important of their physical needs but also requirements regarding the surrounding - social and physical environment and cultural needs. According to the results elderly people can not be perceived as a homogenous group. In order to ensure sustainability of their dwellings, research and design should deal with these differences by diagnosing needs and offering adequate opportunities for active life. Talking into account that our society is getting older we should recognize the importance of an interdisciplinary research that focuses on quality of life that social group.
Choi, Moo Hyuck, Jong Eun Song, Seon Young Song, and Young A Park. Housing Redevelopment of Deteriorated Residential District and Community Collapse in Urban Korea In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. This paper aims to explore two matters which relate to redevelopment of deteriorated residential district and the collapse of community: (1) what are newly arising problems caused by housing redevelopment work of degraded residential district by the government. (2) what is the cultural, social, and economic implication of the housing improvement work by voluntary participation of residents as an alternative to the redevelopment work under Korean conditions . There are two methods of housing redevelopment work and housing improvement work in improving of deteriorated urban residential district which became impossible to accommodate the urban economic growth and social and demographic changes in the quality and functionality of residential environment; Housing redevelopment work is a radical method across the board, orienting to high rise and high density housing development estate. As a contrary, housing improvement is a gradual method, orienting to slow and partial improvement and to remaining existing structure of district and community. In this paper, the effects and on deteriorated residential district by the housing redevelopment work and implications of housing improvement work in terms of social, cultural, and economic aspects in urban Korea circumstances will be discussed as follows. Firstly, the characteristics of the redevelopment of deteriorated residential district in urban Korea and cultural, social, and economic problems of existing community and residents like as the collapse of community, the loss of regional identity, deprivation of settlement from low income-class and deportation, and the drift of heterogeneous population will be described. Secondly, how to preserve existing community and its regional identity, to ensure dwelling continuity of degraded residential environment, and to protect its vulnerable lowincome class will be observed in the terms of the methodology through the case study of Sam Duck-dong, Dae-gu Korea, housing improvement work. Lastly, the social, cultural, and economic implication of liveability and functionality which should be considered in the process of improving urban residential environment to meet with urban social and economic changes and deterioration of existing residential environment in localized circumstances of urban Korea will be addressed. This study began with the understanding the redevelopment of deteriorated residential district and the collapse of its community as products which are delivered from the composition physical environmental change due to the deterioration of urban built environment with social and economic changes in growing urban Korea and therefore tried to interpret the vulnerability of the redevelopment of deteriorated residential district in urban Korea in terms of social, cultural, and economic aspects.
Oh, Sun Ah. How Can We Better Understand the Place-Identity of a Regional Community? In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. The key word in this presentation is Genfukei. It’s Japanese word. We often recall many experiences from our childhood and talk about them with someone. These experiences can include landscapes, places, experiences of play, and interactions with other people in our hometowns. We would like to approach such experience using the term “Genfukei” (original-scape). We can define Genfukei (original-scape) as those memorable landscapes that consist of our experiences of the past about actual places, spaces, landscapes that strongly remain in our memories. The purpose of this study was to focus on the shared Genfukei of members of a local community and examine place-identity. Therefore the first question we must ask is how can we better understand the Genfukei of a regional community, and the second question is what kind of things can we describe as the Genfukei of a regional community. In the current research, I attempt to conceptualize and define the structure of Genfukei through qualitative analysis research methods in order to explain how it forms and what is common among individuals of a particular group. Method: Field interviews were conducted on Jeju Island, located in the southern extremity of South Korea. Four groups of 4 to 6 adults participated, and the participants in each group had been in touch with each other for years. How can we better understand the shared Genfukei of a regional community? The concept of participation type of individual members during the group narrative was used to better understand the groups’ Genfukei. These types can be categorized into the following four fixed types of narrative participation. Actual narrative data were analyzed to obtain 4 types of narrative participation. New topic introduction type: First, a new topic is indicated as a personal experience. We could see that there were many uses of “I” as a subject in this context. Elaborate explanation type: then, the next speaker makes an addition to the previous comment and widens the range of topic of the first speaker. We could see that there were many occasions where the subject of the contextual situation was “I also” and “we.” In these cases an expression of similar opinion or agreement was made, flowed by the connection of explanation from one’s own personal experience. Receptive reaction type: In this type, participants show a reaction to the offered topic, and they explain and give a deeper significance to the topic. They confirm the topic through repeating certain words mentioned throughout the narrative. Acceptive questioning type: In this type, participants ask a question to the speaker and other participants. There are many questions asked in order to form a better understanding of the topic or in order to facilitate the discussion of the same topic further. Discussion: I would also like to stress the importance of narrative. In the case of personal narrative, one can relate the past and the present in the form of “In the past I was ..., so now I am ...” But in group narrative, the subject of the story changes from “I was ...” to “I was ALSO ...,” to “at that time WE were ....” Finally, these shared experiences, expressed by the “shared we,” are used as a basis for evaluating the present. I feel that it is very important that such participants talk and share experiences with each other. Through this, during the talking, personal and meaningful stories of places and landscapes of the “shared we” are created. This is not just talking to discover some common elements or some unique idea by a knowledgeable person. It is a chance to talk with one another about experiences with common spaces, places, and landscapes, and in the process create a story that can then be shared with newcomers and younger generations. In other words, it is a chance to share a regional identity that inhabitants feel is their own “Genfukei”
Profice, José Pinheiro C.. "How Children Perceive the Natural Environment of a Protected Area – Issues for Conservation of Biodiversity." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. The deforestation is one of the several causes of global climate changes and the conservation of the biodiversity is crucial to reverse the natural degradation. Our interest in this paper is children environmental perceptions in threatened natural settings, more specifically, the Rain Forest in Brazil. Several studies indicate that these perceptions constitute the base for people’s environmental attitudes and actions (Gibson, 1991; Chawla, 2006). The participants in our study were 211 children from six to eleven years old who live in the surroundings of the Biological Reserve of Una in the state of Bahia, created to protect Rain Forest fragments from the human activities impact. With the collaboration of the schools in the zone and environmental educators we conduct an exploratory and descriptive research adopting a multi-method approach centered in the child (Zeisel, 1981). To access the children perception of the natural environment our tools were drawings, individual interviews, focal groups and informal observations. The Rain Forest landscape is well portrayed in children’s drawings with predominance of vegetal elements and little human presence. However, the figured plants and trees are generically assigned with no particular specification. When stimulated to verbally reveal their knowledge about the local biodiversity in the focus group, the participants assigned several vegetal species amongst witch 89% are eatable. Children are aware of the degradation of the local environment and the importance of its conservation but they can describe episodes of hunting and feeding wild and threatened animal species without any signs of concern. Our results indicate a utilitarian trend in the perception of the natural beings in terms of their immediate usefulness to them and their relatives. The multi method approach seems to be very adequate to the complexity of the theme; the methodological strategies adopted were well accepted by the children, offering them opportunities to express their environmental perception. The awareness about environmental local problems can be attributed to the interactive experience with the degraded forest, the influence of environmental education initiatives and the information propagated by the mass media. However, environmental awareness is not sufficient to engage people in conservation practices. Differently from urban children the participants of our research have continuous opportunities to explore the natural environment engaging themselves in several forms of interaction with it. Considering the situation of these kids, we suggest the development of specific strategies of environmental education and public policies aiming at the extension of their knowledge about local diversity towards the conservation of that biome, so important for the control of global changes.
Haase, Annegret, Dieter Rink, and Matthias Bernt. "How Does Shrinkage Impact on the Fortunes of Cities?" In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. How does shrinkage impact on the fortunes of cities? Discussing local challenges for urban governance within a European context urban shrinkage has become a new normality for a growing number of European cities and urban regions. It is a result of different but strongly interconnected processes: uneven economic development, demographic change, shifts in land, resource use, urban form, housing preferences and lifestyles. In the near future, these drivers will increasingly impact on urban and regional development, so that the shrinkage of cities is likely to gain importance. Shrinking urban regions develop their own patterns of development, and form distinctive dynamics that differs from those of their growing counterparts. Although urban shrinkage represents one of the major challenges for urban Europe for the next decades, it is still underresearched and lacks of a sufficient body of comparable knowledge (also “for action”), especially concerning trajectories, triggers and consequences. Set against this background, the paper deals with urban shrinkage as a major challenge for local governance systems and modalities in Europe. It takes a comparative perspective and discusses the development, appearance and consequences of urban shrinkage and what challenges result herefrom for local governance arrangements for several aspects of urban planning. Using empirical knowledge from seven case studies across Europe, it identifies, on the one hand, which types and trajectories of shrinkage exist with respect to different national and local contexts and, on the other hand, which specific challenges are brought about by them for local steering mechanisms, institutional frameworks, governance modes and related decision-making processes. Urban shrinkage is understood as an empirical phenomenon resulting from the specific inter-play of different macro-processes at the local scale; the focus of our attention is on its qualitative dimension. When speaking about challenges for local governance arrangements, the focus is on applied politics and instruments, the cooperation between the involved actors as well as the institutional framework conditions on different spatial scales (local and upward). The presented research draws on the 7 FP project “Governance of urban shrinkage within a European context – SHRINK SMART” which analyses analogies and differences of local shrinkage processes in European urban regions with help of comparative case studies – Leipzig-Halle (Germany), Liverpool (Great Britain), Sosnowiec-Bytom (Poland), Ostrava (Czech Republic), Genoa (Italy), Timisoara (Romania) and Donetsk-Makijiwka (Ukraine) – and aims at identifying challenges and prospects of local governance responses.
Andrade, Jackie, Sabine Pahl, Christine Boomsma, and Jon May. "How Images Motivate Human Behaviour." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. We summarise the Elaborated Intrusion theory of human motivation, which was developed in the context of substance craving (EI theory; Kavanagh, Andrade & May, 2005). The present contribution discusses its predictions regarding the impact of external images on pro-environmental behaviours and offers new data supporting this application. By providing a theory of the thought processes that underpin motivated behaviour, we offer a framework for explaining how external images can become internalized so they endure as triggers for behaviour change. In EI theory, goals are conscious representations of desired outcomes. They are triggered in the form of intrusive thoughts or images (I need a coffee) that are then elaborated. Importantly, elaboration involves generating mental images of the desired outcome. These images are rich in sensory detail (the appearance, warmth, smell and taste of a cup of coffee), simulating the desired experience, and for this reason they are emotionally charged, carrying some of the pleasure or relief of the real thing. They serve as a reference point against which we compare our current state with our desired state, motivating a change in behaviour to reduce the discrepancy. EI theory highlights a difficulty faced when trying to change people’s environmentallydamaging behaviours. Mental imagery works to increase the impact on behaviour of immediate goals relative to long-term goals. People give into drug cravings because the pleasure or relief offered by consumption is easier to imagine vividly than the longterm benefit of better health. Similarly, people turn up their heating because it is easier to imagine the immediate pleasure of warmth than the more abstract and distant goal of consuming less energy. Powerful images of climatechange and environmental threat, but also of sustainable lifestyles, are therefore key to increasing the motivational power of goals to engage in sustainable behaviours, shifting the balance from short-term to long-term goals. To be effective drivers of behaviour change, images need to intrude readily into consciousness, to be vividly recalled, to be emotionallycharged, and to be related to specific response behaviours. In general, highly emotive and arousing images are most vividly recalled. Distressing images are most likely to intrude, but positive images may be more often elaborated because that elaboration is rewarding. Intrusiveness increases when images and thoughts are cued by environmental, physiological or psychological cues, so images should be easily related to people’s everyday lives. Images should also be associated with specific, achievable responses, such as installing insulation or recycling waste. We present new data in support of these predictions from three studies. First, we followed up participants who watched a short film about the Great Pacific Garbage Patch. Second, we measured intrusive thoughts in householders who had seen thermal images of their home leaking heat. Third, we compared intrusions in a student sample that had seen images associated with a scary unsustainable future or with a hopeful sustainable future. Vividness of resulting mental images was related to image intrusiveness and to thinking about how one could change one’s own behaviour to reduce the problem. The present approach is entirely novel and could complement existing behaviour change theories. We conclude that Elaborated Intrusion theory provides a workable framework for predicting which images will be most or least effective for changing behaviour. Kavanagh, D. J., Andrade, J. & May, J. (2005). Imaginary relish and exquisite torture: The Elaborated Intrusion theory of desire, Psychological Review, 112(2), 446-467.
Zoellner, Jan, Petra Schweizer-Ries, Irina Rau, and Irmela Benz. "How to Conceptualise and Implement an Energy Efficient City - a Systemic View." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. The challenge of responding to climate change affects not only the individual behaviour level but all parts of society. In this context, a fundamental question concerns the shape of our future energy generation and consumption. Comprehensive strategies integrating different disciplines (e.g. technical and socio-scientific) as well as bringing together science, politics and the application side seems to be the only promising way to increase energy sustainable systems and behaviour, respectively. The present contribution illustrates the attempt to establish such a comprehensive ‘energy efficiency concept’ for an entire city. Central goals are increasing the amount of renewable energies in power generation (electricity and heat) and to reduce the energy consumption significantly. Therefore, new technologies and structural measurements will be combined. Following a holistic approach, the transdisciplinary work group includes diverse scientific partners from natural and social sciences (departments of electrical engineering, hydromanagement, logistics, and environmental psychology) and application partners (municipal energy supplier, industry, and local administration and authorities). The focus lays firstly on creating innovative technical solutions in crucial energy relevant sectors (e.g. bringing together power generation via renewable energies with questions of grid integration and storage in order to meet different consumption needs and habits; implementation of building insulation and establishing energy service engineering tools). Secondly, energy relevant thinking and behaviour-patterns concerning the energy consumption on different user-levels (e.g. energy counselling on individual, household, communal, and organisational level) shall be analysed and changed. Therefore, target group specific communication strategies as well as a permanent dialogue with the involved partners and users will be applied in order to initiate transforming processes within the public perception and evaluation of energy relevant issues. The environmental psychological tasks are on the one hand to moderate the working group to support a continuous and creative communication process, and on the other hand to deliver empirical data about potential conflicts and obstacles as well as adequate solutions concerning the user interfaces (in terms of focusing on social and behavioural aspects). The whole project aims at following a participative design approach. Potential users and inhabitants respectively will be included within the planning- and research process from a very early stage (e.g. applying several user-need-analyses, interviews, polls, and future orientated workshops). Following this approach, valuable information about social/ behavioral requirements will be generated which can be used to adapt the technological concepts precociously. In addition, the effects of technical measures and concepts on the energy related behaviour level will be examined. The first results indicate that there is on the one hand a great potential and motivation to change energy related structures and behaviour as well as technological solutions systematically in this city, on the other hand a seriously lack of procedural knowledge and information on all levels of the involved stakeholders became evident. Furthermore, uncertainties concerning the legal framework and different interests within the stakeholders seem to be critical obstacles to overcome.
Kalantidou, Eleni. "Hybrid Working Environments: the Loss of Workplace Identity in the Metapolis." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. In the turn of this century globalization brought major alterations in many aspects of human activity. The urban scenery couldn’t be left unaffected, as it can be seen through the liquidity of boundaries, the mobility of populations and the growing presence of new built forms. Likewise, this new era had a great effect on working environments, mainly because of the workplace adjustments dictated by globalized work, in order to support organizational goals and practices. As a result, the implementation of new working practices required new forms of working spaces, synchronized with the globalized need for time/space flexibility. The aim of this paper is to bring out the loss of identity that characterizes contemporary working environments, especially the ones that are housed in intelligent buildings, through the analysis of their new hybrid nature which is based on the combination of different activities, structures and identities. Their hybrid form is described through the analysis of “combined space” -urban and architectural- because in most cases the contemporary working environment expands in the urban sprawl. It is also described through the analysis of “combined time”, which came as a result of the use of flexible timetables and employees’ self-rostering. In addition, this paper seeks to demonstrate the consequences of the identity loss of working environments as they are experienced by employees who are challenged to adjust to a private life/working life continuum. The data presented in this paper are part of a research that was realized in London using as research objects two intelligent office buildings. The sample consisted of 60 employees of both genders (30 male and 30 female) with administrative and non administrative duties. Data were collected with the method of questionnaires and were analyzed through descriptive statistics and content analysis. The questionnaire was designed to gather data on employees’ perception, evaluation and expression of wishes concerning to their working environment. Results showed that the hybrid form of workplace as experienced by employees and the loss of its identity have affected psychosocial qualities, such as privacy, territoriality, personalization of space, socialization etc. and have led to the fading of noticeable zones between social, domestic and professional life. The loss of identity in the workplace creates a “non space” which fosters the avoidance of interaction and attachment and encourages mobility. These findings indicate that the new form of working environment and the changes in the nature of work force society to accept the transformation of previous every day life into a new one, where there are no visual lines of separation between personal and professional activities. This paper concludes that the phenomenon of hybrid working environments has already a great impact on substantial human needs and raises a lot of questions related to the psychosocial implications that will be caused by it in the future.
Tveit, Mari S., Caroline M. P. Hagerhall, Helena Nordh, and Åsa Ode. "Identifying Cues of Stewardship in Everyday Landscapes Using Eye Tracking." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Eye tracking is emerging as a promising tool for assessing people’s landscape perception. The authors have preformed a range of eye tracking studies, as part of developing this method for landscape assessment. The landscapes assessed range from urban parks to pasture and agricultural landscapes, and the assessments include identification of cues of different concepts within landscape aesthetics as well as restorative qualities. In landscape preference studies, correlation and regression have often been used to identify the importance of different landscape aspects and elements in shaping human landscape appreciation. Traditional approaches attempt to control the imagery for other factors of the visual landscape than the one(s) being assessed, upon which the results reveal how much of the variation in preferences is explained by that factor(s). This gives valuable information about the importance of the selected elements as drivers of preference. However, images are often difficult to fully control, and the procedure does not provide information about which elements respondents actually looked at to do their assessments. Eye tracking on the other hand, gives direct answers as to which elements people look at to assess different aspects of the visual landscape, e.g. stewardship (if the landscape looked cared for). This provides knowledge about which landscape elements are important in the evaluation of different aspects of the visual landscape, e.g. which elements are considered disturbing or natural. In this study eye tracking was used to identify cues of stewardship in Norwegian everyday landscapes. Two groups of respondents were invited, one group consisting of landscape professionals (experts) and one group with no professional connection to landscape (nonexperts). Earlier perception studies have shown divergence between experts and lay people in landscape evaluation. Eye tracking was performed asking the respondents to assess the stewardship on a seven point scale. Eye tracking provides data about for example order of fixations (scan path) and duration of fixations in areas of interest (dwell time). Heat maps (two-dimensional colour maps) were produced on the landscape images, showing which parts of the image draw most attention. The heat maps are based on a summation of attention time across subjects. This means that high attention activity is a measure of both number and duration of fixations. Scan-paths, dwell-time and heat maps together enable a deeper understanding of how the respondents’ visual assessment was performed, and which elements were important in the assessment of cues of care. The development of eye tracking as a method for landscape assessment provides a novel approach to the understanding of how different landscape elements affect human landscape appreciation. This is a valuable step towards linking landscape aesthetic theory with practical landscape planning and design.
Iqbal, Shareka. "Identity and Adaptivity: Structures and Structural Interventions in Almora." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. The Indian context of Adaptive Reuse strategies, both macro and micro, are guided by the Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage (INTACH), via the Indian INTACH Charter. Therein, a total one hundred and ninety five traditional Listing of Historic Properties of Almora district, Uttaranchal, in 2004, proposed Heritage Villages at Uttaranchal. Our research upon these prominent surviving Kholas of Almora proposes functional Adaptive Reuse implementations to enhance, preserve and sustain typical indigenous dwelling samples of the micro system of Almora, a small hill settlement of Uttaranchal, India, within environmental, social, economic and innovative feasibility. Radiocarbon dating these traditional samples at the Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, Lucknow to a 720 ± 60 yrs BP antiquity, assesses their archeological relevance, correlating the architectural individualism with peer styles. An earthquake of 1100 AD devastated large tracts across India germinating this earthquake safety conscious school of architecture, traditionally evolved in elaborate workable trial and errors. This earthquake resistant vernacularism at Almora, in both local and cross border antiquity, from Nuristan in extreme Northwest Pakistan to Eastern Himachal Pradesh, and Nepal, has survived high intensity earthquake episodes over the last two hundred years. Structural designers fairly ideated seismic Shareka Iqbal Identity and Adaptivity: Structures and Structural Interventions In Almora performance of these structures in the highly damaging Kumaun and Garhwal earthquakes of 1720 and1803. Our work analyses how this indigenous construction technique in strong and lightweight wood, an elasto plastic material for frame construction, structural walls and paneled floors, yields gradually under high earthquake loads, its high ductility absorbing tremendous energy before failure, amply surviving several triple storied traditional buildings through seismic shocks in the last century. Equivalent static lateral force analysis of the two or three storeyed Koti Banal structure involve simple formulas appropriating buildings with regular mass and stiffness distribution, computing the design base shear for the entire structure, segregated across floor heights. Each floor level design lateral force then distributes to individual lateral load resisting element over floor diaphragm action. Thereafter design seismic base shear for the Koti Banal structure are calculated. Time period calculations involve approximate fundamental natural lapse of a wooden supported masonry. Koti Banal floors of thick highly flexible wooden planks over highly rigid dry dressed stone walls satisfy flexible diaphragm conditions. Seismic performance of Koti Banal structure requires the equivalent static method for design base shear computation. Upon detailed investigation the age old structural systems are revealed intact besides undamaged nonstructural components despite location in the most severe earthquake damage risk zone and experiencing many past earthquakes. Beyond analyzing the building system using equivalent static method, detailed advanced techniques like response spectrum, linear time history could pushover definitive insight. Building system response under simultaneous tri directional loads needs to be established. The Koti Banal structures are high rise wooden building category having moment resisting cross beams and stone masonry shear walls. Performance based design method is thus most suited as seismic calculator. In situ testing assess the stone wall strength as also wood construction. Finite element modeling method (FEM) is best for such complex masonry wooden combination buildings. Only then, prospects of delivering the historic contextual message could instigate special building repair guidelines, recommendations and techniques, in effective degrees, analysing the causes of death and decay in materials and structure, of both internal and external vernacular environment, unique as Koti Banal architecture. Also, our study prerequisites the best Adaptive Reuse option on minimum intervention wherein these dwellings, once refurbished, are put into similar functions as they held before, Shareka Iqbal Identity and Adaptivity: Structures and Structural Interventions In Almora with slight alterations to internal spaces only, tearing down internal partitions, keeping the exterior facades intact, vide open plan offices, shops, exhibition stores, cafes and art workshops. After remediating Adaptive Reuse projects, specific guidelines and recommendations are formulated for individual property owners in rehabilitating, preserving, future maintenance and continued use of these dwellings, pertaining to specific occupancy and construction types, sizes, materials, the building environment, site, structural systems, exterior finishes and interior features, roofing, doors and windows, wooden members and fixtures, applied over permanent and temporary construction on the exterior and interior as well as new attached or adjacent construction. Convenience and emerging needs instigate aberrations today, to replace time tested features, neglecting future impact. Conventional practices over increasing commercial and residential demands strain architectural traditions. Rapid, drastic, physical architectural changes over changed functions, space requirements and allied facilities, new locally nonbearing building materials and construction techniques, integrate poorly to the local physiography and socio economic contexts. Inadequate town planning and development regulations in conserving traditional buildings, increased maintenance costs and acute skilled craftsmanship shortage are killing the vernacular heritage. Efforts need to update and expand the guidelines as additional techniques and treatments become known to this Kumaon hill town. This hill town restoration needs urgent attention, endanger in extinction and consequently the loss of a traditional house type exclusive to this region.
Siebra, Lucia Maria Gonc, Sergi Valera Pertegas, and Jordi Gratacos-Roig. Identity and Public Art in Barcelona In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. This paper presents a first study of a research on Perception of the Public Art of the City of Barcelona and its Symbolic Meanings, and it deals especially with two (2) selection processes of pieces of public art that were part of the investigation. This study is justified insofar by the length of the collection of public art cataloged by the City Hall of Barcelona which totalized 1773 individual pieces. So, it was necessary the adoption of election criteria of pieces that would come to be part of the investigation. It was called “Study 1: Public Art Selection by Experts and Not-Experts” which had as main goals: 1. To know the collection of public art cataloged by the City Hall of Barcelona; 2. To select, next to a public considered an expert in Fine Arts, the first fifty (50) pieces of public art that were part of the research process considering the different typology, periods, styles, etc… 3. To select, next to a public non-expert, ten (10) pieces of public art starting from the fifty (50) previously selected pieces by experts, whereas now considered the personal preference of the respondent and the identification of the pieces with the Barcelona City. To conduct the study were used as main procedures the desk research (uprising of the collection of public art in Barcelona City), meetings with experts (selection of 50 original pieces of public art) and field research (selection of 10 final pieces of public art). The study was developed in two different and complementary phases, following to an order pre-determined of planning and execution. The first phase of it, called “selection of fifty (50) pieces of public art by experts” were selected fifty (50) pieces of public art of the collection cataloged by the Municipality of the City of Barcelona regarded as key indicators: aesthetic quality, historical importance, diversity of pieces (typology, style, scale) and their location in urban space. Its second phase was built upon the composition of the 50 pieces of public art in two separate sets of 25 pieces each one consisting of set A and set B. The two sets of samples were processed each one on a projection containing the images of the 25 pieces together with two questions, one on personal preference and another on identification of the piece with the Barcelona City. We will present the results obtained with the question that dealt with the parts identification with the city of Barcelona. Each of the images presented in the projection was followed by two structured questions in accordance with the Likert Model Scale of 7 points. The question used was 1. To what extent each of this piece is identified with the city of Barcelona? In this case, the scale ranged from one extreme “No Identification at all” to the other extreme “Total Identification”. The projection corresponding to the set A of pieces was subjected a public from 179 students. The projection corresponding to the set B of pieces was subjected to a public of 153 students. Students participating in the study were drawn from the university courses in Psychology, Architecture and Fine Arts of the city of Barcelona which totalized 332 participants. One of the main results of this Study 1: Selection of Parts of Public Art by Expert and Non-Expert was the final selection of the following ten (10) pieces of public art in relation to the theme of identification with the city of Barcelona and its importance for the formation of its image and identity: 1. Monument to Christopher Columbus; 2. Woman and Bird; 3. Miró Pavement; 4. Fish; 5. Barcelona Head; 6. Cascade of the Citadel Park ; 7. Picasso Mural. 8. Wallace Fountain; 9. Despair; 10. The Dragon’s Gate and the Garden of the Hesperides. Some of these selected pieces are now part of the graphical portion of the instrument of the second part of the research Perception of the Public Art of the City of Barcelona and their Symbolic Meanings, to be presented at a later date.
Boldemann, Cecilia, Henrik Dal, Nilda Cosco, Robin Moore, Brad Bieber, Margareta Blennow, Peter Pagels, Anders Raustorp, Ulf Wester Mar Söderström, and Fredrika Mårtensson. "Impact of Outdoor Preschool Environment Upon Children's Physical Activity and Sun Exposure. the Role of Vegetation, Climate and Latitude." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Everyday physical environments are an important potential trigger of automated healthy behaviour, particularly in children, as they may target disparate conventional community intervention programs regarding health and sustainability, and converge in one synergetic intervention. Previous studies in Sweden have shown that outdoor preschool environment may have an impact upon physical activity, sun protection and promotion of general physical and mental wellbeing if certain physical qualities regarding space, topography and vegetation are fulfilled. Outdoor preschool environment providing space and vegetation is one important factor for the promotion of sustainability and health in Western societies as many children spend most of their waking hours at preschool. The lack of physical activity and overexposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun, and its health consequences are global issues. An environment that limits daily selftriggered physical activity contributes to “physical activity deficiency”, and thus seriously affects the levels of physical activity required to maintain health. This applies to children in particular as sufficient physical activity as part of a lifestyle may be established in preschool age. Space and attractive opportunities, (e.g. extensive landscape with trees, shrubbery and broken ground) are equally important as a trigger of young children’s outdoor physical activity and automatic sun protection behaviour. Approximately 80-90% of skin cancers in Western societies are caused by overexposure to solar UV, in preschool children by inadvertent exposure. Attracting children’s play to abundant, low-reflectant vegetation in preschool environments substantially cuts UV exposure during free play. The combined impact of outdoor preschool environment upon both physical activity and sun exposure has been studied in urban areas in various climates at different latitudes, framed by different landscapes, beginning in Stockholm at latitude 59N, a rocky coastal region with pine forests and hemiboreal climate (2004, 199 children aged 4,5-6,5 years); second, in Raleigh, North Carolina, at latitude 36N, in a landscape of lush deciduous forests and subtropical climate; and third, in Malmö, Sweden, at latitude 55N, in a region dominated by an agricultural landscape and temperate maritime climate (2009, 201 children aged 3-5,9 years). For measurement, an objective observation method using behaviour mapping (with validated, reliable measures for level of physical activity) was applied in defined play behaviour settings, together with sky view imaging using fisheye photography. Fisheye images were analyzed with respect to the fraction of free sky. The environment was further scored considering space, vegetation, topography and integration of nature in playspace. Objective measurement by pedometry and global and individual dosimetry were also applied. Our findings indicate that space, vegetation and playspace integrated with nature in preschool environment trigger physical activity and provide sun protection. Combined with the results of the first (Stockholm) study, the results appear generalizable to other landscapes, climates and latitudes studied; i.e., preschool environments fulfilling qualities of space, vegetation and integration of nature promote physical activity and automated sun protection irrespective of landscape, climate or latitude. In such environments children could spend longer than normal time outdoors without risking overexposure to the sun. The studies further indicate that such environments might promote general health, and attention functioning.
Kim, Hyoun-joo, Moo-hyuck Choi, Mun-young Jang, Sung-hwan Joo, and Ji-hyun Jung. "Impacts of Sea Level Rise on Coastal Village of Korea: Rehabilitation of Water-Friendly Environments as Healthy Habitats and Tourism Resources." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. The global warming due to the enhanced greenhouse effect seemed to be accelerated in the 21st century. The projected warning will increase the sea level rise of ocean which have large adverse effects such as coastal lowland inundation, wetland displacement, coastal erosion, saltwater intrusion into estuaries and freshwater aquifers, altered tidal range in rivers and bays, change in tide and wave patterns, change in sedimentation on the coastal zone in which rich natural ecosystem is exhibited and active socioeconomic system has been already occurred. Coastal cities worldwide are vulnerable to climate change. With sea levels continuing to rise, more than 308 points are expected to be affected by coastal erosion in Korea. Number of the cities, counties and districts located in coastal area is 78, which corresponds to 33.6% of total number of the country. The population in these areas is 12million, about 27.2% of total population. For the 1-m sea level rise scenario with high tide and storm surge, the maximum inundation areas appear to be 2,643 km², which is about 1.2% of total area of the Korean Peninsula. The population in the risk areas of inundation is 1.255million, about 2.6% of total population. Except this kind of critical risk, coastal areas are under various changes such as reconstruction for high-rise residential areas after losing attraction as a tourism resource with the decreasing sandy area. Demographic and economic shrinkage is also predicted and observed in coastal area, where the impacts of sea level rise such as coastal lowland inundation has been shown. Impacts of Sea level rise on coastal village can be divided into two categories; which are natural environmental effects such as coastal lowland inundation, coastal erosion, change in tide and wave patterns and socioeconomic effects such as industrial infrastructure facilities inundation, fishery industry removal, and the threat to tourism. These two effects cause secondary effects; 1) Asset (real estate, buildings) Deflation which is resulted from negative impression as a tourism resource, 2) Total collapse of economy which is resulted from industry infrastructure removal. The secondary effects lead to declining population from the bad condition of job market, and finally result in the vulnerability to human habitat. To improve this negative situation, however, variety of precautions and responses are examined and implemented for realization of safe, open-refreshing, and eco-friendly coast to bring a natural symbiosis in coastal area; moreover water-friendly environment as healthy habitats and tourism resources for revitalization of neighborhood. Therefore, the paper tries to find an appropriate design strategy for revitalization of waterfriendly environment corresponding to the vulnerability of the sea level rise and preventing the negative impacts. For this, the paper concentrates on demographic/economic impacts on the coastal neighborhood caused by natural, environmental, and socioeconomic risk by searching out the relation how global change, especially climate change, affects the local people’s life and the natural/built/social environment and interrelations between them. The second part of the study analyses and categorizes the precaution and responses for this change into three groups: managed retreat, accommodation, protection. In this part, this study concentrates on the example of Pohang City which has been building a governance system with local people and POSCO, the local co-operation trying to solve the problem of Song-do beach. Song- do beach used to be one of the best beaches in Korea with beautiful sandy area and pine trees from 1970s. Pohang City has been working on the recovery project for Song-do beach where has been closed because of decreasing sandy area from sea level rise, typhoon and other reasons. Finally, this paper suggests that appropriate adaptation of design strategies for safe, natural-symbiosis, and user-friendly water front space should be developed with case studies dealing with the process of information and awareness, planning and design, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation in continuity and long-term period.
Mastandrea, Stefano, Giuseppe Carrus, Raffaele Cannovo, and Gabriella Bartoli. "Implicit and Explicit Evaluations of Natural and Built Environments and Connectedness with Nature." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Implicit affective evaluation is the individual capacity to automatically distinguish external stimuli into broad evaluative dichotomies (e.g., good-bad, positive-negative, pleasantunpleasant). Implicit cognition can reveal information that is not available to introspective access or that people might not want to express. While explicit preferences for environmental stimuli have been widely addressed in the field of people-environment studies, few research dealt with implicit environmental preference. Korpela, Klemettila and Hietanen (2002), using the affective priming paradigm, found that reaction times to joy positive and negative vocal stimuli were faster when subjects were primed with natural (high restorative) vs. urban (low restorative) photographic stimuli, respectively. Hietanen and Korpela (2004) found that facial expression of anger were recognized faster after the presentation of low restorative pictures, but did not find any facilitation for happy faces after positive environmental scenes. Schultz, Schriver, Tabanico and Khazian (2004), using a modified version of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) where participants had to associate words belonging to the categories of “self” and “other” to words linked to natural and built environment, showed the existence of an implicit connection with nature. The aim of the present research is to study both the implicit and explicit preference toward natural and built environment, using a standard version of IAT with environmental pictures stimuli. The hypothesis is to find stronger automatic associations between natural environment and positive affects (implicit preference) as well as explicit positive evaluations for natural vs. to built environments. The role of connectedness with nature (CN) is also investigated. A first study involved 21 undergraduate students, aged from 19 to 28 (M 24.6). The material was composed by 5 natural and 5 built environment pictures and 5 positive and 5 negative aesthetic words. Results of the IAT show that participants were faster in associating natural pictures with positive and built pictures with negative words (compatible task; M = 650 ms; SD = 109)) than in associating natural pictures with negative and built pictures with positive words (incompatible task; M = 908 ms; SD = 179), with a significant overall IAT effect of 258 ms (t (19), -6.707; p = .000). In the explicit task we measured preference for the pictures presented on the IAT task, on a 7- point scale. Natural pictures used in the IAT task were preferred to built ones (M = 5.9; SD = 0.9 and M = 3.4, SD 1.2, respectively). Also, participants preferred natural environments in general, compared to built ones (M = 6.4; SD = 0.9 and M = 3.8, SD = 1.2, respectively). A second study, currently in progress, deals with the implicit evaluation of different environmental stimuli varying for the level of restorativeness. Low restorativeness settings (urban built environment, such as buildings, houses, roads); medium restorativeness settings (urban green environments, such as urban parks plus urban artistic Baroque squares, such as Piazza Navona or Piazza di Spagna in Rome); high restorativeness settings (only natural scenes, such as forests, trees, water and hills). We expect reaction times to stimuli evaluation (using the IAT) to vary as a function of the restorativeness level: the association between “nature” and “positive” is reflected in shorter reaction times. At the explicit level, subjects’ connectedness with nature (CN) is also assessed. We expect CN to covary with implicit preference, and also to moderate the relation between restorativeness level and both implicit and explicit preference for nature, with subjects high on CN expressing stronger preference for nature. The theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed.
Troffa, Renato, and Ferdinando Fornara. "Implicit Identification and Preference Toward European and Mediterranean Landscapes." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Landscape can be considered as a crucial element for issues related to the individual and social well-being and identity. In particular, landscape “contributes to the formation of local cultures and that it is a basic component of the European natural and cultural heritage, contributing to human well-being and consolidation of the European identity” (Council of Europe, 2000). In fact, there is empirical evidence that landscape can affect people in different ways, by influencing their aesthetic appreciation, health and well being (Velarde, Fry, & Tveit, 2007). Landscape perception and assessment may also include identitarian implications, which are expressed by the Place Identity concept, i.e.. those aspects of personal identity that are connected with the places with which the individuals interact (Proshansky, 1983;Lalli, 1992). Literature in this domain has stressed how places, considered as a basis for the development of an identitarian bond, can differ regarding the level of territorial scale, i.e. from smaller (e.g., neighbourhood or urban identity) to broader (e.g., European identity). Thus it would be important to take into account different scale levels. Starting from these assumptions, the present study aims to investigate whether prototypical European and Mediterranean landscapes are recognized as sources of identity for residents of a country which is both European and Mediterranean (i.e., Italy). In particular, the implicit association between landscape and identity was detected. It was hypothesized that: H1) European landscapes receive a higher implicit identitarian answer than not-European ones; H2) Mediterranean landscapes receive a higher implicit identitarian answer than not-Mediterranean ones. // For comparison motives, implicit preferences for both European (vs. not-European) and Mediterranean (vs. not-Mediterranean) were also detected. A sample about one hundred Italian residents (living in the Regions of Latium and Sardinia), balanced for gender, participated to the study. Participants had to express trough the IAT (Implicit Association Test: Greenwald, McGhee & Schwartz, 1998) both their identification and their preference toward a set of picture representing prototypical landscapes covering 2x2 different categories: European vs Not-European and Mediterranean vs Not-Mediterranean. For each category, pictures were balanced for the built/natural dimension: half of them represented built places whilst the other half portrayed natural places (i.e., not including any kind of building). The two different IAT tasks (i.e., concerning respectively preference and identification) were randomized across participants. Results will be discussed in the light of the research
Priest, Sally. "Improving Flood Risk Maps as a Means to Foster Public Participation and Raising Flood Risk Awareness." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. The idea of public participation has gained prominence in risk management approaches relating to natural hazards (e.g. European Commission 2007) since it has been recognised that pure structural engineering approaches to hazards and short-term response strategies to calamities are not satisfactory. Therefore, attention is increasingly being given to long-term and non-structural mitigation strategies including a wide range of management measures aimed at involving the public (e.g. Holub & Hübl 2008). Also for an increasing stakeholder participation in flood risk presentation and mapping, there are many justifications and advantages. A stronger involvement of citizens into risk management efforts has a positive impact on both risk awareness and disaster preparedness; second, the local population may provide knowledge that is fruitful for risk prevention efforts; third, the involvement of the public legitimises processes and enhances the acceptance of prevention measures; and, finally, the coping and adaptive capacity of the different actors involved at the local level will be strengthened (cf. Kuhlicke et al. accepted). The RISK MAP project aims to consider the creation of risk maps as a dialogue process and create a participatory framework that allows the constructive and open engagement and integration of selected stakeholders (experts, decision-makers and well as representatives of the local population), their views, information requirements and local expertise in the risk mapping process. It aims to create improved flood risk maps both as a means to foster public participation and for raising flood risk awareness. For achieving this, RISK MAP will develop rules and a framework for appropriate stakeholder participation enabling the incorporation of local knowledge and preferences. Results will be presented from the first of two stakeholder workshops to be held in the Thames catchment with two groups of public stakeholders. The first group will adopt a substantive approach to participation where the aim of engagement is to harness local knowledge to improve the content and look of the flood risk maps produced. The second instrumental approach will include a group of ‘at risk’ residents who have little awareness of knowledge about their flood risk and participatory techniques will be developed to raise their flood risk awareness through undertaking a participatory process.
Payne, Sarah, and Catherine Guastavino. Improving the Composition and Terminology of Perceived Restorativeness (Soundscape) Scales In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Perceived Restorativeness Scales consist of items measuring the perception of four Attention Restoration Theory (ART) components considered important for creating a restorative environment and enabling a restorative experience. They are useful tools to assess individuals’ consideration of a place as potentially facilitating psychological restoration. In line with self reports, and attentional and physiological measures, Perceived Restorativeness Scales identify urban environments as potentially less restorative than natural environments. As urban populations grow and compact city designs can sometimes leave little space for pockets of ‘natural’ environments, the design and planning of the remaining green spaces and other urban spaces is crucial for psychological restoration. To evaluate the success of different designs, the ability to measure differences in the perceived restorativeness of places within the same environment type (e.g. urban) is necessary. For this, the exact meaning and interpretation of scale items becomes increasingly important. Unfortunately, the language often used in scales reflects the researcher’s interpretation and understanding of the relevant concepts, potentially creating items considered strange by the general layperson that is unfamiliar with the concepts being explored. This study therefore sought to examine laypeople’s comprehension of Perceived Restorativeness Scales, alongside its ability to be translated into a Perceived Restorativeness Soundscape Scale. Items from two Perceived Restorativeness Scales and a Perceived Restorativeness Soundscape Scale were collated. The grammatical structure of each sentence was examined, noting the adjectives or verbs used to describe each component (e.g. fascinating, discover), the presence of personal pronouns (e.g. I, me), the aspects or location under discussion (e.g. things, setting), and the manner in which the component was being evoked (e.g. as a process, as a feeling). Differences existed between the composition of the items depending on the ART component being assessed, as well as within and between items developed by different authors. The reasons for the absence or presence of certain grammatical structures for individual items for each ART component were unclear. Did certain sentence compositions only make sense when referring to a particular aspect of an ART component? Does one sentence composition apply when considering one ART component but not for another component? To begin answering such questions, a systematic procedure was implemented to create new items, to ensure all styles of each previously used sentence compositions were available. Furthermore, duplicate items were developed to create items relating to sounds and soundscapes that matched the items relating to elements and places in general. From this, items representing each of the different sentence compositions were chosen to form two sets of near identical scales, one containing general items (Perceived Restorativeness Scale) and one containing sound specific items (Perceived Restorativeness Soundscape Scale). English speaking laypeople in Montreal, Canada, will complete the scales and describe their interpretation and understanding of the items, followed by an interview probing their comprehension of individual words, sentence structures and the concepts in general. Results from the initial examination of the items grammar and the ensuing interviews will be reported. Comparisons between the comprehension of a general Perceived Restorativeness Scale and the more specific Perceived Restorativeness Soundscape Scale will also be examined.
Robinson, Hans-Christian Karlberg J.. "Increasing Density, Diversity and Delight: Stacked Housing in the Netherlands." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Achieving the Dutch government’s goals of creating more housing while minimizing the loss of open land has required increasing housing density, for which an important strategy is stacked housing. Although increased density is often associated with a reduction in living quality, much of the recent stacked housing in the Netherlands meets high standards of livability as well as being architecturally appealing. This is achieved by designs which (1) combine housing with other functions, where appropriate, (2) combine compatible but diverse living situations & housing types, (3) create a significant formal intervention at the urban scale and (4) employ clever architectural solutions that assure more than minimal access to light and air as well as visually attractive buildings. This paper will explore the history of stacked housing, showing how density, diversity and delight are achieved in some of the best contemporary Dutch designs. Buildings composed of stacked multi-purpose units allow for an intense use of a site and stand as markers of identity within the urban landscape. Especially in areas where row housing predominates, these structures are used variously to create urban walls, to serve as landmarks, and to define neighborhood entries. But also within a denser urban fabric, their punctuated facades enliven the experience of the street. The Dutch stacked housing is different from traditional apartment buildings in several ways. There is often both a variety of building uses and a variety of unit types and sizes in each building. Perhaps an extreme example, the Vrijburcht cooperative housing project, in the Steigereiland neigh- borhood of IJburg in Amsterdam (CASA Architects 2007), includes a café, a theater, a childcare center, live-work dwellings, row housing, maisonettes, apartments and a group home. This diversity of use, dwelling shape, and size characteristic of stacked housing generates an animated building exterior. Typically the units that comprise stacked buildings are not primarily organized along double-loaded corridors (interior corridors with units on both sides), but employ direct access to some units and exterior single loaded circulation to others, permitting units to have access to light and air from at least two sides. Often the linear blocks are shaped to form a courtyard overlooked by the external halls. The buildings are typically thinner than more traditional apartment buildings, and access areas are well lit and ventilated. Because of the Dutch commitment to units having usable exterior spaces, stacked housing usually includes good-sized gardens or balconies big enough for a table and chairs. The various types of housing units are usually not stacked in uniform patterns, but their arrangement is seen as a design opportunity for enlivening the building appearance with playful arrangements of windows, exterior corridors and balconies. La Grande Cour, in the Westerdok area of Amsterdam serves as an urban landmark with overhanging penthouses, and openings from street to courtyard. Its strong presence derives not only from its size and its position as a corner building visible from many angles, but also from lively massing and detailing. The building includes 2500 m2 of commercial space with 300 apartments that range from 60 to 150 square meters that consist of social housing (affordable and moderate income rental housing), high-income rental apartments, and owner-occupied penthouses, arranged to form three internal courtyards. Like many other stacked housing projects, the facades are formed by combining apartment and access floors and are punctuated by balconies and the block forms of the penthouses. While not unique to the Netherlands, stacked housing has been used strategically by the Dutch to achieve sustainable community design. This paper will present a number of examples and explore what makes a successful stacked housing project.
Woelki, Diana. Individual Adaptation to Climate Change In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Policy-making involves anticipating people’s behavioral responses to novel, not yet fully recognized challenges, such as a changing climate. Forecasting future behavior of individuals can best be attained based on their present behavioral performance. In the field of adaptation to climate change, conflicting goals will make this forecast to an even bigger challenge. As we presume an underlying relation between the status-quo of people’s conservation behavior and their willingness to adapt to changing environmental demands, ways of promoting a positive relationship will be tested. In a pilot study a tailored behaviour change intervention was tested in the context of an obligatory general studies program. On a weekly basis 100 students from various faculties attended conservation- related lectures by different experts. Before that their pro- environmental attitude was assessed based on a Rasch model. A shortened version of the General Ecological Behavior Scale (Kaiser, 1998) revealed a wide range of the students’ environmental attitude. Integrating the results from the first and second questionnaire, which was distributed after lectures’ midterm, half of the students received tailored behavioral conservation advices based on their individual attitude profile and norm group. The other half was provided with general conservation advices. After the series of lectures a final survey showed an increase of pro-environmental attitude for those who got tailored behavioral advices (p<0.5). In a first study 9.000 residents of four different municipalities in one of Germany’s federal states will be surveyed regarding their attitude towards conservation and climate adaptation and their subjective normative beliefs. In a second study 1.200 employees of different business sectors will be questioned on their specific job-related attitude towards climate adaptation and conservation. Based on these behavior records, we aim at developing various strategies suitable to help policymakers to promote proactive adaptation of individuals to climate change.
S. Ali, Harris. "Infectious Diseases as New Risks for Human Health." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Throughout history, significant changes in the relationships between human beings and the environment have served as the impetus for the emergence and redistribution of new diseases. The last quarter of century has been witness to an unprecedented number of such diseases, including for example: HIV, Ebola, West Nile, mad cow disease, hoof-and-mouth disease, antibiotic resistance strains of bacteria such as those involving tuberculosis and Clostridium difficile, SARS and more recently Influenza A/H1N1. The question therefore arises, could recent changes in the human-environment relationship explain this surge in new and emerging diseases? In this presentation I will address this question by discussing how the forces of economic and cultural globalization over the last few decades have changed the basis of the human-nature relationship by intensifying the interconnections between, technological, social ecological basis of contemporary existence in particular directions – that is, in directions conducive to the emergence and spread of new threats to human health. By examining the diffusion patterns and the accompanying local and international politics of SARS and Influenza A/H1N1, I will discuss how the relationship between globalization – as made manifest in the realms of commodity and food production, travel and mobility, and urbanization – and the spread of pathogens may be understood in terms of a complexity perspective. Accordingly, it is argued that the type of interactions between the biophysical and social that contribute to the emergence of contemporary disease outbreaks and pandemics may be understood in terms of a complex phenomena that may best be studied through the identification and analysis of mechanisms involving: punctuated equilibrium, non-linearity, emergence, feedback loops and tipping points. Notably, as will be discussed, the complexity perspective offers great analytical promise because it gives us a vantage point in which we can systematically and explicitly trace the various interconnected flows involved in an outbreak or pandemic situation (for example, people, pathogens, information, airplanes, commodities). In turn, the adoption of such a perspective will help reveal the hidden connections, unexpected interactions and nonlinear developments that contribute to exactly those socio-ecological situations informed by high levels of flux and constant mobility that characterize outbreaks and pandemics in this globalized era of intensified timespace compression. Viewing changes to the human-nature relationship and the concomitant development of pandemics through the lens of complexity will also enable the development and adoption of a more critical understanding of the local and global response to pandemics. In this light, the second part of this presentation will focus on how some of the governance policies and programs that define our globalized era – for example, globalized trade agreements, global public health initiatives, and interventions to combat international terrorism – influence pandemic response. In this connection, the responses to recent pandemics have raised many issues, including those related to: political sovereignty in post-Westphalian public health circumstances; the social control of mobility; the distribution of vaccines and the role of international pharmaceutical companies. I will discuss some of these issues with the goal of showing how a qualitative perspective informed by complexity theory helps to illuminate exactly how the interconnected flows that contribute to an outbreak, or disease emergence more generally, may be channelled or influenced in particular directions by social and political processes that work in conjunction with the biophysical dimensions of disease transmission. Included here will be a discussion of the increasing securitization of pandemics and public health threats under neoliberal regimes.
Gambim, Paula Silva, and Maria Cristina D. Lay. "Influence of Territorial Behavior and Group Image on Social Interaction Between Different Socioeconomic Groups." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. The intensive changes in the last century have affected the way people cope with their environment. There was a rising of ephemeral social contacts in this process of social life segmentation and increased heterogeneity. In spite of that, local sociability is still considered an important mechanism of social integration and of coping with diversity. Place identity and use of the neighborhood are understood as influencing on the social interaction in a community, nonetheless, evidence has not been provided so far to suggest which variables most affect social interaction between different socioeconomic groups living in the same urban environment. According to literature, aspects such as socioeconomic status and ethnic background help to explain use on urban places, and many authors (e.g. Rapoport, 1978) corroborate that perception of similarities can affect territorial behavior, influencing the social interaction in a place. Territorial behavior helps to organize social life in terms of who, what, how and where any activity can be done, also informing the levels of privacy and territorial control regulating a place. On one hand, it is related to the definition of physical and symbolic boundaries that promotes the emergence of social image, and place identity. On the other, those barriers defines the level of access into a place, allowing to identify who is or not part of the place, regulating the social contact. Concerning those mechanisms, this paper empirically addresses the effects of spatial attributes mainly relate to the territorial behavior. It discusses how those practices can be arranged when different socioeconomic groups are living in the same local neighborhood, especially in terms of how they can regulate the interaction between them and the establishment of a social image. The research consists on a comparative study of three central areas in the city of Porto Alegre, South of Brazil. In these areas, characterized by high and medium income population, low-income groups were introduced through social housing re-urbanization projects. Physical and compositional attributes related to the interactional process were investigated through the different levels of social interaction evaluated by residents’ attitudes and spatial behavior occurring in the local environment, regarding the type and intensity of simultaneous activities going on and/or the desire of separation between groups. Data collection consisted of physical survey, interviews, questionnaires, mental and behavioral maps, while data analysis was based on non-parametric statistic, GIS resources, syntactic analysis and graphic of visibility analysis. Results show that the possibility of identifying a common image, defined on the basis of territorial behavior, hence perception of homogeneity in the neighborhood, satisfaction with residential place and relationships between neighbors, contributing to promote social interaction between different socioeconomic groups. Furthermore, for one of the studied areas, it was confirmed that differences in territorial behavior increase the perception of diversity among residents and also the desire to avoid contact in neighborhood public spaces, which implies less potential for social interaction among the different groups. The findings enable better understanding of social interaction between different socioeconomic groups living in the same neighborhood. It is expected that it can stimulate discussion on the issues of diversity, identity and its effects on social interaction, in order to implement congruent urban policies.
Chiang, Yen-Cheng, and Sheng-Jung Ou. Influences of Natural Environment Information on Psychological Evaluation Responses: Using Photo Or People as Analysis Unit In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010.

With developing technology, various types of stimulus provide a widely of representations to the landscape aesthetic studies which usually elicited the color slide or photo as a stimulus. Additionally, the empirical result that indicated a strong relationship has been found between responses to color slides and responses to places in situ. Many studies have use color photo to be stimuli but they have different procedures, for example one of studies that asked the participants rated on only one variable after they watched photos. But, on the other study that emphasized people should rating all variables when they watched photo. Hence, we hypothesize these different procedures could affect study result, moreover, that related with discussions. To understand sequence of both procedures, so this study purpose was to compare two different procedures of study. Furthermore, it clarifies the results of inference on the research of landscape preference. There were sixty photos selected as stimuli of two studies. In Study 1, we separated sixty photos into ten sets, each set contains six photos. 200 participants were collected who watched a set of photos then rated on nine variables: environmental information (openness, naturalness, complexity, and mystery), perceptual level (visual and locomotive access), preference, danger, and fear. On the contrast, the sixty photos also were selected in study 2. 184 participants only rated on one variable after watched sixty photos. The results showed that there were significances among environmental information, perceptual level, preference, danger, and fear in both study. According to the results that obtained three considerations for future study, first, procedure design is a key factor during survey, it might influence whole result to success or not. Second, analysis unit, whether use photo or people as a sample that can affect total sample size and analysis techniques decision. Finally, the explanation of study should put the setting as subject if analysis unit is setting. Although the present of study is reconsideration for method design, however, it will provide recommendations for future study on landscape aesthetics.

Dombrowski, Franziska. "Influencing Mobility Behaviour by Soft Policies and Infrastructural Measures - the Example of Leipzig-Schleußig." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Schleußig is an attractive city district of Leipzig close to the city centre. By the rehabilitation and restoring of buildings from the end of the 19th century and by its situation next to one of the biggest urban parks the number of inhabitants steadily increased the recent years. Concomitantly, the number of cars in public space increased proportionally. However, due to those developments parking lots in the streets have become sparse, and by time, Schleußig’ inhabitants started to park their cars on the pavements. Though this situation being a potential danger for pedestrians, the public order office only condemned this parking behaviour, but did not punish it yet. Dissatisfaction of the inhabitants with the existing situation steadily grew and led to media- oriented protests. In addition to the more and more difficult parking situation, a main street was fully closed for 4 months due to the reconstruction of a bridge. This even deteriorated the difficult situation for the drivers, and the results were traffic jams and route deviations. A local citizens’ group initiated a round table together with different municipality offices and representatives of the Leipzig Technical College and the Helmholtz- Centre for Environmental Research with the goal to discuss solutions other than punishment. On the basis of the assumption that car use behaviour most often is performed habitually (see e.g. Aarts, 1996, Klöckner et al., 2003) and that changes in personal or structural context represent windows of opportunity for behaviour change (see e.g. Fujii/Gärling, 2003), we chose an experimental soft-policies approach in order to tackle this problem. Soft policies, though often being considered as ineffective (see e.g. Tertoolen et al., 1999), seem to have a good chance to be recognised by the receivers when habit strength is low and processes of information search about alternatives are activated (Harms et al., 2007). Additionally, if successful, soft policies are cheap and well-accepted policy measures which rely on voluntary behaviour change. They are thus often favoured above restrictive policy measures by communities. We conduced a questionnaire study (pre- and post survey) each with 4000 standardized questionnaires. Between pre- and post-survey road construction took place. Half of the households were subjected to an experimentally controlled information campaign about alternative means of transport (bike, public transport, car sharing), delivery services and alternative parking areas in a bordering district.. Households were asked about their mobility and parking behaviour, willingness to use alternative modes, perception of information campaign and road works, car-use habit strength, attitudes and behavioural intentions. Our guiding research questions were: 1) Do changes in the external mobility conditions lead to changes in car use habit strength as well as to behaviour change? 2) As a prerequisite for further behaviour, does the information campaign increase the knowledge about alternative transport modes? 3) Has the information campaign a significant additional impact on car use habit strength, and can it also encourage an altered parking behaviour and the use of alternative modes? The response rate of the questionnaire was N=1082 (27%, pre-survey) and N=487 (12%, post-survey). Car-use habit strength was slightly, but statistically insignificantly changed by the change in the external situation. Knowledge about alternative parking areas and alternative modes was enhanced, but it did not lead to an altered attitude towards the different modes, or to an altered (self-reported) behaviour. The implications of those results as well as preferable modifications of the chosen experimental design will be discussed in the presentation.
Kamel, Maha, and Sahar Soliman Abdalla. "Informal Settlements in Egypt, Causes and Solutions." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Cooperation at regional and international levels have been initiated to assess and monitor regional and trans- boundary risks, However, the exchange of information and provide early warnings through appropriate arrangements is to be developed. This would imply, having standard and accessible information and data on regional disaster risks, impacts and losses. Informal settlements are characterized by a dense expansion of small, more or less provisional shelters built from diverse materials. The urgent need for this kind of shelter for the poor gains the upper hand in countries where planning and housing systems - in that respect - are not functioning properly. Most cities in developing countries have only been able to absorb urban growth through the expansion of informal settlements. The vulnerability of housing and local services and the lack of provision of the infrastructure necessary to reduce hazard configure urban disaster risk. Poverty limits the capacity of many households in such cities to gain access to well-sited land and safe housing. However, the translation of poverty into risk is conditioned by the capacity of urban and local governments to plan and regulate urban development, enable access to safe land and provide hazard mitigating infrastructure and protection for poor households In Egypt, ongoing efforts started to build the first comprehensive database on areas at risk (hazards maps). Standardized risk assessment methodologies for some sectors are being adapted and endorsed by the government and applied by local government as an integral part of the development planning process. Egypt’s informal settlements (called ashwaia’t or “random” zones in Arabic) are ubiquitous in both urban and rural areas. They are illegal, or extralegal, in that they breach one or more laws regulating planning, subdivision, construction, registration of property, or preservation of agriculture lands. In Egypt, there is about twenty million people live today in houses that are detrimental to their health and safety. Yet as Egyptian urban centers continue to expand, these problems become daily more urgent. In Egypt housing is essentially an urban problem, one closely linked with development processes, socioeconomic change, and political milieu. Its main features are overcrowding, a shortage of affordable housing for those most in need, the continued emergence of informal housing areas, and a general deterioration of the built environment. Informal housing development is not a new phenomenon in Egypt. In fact, it is as old as modern urbanization and development, which have existed in the country for more than five decades. Indeed, Egyptian cities, particularly Cairo and Alexandria, have played a decisive role in the country’s socioeconomic development. The key to this role has been the complementary development of technology and sprawl growth. In Egypt, the twin phenomena of urbanization and sprawl, formally or informally, have been virtually inseparable, and have directly affected housing delivery systems. Paper objective: This study aims to show the mechanisms behind the complexity of some informal housing in Egyptian cities. The reasons of its growth, its conditions and the dangers caused by its continuous existence. The paper also is showing some governmental and NGO’s efforts in the field of solving the problems of the informal settlements with a trial of proposing some solutions to cope with this problem to help people who live in these settlement to have safer and healthier life.
Haase, Dagmar, Sebastian Scheuer, and Volker Meyer. "Integrated Assessment of Urban Flood Risk, Coping Capacity and Vulnerability." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Flood risk assessment is an essential part of flood risk management. As part of the new EU flood directive it is becoming increasingly more popular in European flood policy. Particularly cities with a high concentration of people and goods are vulnerable to floods. Because of the actuality of the topic and its inherent complexity the content of the paper is twofold: The first part of the paper introduces the adaptation of a novel method of multicriteria flood risk assessment that was recently developed for the more rural Mulde river basin, to a city. As study site serves Leipzig, Germany. The ‘urban’ approach includes a specific urban-type set of economic, social and ecological flood risk criteria, which focus on urban issues: population and vulnerable groups, differentiated residential land use classes, areas with social and health care but also ecological indicators such as recreational urban green spaces. These criteria are integrated using a ‘multicriteria decision rule’ based on an additive weighting procedure which is implemented into the software tool FloodCalc urban. Based on different weighting sets we provide evidence of where the most floodprone areas are located in a city. Furthermore, we can show that with an increasing inundation level it is both the social and the economic risk that strongly increase. In the second part of the paper, we present an approach of modelling multicriteria urban flood vulnerability. We start from the multicriteria risk mapping presented in the first part of the paper. But now, the term risk is used here in a way what can be called a starting point to look at vulnerability without considering coping capacities. We extend this approach by a multicriteria modelling of coping capacities towards an end point view of vulnerability. In doing so, we explore a way to spatially explicit differentiate coping capacity from flood risk in each of the dimensions of vulnerability. Our results show that it is possible to map multicriteria risks as well as coping capacities and relate them to each other in a simple way. However, a detailed calculation of end point vulnerability would require more detailed knowlegede on the causal relationships between risk and coping capacity criteria and their relative importance. We further suggest not separating risk from vulnerability since they share a range of common elements. Our starting-end point view approach helps to integrate the different dimensions of risk and coping capacity.
Birkmann, Jörn, and Matthias Garschagen. "Integrative and Dynamic Vulnerability Assessment as a Basis for Adaptive Urban Governance." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. The presentation outlines the importance of a vulnerability assessment and vulnerability profiling for adaptive urban governance. The current discourse regarding adaptation to climate change focuses primarily on rural areas. In contrast, our presentation argues for an increased attention towards urban vulnerability and urban adaptation in both the scientific and political discourse. Key differences between urban risk profiles and climate change adaptation challenges on the one hand and rural risk profiles and adaptation needs will be outlined. Furthermore, respective risk assessments and adaptation strategies to extreme events will be presented for selected cities. Most of these risk assessments overlay future hazard scenarios with current socio-economic data. In this context, they often put much emphasise on the analysis of exposure of people and areas to different natural hazards. Less attention is, however, given to the assessment of susceptibility, coping and adaptation factors of those elements and population groups exposed. In some cases reviewed, coping and adaptation is understood synonymously. In opposite we argue that coping is different from adaptation in the context of extreme events and natural hazards and, hence, implies different foci for research and policy making. While coping is often event related and encompasses action that are rather spontaneous, adaptation implies primarily planned action that also includes longer-time horizons and does not necessarily focus on specific hazard impacts. Based on the discussion of these conceptual issues, the presentation will underline the necessity for a multi-dimensional vulnerability assessment that encompasses key factors of vulnerability, namely a) the degree of exposure, b) susceptibility and c) coping capacities as well as d) adaptive capacities. Deriving from these identified challenges and recommendations, the presentation explores methodological opportunities of a more dynamic vulnerability assessment in terms of future scenarios of vulnerability. Related aspects and projected trends, such as urbanization, increasing socio-economic disparities and demographic developments, are illustrated along the case study of Vietnam and Can Tho City in particular. Concluding from the lessons learned in the review of existing urban adaptation strategies and respective risk and vulnerability assessments as well as from the case study of Can Tho we call for a paradigm shift in urban adaptation strategies. While most of the current urban adaptation strategies focuses on the adjustment of the physical and the built environment we argue that more attention has to be given to the adaptation of planning procedures and tools. In this regard we formulate components of a more integrative adaptive urban governance approach that particularly considers four key challenges: 1) different scales, 2) different norms, 3) different knowledge types and sources as well as 4) different aspects of access to information and power over resources. While the scale challenge deals with the integration of different temporal and spatial scales in vulner- ability assessment and respective adaptation strategies in urban areas, norm challenges refer to different norm-systems that often cause conflicts particularly between formal and informal urbanization processes and respective risk reduction and climate change adaptation strategies. Knowledge challenges deal with the need for a better integration and mediation of different knowledge sources and types, in particular between expert and local knowledge. Lastly, aspects of adaptation funding and access to resources play a major role when dealing with adaptive urban governance. In this context recommendations are given in order to better address these challenges within integrative urban adaptation programmes and through adaptive urban governance.
Martens, Dörte. "Intercultural Gardens: a Restorative Environment for Urban Habitants? a Longitudinal Explorative Case Study in Zurich." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Aims: People living in cities show a high need for restoration. Natural environments can serve everyday restoration, thus supporting people to stay healthy in their everyday pressures. Research has shown the essentially positive effect of natural environments on ecological, aesthetical and psychological aspects. Intercultural gardens are community gardens, which aim to integrate people with different cultural background. Intercultural gardens have been a success in Germany since the 1990s. One of the first projects of this kind in Switzerland has been started in Zurich in 2009. A piece of waste land, which will be covered with buildings in near future, has been chosen to create 20 garden pieces for a time span of two years. This project was evaluated concerning the following questions: - How do participants perceive ecological, social and integrative dimensions of the project? - Does the garden provide a restorative area? - What are the needs and the ideas about future garden projects? // Methods: The innovative character including a small number of participants requires an explorative research design, which was carried out longitudinal in a time span of three months. Participants of the intercultural garden were consulted in a pre-post design, a follow-up is planned. In a first questionnaire, motivation and perceived restorativeness were focused. In the second questionnaire participants were asked for perceived restorativeness again and social and intercultural interactions. Restorative aspects were assessed by the Perceived Restorativeness Scale, other items were generated by questions to be rated on 1-5 point scales. Between the measuring times, participants cultivated their gardens. With a return rate of 17 questionnaires, data were analyzed descriptively and statistically. Results: Results show a strong overall endorsement by the participants. The project and its organization are assessed very positively. Positive aspects reported on were especially the activation by gardening, being in natural environment and harvesting own produce. Social and cultural aspects show smaller values. Cultural aspects have stronger relevance for non-German speaking participants than for German speaking participants. Concerning well-being and the perceived restorativeness, which were measured before and after the treatment of gardening, there was a tendency to increase after three month. Conclusions: The study contributes to capturing and understanding the potential of intercultural gardens in cities. Due to an increasing density in European cities and globalizing processes with multicultural societies, intercultural gardens in urban areas can serve the aims of integration and restoration. By activating people and supporting their individual need for restoration, urban gardens might provide an important opportunity to support public health at relatively low costs. Confirmatory research with large sample sizes is indicated for the future. However, if the cultural aspect shall be focused, cooperation with experts in migration processes, e.g. delegates from the city council, are recommended. Furthermore, the results contribute towards conceptualizing further research in the field of restoration psychology in practical orientated projects, combining restorative and integrative aspects.
Lorance, Emily, and Dagmar Haase. "Interim Sustainability at Residential and Commercial Brownfields – a Strategy for Shrinking Cities?" In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Urban shrinkage affects many cities across the world, especially old industrial areas of the developed world. One of the most dramatic areas of population decline has been in eastern Germany, which lost between 10-20% of its population within 10 years after the fall of the Berlin Wall. In 1999, the City of Leipzig, in eastern Germany, started a program to revitalize its declining neighborhoods. Taking over the development of private brownfields and waiving property taxes in return for the public use of and the promise of regular maintenance of property in a program called interim use, the city has vastly increased the amount of public greenspace in these neighborhoods. Despite regional acclaim and imitation, the strategy has thus far lacked a comprehensive evaluation, and the question remains: how successful has the interim use strategy in Leipzig been? This study seeks to answer that question in the context of the city’s sustainability goals and of public use and perception of the sites. In so doing, we provide insights for planners into the efficacy of this planning tool for neighborhood revitalization, with a particular focus on social and environmental issues. For our study, we carry out a sustainability assessment of the interim use sites using an original evaluation method combining indicator- integrated surveys with questionnaires and expert interviews. In this way, survey scores measuring social and environmental impacts of different brownfield treatments could be examined against one another and also linked to resident perceptions of the sites gauged from questionnaires. The expert interviews provided the context through which the indicator scores and questionnaire results were viewed and helped shape recommendations for strategy implementation. This multi-modal approach offers an innovative alternative to planning policy evaluation which uniquely expresses normative goals and resident viewpoints. The results of the study indicate that the interim use strategy has been successful in a number of areas. Interim use sites scored higher overall on socio-environmental indicators than their closest counterparts, recently demolished brownfields, especially on social criteria. They also have a much greater usage rate. Furthermore, an overwhelming majority of respondents stated that conditions at the site have improved since the program’s start. However, most people using the sites do not recognize the sites as being a result of city intervention, and many complain about the lack of site maintenance and benches. We conclude that public acceptance and support for interim use might be strengthened with more seating, stronger punitive measures for property owners who neglect site conditions, and increased communication about the strategy and its potential as an urban planning tool. In addition, the socioenvironmental value of interim use sites in Leipzig, in concurrence with the city’s sustainability goals, can be strengthened by: (1) the enhancements of structural diversity and diversity of site types (i.e. more wooded sites), (2) a stronger focus on site development and design near special populations, (3) a minimum standard of maintenance and usability (i.e. seating, cleared paths), and (4) increased site information.
Alcântara, Edinéa. "Interventions in the Hills of Recife Metropolitan Region (Rmr, Brazil): Between Necessity and Quality." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. The purpose of this article is to assess the quality of interventions in hill-side slums in the Recife Metropolitan Region, in Brazil, and the extent to which the beneficiary population is satisfied with this work. The relevance of the article lies in its contribution to our understanding of the problems arising from the settlement of hillsides and in stimulating reflection on the part of technicians and government decision-makers involved in implementing public works. The article also proposes alternatives to the current pattern of intervention relating to qualitative and aesthetic aspects that are of interest to the beneficiary population. A survey was carried out involving 62 public works in 13 localities and 91 local inhabitants were interviewed. The public works studied address the needs of the local inhabitants according to a technical logic which pays little regard either to their immediate environmental conditions or their socio-cultural traditions. Such works concentrate on topological factors and are limited to high-risk areas, thereby tending to disregard qualitative and aesthetic aspects and failing to take into consideration the general satisfaction of the local people. In many cases, serious functional problems arise, resulting in various kinds of accident. Poor maintenance, often carried out by the residents themselves, provides further evidence of weaknesses in terms of conservation and sustainability. The participation of local residents is normally restricted to identifying and reporting dangerous conditions, or working as labourers to reduce the cost of the project. Their opinions and prior experience tend not to be incorporated in the technical solution that is eventually implemented. The article shows that the level of dissatisfaction with the end-product varies from 40 to 47%, but, at the same time, indicates that there are some positive popular and governmental initiatives that are worth replicating.
Rae, Lynn. Investigating the Influences of New School Environments In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. The Scottish Government have invested in excess of £2 billion into a school building programme, which aims to provide Scotland with 50 new build schools and 200 extensively refurbished schools (The Scottish Government, 2009). From an environmental psychology perspective, this presents an ideal opportunity to carry out research on the role of the school environment in the educational process. It is widely recognised that the physical environment plays a significant role in education. Education is more than academic ability; it is also about students’ behaviour, self-esteem, integration, motivation, initiation, confidence and social skills. Many factors have been shown to have an impact on the education process, including the school’s location, density, heating, light, ventilation, use of colour, condition and maintenance of the building. Another influential area is the spatial design and layout of the school building. In addition to academic teaching practice, Dudek (2000) claims architects should design school buildings to accommodate and facilitate meaningful social interactions. Students interact with each other both inside and outside of the classroom. When not in class, they interact socially with each other. It is widely recognised that, as well as pedagogy, children learn through their social interactions. The spatial layout of the school building can both promote and limit these interactions. If spatial cues are clear, students are able to gain a better understanding of their social and physical environment (Pasalar, 2007). The main places where students interact socially with each other, before and after set lessons, are playgrounds, foyers, outside classrooms, corridors, eating areas, libraries, common rooms and cloakrooms. As there are many different architectural designs for schools buildings (Gifford, 2007), there will be places where students socially interact with each other that are unique to a particular school. There has been much research carried out into the use of space within learning environments. While such investigations have studied many diverse spatial issues, their focus has been mainly within areas where pedagogical teaching takes place. There has been very little research carried out into the use of space in school environments beyond these settings. As such, this research aims to investigate how students perceive and utilise the social space within their new school environment, both internally and externally. In addition, the study will explore the relationship between the design of social spaces within schools and important outcome variables such as students’ behaviour, attendance, selfesteem and motivation. The participants for this research will be students at secondary schools in Scotland, age 11 – 18. It is anticipated that this research will be a mixed design, using both qualitative and quantitative measures. As the PhD studentship began only two months ago, this research project is at the very early stages of a literature review and research design.
Andrews, Clinton, and Richard Wener. "Issues and Methods in Post Occupancy Evaluations of Green Buildings." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. This working group will focus attention on the special issue of conducting Post Occupancy Evaluations (POEs) in green buildings. There is an intense interest in designing low or zero impact buildings and significant attention from policy makers on how to encourage such design. Given the effort and funding going into such efforts, it is critical that feedback mechanisms for learning from experience with these structures be established. The POE provides such a mechanism. In many ways a POE of a green building is no different from similar studies in many other kinds of settings since all structures lie on a dimension of “greenness” depending on the level of efficiency of HVAC systems, kind and quality of insulation, use of active and passive solar systems, etc. The difference between a building that achieves an official rating as green and one that does not may be one of degree. However, there are some issues that require a special focus for POEs of green buildings, such as the level of energy efficiency, differential between level of energy produced by renewable resources versus those consumed, level of recycling and production of solid waste, indoor air quality, importance of perceived “greenness” and importance of environmental issues to occupants, measured and perceived health, behaviors required to maintain sustainability, etc. This working group will be designed to maximize audience discussion. The panel members will briefly discuss their background and note issues based on their own experience with building evaluation. The moderator will pose questions designed to elicit discussion from the panel and audience about issues and methods for focused green building POEs.
Munakata, Jun. Judging the Balance of Subjective Impression Between the Volume of the Building and Open Space Around It In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. After the collapse of “bubble economy” in Japan at the end of 20th century, population of the downtown area of large city is increasing again because of the decrease of the cost residence. Density of downtown area is also again increasing with newly built super high rise apartment buildings with the height of over 100m in the sites which were released by private companies. Deregulation of several architectural laws encourages this trend of increasing density of downtown area. Among them, a law named comprehensive design system was made in 1970. This law allows the new building plan with extra volume of building in exchange for larger open space around it, provided that there is enough consideration in the aspect of traffic, security, prevention of disaster and hygiene. Strangely enough there is no requirement of consideration of psychological aspect such as visual impact toward surrounding area. In Tokyo, over 600 cases have been applied with this law in the last 33 years. Recently most of the case is applied on residential buildings, and the number of applied case is supposed to be increasing. It can be said that the extra open space around new building might provide the local environment with good effect such as larger quantity of greenery and “public” space where people can walk freely, however, the taller height resulted by the extra volume and larger open space around the building also might cause negative impact such as larger area that receive the shade made by the building, excessive change of townscape and too much oppression toward the surrounding area. Several cases of lawsuit have been also raised against new development of residential building in a residential area where residents of the surrounding area feel the building too huge and deteriorating the environment. Here our questions rise: dose the extra space of open area counterbalances the extra visual impact of taller volume of the building? Are there different subjectively better proportion between the size of open space and the height of the building? In order to study this question, an experiment was executed. Several pictures of computer graphics were made with different configuration of the area of site, the ratio of open space toward the total area of the site and the height of the building. The area of the site was decided considering existing applied cases of the system. The variation of the ratio of open space and the height were chosen with the upper limit which the comprehensive design system allows. Subjects judged the impression of those pictures shown on a rear-projected angled screen that offer the same angle and impression of the building as that of the on-site observation. The impression of the picture was rated with several scales such as the oppression of the volume, satisfaction of the area of open space total satisfaction of the environment. The results show the influence of oppression and satisfaction of the area of open space on the comprehensive satisfaction of the environment. The adequate balance between open space and building height were also indicated in the aspect of visual impression.
Bauer, Annette, and Dagmar Haase. "Land Use Scenarios for an Urban Region." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. The aim of the presentation is to discuss strengths and weaknesses of a land-use scenario game conducted with planning practitioners from the Leipzig-Halle urban region. Within the European research project PLUREL, such scenario games are carried out to understand and assess demographically and economically induced land-use change. Objectives of the Leipzig-Halle game were to invite discussions on drivers and implications of land-use developments, to support practitioners in dealing with uncertain futures and to contribute to the research-practice exchange within PLUREL. Scientists and practitioners visualised possible development paths of the Leipzig-Halle region. This included scenarios of growth and shrinkage. The following scenario assumptions were made for three games: “uncontrolled growth”, “managed growth” and “managed shrinkage”. These assumptions were based on different combinations of general factors driving land-use change: population, economy and spatial planning. Focal points of the game were patterns as well as social, economic and environmental implications of land use. The scenario game placed participants in a virtual future and it was carried out in three, consecutive stages: Firstly, participants developed a spatial scenario, using a short story set in the year 2025 as an input. Participants had a blank map, a number of land use tokens according to the scenario as well as pens and glue to map out and sketch their vision of land use development. Then, focus groups were conducted for each scenario regarding drivers of land-use change and land-use conflicts. Finally, resultant scenarios were critically assessed. The scenario game method enabled the participants to discuss and visualize their ideas. This allowed for a deliberation about regional development options. Through its set-up, the scenario game simulated “real world” spatial planning, where spatial development is usually based on the interaction of different stakeholders. The method’s strength lay in the fact that it gave insights into perceptions of researchers and local and regional stakeholders regarding future land use. However, results are biased, as it is unlikely that participants represent all possible actors involved in real world planning processes.
Yoon, Seokjun, and Heykyung Park. Landmarks for Place Indication in Subway Stations of Seoul and Hong Kong In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Currently, subway is expanding continuously and becoming a major transportation in large cities, and its environmental affordance is also becoming more important. As the Subway is popularly used by foreign visitors as well as residents, environmental information for place indication is often more useful than verbal signage. Landmarks are perhaps the most critical cues and specific memorable objects for place indication in an environment. Landmarks are distinctive features usually visible from a distance, and they allowed the traveler to categorize and identify places.(Dan Soen, 1979; K. Lynch, 1981) Landmark elements such as graphic, artwork, color or lighting locating inside the subway stations are expected to act as visual information representing place identity and also improve visual quality in order that visitors can recognize and memorize the present places easily. The purpose of this study is to compare the characteristics of applying landmarks that function as visual cues in the subway stations of Seoul and Hong Kong in terms of the relationship with the place, types of landmark and the located areas. In Seoul, 9 subway lines have been constructed since 1974, and total 368 stations including 53 transfer stations are presently operated and appeared to be used by 2,000,000,000 people in a year. In Hong Kong, 11 subway lines have been constructed since 1974, and total 86 stations including 22 transfer stations are presently operated and appeared to be used by 1,400,000,000 people in a year. (Seoul Metro and Hong Kong Annual Report, 2008) At first, desired conditions of landmarks for the functions such as place indication, and aesthetic aspects were considered through literature reviews. The field study has been carried out from January, 2008 to August, 2009 by visiting 30 subway transfer stations in Seoul and Hong Kong, through observation and documentation. And, the collected data are analyzed in terms of the relationship with the place, types of landmarks and the located areas. In terms of the relationship with the place, contents of landmarks in Seoul are shown to be mostly associated with the names of the stations where they are located, compared that those in Hong Kong. However the efforts to express their identity by adapting colors to the whole surface of each station are outstanding in stations of Hong Kong. In case of types of landmark, graphic type appeared dominant in Seoul, while on the other side color type appeared dominant in Hong Kong. The types of 2D shape and 2D pattern were used in Seoul more than in Hong Kong, and the type of 3D shape was hardly used in both cities. In case of located area, the frequency appeared in the order of walls, columns, floors and ceilings in Seoul. In Hong Kong, the landmarks were applied mainly on wall and column. The results of this research can be used as design guidelines, after further experimental verification that will help to improve place indication in public environment design associated with transportation.
Kabisch, Sigrun, and Katrin Großmann. Large Housing Estates: Challenges and Chances in the Mirror of Demographic Change (The Case of Leipzig-Grünau from 1979 to 2009 in a Sociological Longitudinal Study) In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Large housing estates form a big part of the housing stock of our cities and belong to the built characteristics of urban landscapes. In recently published reports large housing estates erected by pre-fab housing construction are considered as housing areas where social problems determine the every day life. But there is a lack of empirical evidence for this general assertion. To have a closer look into the living conditions in such a large housing estate, a sociological research project was started to observe and evaluate the living conditions out of the perspective of the inhabitants. The case of Leipzig-Grünau, an estate which was erected between 1975 and 1989 is in the focus of the study. The unique value of this project is its long-term approach. It started in 1979. Meanwhile, in summer 2009, the 9th survey took place. In consequence now already 30 years of development can be described and compared. As far as the social composition of the approx. 44.500 inhabitants is concerned, the estate today is still socially mixed but with an ageing population. One of the surprising results is that the housing satisfaction was at an all-time high in 2009. After years of upgrading investments and demolition of empty buildings, the fact there is a high place attachment today relates mainly to the diverse service offers, the good public transport connections and the greenery in and around the area. To ensure the relatively high housing quality in this estate, it is necessary to adapt the housing and living conditions to the needs of an ageing population. This is a real challenge because during the last decades the population changed significantly from a “young family with children image” to a “pensioner image”. The ageing process is the decisive impact factor of demographic change in the large housing estate. The research results indicate a strong willingness of the older people to stay in their own apartment within the estate. But, the technical conditions of and within the apartments and the buildings don’t meet the needs of the inhabitants. Barriers, steps and stairs, narrow bathrooms without shower and a lack of space for using a walker or a wheelchair are characteristics which impair the housing satisfaction. Furthermore, the housing surroundings are not appropriate: The walking quality of the footways is poor, and there is a need for more meeting places for older people. As far as the 2009 survey is concerned, most impressive is the strong wish to live in an environment which is characterised by a mix of generations – of young and old people. The overwhelming majority of respondents do not which to live separate from other groups. They are convinced that in the large housing estate Leipzig-Grünau there are very good living and housing conditions for all age groups including young families with children. It is important to better communicate the advantages of the estate in a proper manner to attract diverse residents.
Inalhan, Goksenin, Cemile Tiftik, and Elmira Gur. "Learning by Doing: Studio-Based Learning in Inclusive Design Lessons." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. In many of the architectural school’s built environment courses on inclusive /universal design is addressed as a ‘content issue’ which is achieved simply by identifying the content that needs to be taught and adding it in or on. However architectural students see these efforts as yet another course to take and pass. They do not internalize the information given in those courses. Moreover they cannot transfer the knowledge learned from those courses to architectural project works. Yet again design for all principle of inclusive design cannot be achieved. While much of architectural education is centered around a series of projects conducted in the design studio. Studio-based learning, ‘learning by doing’, using real-world briefs and deadlines, can be seen as an enjoyable and effective way of learning critical design skills as well as design issues such as “design for all”. The centrality of the design project within the curriculum enables students to gain a holistic understanding of their subject by allowing them to draw and synthesize knowledge from a variety of sources and to develop clear links and connections between aspects of knowledge taken from across different disciplines. Inclusive design lessons incorporated to studio based learning can not only affect the content of a built environment course but also, and more significantly, the pedagogical context. Architectural education’s project based ‘learning by doing’ approach can be used as a model to achieve this. This paper reports on experience with teaching architectural students at Istanbul Technical University, Architectural Department about inclusive design issues by studio-based learning. It includes assessment of environmental and social aspects of development proposals. Students are given a brief, programme, or set of requirements (of groups such as: children, elderly, people with various disability, fragile-vulnerable people), from which they are expected to develop a set of proposals that address those requirements. They are given fourteen weeks to study and design. By this approach it is expected to enable students active learning through engagement with special groups in the population. As a conclusion what students learn from this experience will be evidenced by a feedback survey. “Learning by doing” strategies can be identified for ensuring that the concept of inclusive design reaches not just a wider user population- but an influential one that will effect and maintain the adoption of inclusive design across built environment education.
Strano, Emanuele, Paola Pasino, Sergio Porta, and Ombretta Romice. "Learning from Glasgow. Geo-Statistics for Urban Management Problems." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. The planning of resources and management in cities is a multilayered task requiring a complex interpretative basis and the capacity to predict economic, social, environmental changes over time. This paper presents an approach to urban analysis based on complex systems and geostatistic to address complex urban management problems by the Urban Design Studies Unit (University of Strathclyde, Glasgow). Glasgow is the largest city in Scotland currently experiencing a slow period of population and economic growth (the latter as consequence of the recent global economic downturn); even a generally very buoyant property market and construction sectors now lack both the will and capacity to undertake long term commitments. Still, there is a great need for substantial regeneration and rationalisation of resources to address disparities in choice and lifestyles, affordability and access to a better quality of life. Aims of this work are to study the spatial distribution of retails across the city in relation to access, density and availability of services, using a set of GIS based geo-statistical analysis. This analysis uses street centrality indices, the spatial distribution of retails and an in-depth field study. The analysis of urban centralities is based on MCA model (Multiple Centrality Assessment) that utilizes a standard primal format for the street network representation and a “complex system approach” to define centrality by a set of multiple peer indices (Porta et al,2006b). These centralities are computed not only in terms of being close to all others (Closeness Centrality), as in many traditional model, but also in terms of being the intermediary between others (Betweeness Centrality) and being accessible via a straight route to all others indices are (Straightness Centrality). (Porta et al, 2006, Wasserman S, 1994) The distribution of activities is done by a common spatial interpolation GIS tool, that is Kernel Density. Basically, the KDE uses the density within a range (window) of each observation to represent the value at the centre of the window. Within the window, the KDE weighs nearby objects more than distant objects, on the basis of a kernel Function. The in-depth study on hierarchical nodes is based on studies that have shown how Glasgow has an urban pattern whereby main routes and public transport nodes broadly overlap with urban densities, although significant areas remain disconnected by such channels. The implication of these distributions for future densification and resources rationalisation are fundamental. These three variables (centrality, retail activities density and spatial distribution) are then interpolated through a raster analysis approach. As a result, a linear correlation between them indicates the location of areas with long term economic potential, and of those with little economic strength when related to street centrality and mixed land use. The analysis of results shows the limits and potential of this geo-statistical approach in relation to urban strategic planning.
Harms, Sylvia. "Learning to Behave Differently in Times of Climate Change." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Mobility behaviour, dominated by the use of privately owned internal combustion engine cars, is one of the central consumer behaviours impacting on global climate change. For some time, the belief in mere technical problem solutions has diminished, and the importance of changes in consumer behavior has been emphasized more and more often. Since, however mobility behavior is (i) deeply rooted in habits and thus typically not very often consciously reflected, and (ii) narrowly connected to lifestyle choices (meaning that behavior changes are often considered as a high-cost alternative), many attempts to evoke voluntary behavior change have failed so far. Additionally, people often overestimate time and effort of using transport modes other than the own car and underestimate time and effort for car use. Only when actually trying out alternatives they get aware of their misconceptions and slowly correct them. Thus, one account to stimulate behavior change could be to have a representative population sample try out alternative behaviors and report the newly made experiences to a broader community in order to generate dissemination. In a research project within a Leipzig city district we looked for 10 households who agreed to change their mobility behavior for a test phase of four weeks. Since the district had to cope with parking problems, the challenge was to park the own car outside of this district, in mean two kilometers away from the own house. In order to find participants and stimulate behavior change, the local mobility providers (public transport, bike, car sharing) offered a parking place for free in a covered car park and incentives to use alternatives (free public transport ticket for one month, free bike inspection, free car sharing membership and a voucher to make a medium-range trip free of charge). Participants were still allowed to use their own car, but parking in front of one’s own house was excluded. Before the experiment, expectations and participation motivations were captured. Twice a week, participants kept record of their mobility behavior in a standardized mobility diary format, and at the end of the test phase, they reported their experiences in semi-standardized group discussions. Overall experiences were positive in almost all cases. Some daily activities had to be re-organized, but participants in general did not consider this reorganization a behavioral constraint. Many activities proved to be much easier to perform with alternative transport modes than expected before. However, after the project phase, all households changed their behavior back to the old state because they saw that 10 households alone could not change the whole parking situation within the district. They expected the local authorities to set restrictions on car parking within the district in order to force behavior change on a broader basis. This experiment, though not explicitly having been run in the context of global climate change, offers many learning possibilities which also apply to climate change mitigation strategies. In the discussion of the experiment, we will focus on the interplay between individual behavior rationales and the importance of political frameworks for consumer behavior, especially with respect to the avoidance of social dilemma situations in which individual motivation to change does not lead to actual change because people mistrust others’ motivation to comply with their own behavior. We will also critically review the embedding of our experiment within the local context.
Bernardo, José Manuel Pal. Live in a Large Or Small Neighbourhood: Impact in Terms of Discrimination In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. In the context of social psychology theories social identity has been developed and tested extensively, however the role of place has been systematically neglected. In the context of environmental psychology, the concept of place identity introduced by Proshansky et al. (1983) has been used repeatedly, both to understand the importance of places in the development of identity and to understand the threats to the place as well as its implications for identity. However, the concept of identity to the place has not been adequately theorized in relation to a general model of self (Twigger-Ross et al., 2003). In order to test whether the processes underlying identity of place are similar to social identity, it was developed a study that seeks to understand if place identity leads to the same type of discrimination that social identity. Research on intergroup relations reveals that members of numerically minority groups exhibit greater intergroup discrimination than members of majority groups (e.g.: Leonardelli & Brewer, 2001), and identification with the group is both a necessary and sufficient explanation for discrimination (e.g.: Perrault & Bourhis, 1999). This study aims at verifying these assumptions in the situation of belonging to a “big neighbourhood” or a “small neighborhood”, and the role of place identification and satisfaction in the discrimination. The study was conducted with 98 subjects using a minimal group categorization and Tajfels’ allocation matrices type A and B. The experiment consisted of a 2 X (the neighborhood size: large vs. small) X 2 (identification: high vs. low) between participants design. The main prediction was that the minority group members would discriminate more that majority group members in Tajfels’ allocation matrices type A. It was also predicted that minority groups’ members would reveal a higher level of identification and satisfaction with the group. The discrimination motives were explored using the Tajfels’ matrices Type B. The results show that small groups discriminate more and have greater identification and satisfaction, but large groups with strong identification discriminate as much as the small groups. These results, in addition to confirming data obtained in other studies, have important implications in the understanding of intergroup relations in urban contexts.
Improta, Rafaella Lenoir, Enric Pol, and Olga Peralta. Living Near a Wind Farm: Psycho-Socio-Enviromental Impact, Perception and Evalutation In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Wind power is a clean source of energy which replaces fossil fuels – responsible for climate changes. Hence there is a wide acceptance of wind energy production and a positive social evaluation. However, there are places in which wind farms sittings are not easily accepted by the nearby community. There is often a controversy and public opposition, especially due to economic implications and/or interference with symbolic, identity or emotional aspects of the population where the wind farm is placed. The very existence of conflicts or any other problems concerning wind farm acceptance, reveals the importance of considering the psycho-social aspects involved in the implementation of renewable energy projects; being these aspects generally overlooked by environmental management. Almost all the literature on wind farms acceptance comes from developed countries. The only known study about this issue in South America was conducted by this author in her master thesis and its findings are in the opposite direction to the ones found by European studies. Neither NIMBY (not in my backyard) effects nor any other kind of resistance were found, even when there were no benefits for the nearby inhabitants or any sign of rejection or interaction between them and the wind farm. The aim of this research is to analyze the quantity and quality of information about wind energy, how wind farms are perceived by nearby communities and its possible socio-environmental impact in other country of South America, Argentina. The study also compares places in which wind farms have already been set up with others which will host a wind farm in the near future. Participants labeled as “Community A” are residents of a community near a wind farm; participants labeled as “Community B” are inhabitants of a place near the site where a wind farm will be soon set up. The investigation is in its first phase of implementation; for this reason the field work phase has not yet started. The field work comprises three stages. In the first stage, the physical, administrative, social and symbolic boundaries of the communities selected for the study will be delimited. In the second, children’s point of view concerning the wind farm will be analyzed, both in community “A” and “B”. By the use of “auto photography technique”, children between 9 and 12 years-old, will be asked to photograph the places they like the most and the places they like the least in their community. Once the photographs are developed, the children will be individually interviewed; then, the photographs will be displayed in panels for a group interview. In the third stage, individual semi-structured interviews will be conducted with the adult population of both communities. These interviews will be guided by the use of photographs in order to stimulate the interviewee narrative. Such a strategy is adopted considering the informational richness of a graphic/non-verbal stimulus. Whenever appropriate, some of the photographs produced by the children will be used. Concerning data analysis in phase two, both the content present in the photos as well as the photographic process will be analyzed. The emphasis will be placed on the localizations chosen by children as the ones they like the most and the ones they like the least; also in whether it is present in the photos either the wind farm (community A), or the site where the wind farm will be placed (community B). Both, for stage two and three, the interviews will be analyzed classifying the content in axes (big themes) according to the themes. After that, the data will undergo another process of classification in order to create categories for content analysis. Altogether, the results of this research may contribute to delineate a profile of the socio-environmental impact of wind farms constructions in South America, they may also help to prevent and minimize their negative effect.
Nadiruzzaman, Md.. "Living with Tigers' and 'crocodiles': Rethinking Vulnerability of Mazer Char Community." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Within hazard and risk research, risk refers to the threat posed by a hazard. A hazard does not translate directly into risk, rather it is measured by the degree of vulnerability in relation to that hazard. The underlying factors causing vulnerability, thus, define risk. Disaster risk unfolds over time through the concentration of people and economic activities in areas exposed to potential hazards; through the frequency and magnitude of hazard events, and through the vulnerability of communities and economies, understood in terms of lack of capacity to absorb and recover from hazard impacts. Vulnerability in marginal geographical locations is thought to be partly an effect of global climate change and sea level rise. This view has become so popular that, to mitigate the adverse effects, hard-hit countries like Bangladesh are now campaigning to claim money from the western world, the prime shareholders of global carbon emissions. This sort of campaign is certainly attracting donations to the low-lying countries, however there is a chance of misconceptualising ‘vulnerability’ and, thus, misusing those funds. Vulnerability is a function of the exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity of a person, group or system. Sensitivity and adaptive capacity of a particular system depends on a range of sociopolitico- economic characteristics, such as gender, age, political affiliation, livelihood, access to resources, beliefs, influences on decision making and wealth (entitlements), and so on. What about those in the front line of climatic risks who also are also threatened by ‘tigers’ and ‘crocodiles’ every minute of their lives? Mazer Char, a small fishing island at the mouth of the Boleshwar River, has a longstanding land dispute between the landless inhabitants and wealthy mainlanders (the ‘tigers’). The amount of effort and money that the landless inhabitants have invested so far to claim control over their lands is twice their loss from the deadly cyclone Sidr in 2007. Every new political regime brings hope to them and leaves them with nothing. After cyclone Sidr, numbers of households were not able to obtain a protected home from NGOs as they live on disputed land and still remain in flimsy houses exposed to the elements. On top of that, threats from local pirates (the ‘crocodiles’) have become a part of their everyday life. Poverty, patron-client networks, the absence of administrative support, riverbank erosion, cyclones and tidal surges are all holding this community back from resilience. Vulnerability at Mazer Char has become a legacy of decades of neglect. This paper draws an investigative and illustrative portrait of the everyday geography of Mazer Char. This is the result of a six-month participant observation, coupled with some focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with the community members, social elites, political representatives, government and nongovernment organisations. Local residents’ everyday geographies give a helpful picture about how risk is perceived and acted on. Besides, it also reveals how government frames the issue. Finally, the author believes that vulnerability needs to be understood locally and holistically. Unless we protect the Mazer Char people from the ‘tigers’ and ‘crocodiles’, we cannot assure a sustainable disaster mitigation programme for them.
Buchecker, Matthias, and Christine Jurt. "Local Stakeholders' Perceptions of Climate Change in the Context of Other Local Risks." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Climate change is of particular relevance for Alpine regions, in particular because strong impacts on Alpine hazards are expected. In the last decade, strong efforts have been taken to extend the understanding of human dimension in climate change. Whereas, however, researched focused on attitudes towards climate change on a global scale, there is still little empirical knowledge as to how climate change is perceived locally and in the context of other local risks. We addressed these questions in a case study in South Tyrol in the framework of an EU-project on climate change. In this empirical study, a wide variety of methods were applied: First, qualitative interviews were conducted with representatives of all relevant residential groups, with local and regional experts as well as with scientists of the EUproject. Then a standardised questionnaire was sent to all the households of the mountain community. Furthermore, focus group discussions were observed and documented and finally, a workshop on local risks was organised and observed. This research design allowed us to compare individual perceptions or mental models expressed in private contexts with discourses observed in diverse social contexts. Through the analysis of the survey data we found that the local stakeholders perceived a wide range of natural, social and economic risks for the existence of the mountain municipality, and that they assessed climate change as on of the most significant one. Interestingly, however, they did not perceive a strong interrelationship between climate change and the risk for natural hazards. The analysis of the interviews revealed that local stakeholders – in contrast to the experts – perceived local natural hazards and climate change always in connection with other environmental, social and economic risks. These connections to other risks constituted the relevance of the natural hazards for the stakeholders. As the different stakeholder groups connected the natural hazards – due to their different background - with different risks, they also favoured different coping strategies. In the case of climate change these ranged from defensive strategies to stronger investment in tourism infrastructure. In total, five risk discourses could be identified which are characterised by the focus on a specific risk such as emigration or decrease of tourism. Local stakeholders are aware of the phenomenon of climate change, but they do not recognise its interrelation with natural hazards. In fact, they primarily perceive natural hazards as well as climate change as something that is – by way of consequential risks - directly connected to their livelihoods. Therefore, natural hazards can no longer be man- aged isolated from the other ecological, economic and social risks of the mountain community. The fact that these risks are very differently perceived – due to different social backgrounds –furthermore entails that a public communication on local or regional risks is needed, with the goal to reach a general consensus on the risk situation and general priorities of risk management. Such discursive forms of risk communication might also allow climate change to be perceived as a tangible local risk to be mitigated.
Güney, Yasemin Ince. Loss of Authenticity as a Process: the Real Vulnerability for Human Habitats In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Vulnerability indicates something susceptible to being wounded or hurt physically or emotionally. When we talk about vulnerability of human habitats it refers to those situations that somehow threaten the wellness of these habitats. Sometimes this idea of vulnerability of human habitats might refer to threats to the physical existence of human habitats due to wars or urban regeneration or the loss of the cultural core, the very creativity of the cultures that manifested itself in these habitats, which generally understood as globalization. However, in this presentation I would like to take attention to another kind of vulnerability that threatens human habitats all around the world: the loss of understanding/conceptualizing authenticity as a process, a process that refers to the quality of the relationship between people and their world. This is a vulnerability that is not discussed much both in architectural as well as people-environment discourses. Yet, this is the real vulnerability that challenges very existence of human habitats, which is the argument that I would put forward. The concept of authenticity as discussed in architectural discourse refers to something being true to its origin. As such authenticity of a human habitat refers to the original intention of the designer and the users of this habitat to construct it in the first place. However, within history it is witnessed that once the current function of a building become obsolete, people give them a new purpose for existence. As such authenticity cannot be equal to those properties of an environmental form that is given to it by its first designer and users. Rather, the concept of authenticity should be understood as the specific properties of the relationship between that environmental form and its users at different times. Authenticity understood as a relationship refers to the process that involves an act of appropriation. To appropriate, i.e. to make one’s own what was initially alien, requires a fresh attitude from the people towards the environment. This environment could be any sort of human habitat but the people need to approach to that habitat with the idea that they can be and in fact are responsible for it. In order for this to happen we need to understand authenticity as a process and as a relationship. The paper will first provide the main argument about the loss of authenticity and then present two examples from two small villages on western Turkey. One of the cases is the story of an old deteriorated school building, which was the very first village school in the neophyte Turkish Republic; and how, with the help of one women, it’s appropriated by the villagers and restored and saved from being an animal shelter and turned into the village hall and ethnographical gallery. The other case is the story of the ruin of an antique bath and how, though excavated and brought to daylight by Balikesir Museum workers, it became covered with earth again by the owners of the thermal resort complex nearby. In both cases the mindset of the people involved determines the faith of these buildings. Rather than well-known cases of reinterpretation, the paper focuses on these rather unimportant cases to show how much of a difference can the people’s mindset could create. Via examining the stories of these two cases, the paper will discuss the issues of appropriation and authenticity and highlight the significant role the residents’ attitudes towards their environments. Based on these cases, the paper would argue that vulnerability does not lie within the specific environments but within the mindset of the people involved: their attitudes and perceptions towards their environments.
Codina, José Vicente Pe, and Enric Pol. "Malls' Interplays with Barcelona Metropolitan Area: What, Where, and Who About Leisure Activities." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Malls constitute outstanding elements of the urban landscapes, not only for their presence in the built environment, but also for the human activities they comprise (Chebat, Gelinas-Chebat, & Therrien, 2005). These activities may influence from consumer habits (Green, Cordell, Betz & DiStefano, 2006) to the identifications among people and their environment (Childress, 2004). In the case of Spain, visiting malls and shopping centers (MSC) is a leisure activity for the 42% of Spanish population (Garcia-Ferrando, 2005); drawing on this, some descriptive studies have been conducted to explore general tendencies in consumption patterns and/or changes in MSC characteristics (Bravo et al., 2006; De Juan, 2004; Gutierrez et al., 2001); however, in Spanish context, little is known about the subjective leisure experience linked to activities performed when visiting MSC (see Graham et al., 1991; Jansen-Verbeke, 1987; Roberts, 1987), or users’ perceptions about the MSC physical characteristics (e.g., Abaza, 2001; Chebat & Morrin, 2007; d’Astous, 2000; Uzzel, 1995). In this contribution, a study done with 403 men and 370 women, aged between 18-55 yr. old (M = 35.79; DT = 9.48) from the Barcelona metropolitan area is referred. Data analyzed came from one on-line survey that included three issues: 1) the activities performed at MSC; 2) MSC characteristics and space valuations; and 3) concerns related to attendance, transportation, and time lasted in going to the MSC. These issues are associated with variables such as sex, age, place of living, and having car. Data obtained puts into evidence that mall characteristics (in-city/out-city localization; leisure/commerce purposes) are related not only with the activities performed but also with the perception of MSC made by their users. The attendance at the MSC has also incidence in these places’ perception. Concerning the leisure activities at the malls, their performance is compared with that of non-MSC settings. Finally, the comparison of space characteristics and leisure activities with socio-demographical variables suggests different profiles of MSC users. In sum, drawing on MSC as leisure settings, these results are discussed focusing in the incidence of spatial characteristics of MSC in the process of space appropriation (Korosec-Serfaty, 1976, 1984; Moser, Ratiu & Fleury-Bahi, 2002; Pol, 1996; Vidal & Pol, 2005), as well as the time appropriation (Codina, 2007). This conjoint perspective looks for broadening emerging research about the importance of places in leisure studies (Farber & Hall, 2007; Hunt, 2008). This contribution belongs to the symposium “A plural psycho-social view of Barcelona’s public space nowadays: experiences of risk, participation, and leisure”, that summarizes the main results of the project “Conflictive experiences in public space: New modes of coexistence, uses and opportunities for the participation in urban cohesion” (reference SEJ2006- 08975/PSIC; Director: E. Pol), supported by the Ministry of Education and Science from Spain.
Laffitte, Joëlle-Dorcas. Management of the Sick Building Syndrome In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Global change can cause diseases by different ways: 1/ if temperature increase, life zone of some diseases vectors such as mosquitoes will extend, rising the danger zone of diseases they carry; 2/ climatic variations, like scorching heat, flood or drought, may lead to abnormally high death rate because of starvation or because of hygiene consequences of such events (Besancenot, 2009). But diseases can also be caused by how we man- age global change. For example, install double glazing to reduce emissions of CO2, and/ or use air-conditioning to reduce scorching heat aftermaths may lead to confined spaces that will impact on interior air quality with the risk of induce diseases. Air-conditioning can also constitute a bacteria foster care. Life environment, from biological to physical environment, definitely has an impact on people health. And we can add social environment as the present concern on health at work in France is a witness. When they overlap, these risk factors sometimes induce complex pathologies for whom it is difficult (or impossible) to find the exact cause. An example of this kind of pathology is Sick Building Syndrome, which has been first described in the 70’s (Perdrix, Parat, Liaudy & Maître, 2005). The WHO explained in 1983 that ‘Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) describes a medical condition where people in a building suffer from symptoms of illness or feel unwell for no apparent reason’ (WHO, 1983 p. 3). In France, frequency of such “unexplained” epidemic events seems to increase and, since 2007, there management has been discussed within National Health Watch Institute (Kermarec, 2008). From this reflection, Human Sciences had been invited to work together with National Health Watch Institute to understand: 1/ why management measures sometimes seems to be excessive compared with health situation and 2/ why SBS diagnosis (and subsequently ‘psychogenetic syndrome’) is intolerable for people and therefore, what can we do for people to accept this diagnosis and his managerial consequences. In order to help reflection on SBS management, a qualitative study was conducted after the event in a child care center in Paris area. The aim of this research was to examine a well-managed example. In this child care center, both children and employees developed mild skin symptoms. An environmental cause was finally found, a cleaning problem due to misapplication of household products, which formed a consensus. After a few words on chronology, management critical points will be examined: 1/ how different task groups were formed to answer each identified problems (communication, hypothesis construction, results analysis…); 2/ the place of communication in this case study; 3/ risk representations depending on how local the subject is and according to the moment; 4/ the role of sense of place; and 5/ the need to prepare a local risk management plan. These results cannot be generalized because they come from a single case study. Now, a PhD study is running on management of such multi-causal health events. Both physical and socio-psychological causes will be explored as environmental causes.
Mohamed, Ahmad Fariz, Mohd Raihan Taha, Marlia Zahura Baharudin, Shaharudin Idrus, Abdul Hadi Harma Shah, and D.E. Forsythe. Managing Urban Contaminated Land Risk: Case Study of Landfill in the Langat Basin Malaysia In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Urban development process transforms natural ecosystem into many types of landuse in accordance to the human development needs. As population grows and urban expands, more lands are used for economic activities and to support livelihood of population. The transformation affects many important natural ecosystem functions, such as soil capability as water absorption facilities to control floods and to dilute or dissolve pollutants. Moreover these changes which come with accumulative effects where pollutants input is increasing every day, lead to the creation of contaminated land. Managing risk and contaminated land requires strategic and safe management regime. In the Langat Basin, Malaysia there are four types of contaminated land, industrial park, landfill, abandoned tin mine pool and petrol stations. Contaminated lands in the Langat Basin have become important environmental issues mainly in the urban areas. Managing these contaminated lands requires understanding of many aspect of contaminated land such as the characteristic of the soil, pollutants input, impact to soil, surface water and groundwater, legislation requirement, technology for remediation, role of key stakeholders and future use of contaminated land. In this case study, managing the risk of landfill was chosen as it has important role in providing service to cities in handling urban wastes. There are four active landfills in the Basin and all of them are located near to housing areas and river systems. There are incidents of pollutants from landfill that has affected river water quality and resulted in closing of water intake station and disrupt domestic water supply in the mid-south of the Langat Basin. It is important to ascertain the best management approach in managing landfill and contaminated land risk to minimize its impacts on urban natural ecosystem and to ensure that land will be able to be utilize for other uses in the future.
Aghalatifi, Azadeh, and Moazzami Manoochehr. Meaning of Home in Struggle of Global Change (Inspection in Impact of Global Change on Concept of Home in Iran) In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. The meaning of home has been studied from many different perspectives such as psychology, phenomenology, sociology and environment behavior studies. Several authors have argued that a more integrative and interdisciplinary approach is needed in which physical, socio-cultural, psychological and economic dimensions are interrelated. However, in many of these studies home is mainly treated as such. What is lacking is an approach in which meaning of home is considered in global change which confronts social, economic, psychological and spiritual risks to this vulnerable phenomenon. Home may serve many functions such as shelter, privacy, security, control, status and identity. From this point of view the meaning of home lies in these functional relations between human beings and their dwellings. However, globalization has changed many of these functions. The difficulty in coming to grips with the concept of home is its increasingly central role in everyday life, coupled with its rich social, cultural and historical significance. But this broad sense of home became further complicated with the conflict of globalization and locality (not in physical aspect). The transition of Home concept which has been made by global change is more influence on culture and life style rather than its physical aspect. Moreover, many experts (Rapoport, 2001 and Coolen and Ozaki, 2004) argue that culture cannot be observed itself. Culture only becomes visible through its consequences, which are embodied in people’s goals, intentions and everyday activities. Culture affects the way in which people think about and use a home, and as such it influences the meanings of home features. It clarifies the relationship between people and dwelling: why people prefer certain features, how they expect to use them, and consequently, what those features mean. Culture therefore provides us with contextual information, which helps us to understand the relations between an individual’s intentions and the features of dwelling. In this situation, global change could transform the culture of people who live in and consequently could change in meaning and features of home. But follow the celerity of communication in this era, transition of physical aspect of home cannot coincident with cultural change. As a result dwellers can not be satisfied completely with their home. This situation is in vogue in such countries like Iran. This paper concentrate on meaning of home and its especial meaning in Iranian culture and Architecture. However its main purpose is analyzing the impact of global change on relation between people and their home. In the paper the conceptual and methodological framework for studying the meaning of home from an ecological perspective will be presented. The framework will be illustrated with examples from recent research on the meaning of dwelling in Iran.
Keck, Markus. "Measuring Economic Resilience to Everday Hazards Among Food Wholesalers in the Megacity of Dhaka, Bangladesh." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. The concept of ‘resilience’ has its origins in social psychology and ecosystem sciences (BOHLE 2007c: 436). In both disciplines, with this concept, the focus was laid on “atypical” examples of persons or populations in a context of adversities and contingency – e.g. children with schizophrenic parents (GARMEZY 1970) or spruce and birch stands facing budworm outbreaks (cf. HOLLING 1973) – that take advantage of transient periods of favourable conditions to mobilize certain buffering mechanisms and adaptive capacities. Later on, the concept was transferred to social sciences (TIMMERMAN 1981) and to research projects on social-ecological systems (e.g. BERKES et al. 2003). According to authors of the resilience alliance (, resilience has three essential characteristics: First of all, it stems from self-organizing mechanisms of social systems in a context of contingency, uncertainty and risk. Secondly, it refers to a social system’s capacity to undergo actual disturbances and maintain its identity, its basic functioning mechanisms and controls. Thirdly, resilience means a social system’s capacity to learn and adapt to future disturbances in a rapidly changing world. Thus, ‘economic resilience’ in a wider sense can be defined as a firm’s self-organized capability to persist and develop despite or within a context of contingency, variability, uncertainty and risk. In a narrow sense, then, it is a measure of firm’s capacity to effectively recover from hazards. According to Adam ROSE (2004), conceptual and empirical work on economic resilience is still in its infancy (ibd: 308); so far, only few microeconomic studies exist that systematically incorporate the concept into their overall research designs with a focus on individual actors, their daily practices, business networks and agency. Furthermore, a reliable, valid and cost-effective way of measuring economic resilience is still lacking. In this paper, the concept is used to study business disturbances and recovery among rice and fish wholesalers in the megacity of Dhaka, Bangladesh. The main aim is to introduce the Coping Efficiency Index (CEI) as a particular method for measuring economic resilience. First, the methodology of the study is outlined: An evolutionary perspective is presented that assumes a world as subject to permanent change, where uncertainties and risks are not the exception but part of normal life. Since failed enterprises were not accessible in Dhaka and the direct study of the probability of business failure was not possible, the study’s focus is on wholesalers’ “everyday hazards” and on the businessmen’s capacities to overcome them. For this purpose, in March and April 2009, four ‘problem mappings’ were conducted as group discussions at two rice and two fish wholesale markets in Dhaka. As a result, a catalogue of 15 possible business disturbances was assembled and asked for in a standardized survey. The survey was conducted from December 2009 until February 2010 at 13 (out of 25) rice and at 8 (out of 14) fish markets. In sum, 448 rice and fish wholesalers were interviewed out of a total number of 2.831 (Food Market Survey 2009). That equals a coverage rate of 16% and allows empirical evidence with a confidence level of 95% and a confidence interval of 5,5. As result, a matrix of Dhaka’s rice and fish wholesalers can be drawn that enables us to differentiate between ‘wholesalers at risk’ and ‘resilient wholesalers’. The analysis of these results helps us to identify key drivers of urban governance modes in Dhaka, both, as source of risk and uncertainty and as source of economic resilience.
Páramo, Pablo. "Metacontingencies in Modifieng Social Practices Under the Condition of Global Change." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. The presentation examines the role of designing social contingencies in the creation and sustainability of cultural practices that could contribute to citizen coexistence and conviviality under the condition of global change. The paper I will present analyzes the combined effect of the occasions (affordances), the behavioral consequences, and learning by rules as important elements of metacontingencies. It is emphasized the programming of interdependent contingencies to ensure the maintenance of desirable social practices under the condition of global change. Suggestions for designing metacontingencias to maintain and produce desirable social practices in public space are offered.
Lawrence, Roderick. "Methodologies in Contemporary Housing Research: the Need for Integration." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. This contribution presents a review of housing research, published in English and French, with a particular focus on the methods used rather than the theoretical and empirical results of contributions. It notes that contributions from a number of disciplines and professions have adopted sets of concepts and methods without paying sufficient attention to the development of co-ordinated research projects involving several disciplinary contributions. Given that housing is multi-dimensional, it is necessary to ensure that cultural, social, economic, political and individual human factors are considered simultaneously at the three geographical scales of the housing unit, the residential building (with one or more housing units) and its site, and the residential neighbourhood. In order to achieve this goal there is an urgent need for the application of more integrated approaches. These kinds of approaches include interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary contributions which are explained and illustrated.
Braiden, Heather. Mine_Scape = Mining Operation + Landscape Recovery: Recovering the Landscapes of Mining In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Physical and human landscapes bear the impact of mining, both spatially and temporally, in ways that are bound to intensify with the rising demand for natural resources required to meet the needs of the increasingly urban human population. This project identifies and addresses gaps in knowledge about the land we occupy, the resources we use, and sustainability of the mining process in the landscape. Focusing on the nexus of landscape theory, landscape practice, and the use of natural resources, its aim is to inform the planning and design sector on sustaining robust regional economies, social wellbeing, and ecosystem health during and after the cessation of mining operations by establishing landscape recovery approaches early on. At the end of the 19th century 16 cities were home to over a million people. Projections suggest there will be over 500 such cities by the year 2015 (Cohen 2006). Today, over half the world’s population live in cities (Grimm et al. 2008). Urban infrastructure projects, such as buildings, water catchment, sanitary sewers, highways, bridges, airports, parking lots, sidewalks, driveways, and rail beds are composed of 85% natural aggregate and this sand, gravel, and crushed stone is considered the most valuable nonfuel mineral commodity in the world (Drew, Langer, and Sachs 2002). Shortages in construction materials and raw materials will likely constrain urbanization and exert pressure on growth of infrastructure globally (Grimm et al. 2008) creating a demand for increased efficiency in mineral recovery (lower waste and disposal cost) and higher energy efficiencies (reduce carbon emissions and lower operating costs) (Humphreys 2001). Beyond the supply and demand requirements of natural aggregate, the long term management of these finite resources and an inherent call for intelligent design of long-term sustainable infrastructure, there is a need to understand how the mining landscape is created and managed, as well as provide opportunity for strategic interventions in planning. The life cycle of a mine produces a new landscape through physical extraction, built infrastructure, and importing and the settlement of a labour force; it also requires operating resources such as energy and water, thus increasing its footprint well beyond the immediate geographic boundaries of the mine site. Regardless of the reason, when they ultimately close, the mining landscape does not disappear out of sight and often remain as a vacant mark on the land often with long-term ecological, economic and social consequences (Laurence 2002). Current discourse in the field of urban design suggests that landscape is not only a space in time (built environment) but also a process (a life cycle) (Corner 1999; Cullen 1961; McHarg 1971). In this context, opinion suggests that landscape itself can become a type of infrastructure, used to deploy resources and space (i.e. a working system) (Waldheim 2006; Belanger 2009). This project seeks to expand and apply this theory to the mining industry to reveal how to strengthen the efficiency and economic viability of a mine through application of landscape process as the mine develops, instead of waiting until the industry recedes. Further, this project seeks to determine at what stage designers should propose interventions to ensure long-term sustainability of the mining process as well as improving regional economics and land use potential after mining. The project will reflect upon lessons learned in a broad context and identify ways in which resource management and planning is disjointed by placing the problem of land production in a landscape context. In other words, the project will present advances in the philosophical understanding of landscape as a process while providing practical recommendations for the post-production mining landscape.
Elbert, Eva-Maria, Dagmar Haase, and Ralf Seppelt. "Modelling Households' Mobility Behaviour Driven by Changes in Income and Transport Costs." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Rising costs for transport, driven especially by high crude oil prices, urgently raise the question how households can react to changing cost structures. In addition to this, the current demographic and economic development leads to diverging household incomes and a less dense supply with infrastructure for everyday needs, thus changing the households’ surrounding conditions. A first step in addressing these pressing questions is to better understand the interrelation of transport costs, household income and mobility behaviour. In the paper, a system dynamics model will be presented which aims at the translation of cost and income development into concrete changes in the mobility behaviour of households. The idea of elasticity is used to adjust behaviour parameters to the relative changes in prices and income. Thereby, the persistence of mobility behaviour is not neglected in the model. A key of the model concept is the comparison of the share of income foreseen to spend for mobility and the actual total transport expenditures. The budget adjustment is implemented using coded reactions to differences of planned mobility budget and spent transport expenditures. Furthermore, households can modify their mobility behaviour by adapting their individual car ownership and their use of car and public transport and thus increase or decrease their transport expenditures. The paper will focus on the influence of cost and income development on different household types characterised by their income, their mobility parameters and their sensitivity to changes in costs and income. The trend of car ownership, car use and public transport use are shown over time for low- and high-income households. Different policy options are calculated against scenarios for household income and population growth for the urban region of Leipzig. This is to account for the global change and connected policy reactions on the one side and for the demographic and economic differences on the other side. Social differences are acknowledged for in an uneven income development for the different household types which is assumed regarding the uneven development of wages and the higher dependency of certain household types to the social welfare system. In the ongoing debate on climate change and associated policies in the transport sector, the model can be used to better assess impacts of pricing policies on households’ mobility behaviour.
Wheatley, Donna. "Modelling People-Environment Interactions with Semantic Networks." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. This paper examines the structure of collective and individual mental representations of designed environments. It will demonstrate how a social network analysis software, ‘Pajek’, was used to visualise and analyse individual and consensus perceptions of a designed environment derived from in-depth interviews. The interview responses were interpreted as semantic networks in order to apply the analytic capabilities of the software. This research method offers a new way to investigate conception of a particular environment from the perspective of the designer and, importantly, the users. How people respond to design has not previously been explored using network representations, yet this could be a productive use of network analysis given that human relationships with a designed environment or object are gaining prominence as a research topic. Spitzer (1999) describes ‘semantic networks’ assembled from associations between words as a form of knowledge representation. Semantic networks were first studied as a concept called associationist psychology (John Locke and David Hume) and later free association (Sigmund Freud, Sir Francis Galton and Carl-Gustav Jung). More recently, it was put forward that words themselves are stored in a network like structure in the brain (Collins and Loftus 1975). The use of semantic networks as a tool to examine how thoughts occur has also been used in the context of artificial intelligence research (Sowa and Borgida 1991). Concepts underlying semantic networks are relevant to this research project, in which word-associations, extracted from interview transcripts, generate abstract semantic networks that represent respondents’ perception of architectural spaces. The paper compares the semantic networks developed from the responses from the users and from those of the designer in three case studies of designed environments (new office spaces in this study). What was found in all three is that the semantic network of the designer was quite different from the users of their designs, calling into question in how far designers of space are able to anticipate what impressions and reactions their designs elicit in users. Data from interview transcripts is coded by extracting identifying keywords and grouping them in environment-response pairs, response-response pairs and occasionally, environment- environment pairs. Between 40 and 80 pairs are identified for each respondent, and there are around 15 respondents in each case study. Linguistic research in syntax is beginning to examine the basis of language as links between words and actions when they share an object of reference (Solé 2005). The environment-response networks in this study expose links between environment features and thoughts and feelings. This allows mapping of how particular responses were generated. To analyse the environment-response network it was first considered what analysis was desired from the network. Determining what thematic clusters or topics emerge (which we have called ‘metatopics’) from the networks is a primary aim. The networks usually contain 4-7 metatopics. A range of network analysis algorithms, calculating measures such as centrality and proportional strength of ties are applied to identify important constructs and help identify metatopics. These metatopics can also themselves be ranked and compared through network analysis indicators. Through these tools, new observations on the structure of collective mental representations of built environments are gathered. The significance of this is highlighted by the mentioned discrepancies between the designer and user response networks, which point towards the need for better ways of understanding the connections between design and user response.
Schwarz, Nina, and Dagmar Haase. Modelling Urban Land Use Change – Contrasting System Dynamics, Cellular Automata and Agent-Based Models In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Simulation models on urban land-use change help in understanding urban systems and assist in urban planning. A variety of modelling approaches is currently available, among them system dynamics models, cellular automata, and agent-based approaches. The poster gives an overview on these three different modelling techniques, using the modelling approaches of the PLUREL (Peri-urban Land Use RELationships, www.plurel. net) as an example. The project focuses on aspects of land use in rural-urban regions in Europe. The poster summarises the following issues: (1) Questions the modelling approach is appropriate for, (2) data needs and (3) a summary of advantages / disadvantages. (1) System dynamics models are appropriate for general trends (like economic or demographic development) in the urban system. These trends should not be too sensitive to spatial patterns within the urban area. Cellular automata provide spatially explicit information for future trends that are more or less similar to past ones. This is due to the modelling equations which largely depend on past trends and can hardly model a future reversal of trends. Agent-based models can provide “what if” scenarios for different decision processes or interactions between agents. As they are hard to calibrate and validate, they are more appropriate as a basis for discussion with e.g. stakeholders than for planning or investment decisions. (2) Ideally, system dynamics models need time series of aggregate data for an urban system, while cellular automata use land use maps for distinct points of time. Data requirements for agent-based models largely depend on concept of the concrete model, however, the emphasis is on the decision process and factors influencing decisions. (3) System dynamics models provide the most aggregate view on an urban system, but are easy to handle with readily available software. Cellular automata need spatially explicit data and expert knowledge to use even already existing models. Agent-based models also need expert knowledge to build or use models and are hard to validate empirically. However, this is the only approach that explicitly incorporates human decision making and can vary decision processes to analyse different outcomes.
Loureiro, Ana, and Maria Luisa Lima. "Moral Norm and Energy Saving in Organizational Context: the Moderator Role of Social Norms." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Organizational context is one of the contexts that have greater environmental impact. However, contribute of the individual behaviour that impacts on environment in this type of context has not been focus of much attention by the research. Researchers have been presenting several results that show an important predictor role of psychosocial determinants on individual pro-environmental behaviour. Specifically for energy saving behaviour, Vlek and Steg (2007) advocate that this type of variables must be considered when explaining energy saving behaviours. Research on proenvironmental behaviours as energy saving, has been showing the importance of consider the role of moral norm and social norms to explain these behaviours in organizational context. Besides the effects of values and attitudes, an important group of studies have been demonstrating the significant role of moral norm in the explanation of different proenvironmental behaviours (De Groot, 2008). Also, in the scope of theory of planned behaviour, some authors found that moral norm increased the explanation prediction effect of pro-environmental behaviour when added to the traditional variables of the theory such as attitudes and subjective norm (Harland, Staats & Wilke, 1999; 2007; Kaiser, 2006). The role of social norms has been referred for organizational context as having an important impact on individual behaviour in these contexts (Ehrhart & Naumann, 2004), and their moderator effect should be explored. The objective of the present study is to test the moderator role of social norms related to organizational context, in the relation between moral norm and energy saving intention in an organizational context. Participants are 182 workers of an organization that answered a questionnaire evaluating the different variables considered: moral norm for energy saving behaviours in the organizational context, social norm relative to the perceived social pressure from colleagues for the same behaviours, and energy saving behavioural intention, besides characterization questions and other measures for different research purposes. The group of participants is a random sample of organizational workers from an organization with a strategic environmental orientation and internal pro-environmental interventions. To analyze the moderation relation, we conducted a regression analysis. Results indicate a moderator effect of social norm, in the relation between moral norm and energy saving intention in the organizational context. Post Hoc analysis revealed that moral norm is more positively associated to energy saving intention when social pressure from colleagues is perceived as higher. This means that social norms may give an important contribute for the relation between moral norm and pro-environmental intentions. These results support the importance of considering psychosocial determinants when explaining energy saving in organizational context and their relations should be considered when designing interventions at organizational context for the promotion of energy saving.
de Santos, Larissa Medeiros, and Isolda Günther. "My World Won't Be the Same: Perceptions of Adolescents Regarding their Interaction with the Natural Environment." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. To the extent that local, national and global events point to the environmental crisis, whose origins are behaviour, beliefs and human values, it is crucial to find out how young people perceive the worlds: the one they live in now and the one they will have to live in the future. This study aims to (1) describe the observable behaviour of adolescents while interacting with their natural environment; (2) characterize the concepts and the definitions of the youngsters regarding these interactions, and (3) verify if these relationships are centred in only the current moment of their life-spans or if it includes aspects of their past experiences as well as their expectations about their future. The concepts of affordance, behaviour setting and cultivation served as the frame of reference. 180 adolescents, between 11 and 18 years of age participated in this study: Half of them belonged to the Boy Scouts of Brasília, Brazil; a movement that explicitly establishes the care of the environ- maintained by an NGO that has as its objective to keep adolescents off the street through involvement in sports activities and makes no explicit mention to environmental issues. Three kinds of data collection procedures were used: natural observations; a structured interview designed to investigate the adolescents’ environmental concepts; and a semistructured interview asking about their favourite leisure activities, their favourite places, the way their friends take care of the environment, as well as socio demographic data. The results indicated that the relationship – including the justifications of misuse – of these young people with their environments were characterized by their personal, self-centred use of the same; and that the identified affordances of the environment were related to the personal needs of the participants. For both groups of young people, the past experiences with the natural environment were remembered as romantic and beautiful, while the future a destroyed inevitably environment. Although the two groups were from different economic and social backgrounds, they appeared to be quite similar in their perceptions regarding their relationships with the environment, their justifications for their care or their absence of care of the environmental, their responsibilities and their preoccupations with the environmental situation in the present and in the future. However, the adolescents of the more vulnerable group – economically, socially and environmentally – expressed more concern regarding their current and future life situation; and showed more awareness of their situation as being vulnerable in a vulnerable, dirty and violent place. The cognitive development of both groups appeared notably similar and consistent with the period of their cognitive development, while the NGO groups was far behind in terms of years of schooling. The concerns expressed by both groups were in accordance with current discourse regarding global changes, environmental impacts and risks as found in the media and public documents. The verbalizations indicated a perception of a good world lost, pessimism regarding the future of the whole world and a feeling of helplessness in their interaction with the environment. For both groups, taking care of the environment means to recycle, to preserve, to be aware of pollution but, mainly, to be responsible and conscious. The problem, they said, is that it is very difficult to behave according to what one knows.
Pipan, Primož, Blaž Komac, and Matija Zorn. "Natural Hazards and Risk Education." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. In the last decades, natural hazards increasingly affect our society and its property due to increase of population, propagation of life activities and due to the fact that human society alienated itself from nature with high technization in all aspects of life. Alienation from nature is strongly connected to low awareness of natural hazards and low social capacity in this regard. People are indeed more vulnerable than ever before because of the false sense of security – enabled mainly by technological development. Technological development is not a problem by itself but only in combination with improper behavior. Changing this worrying situation is possible by proper risk education. Risk education is an integral part of social capacity building. It is a long-term activity with delayed results in building social capacity and increasing societies’ resilience to natural hazards. Risk education is also very important because of increased mobility of human society in everyday life and also on a global scale because more and more people travel as never before; tourism, is world’s fastest growing economic sector. Risk education is not only important for natural hazards which are characteristic for local area, it is also important for the global or European overview of natural hazards. We will present assessment of different risk education approaches, tools, practices and policies in the field of natural hazards focusing especially on those that are particularly relevant for social capacity building and for enhancing societies’ resilience to natural hazards in Europe. We will present systematic examination of risk education from different aspects education on natural disasters in Europe, as done within the CapHaz-Net project. Future development of risk education in Europe and possible future organisational approaches will be proposed, such as educational platform or education as part of different platforms that already exist in the context of natural hazards or different types of e-learning solutions.
Rashevskaya, Yulia. Nearby-Natural Settings as an Opportunity for Restoration in Urban Residential Neighborhoods In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. As a result of increasing urbanization, combined with the spatial planning policy of compact urban structures, more people in Europe face the prospect of living in residential environments with little nature nearby (Beatley, 2000). At the same time, there is increasing evidence for a positive relation between urban nature and indicators of physical and mental health (Maas et al., 2009). Furthermore, people’s desire for contact with nature, which relates to the opportunity for restoration, indicates the importance of easy access to the natural environments in the daily lives of urban dwellers (van den Berg et al., 2007). When the lack of space for green spaces within compact cities becomes evident and the existing ones are further away from the home, nearby-natural settings may be an opportunity for daily brief restoration (Kaplan & Kaplan, 1989). According to Velarde, et al. (2007) there is little known about the specific components of the physical environment that can make a difference in terms of restorative outcomes and can be used in the design practice. The recent study by Nordh et al. (2009) provides some information about the specific components of small urban parks that may predict the possibility for restoration during a short stay in a park. However, as was mentioned before, the gradual loss of vacant green spaces within the cities makes it not always possible for urban dwellers to find such small urban parks close to home and visit them daily. This PhD project aims to investigate: Study1- whether nearby-natural settings may provide brief restorative experience. Study2- to identify which components of nearby-natural settings predict the possibility for brief restorative experience. Study3 -to formulate spatial design recommendations for urban residential neighborhoods with compact fabrics. // The explorative study1 is completed. It examined the visual preference for urban environments with and without the presence of natural settings based on the judged possibility for brief restoration. A photo-based survey was conducted in Jan.-Feb. 2010. Eightcolor photos of streetscapes sampled urban environments with and without the presence of natural settings. Six photos of streetscapes were representative for nearby-natural settings in urban residential neighborhoods of Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Two other photos contained no natural settings. The participants included design professionals, residents and architecture students from the Delft University of Technology were invited to voluntarily fill in the online questionnaire. The respondents randomly had to follow a given scenarios in imagining themselves as attentionally fatigued or completely free from attentional fatigue. Furthermore, each photo was judged for the extent to which it had seven preference predictors (being away, fascination, extend, compatibility, connectedness to nature, likelihood of restoration and preference). At this point the outcome from this study needs to be analyzed in more detail. During the conference the preliminary results will be presented for the discussion.
Kellett, Peter, and Rittirong Chutapruttikorn. "Off the Rails! Relocating Informal Railway Track Settlements in Bangkok." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Large numbers of low-income people have created their own illegal, informal communities in Bangkok. In 2007 over 445 such communities were confronting eviction and at least 200,000 families will be affected (CODI 2008: 8). A high proportion of these are railway squatter settlements which are located precariously along the railway lines and adjacent land of the State Railways of Thailand which is seeking ways to maximise its property assets. Despite their limited resources, these communities are well organised and are negotiating with the landowners and working with the official Community Organisation Development Institute (CODI) to implement a government housing programme (Baan Mankong) to achieve improved housing on sites which are usually close to the existing settlements. Although the programme is designed to be participatory, it is a complex process in which the demands, knowledge and expectations of the squatter communities do not easily map onto the resources and procedures of the official agencies. There is no doubt that the precarious situation of many of existing communities makes them vulnerable to a range of risks – the most obvious are the physical dangers associated with the trains. In addition, their current illegal status means that infrastructure services are limited which leads in turn to greater health risks. Many residents are therefore positive about opportunities which should lead to improved material conditions and hopeful that such changes will also improve their low social status. However to achieve these new housing conditions the residents must engage with complex bureaucratic procedures and negotiations. They are especially vulnerable when it comes to the detail of housing designs as they are unfamiliar with technical jargon and unable to read architectural drawings. This means that their participation in the processes is compromised. Similarly the financial aspects of the programme are hard for residents to understand and involve substantial loans which may be beyond the economic capacity of many beneficiaries. Drawing on detailed fieldwork in several railway communities this paper will identify the key elements of the programme and offer a critique of the participatory approach adopted. It will also examine how design decisions were made and analyse the resulting architectural and planning solutions from a social and economic perspective. Finally it will relate these processes to wider global changes and seek to identify lessons on how the situation of vulnerable communities can be improved in more effective ways.
Bleicher, Alena. Old Environmental Burden – Present Adventure. Ignorance in Decision Making, the Case of Contaminated Areas In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. The promise of modern society has been resolving problems by scientific explanations and predicting future developments based on well grounded scientific knowledge. Instead contemporary society is confronted with growing uncertainty in scientific knowledge and a variety of risks and vulnerabilities especially in environmental management and decision making. In the last decade an intense discussion of the limits of scientific knowledge and the growing importance of ignorance was started within research fields of Sociology of Science and the Sociology of Scientific Ignorance (SSI). One of the main arguments is, that it has to be acknowledged, that science often can not provide sufficient knowledge in the moment of decision making. Consequently decision making based on well grounded scientific knowledge in reality can hardly be achieved and often decisions will be based on incomplete scientific knowledge. Against this background the crucial question emerges: How decision making in face of ignorance is possible? Sociologists claim that the society has to be prepared for dealing with well defined ignorance – especially by changing the focus from knowledge to nonknowledge. It is assumed, that a more open attitude towards ignorance and its acknowledgement leads to new areas of action and better decision making. To date it is rarely specified how such a swift could look like. The analyze of case studies shows, that in certain cases actors develop strategies to deal successful with incomplete knowledge – they take into account ignorance in decision making. This PhD work is carried out within the frame of an interdisciplinary research program on revitalization of large scale contaminated areas and its revitalization. In all industrialized countries during the last century human activities such as industries, mining and military have lead to contaminations in soil and groundwater. Such contaminations pose a risk for human health and ecosystem functions. Due to the long history of contaminations knowledge on former dumps has often been lost and natural degradation processes transformed original contaminants. For this reasons decision making in revitalization projects has to permanently deal with (known) unknowns and actors have to decide in spite of ignorance. Within the PhD thesis governance and communication structure of decision making in face of ignorance will be analyzed. Central questions of the work are: How ignorance and non-knowledge can be taken into account in decisions? How actors do agree upon what is not known? Which influence has the professional background of each actor on handling with ignorance? How decision making in spite of uncertainty and potential risks is possible, which strategies and organizational arrangements can be found to deal successfully with uncertainty, ignorance and unforeseen outcomes? The work is focused on negotiation and organization of revitalization projects. For this reason a case study has been chose – a revitalization project in an old industrialized area – where decisions and critical points shall be analyzed with regard to ignorance. Methodologically the work will be based on narrative interviews with actors of the respective project but also with experts in revitalization and cleaning up of contaminated areas. Additional information was taken from working meetings and political discussions on local but also on regional level. The transcribed interviews as well as the other materials (minutes etc.) were codified with the Maxqda-software for qualitative data analyze. Based on the approach of Grounded Theory the analysis will be conducted. The result of the work shall contribute to the theoretical discussion in the field of sociology of ignorance and should also give practical advices for decision making in face of ignorance in environmental management.
Grossmann, Katrin. "On Active Experts, Decisive Physical Structures and Passive Inhabitants: Reflecting the Inventory of Arguments in the Debate on Urban Climate-Change Adaptation." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. After the scientific community agreed, that a certain level of global climate change cannot be mitigated even by stopping any CO2-emission immediately, adaptation to the effects of global warming became an issue of European and national policies. Mainly in the larger cities, local adaptation strategies are under discussion. The questions raised are what cities in different regions might have to face in the decades to come and what adaptation strategies are appropriate. At the moment, most of the contributions are at an initial stage, exploring the topic, gathering possible challenges and solutions. Past Disasters and extreme weather events are being examined like the impacts of hurricane Katrina on the development of New Orleans or the effects of the heat wave in summer 2003 in European cities. In doing so, the community engaged in this endeavour creates the awareness, the outlines of the topic and the issues of concern. A new strand of discourse is created. Since empirical knowledge is rather few, the discussions look at the cities from a helicopter-like perspective, trying to make sense of regional climate models and the given local situation. Whereas the discussion on mitigating global warming was and still is carried by an engaged civil society, the urge to consider the future challenges of a changing climate in recent urban development comes top-down. The need of adaptation is discussed mostly at an international or national scale. From EU-green papers and national adaptation strategies the arguments then are transferred into local considerations. The debate – at least in Germany – has the notion of an administrative problem, taken up by responsible officials and their scientific consultants. The inventory of arguments, ideas and strategies therefore is rather uniform. Drawing on the current debate on urban adaptation strategies in Germany, the paper will reflect this inventory of arguments, ideas and strategies. Different from the debate on mitigation where human behaviour is at the centre of attention, adaptation at present sets a focus on the physical structures of the cities. The contributions of the debate aim at the best design for a city to cope with more extreme weather. Heat waves, storms, flooding and sea level rise, heavy rain fall, droughts and other extreme weather events are the challenges of concern, whereas societal challenges like changes in patterns of conflicts or behaviour within a given urban society are yet out of focus. Accordingly, the solutions are sought in urban planning aiming at a “climate-proof city” or a “climate-proofing” of urban development. Green spaces and fresh air corridors are to cool down the neighbourhoods; technical infrastructure is to cope with heavy rainfall and droughts. Typically for the German debate, physical adaptation strategies go first in most publications. They are discussed in more depth and fill most pages. The physical structures like buildings, infrastructure and green spaces here become decisive, they can “influence the vulnerability” of a place, they can “lower the impacts”, they “contribute” to a better urban climate. Most active are but the experts and decision makers, those who steer the development of the urban structures and choose or create the appropriate instruments. The people, the inhabitants of cities, appear but as a passive mass. They are exposed, affected and vulnerable. Their exposure, affectedness and vulnerability stems from their socio-demographic characteristic such as age or social status and resources, not from behaviour, culture or knowledge. Spatially people appear as residents of certain places, not as mobile users of urban space. To overcome these shortcomings of the current debate, empirical research needs to bring down the helicopter to the streets and neighbourhoods.
Weiland, Ulrike, Annegret Kindler, and Ulrich Franck. "On the Distribution of Pm10 and Social Strata in an Urban Environmental Zone – the Example of Berlin." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Air pollution with Particulate Matter (PM) causes serious environmental and especially health problems. According to the World Health Organization airborne particles have the potential to cause severe health risks as e.g. cardiorespiratory diseases and a shortening of life expectancy. PM differ with respect to their chemical components and their sizes. PM10 (aerodynamic diameter up to 10 mm) is able to infiltrate the bronchial tubes; PM 2.5 (aerodynamic diameter up to 2.5 10 mm) – the ‘respirable’ fraction of PM - is able to enter the lung and the pulmonary alveoli. In densely populated cities and city regions much more persons are affected by high PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations than in rural areas. Particulate matter has both natural and anthropogenic sources. In cities and city regions anthropogenic sources like power plants, domestic fuel, and especially traffic cause a large proportion of the PM load. Maximum PM loads occur in and beside roads with high traffic density. The increase of traffic is one component of global change, not only in Europe, but even more in the fast growing urban agglomerations of the developing countries. During the last decades, PM loads have been subject to scientific and political debate and to reduction measures. According to the European Directive on ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe from 2008, emissions of PM10 and PM2.5 shall be reduced in order to improve human health conditions especially in densely populated areas. Regular measurements have to be carried out in zones and agglomerations where the longterm objectives for air pollutants including PM are exceeded. Many cities prepared or renewed clean air plans and installed ‘environmental zones’ where individual traffic is or will be restricted according to the emission rates of the respective vehicle. The variability of PM exposure within one city may result in different health risks within different urban districts and residential areas. In an interdisciplinary study we investigated the spatial correlation between PM10 concentrations and the social structure in the city of Berlin, Germany. We found out that (1) the highest PM10-loads occur within the environmental zone, i.e. in the area enclosed by the circle line of the rapid transit system. Hot spots were the districts of Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg, Tempelhof-Schöneberg, and Neukölln. Taking into consideration the population figures within the environmental zone, about 75% of the inhabitants of the environmental zone, and thus more than 20 % of the population of Berlin are exposed to high PM10-loads. (2) By overlaying the PM10- loads with social status and dynamic data of the people living within the environmental zone, we determined that a large share of population within the environmental zone is disadvantaged twice: especially socially deprived people - that are considered vulnerable groups - are endangered by high to very high PM10-concentrations. As a consequence, the hypothesis stated at the beginning of our investigation could be verified: areas with a (very) low social status – respectively with a high share of socially vulnerable groups - concurrently show (very) high PM10-loads. These results show that environmental and health loads in cities and urban regions are distributed unequally. Pursuing the objective to achieve environmental justice, this result should be paid more attention in the future. In the presentation, the methodology and most important results of the study will be presented. Further consequences of the results will be discussed against the background of the concept of ‘environmental justice’ and potential measures to achieve a reduction of PM10 loads within the environmental zone thus improving the liveability and functionality of human urban habitats.
Hernandez, Bernardo, and Víctor Corral- Ver Suárez. On the Relationship Between Environmental Interdependences and Community Interdependence In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. The emergence, generalization and social acceptance of the sustainability and sustainable development concepts have motivated research exploring an emergent, integrative and nondichotomic ecological worldview called the New Human Interdependence Paradigm (NHIP, Garling, Biel and Gustafsson, 2002; Corral-Verdugo, Carrus, Bonnes, Moser y Sinha, 2008). This new framework is based upon a conception of interdependent development, implying a process of integration and inclusion of human needs within the dynamics of environmental balance. A first approach to assessing the NHIP was developed by Corral-Verdugo et al. (2008) in a crosscultural study. The authors created a five-item scale to evaluate the NHIP. The scale combines three statements incorporating the idea that human welfare depends on the integrity of nature, and another two that underline the importance of preserving today’s resources for future generations. A multi-sample factor analysis (i.e., across national samples) confirmed that the NHIP is a uni-factorial construct, although the relation between the NHIP and NEP factors varied from country to country. Furthermore, using structural equation model, the results of this study showed that the NHIP was a better predictor of residential water conservation than the NEP-HEP. We assume that the interdependence principle would incorporate a positive valuation of social bonds so that a significant relation between the NHIP and a selfpresentation linked to group belonging is expected. This anticipated result is in line with Singeli’s (1994) Interdependent Self concept. An expanded NHIP scale is developed and its construct validity is analyzed for testing a structural model that would allow confirming the NHIP factor structure and identifying the relation of community identity with the NHIP. The responses that a population sample provided to a questionnaire were analized. This instrument included the NPIH scale and an adaptation to Spanish of the measurement of Independent and Interdependent Self by Singelis (1994).
Cervinka, Renate, Robert Gennaro Sposato, Margarete Huber, and Kathrin Röderer. "On the Right Track - Intelligent Traffic Information and Individual Sustainable Mobility." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Official statistics show that 31,7% of the Austrian population perceive climate change and increasing emission of green house gases to be the most important environmental issue today. The main source of green house gas emission is traffic, which is steadily increasing. The Austrian government recently launched the program line Ways2Go in order to improve the current environmental situation. Ways2go focuses on the movement of persons and is geared towards developing a knowledge base of future mobility and transport issues. To achieve this aim the program fosters a progressive, interdisciplinary and integrated research approach. The project ITSworks in which we are involved is one of the funded research projects within this program line. It deals with the implementation of a new service tool labelled ITS VR (Intelligent Transport System Vienna Region), which provides global and multimodal traffic information in real-time. There are comparable services across Europe (, but ITS VR is the only one accompanied by research. Traffic- and environment-related aims like the augmentation of ecomobility can be achieved with the help of ITS. The core of our project is the investigation of the transformation of the provided information into behavior. At the symposium, we will present the structure and goals of the transdisciplinary research team working in the project. This research team consists of eight partners from different disciplines (e.g. urban and regional planners, IT developers, communication experts and environmental psychologists). It is supposed to bring together the knowledge of social and technical sciences and is currently working on the design of an intervention study. This study will be completed by May 2010. In parallel, we performed a series of studies in environmental psychology. An initial literature review (first study) covered health, environment and mobility. In order to protect eco system health and human health CO2 emissions, walking and the reduction of commuter stress emerged as key issues. Furthermore, habit breaking events were found to be promising starting points for behavioural changes towards individual sustainable mobility. In a second study we examined the use of new technologies for route planning purposes among a student population (N=134). We hypothesised this population to show a high technical affinity and playful approach to new technologies. 85% of the respondents indicated to use route planning applications offered online but only 8% also made use of those services on mobile devices. These results indicate the high potential for mobile applications for the purpose of traffic information. In a third study (N=99) we investigated the relationship between commuter stress, contextual factors, etc. on the perceived quality of life. In a first step focusing on methodological aspects we translated the commuting stress scale by Evans & Wener (2002) into german and conducted a confirmatory factor analysis. Additionally we investigated scale characteristics of a newly developed scale on coping activities while commuting. In a second step we currently apply those scales and investigate the relationship between certain factors of daily commuting, experienced commuting stress and quality of life. Climate change and the emission of green house gases are burning issues, which should be worked against with united efforts. In order to foster individual sustainable mobility we suggest to use new technologies. From the perspective of environmental protection as well as health promotion we suggest to provide users with information on their individual CO2 emissions and increase in fitness by walking as an active mode of transport.
Mario, A., and T. Noriega. "Open Urban Design as a Means of Producing Safer Streets and Obtaining a Higher Quality of Life – a Case Study: 'la Felicidad.'." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010.

This presentation will explore whether the ideas put forth by Jane Jacobs in The Death and Life of Great American Cities – her considerations about the role of urban design in the quality of life of the residents of actual cities – are still relevant almost half a century after the book’s publication. The intention is to show how a housing project with a design based on ideas proposed by Jacobs (such as small city blocks, a strong relationship between buildings and their surroundings, the permanent presence of people in streets and parks, mixed land use, high density, and generous public space) can contribute to the livability and functionality of a human habitat. The housing project that will be analyzed based on Jacobs’s principles is named ‘La Felicidad.’ It is located very close to downtown Bogotá and is currently in the initial phase of development. The expected residential population will be 60,000. It will have 17,000 housing units for families of various incomes and social backgrounds. It will also have commercial and community (health, educational and institutional) facilities. The essence of this project is its character of total openness and integration into the actual city, counter to the current real estate development trend of gated communities and enclaves, which are the standard approach for housing projects in Latin American cities, and especially in Bogotá. As the head designer of ‘La Felicidad,’ I will address issues like the difficulty of obtaining approval from city authorities (a process that took almost six years), the doubts of developers and investors with regards to working outside the market preferences for housing and commercial projects, the risks of making changes to the initial approach now that the architects are developing individual parcels of the big plan, and the optimistic belief that, with this project, it will be possible to create a precedent that can be replicated with social and commercial success in other Colombian and Latin American cities.

Depeau, Sandrine. "Organising the Journey to School: Mobility at the Heart of Pro-Environmental Activism and Identity." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. In a context of global change, public actions, such as pro-environmental activism, are now more and more studied in a large range of disciplinary (geography, politic sciences, sociology, psychology, etc.). Among them, spatial and daily mobility has become an operative vector to analyse and understand what global change implies locally for peopleenvironment. In particular, daily travel and pro-environmental activism for engaging in sustainable travels are in the midpoint of several issues concerning sustainable transport, urban design, temporal work-orgnisation, new cohesion-forms, etc. Today, commuting travels, specially escorting children for school and their activities are one of the most transforming spatial practice in urban environment. For one decade, parents, local collectivities and school supervisors organise and support sustainable school travels called “walking-bus” (W-B). Without being a new form of travel for school, walking-bus can be seen as a “natural laboratory” for research. Often studied for its healthy benefices and social virtues for children, very little attention has been paid on families and parents, moreover on socio-psychological processes that are implied on this pro-activism, that is to say in the public engagement for sustainable transport. The aim of this paper is to understand how children’s daily mobility can constitute a fundamental stage in the dynamic of parent’s residential relationships and social identity. Indeed, children’s daily travels apprenticeship is considered as a whole spatial and social transition for parents in their way of life and relationships to daily spaces. Thus, we need to understand not only how and why parents relationship to environment are changing but also the social and cultural conditions in which their educational strategies for children mobility can be unrolled. Studied from a physical perspective for a long time, children’s mobility is examined in this paper, going past the micro-systemic approach, in adopting an exo-systemic one, in reference to the ecological model of development (Bronfenbrenner, 1977; 1993). Within this perspective, we take into account the parenting strategies with respect to housing, mobility and social context as well as relationship to the neighbourhood context. We hypothesize that “walking-bus” as a pro-environmental involvement is a way to restore spatial and residential identity. Two groups of family were interviewed in Rennes (France): children and parents involved in W-B versus organising by themselves. In this paper, we will only focus on parents. They were interviewed at home and completed a questionnaire about organisation of children’s travels, involvement in W-B (or not), issues in relation to spatial and social identity process and ideal-city evocations. Results based on comparisons of the two groups of parents (involved versus no involved in WB) will be explored in this paper. These will allow us to discuss relationships between identity and mobility, pro-environmental activism and identity and how “walking-bus” can reveal some kind of relationships to neighbourhood and can be seen as a “catalyst” of identity in neighbourhoods.
Pahl, Sabine, and Emily Ashurst. "Overcoming Psychological Distance in Sustainability Through Explaining Climate Change and Visualising Proenvironmental Behaviours." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Climate change has become a commonplace topic in the media and government communications. Most people acknowledge the threat but demand leadership and feel unsure what they themselves can do to address climate change. Part of the problem behind this seeming helplessness seems to be the global and abstract nature of climate change. Climate change is rarely experienced directly by people living in the developed world, and they cannot assess the extent of change directly. In other words, people feel psychologically distant from it. There are different ways in which psychological distance can be overcome, such as perspective taking (Pahl et al., 2009) and visualisation (Shepperd et al., 2005). The present work explores the merit of a socio-cognitive theory of psychological distance – construal level theory (CLT; Trope & Liberman, 2003). According to CLT, the lowest psychological distance possible is associated with direct experience in the here and now, characterised by direct sensory input. The further removed from direct experience an event is (for example in space or time), the higher is the distance felt, and the more people have to make an effort to mentally construe the issue or event. Importantly CLT suggests that people have systematically distinct mental representations of events, depending on psychological distance, and this in turn has implications for risk perception and behaviour choices. CLT suggests a number of ways of operationalising psychological distance, for example asking people to explain “how” vs. “why” something happens. “How” is linked to the concrete detail and procedure, associated with near distance. “Why” is linked to implications and meaning, associated with far distance. We present three experimental studies that apply CLT to climate change and sustainable behaviour. Study 1 asked people to explain climate change from two perspectives (“how” vs. “why” it happens). In the why condition people subsequently said climate change felt more temporally removed and was less likely, compared to the how condition. Study 2 applied the how-why manipulation to a range of specific sustainable behaviours. When asked to explain “why” other individuals engage in the behaviours, people estimated their own enactment of the behaviours to be more temporally distant than when asked to explain “how” other individuals performed the behaviours. Study 3 asked people to verbalise or visualise a specific sustainable behaviour (having solar panels installed). People reported higher self-efficacy to arrange for a solar panel in the visualisation condition, compared to both the verbalisation condition and a control condition. Applying construal level theory as a theory of psychological distance to the domain of sustainability is novel, and the present research suggests that it is worthwhile. The theory highlights several avenues for communicating climate change and sustainable behaviours by focusing on people’s perceptions and cognitive construal processes. The challenge for future work will be to use these principles to communicate spatially or temporally distant climate change as if it was psychologically close, and to make sustainable behaviours appear psychologically close, in order to motivate people to make a difference.
Rau, Irina, Jan Zoellner, and Petra Schweizer-Ries. "Participation and Acceptance in the Implementation Process of Renewable Energy Technologies." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. While renewable energies contribute substantially to a sustainable energy concept, they are at times controversially debated by society. For their extensive implementation it is vital to achieve broad public acceptance concerning concrete renewable energy plants on a local level. This is commonly assumed through an approach of public participation, which aims at the creation of consent and support of the renewable energy technology. Acceptance implies positive appraisal of the renewable technology and can be accompanied by action supporting the implementation of the renewable energy technology. Though often referred to, the link between participation and acceptance is rarely thoroughly analysed and explained. Moreover the understanding of the role of participation in the applied field is dominated by conflicting views ranging from emphasizing its importance to fearing unpredictable consequences. Likewise it is not accounted for which effects the different forms or options of participation actually have and which combination of the different forms would be the most powerful with regard to generating acceptance. However it is precisely this knowledge that is crucial for project managers and political decision makers in order to design adequate and successful participation processes. Therefore the research group on environmental psychology strives for developing a deeper and more differentiated comprehension of both participation and acceptance, covering the spectrum of perception and appraisal, wishes and needs as well as the behavioural components. An interdisciplinary two-year project aims at analysing the relevance of participation strategies during the different stages of the implementation process of renewable energy plants, specifically biomass/gas, photovoltaic and wind energy plants. In order to gain an extensive understanding of the processes in the field of action and its roles - participating on the one hand and offering participation on the other hand - specific target groups like residents, citizen initiatives, decision makers, companies and planners are included. The project aims at gaining a deeper understanding of the different levels of participation, which ones are favoured, how they are appraised and in which people get involved. The focus on participation here lies at first more generally on the different levels of participation (information, consultation, cooperation and act on one’s own responsibility) but also on concrete forms of participation (such as leaflets, round tables, financial participation, expert meetings etc.). A central question is which aims the persons offering participation and those participating pursue and whether participation meets their needs. Furthermore the study examines the impact of participation strategies on public acceptance towards renewable energies. For a more sophisticated understanding and according to its practical relevance acceptance is distinguished in the three forms, acceptance of renewable energies in general, of a concrete renewable technology (e.g. wind energy) and active acceptance, which comprises actions supporting the construction of a renewable energy plant. In a multi-method approach data is collected through interviews and questionnaires in several German provinces at different stages of the implementation process of the renewable energy plants. By choosing an approach of collecting data in the field it is possible to embed the information in the surroundings and contextualise its results. The first results demonstrate the relevance of procedural and action knowledge and corresponding competences for fruitful participation processes, stressing the importance of an early and adequate communication strategy to render visible the participation possibilities. Furthermore the local identity and the perceived justice in the process play a significant role for implementing renewable energies.
Michels, Rachel, Ines Braune, and Peter Schmuck. "Participation of Actors and the Sustainability of Different Biomass Usage Paths - a Social Scientific Based Process of Multicriteria Decision Making Within an Action Research Project." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Results of an interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary action research project applying a social science based semistructured interview study and multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) are reported. The project aims at the sustainable biomass usage for energy supply in a small German city in Brandenburg. Previous research has shown that in the establishment of a regional network for the development of bioenergy, unidentified conflicts and complex decision making problems can undermine a planning process as there are many different stakeholders involved (e.g. farmers, supply companies, the civil society, local government, political decision makers, the economy, the private sector). Central problems of local participation in bioenergy usage, such as the competition for land between food, bioenergy and conservation, as well as concerns about the technical implementation of bioenergy plants are expected. From 2009 until 2012 the preparation and technical installation in the Bioenergy-Region Ludwigsfelde will be performed. During the project phase research activities explore the consequences regarding economic, ecological and social aspects, stressing the development of the whole value added chain. Thus, biomass cultivation and conditioning, decentralized electricity production, local marketing and utilization of biomass power and heat are object of investigation. The data of the semistructured interview study of 20 relevant local decision makers reveal the important participants for the implementation of the MCDA by applying social- and environmental psychological approaches. Hence, the initial position of key-actors at the beginning of the project are unravelled in regard to their interactional patterns, power- and trust constellations, sensitivity to local and environmental issues and attitudes towards bioenergy. Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA), a decision aid coming from operations research, has been applied manifold for the evaluation of energy projects regarding their sustainability. The MCDA process provides a sustainability evaluation of the different alternatives and offers a platform for actors to learn about the advantages and disadvantages of the energy projects. In that way a MCDA process accompanies participation of stakeholders and support negotiation processes of parties with conflicting interests. So far, practical experiences and guidelines from a research-practice project are rare in the literature, especially when we look at biomass usage. Beyond, the presentation of the practical experiences, the connection between the social scientific approach and MCDA are discussed, guidelines for future applications as well as the transferability for further projects drawn.
Röhring, Ludger Gailing An. "Path Dependency and Resilience in Landscape Regions." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. The paper deals with the relationships between the socio-scientific approach of path dependency and the resilience concept by the example of landscape regions from a regional science perspective. The investigation of path dependencies can help to explain the importance of the connectivity between past, present and future for the resilience of landscape regions, shaped by physical and institutional dimensions. The presentation aims to discuss the relationship between resilience and path-dependency theoretically, and provide empirical findings on the basis of case studies in rural and suburban landscape regions. Natural risks, social and economical problems and innovation processes are global and regional challenges for regional development. In this relationship the resilience of cities and regions is increasingly a topic in spatial planning and regional science. Resilience and path dependency seem to be contrary approaches – the first aims at the adaptation of ecosystems; the second explains the background for the implementation of inefficient technologies and their long-term persistence. Specifying this relationship, resilience can contribute to keep regions, shaped by path dependent processes, adaptable and flexible. In contrast to that, the approach of path dependency can enrich the resilience concept to analyse the historical roots and their consequences for the adaptability of regions. It can also offer additional value by using the positive feedback mechanism with increasing returns to enforce the resilience of a region. Resilience and path dependency will be discussed from the perspective of regional science focussing on problems of the development of landscape regions. Landscape regions are complex sociospatial constructs shaped by cultural features, historical persistences, typical structures of land use and settlements with identity-establishing and imagegenerating effects. But because of their specific landscape features and social structures landscape regions can be affected by natural or socioeconomic risks. Referring to these potentials and risks, landscape regions can be developed by governance structures to action arenas. In this sense a landscape region is a suitable level of scale to debate problems of resilience. The case studies focus at the examples of the rural respectively suburban landscape regions Oderbruch and Barnim. The Oderbruch case study, a rural region at the Polish Border, reflects the interrelation between institutional and physical path dependency and resilience in the face of the risk of flooding. Strong path dependency shaped by the logics of action of the water and land use regime led to a loss of flexibility and adaptability. But resilience requires new concepts with regard to the multifunctionality of the landscape region. The Barnim case study examines the social construction of resilience on the basis of intended processes of regional path creation by the establishing a regional park and a Nature park in a suburban landscape region in the North-East of Berlin.
Parra, Diana. "Perceived and Objective Neighborhood Environment Attributes and Health Related Quality of Life Among the Elderly in Bogotá." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. The world population is aging at a rapid pace. In 2006, nearly 500 million people worldwide were 65 years and older. The fastest growth in older adult populations is occurring in low and middle income regions such as Latin America, where between the years 2006 and 2030, the number of older adults is projected to raise by 140%, as compared to 51% in developed countries. During the past decade, there has been increased interest in determining the relationship between objective and perceived environmental attributes and several behaviors and health outcomes. This study examines associations between neighborhood environment attributes and health related quality of life (HRQOL) and selfrated health (SRH) among older adults in Bogotá, Colombia. Perceived and objective neighborhood environmental characteristics were assessed in a cross sectional multilevel design with 1,966 older adults within 50 neighborhoods. Outcome variables included HRQOL (physical and mental dimensions) and SRH measured with the Spanish version of the Short Form 8 (SF-8). Independent variables included perceived and objective neighborhood characteristics as well as self-reported levels of walking. Hierarchical, linear, and logistic regression models were used for the analysis. The SF-8 mean score for the physical health dimension was 44.9 (SD: 10.2). Perception of street noise levels (ß: -1.75; p <0.001) was negatively associated with the physical dimension score of HRQOL. Perception of safety from traffic when crossing the streets (ß: 3.02; p <0.001) was positively associated with higher scores of the physical dimension of HRQOL. Similarly, walking levels of 30 to 149 minutes (ß: 6.64; p: <0.001) and 150 minutes or more per week (ß: 9.50; p: <0.001) had a strong and graded positive relationship with the physical dimension of HRQOL. The SF-8 mean score for the mental health dimension was 47.5 (SD: 10). Perception of street noise levels (ß:-1.67; p: 0.01) was negatively associated with the mental dimension of HROQL (ß:-3.51; p: 0.003). Perception of parks being safe (ß: 1.72; p: 0.001) and perception of safety from traffic (ß: 2.09; p: 0.002) were positively associated with higher scores of the mental health dimension of HRQOL. Similarly, walking levels of 30 to 149 minutes (ß: 3.41; p: 0.0001) and 150 minutes or more per week (ß: 5.78; p: <0.001) presented a graded positive relationship with the mental dimension of HRQOL. Overall, 41.5% of the participants perceived their health status as good, very good, or excellent. Those who reported having walked more than 150 minutes (POR 2.4, 95% CI: 1.6- 3.5) were more likely to report good, very good, or excellent health status as compared to those who reported walking levels of less than 30 minutes during the week. Participants who perceived parks being safe (POR 1.40, 95% CI: 1.13-1.73), safety from traffic when crossing the streets (POR 1.54, 95% CI: 1.25- 1.89), and those who resided in areas with more than 8% of the land covered by public park area (POR 1.31, 95% CI: 1.01-1.70) were more likely to report good, very good, or excellent health status. This study found significant associations between some perceived and objective environmental characteristics and HRQOL and SRH among older adults in Bogotá. Objective and perceived neighborhood characteristics could provide insight into potential interventions among older adults from rapidly urbanizing settings in Latin America. The findings from this study suggest that policies that promote and ensure personal safety and safety from traffic, public parks, and noise pollution reduction could potentially influence HRQOL. The current health status of older adults can be seen as a reflection of society’s investment in this age group throughout the entire course of life, including efforts related to the built environment, which may in turn influence individual perceptions and social norms within urban residents.
Iwanczak, Bartlomiej. Perception of Flood Risk in Lomianki District In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Climate changes increase the frequency of natural disasters, including the number of high waters in Poland. Moreover, areas in danger of flooding are being settled, due to the trust put in the structural flood mitigation. As a result of these two factors, flood damage has been on the increase. An example of such an area is the town of Lomianki, which is located in the suburbs of Warsaw. The only method of protection is structural flood mitigation – a floodwall. As a result of an intensive urbanization process, in years 1997-2007 the town’s population increased by about 73%. It seems that the new inhabitants are not aware of the risk connected with living on a flood plain. Simulations performed using one- and twodimensional hydraulic models indicate that 60- 90% of the Lomianki district area is in danger of flooding. Moreover, research indicates that the floodwall in 2008 was lower by 0.8 m than the water level during a flood with the probability of p=1% (i.e. a flood that takes place statistically once every hundred years). The aim of this work was a comprehensive evaluation of how children and young people living in Lomianki perceive the risk of flooding. The research was based on the Protection Motivation Theory, adjusted to the issue of flooding. The other theory included was the Spatial Multi- Criteria Analysis. It was assumed that the perception of flooding is based on awareness, worry and preparedness, what were the basis for the Cluster Analysis. A questionnaire research was conducted on a sample of 772 people aged 12- 18 years old. It included a personal information section and five parts: general knowledge on floods, knowledge on local flood risk, preparedness for flooding, emotional attitude towards floods and a map, where the respondents checked the range of the greatest flood in 100 years. Five clusters were designated. Most common was the attitude of an approach which reduced the danger through the phenomenon of cognitive dissonance (24.4%) and irrational feeling of safety (22.3%). It follows that the inhabitants of Lomianki district possess little knowledge on floods and their preparedness for it is generally low. On the other hand, their fear of floods is significant. The hypotheses that age and distance between the river and the place of habitation influence the perception of flood have not been proven. Important statistical correlate appeared only in factor of knowledge dimension. Additionally, school activities related to floods were declared only by 15% of participants. Steps should be taken therefore to change this situation in Lomianki town. A separate part of the research was preparing evaluative maps and comparing the range of flood perceived by the respondents with the hydrodynamic models of flooding, where was using GIS (MapInfo) and psychocartographic (PsiMap) software. The area unit was a rectangle sized 500x600 meters. Most of the respondents indicated that water would not reach the inhabited area and that it would definitely not flood their homes. Average surface area of flooding was amounted less than 50% of Lomianki district area and decreased along with age. Statistical Spatial Raster Analysis demonstrates that people with a lower awareness factor did in fact indicate areas near the river more often, and people with a higher worry factor indicated more often all area. Added value of the work was comprehensive information on the district’s physical and socio-economic profile, with special focus on hydrographic conditions. An analysis of the flood study was made and a Local Flood Mitigation Plan for a Village/Small Town was prepared for the district’s use, including an informationaleducational part. Moreover, hydraulic theories used in the modeling were described, as well as the psychological theories demonstrating what kinds of protection mechanisms can be employed by the inhabitants and how they can be most effectively made aware of the danger.
Palma-Oliveir, José-Manuel, Rui Gaspar de Carvalho, Sílvia Luís, Fátima Bernardo, Vera Soeiro, João Carvalho, Ludmila Nunes, and David Van der Kellen. "Perception of Space Occupation in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area: the Impact of Identity, Risk Perception and Distance Distortion." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. In recent decades there has been a growing concentration of population in urban areas. According to the UN, about half the world’s population lives in cities and it is expected that by 2050 this number will rise up to 70%. This phenomenon has led to an increase in the size of metropolitan areas so that nowadays mobility patterns include travelling long distances everyday. This concentration and the associated mobility patterns involve economic and environmental costs as well as to costs related to health, physical and psychological well-being. There is a very diverse number of factors for these mobility, residence and commuting patterns. However, it is essential to understand which psychosocial factors might explain this kind of occupation in order to build a model of decision making that can, in terms of psychology, describe and understand the phenomenon. One of the factors that may be important in the occupation of space seems to be the perception of distance and the cognitive map shared by the population. However, environmental cognition has focused on a city scale or just on part of a city, with no studies on large metropolitan areas although the same kind of distortion factors may be considered. Moreover, previous studies on mobility have neglected the more cognitive aspects that may influence the behaviour of the populations in metropolitan areas (e.g.: Palma-Oliveira et al, 1999). Literature has shown that local identity is an important factor of distortion and there is a tendency to find a positive consistency for places of residence (Bernardo and Palma-Oliveira, 2005). In this context, an exploratory study was conducted in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area (LMA), which consists of a set of counties separated by the Tagus River between the north bank, where the county of Lisbon is located, and the south bank. The main objectives of this study were to: a) test the consistency in the perception of municipalities characteristics in the LMA (such as likeability, security), and check the bias regarding the area of residence, b) test the existence of a pattern of overestimation and underestimation of distance especially related to the river crossing through the bridge(s) and the difference between estimates along the river and between the river margins and c) understand the influence of the place of residence and local identity in the perception of the various counties as well as in the spatial distortions. The study inquired 1058 inhabitants of 18 municipalities in the LMA (51% female and 49% Male) as far as the following aspects were concerned: perception of safety, desirability, local identity, entitativity and distance calculation. The results show a consistent pattern of risk assessments and positivity that is related to travel patterns of the past/present and that may help to predict the shift in the near future within the same geographical area of origin. Regarding the assessment of distances, there is an overestimation of distances related to the river crossing through the bridge(s), particularly for the north bank inhabitants. The inhabitants of LMA seem to consider the residents in the opposite bank of the river as a “geographic out group.” This effect is reflected in underestimates of distances between places on the opposite side of residence. This leads to predict that the inhabitants show a reluctance to move from one bank to the other, especially the inhabitants of the north bank that do not show willingness to move to the south bank (since there was a greater underestimation by the inhabitants of the north bank related to the places located in the south bank) Palma-Oliveira, J.M.; Antunes, D., Silva, M., Correia dos Santos, S. (1999) Percepção da mobilidade e de stress nos transportes e o ordenamento do território. Lisboa: Quercus, IPAMB (Ministério do Ambiente) BERNARDO, F.; Palma-Oliveira, J.M. (2005) Place Change and Identity Processes. Revista Medio Ambiente Y Comportamiento Humano, Espanha, 6
Dumitru, Ricardo García Mi. "Perceptions of Risk Related to the Installation of Nuclear Waste Repositories in Spain." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. The perception of and attitudes toward risk constitute important topics in modern democratic societies, due to the increasing complexity of everyday life, which includes a large list of potential risks, and to the public demand for a healthier and safer environment. Attitudes toward risk influence political decision-making and the level of support for public policies aiming at managing those risks. The perception of risk of nuclear waste disposal processes is relevant today, due to the fact that this type of energy is less contaminating and does not contribute to greenhouse gases (Slovic, 2000). Its use is thus potentially beneficial but the public opposition to it and to the placement of nuclear waste cemeteries close to home has been fierce. Recently, a public debate has opened up in Spain about building nuclear waste repositories on national territory. This is due to the fact that the amount of nuclear waste is increasing in Spain and it is currently and temporarily deposited in France, with high costs for the Spanish government. As the agreement with France is coming to an end, the Spanish government has opened up a bid for locations to build a nuclear waste repository, using as incentives massive local investments and the creation of new jobs in the midst of the recent economic crisis resulting in high unemployment rates in Spain. In spite of its potential benefits and the relative safety of these types of installations that experts proclaim, public opposition has been fierce in Spain. The present study investigates the reasons for this opposition, the perception of risks and benefits associated to the installation of a nuclear waste repository on the Spanish territory, the perception of fairness in the choice of location, and the trust in, and support of, the expert and government assessments and ability to manage risks involved in transporting and depositing nuclear waste. The impact of media coverage and framing of the issues on risk assessment is also discussed in this study. Because an appropriate communication policy can lead to increased credibility of public institutions (García-Mira & Lema, 2007), some proposals for the improvement of political communication strategies regarding nuclear waste disposal risks are also formulated.
Battista, Daniela, Paola Passafaro, and Ferdinando Fornara. Place Attachment and Perceived Quality of the Residential Environment: the Case of a Historical Neighbourhood of Valencia In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Place attachment (see Giuliani, 2003) is an important component of place identity (Proshansky, 1978; Proshansky, Fabian, & Kaminoff, 1983; Proshansky & Fabian, 1987; Twigger-Ross, Bonaiuto, & Breakwell, 2003; Giuliani, 2003) and should be further investigated in its relationships with the perceived quality of life – PQoL- (and thus liveability) in urban neighborhoods. Previous studies have shown how PQoL in urban environments can be a function of aspects of both “objective” (or physical-structural) and “subjective” (psycho-social and cultural) nature (Unger & Wandersman, 1985; Bonaiuto et al., 2006; the WHO Group, 1994, 1998), and should thus be evaluated from both the technical/ expert perspective and the observer/layperson one (Bonaiuto, 2004; Gifford, 2002; Bonaiuto et al., 2006). For what concerns this latter, the need for valid and reliable measures of people’s evaluation of residential quality has been claimed by several scholars in the environmental psychology domain (e.g., Amerigo & Aragones, 1990; Bonnes et al., 1997; Bonaiuto et al., 1999). Bonaiuto and colleagues, for example, have developed two instruments, i) the first including a set of scales measuring Perceived Residential Environmental Quality Indexes - PREQIs, covering spatial (architecture and planning), human (people and social relationships), functional (services and facilities) and context factors – ii) the second concerning a single scale measuring the indicator of Neighbourhood Attachment (NA: see Bonaiuto et al. 1999, 2003, 2006). These instruments went through various steps of refinement and their most recent versions were validated by means of an Italian sample including residents of various cities of different size. A short version of these instruments was also validated in the same large sample (Fornara et al., 2009). These validation studies, however, are circumscribed to the Italian context, thus replication studies are needed in different cultural and language contexts in order to confirm the stability of the scales’ factorial structures and PREQIs’ and NA’s reliability out of the Italian milieu. Moreover, the research work carried out using these instruments has shown positive correlations between various PREQis and the NA index. This represents another crucial aspect that should be confirmed through cross-cultural investigations. The study here presented addressed these points. In fact, the short version of PREQIs and NA scales were translated in Spanish and then administered to a convenience sample of 200 residents of Cabanyal, which is a historical neighborhood of Valencia (Spain). This neighborhood is expected to undergo important structural and social modification in future, due to existing plans of urban transformations, which have already caused controversial reactions among the local population. Hence, results of the study, will be discussed also in the light of the peculiar present situation of this specific neighborhood, which might have substantial implications for residents place attachment and identity in the future.
Rainisio, Nicola. Place Identity, Well-Being and Subjective Environmental History. a Research with the Young People of Three European Countries In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. The migratory phenomena are quickly changing the demographic and social landscape of the European cities. The arrival of new cultures brings with itself new ways to perceive the territory and to live the everyday places. The previous research on Place Attachment ( Altman & Low, 1992; Hidalgo & Hernandez 2001 ) and Place Identity ( Proshansky, 1978; Lalli, 1992 ) could be a useful theoretical tool to analyse how different populations are building place identities and bonds with their new neighbourhoods, attempting to develop new advancing in perceived subjective well-being ( Diener 1984, Diener et alii 2003 ) and global satisfaction with life. This is particularly important if we consider as target the European juvenile population, which is metaphorically “called” to construct a common identity for the UE. In a research (N= 445) lead in three European countries (Italy, Great Britain and Rumania) inside the Comenius “School on Borders“ Project, we hypothesized to find a significant difference between two groups of young subjects living in the same cities, but with different environmental histories. In particular we hypothesized a significant difference in the relation between attachment and life satisfaction and a different structure of the environmental identity of those who have a history of personal or familiar migration. We divided the sample in two groups: citizens of the nations where they live (group A) and persons who declared to have the citizenship of other countries while residing in the three countries examined (group B). Data were gathered using the Neighbourhood Attachment Scale (Bonnes et alii, 1997) and a mono-item identity scale that asked the subjects to classify their environmental identity along a continuum that went from local (city) to global (the world), with the region, the nation and the European Union as halfway marks. Moreover, we used the Subjective Well- Being Scale (Diener et alii 1985) to assess the perceived life satisfaction. The result has confirmed both the hypotheses. In fact, we found a significant correlation between place attachment and satisfaction with life only in the group A, but we could also notice in the second group an increasing well-being when an emotional bond with a specific city place already has been created. With regard to the identity we also found a significant difference in the environmental reference points. The members of group A tends to indicate as reference points of the identity the proximal environments: city and region of residence. The members of group B did not appear to relate their identity to the territory where they live now, but to the country of origin and to the idea of being “world citizen”. It should be noted here as another highlight the weakness of the “EU identity” for young people, in contrast with the powerful imaginary attributed to the European metropolis. These explorative results are useful because they underline two different approaches to the same area and to its representation, suggesting the existence of various motivation sets, practices and place-oriented paths. Underlining the psychological contents of these pathways might be useful in designing forms of dialogue between different groups. Some places able to create shared feelings of well-being and pleasure, like natural and historical environments, could potentially be used as cultural media.
Bernardo, José Manuel Pal. "Place of Residence: an Important Source of Information to Impressions Formation." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Campbell, in 1958, introduced the term “entitativity” as “the degree to which a social aggregate is perceived as “having the nature of an entity, of having real existence” (p.17). In this sense, a social group can vary along a continuum that ranges from low to high entitativity. Hamilton and Sherman (1996) reintroduced the concept and found empirical data that confirmed the hypothesis that perceptions of entitativity, i.e. seeing social targets as possessing unity and coherence, have important implications on how one organizes information about groups and forms impressions. Thus, perceivers are more likely to engage an integrative processing in forming impressions of groups high in entitativity, than of groups low in entitativity (e.g.: MacConnell et al.,1997; Susskind et al., 1999). In this sense the perceivers would make more extreme trait ratings and faster responses to groups with high entitativity than to groups with low entitativity. The main aim of this study is to test these hypotheses in relation to a place, i.e., neighbourhoods of a big city. Recent research explores the concept of “entitativity”, as used in social psychology, to understand the way people organize information about places and people that live in those places (Bernardo, 2008). A group of university students rated a sample of 20 neighbourhoods in the city of Lisbon, Portugal, on 23 social and physical properties of groups and perceived entitativity. The results show that the neighbourhoods vary in terms of entitativity and identify a group of physical properties that are strongly correlated with group entitativity. The main prediction was that participants in high entitativity conditions, both social category and neighbourhood, would make more extreme trait ratings, respond faster and recall more of the stimulus behaviours, than participants in low entitativity condition. An experimental study was conducted with a 162 subjects, randomly divided in four target conditions. Thus the experiment consists of a 2 X (high entitativity vs. low entitativity) X 2 X (neighbourhood vs. social categories). The social categories considered were gipsies and economists, and the neighbourhoods “Bairro Alto” and “Parque das Nações”. The study used the E-Prime software, in order to control the response latencies. The procedure includes the presentation of 16 statements that describe behaviours performed by members of a group. The behaviours were selected to give information about four themes: athleticism, sociability, political activism, and intelligence (based on Susskind et al., 1999). After this task the participants completed a filler-task during 3 minutes, and then they completed three dependent measure tasks: a trait judgment task, a recall task and a perceived entitativity measure. The results shows that when forming an impression of a group with high entitativity, perceivers made more extreme judgments and choose the response faster than in relation to low entitativity groups, both in social categories and social aggregate based on the belonging to a specific place. These results confirm the hypothesis of a more integrative information processing and more dispositional inferences in relation to members of entitative groups. The results are discussed in relation to the intergroup relations in an urban context.
Fornara, Ferdinando, Paola Passafaro, Giuseppe Carrus, and Mirilia Bonnes. "Place-Based Environmental Behaviours and Normative Influence: the Role of Place Norms in Recycling Behavioural Intention." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Research in the domains of social and environmental psychology has proven that social norms can play an important role in orienting people’s behavioural decisions in everyday life (e.g. Sherif, 1936; Ajzen, 1991; Cialdini, Kallgren & Reno, 1991). In particular, the field experiments carried out by Cialdini and colleagues (Cialdini et al., 1991) on littering behavior put in light the salient distinction between the perception of what other people think it should be done in relationship with specific social objects (i.e., the prescriptive norm) and the perception of what the majority of others actually do in relationship with the same social objects (i.e., the descriptive norm). Some studies (Heath & Gifford, 2003; Sheeran & Orbell, 1999; Fekadu & Kraft, 2002) have shown that the descriptive norm can represent an adjunctive predictor of behavioural intentions within the framework of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB; Ajzen, 1991), whereas the normative influence is represented by the subjective norm, i.e. a kind of prescriptive norm where the significant others (for the individual) play the prescriptive role. Traditional theorizations of normative influence have proven to be particularly adequate for explaining individual behavioural decisions that mostly have personal, interpersonal or intergroup implications, but are only partially able to explain those behaviours which have broader collective implications, e.g. environmentally relevant behaviours . As regards such behaviours presenting a specific placebasis in terms of management and consequences (as in the case of household waste recycling), it is likely that our behaviour could be affected by what the others who share the specific place (i.e., our neighbours) think or do. Thus, we argue here that it is possible to introduce the concept of “place norm”. The main intent of this study was to verify the salience of place norms (in particular, the descriptive place norms) in predicting a place-based environmental behaviour like household waste recycling. More specifically, it was expected that: 1) four distinct kind of norms should emerge from the orthogonal combination of prescriptive vs. descriptive and subjective vs. place norms dimensions; 2) descriptive norms (particularly, the descriptive place norm) increase the explanatory power of the TPB in predicting intentions to recycle. Participants were 452 residents of different Italian cities, who filled in a questionnaire measuring the original components of the TPB model - attitudes, prescriptive subjective norm, perceived behavioural control, behavioral intention – plus a set of adjunctive variables such as descriptive subjective norm and both prescriptive and descriptive place norms. Results of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) analyses confirmed the predicted empirical distinction between the four kinds of norms, and showed their independent role in the prediction of recycling intentions. In particular, descriptive place norms emerged as a relevant dimension in the prediction of individual recycling behavior. The practical and theoretical implications of the results are discussed.
Yumagulova, Lilia. Planning for the Unplanned: Bridging the Gap Between Sustainability and Disaster Risk Reduction In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. The frequency of so-called ‘natural’ disasters has quadrupled during the last 30 years, resulting in escalating human and economic losses (UNISDR 2006). The co-evolution of urbanization and risk serves as an interactive context for disaster with cities rapidly becoming more vulnerable to natural hazards. Urban growth, planned or unplanned, seldom includes disaster risk reduction measures (Wamlser, 2007). Yet, disasters are not only negative, they can provide an opportunity for social and technological change, as they can weaken and fragment previously established power blocks within the urban governance regime and provide a space for new physical forms and social arrangements (Pelling, 2003). This necessitates the examination of the ‘complexity of urban processes and their capacity to increase or decrease risks from disasters’ (Bull-Kamanga,2003:197) with a focus on bridging the gaps between environmental sustainability, urban planning and risk reduction. What are the contributions of disaster risk reduction planning initiatives to long term urban sustainability in the current environmental context? How compatible are the ideas of sustainability (footnote 1) and disaster resilience(footnote 2) in practice? Have we made ourselves more vulnerable in the long term by distancing ourselves from nature by effective short term disaster risk reduction measures? These questions are analyzed in the following subsidiary categories of inquiry: 1) The evolution of paradigms of risk and hazards: theory and practice; 2)Sustainability as a guiding principle in disaster risk research; 3)Sustainability and disaster risk reduction: challenges for practice This serves as a basis for the development of the theoretical framework to guide the structure of the empirical work in which I investigate selected implications of the changing global climate and analyze current practices of disaster risk reduction planning and built-in adaptation: how can we sustainable adapt our physical and social urban fabric under conditions of increasing environmental risks? While individual attempts have been made towards this research direction, this project generates a more systematic inquiry into the tensions and synergies between the practice of disaster risk reduction and approaches to environmental sustainability at four dimensions: 1) buildings (connections between green building and disaster resilience); 2) urban design (how can sustainable urban design practices be enhanced through meaningful disaster risk reduction: for example, does New Urbanism translate into more disaster-resilient urban development?); 3) Land use (integrating land use planning and hazard mitigation); and, 4)overarching institutional/governance scale which allows for examination of cross-scale linkages. This is a work in progress. The expected research outcome is the provision of knowledge, concepts and strategies to increase the potential, to unleash, or perhaps, to tame the power of the concept of sustainability for disaster risk management. It is hoped that this work will contribute to the re-examination of the status quo of the practice of disaster risk reduction.
Mårtensson, Fredrika, Margareta Söderström, and Cecilia Boldemann. "Playfulness as a Generator of Physical Activity - Lessons from the Situated Study of Pre-Schoolers Play Behaviour." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. An important challenge in the development of sustainable urban settings is to make it possible for children to keep up their level of physical activity during the course of the day. Among children physical activity is an integral part of ongoing events and outdoor play potentially an important contributor to the activity level during childhood. Many children however, spend the major part of life in urban environments with questionable play potential and restricted possibilities to outdoor play. Pre-school environments are important as many young children depend on these for outdoor stay and get the chance of developing active habits at a daily basis. The crucial role of promoting playfulness to create sustained physical activity patterns are to be highlighted from research of outdoor stay at pre-schools located in different geographic areas and discussed in relation to the wider urban environment. Children’s playful use of green outdoor environments can be an important trigger of physical activity among preschool children (Mårtensson 2009). Studies in Sweden show that play structures embedded in extensive greenery or contained in a hilly terrain are related to higher levels of physical activity (Boldemann 2006) and studies of pre-schools in North Carolina, USA have shown that physical activity level is related to presence of different behaviour settings in the outdoor environment (Cosco 2006). However, sometimes when necessary characteristics for vigorous physical activity are present in the physical environment, these activity patterns do not appear or sustain over time. At other times children are active in spite of conditions in the physical environment being limited. In this presentation are to be highlighted other factors than the design in the immediate social and physical context of outdoor stay in pre-school, possibly influencing the general activity level and the possibility of successfully implementing a health promoting design. The presentation suggests studies of children’s mobility in the situated context of everyday life at a micro level. Outdoors children use elements and forms in the design as play-signals indicating that they are in a playful mood and boosting the play spirit of the group. The child’s physical activity is studied as it evolves in specific situations due to interactions between the child and their social and physical surroundings. The presentation draws on field notes from the study of pre-schools at urban as well as rural sites in Sweden and from two preschools in North Carolina, USA as part of the Kidscape project in which physical activity level was measured during the spring 2009. Situations are extracted which contain factors that possibly facilitate or make up an obstacle to the child being able to keep up a high activity level during the course of the day. Important domains acknowledged and described as part of specific settings or situations are the way children’s activities are organised and regulated when it comes to environmental use, the indoor – outdoor connection, vigorous and other play behaviour, exploration of natural surroundings, the impact of weather and age group division. A planning and design for sustainable mobility patterns among children could make better use of children’s tendency to use their immediate surroundings in a playful way. Besides design characteristics important knowledge is how the organisation and regulation of children’s physical activities during the course of the day help to initiate and maintain their general activity level. The situated micro-study of children’s physical activity could offer a complement to correlation studies of activity level in larger populations that connect information on physical activity to location e.g. by using a geographical information system.
Boffi, Marco, and Michela Guerini. "Policy of De-Growth to Face Global Change. Virtuous Municipalities Association Promoting Sustainability and Wellbeing in Italy." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. In conformity with the global concerns about climate change, environmental impacts, economic developments, human rights and consumerist life style, Degrowth Theory (Latouche, 2004; 2007) proposes a series of principles aiming to foster equality, reduce the ecological footprint and make social relations flourish. Contrasting with a model of neverending development, Degrowth highlights how a model of endless growth is not compatible with a closed system as our planet is (Georgescu-Roegen, 1977). This paper focuses on the spread of degrowth proposal into Italian politics and highlights the results that such proliferation entails. The research emphasizes the individual activity and explains the increasing of degrowth practices not as the result of institutional driving forces but as a consequence of single actions fostering all together a cultural change. We focused on Virtuous Municipalities’ Association (VMA), a network of several Italian municipalities that has been the first national association to adopt degrowth in Public Administration. Since 2007 the VMA officially refers to degrowth principles applying locally a decrease of consumptions, wastes and ecological footprint of the administrative establishment and promoting social relations, conviviality and citizens participation. This case study analysis is led on primary data. We interviewed the representatives of each municipality belonging to VMA to investigate the effects of their policies; moreover, we run a focus group with the town councillors of Mezzago (Milan) to explore in detail how the political practice is applied. The results show the efficacy of enacted policies in promoting social cohesion, environmental protection and citizens’ well-being, achieved by individual fulfilment and empowerment (Eudaimonic Well-Being). We point out the relevance of the latter result as the key element that enables politicians and citizens to persevere in their activities. This activism is promoted by psychological wellbeing, which is the result of intrinsic motivation that allows individuals to experience a state of self-determination and a sense of competence. In these terms, individuals mainly reproduce situations connected with their own well-being promotion. Other results outline that the activity of the local administration is bound to stimulating and listening to citizens; this dialectic process recognizes a central role to the involvement of citizenship, promoting its role as an active actor. An example of good practices is the participated project addressed to reintroduce pink asparagus growing, a typical well known product of Mezzago, through establishing a cooperative society. This project provides agricultural land recovery, economical resources for the local farmers and the preservation of a symbolic value for the community identity. Ecological, economical and social aims are achieved limiting the consumption of territory and promoting mastery in the citizenship. We believe that the latest aspect is necessary to preserve social cohesion and cultural identity: it wouldn’t be possible using the land for maize intensive farming or residential zoning. In conclusion, the spread of degrowth proposal into Italian politics is due to an individual process, characterized by self-empowerment and self-determination, and to an activation endorsed by the public administration. Such process reproduced in each municipality make the degrowth practices expand not only with reference to the local context but also on larger dimensions. Administrations and citizens foster new cultural elements coming from degrowth proposal and carry out a cultural change able to provide concrete answers to the global change. The openness toward society explains the effectiveness in creating a wide network starting from local actions and the achievement of a new model of sustainability for Public Administration.
Nordh, Helena, and Terry Hartig. "Predicting Public Preference for Restorative Park Components Using Conjoint Methodology." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. This study is the third in a series of studies exploring environmental components that predict the likelihood of psychological restoration. The focus in this research is on small urban parks and open spaces. These spaces presumably will become increasingly important as settings for restoration as demands for densification of cities increases. Small parks provide opportunities for people in cities to sit down and rest for a little while near work or home. They function as spaces where they can get away from daily demands both mentally and physically as well as become fascinated by the greenery and other features in the park. As concluded in our earlier studies, the possibility afforded for restoration is not only a matter of the size of an available park or open space, but also a matter of its design and the components used to create it. By referring to specific components in the environment, rather than broad categories of natural versus built, as in much research on restorative environments, this study helps to fill a gap in the empirical literature concerning the application of restorative environments theory. A focus on the specific components in parks and open spaces is highly relevant from a design and planning perspective; it gives professionals more concrete information about design that can be applied in practice. In our earlier studies, we found that the environmental components most predictive of the likelihood of restoration were the percentage of ground surface covered by grass and the amount of trees and bushes visible from the given viewing point. That earlier work focused on visual aspects of small parks and open spaces, using photographs as the media for presentation to research subjects. In the present study, we instead present people with words that describe different sets of possible components in a small urban park or open space. By presenting them with words instead of photos, the approach relies on their ability to imagine the different alternatives by referring to their own experiences. In using descriptive words as the media of presentation, we apply a common standard procedure in choice-based conjoint analysis, a methodological approach that enables examination of preferences for various combinations of features. The method involves presenting subjects with pairs of park alternatives, which differ in the levels of different components. Conjoint analysis has mainly been used in marketing research in the development of new products. In our case, the park is the “product,” elaborated in terms of different park components. Statistically, conjoint analysis enables examination of more variables and combinations of variables than possible in simple regression analysis. The method also provides a setup that reminds of real world choices; it creates a realistic choice situation that people can relate to. The components assessed in this study are grass, bushes, trees, flower beds, water, and the number of other people in the park. Each component is presented at one of three levels in a given park alternative (e.g., no trees, a few trees, many trees). Given a pair of alternatives, the respondent’s task is to choose the one that is best for them. The matter of “best” follows from a scenario that frames the choice task; the subject is to imagine being in need of rest after a period of intense mental work and looking for a place to rest for a while. The study is web-based, with access provided to residents of Oslo, Norway, who experience the urban environment on a daily basis and are familiar with the type of small urban parks and open spaces in focus. Our presentation will cover the initial results from this study, which is now underway. The present application of conjoint methodology breaks new ground for quantitative research in landscape architecture and environmental psychology.
Wang, Nai-Wen Kuo Chia- H.. Prevention of Emerging Airborne Infectious Diseases-Evaluation of Negative Pressure Isolation Rooms In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. In the spring of 2003, the epidemic outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in Taiwan was very severe. To prevent the spread of SARS, many hospitals reconstructed their normal patient rooms and converted them into negative pressure isolation rooms. To make sure these negative pressure isolation rooms are well functioned, it is necessary to do some post-occupancy evaluation (POE) studies for the negative pressure isolation rooms. Very few studies have been published on post-occupancy evaluations (POEs) in the field of healthcare. Furthermore, there is no published literature related to POE of negativepressure isolation rooms. This study is the first POE study of negativepressure isolation rooms, using a balanced scorecard approach. From the viewpoint of evidence-based design, Taiwanese experience in the 2003 SARS outbreak can provide very valuable lessons and may help in constructing negative-pressure isolation rooms in a cost-effective way. The sampled hospital was a major hospital treating SARS patients in Taipei in 2003. Two sessions of focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted in fall 2005. There were six participants in each session. The purpose of the FGD is to explore the deep opinions of users, include physicians, nurses, and other staff of the SARS isolation rooms. The researchers also visited the sampled hospital for field observations in the design and operations of the negative pressure isolation rooms. The results of this study can be used to modify existing guidelines for negative- pressure isolation rooms. This study also proved that POEs using the balanced scorecard approach provide a balanced viewpoint for facility evaluation. The guidelines for negative pressure isolation rooms of USA, Canada, Australia and related literature were also reviewed. The results of the research provided valuable opinions in establishing or amending the guideline of negative pressure isolation rooms. The results were listed as follows: 1. Due to the limited space, from the economic perspective, the anteroom can be waived provided that there is a high quality negative pressure room with robust ventilation system and good pressure differential. 2. If possible, single-bed room is preferable to reduce nosocomial infection. However, during an outbreak, if there is a shortage of single-bed rooms, overflow patients infected by the same microorganism may share a room. 3. To cope with the emergence need of patients, many participants of the focus group discussions suggested it’s better to have an operating room located in the isolation area. 4. In terms of air change rates per hour and conditions of negative pressure (pressure differentials), existing Taiwanese standards should be sufficient. 5. Filtering exhaust air through HEPA filter is required in those countries with extremely high population densities like Taiwan. 6. Generally speaking, from the perspective of care outcomes, participants thought the existed negative pressure isolation rooms successfully prevent the spread of SARS. About 90% to 95% of the patients admitted to the negative pressure isolation rooms recovered finally. 7. The flow for transporting patients and suspected infected materials should be separated from the flow of staff. An elevator exclusively for transporting patients and suspected infected materials is preferable to reduce possible infection.
Richard, Isabell. "Pro-Environmental Motivation, Committing Communication and Carpooling: for a Change of Car's Use." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Since the end of the second war there has been an exponential growth in pollution which is due to the increase of fuel use, of the demographic growth, etc. and that induces bad effects on the environment. Despite the technological improvements, the resolution of such environmental problems will require changes in the human behavior and consumption patterns. This study was designed to investigate ways to change car’s drivers behavior. Indeed, we know that energy consumption is one of the most important factor which increases the global-warming. In France, twenty-five percent of energy-consumption is due to transportation activities. However, many ways of alternative transportation are offered to lead people to leave their habits of driving alone. Carpooling for example could be an interesting way to combine car habits with ecology but this ecological gesture seems to be rejected by people (Richard, 2007). Our research have been built in order to encourage employees to commute together and to practice carpooling. So, our study deals with committing communication paradigm (Joule, 2004) combine with pro-environmental motivations (Deci & Ryan, 1985) and commitment theory framework. A sample of employees (out of the same company) was divided into two groups. All two groups were exposed to a speech explaining the benefits of carpooling. In addition to this, subjects in one of the two groups were asked to carry out a preparatory activity (according to commitment theory): filling in a questionnaire with pro-environmental motivation scales (Deci & Ryan, 1985) to do ecological gesture. At the end of the experimentation, all subjects were asked to sign a committing charter; moreover the existence of an internet website of carpooling enabled us to check their actual behaviour change. A significantly higher number of employees in the group that carried out preparatory activity went to registered to the website compared with the group that had simply been subjected to a speech only. Concerning motivations results, we noticed that all groups had the same good motivation to act in ecological ways. Moreover, the motivation was not only high but it was also deep fixed in people’s mind. This motivation can be defined as «intrinsic motivation». This fact means that we have a direct effect of the committing communication as far as all groups (experimental and control) have nearly the same average of motivation to act positively for the environment. That’s why committing communication seems to be an excellent maneer to lead people to willingly change behavior and so to be more friendly with their environment.
Pufe, Franziska, Vera Denzer, and Tilman Schenk. "Producing Identities in the Context of Growth and Shrinkage." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. The production of urban identities is often connected to planning decisions aiming at significant points of identification, e.g. outstanding architectural designs or staged open spaces. However, when examined in retrospect, identity frequently results from a creative interaction of individuals with the built environment not only on a cognitive but also on an emotional level. Scientific analyses of these processes are therefore best conducted by both representational and rather bodily focused lines of argument including affective and habitualised affiliations in everyday practices, which in times of demographic and social change become increasingly sophisticated. We argue that these complex processes are of particular interest in urban areas, because they are intensively exposed to rapid structural changes, such as deindustrialization processes, residential depreciation phenomena or sudden growth of new neighbourhoods. Under these restructuring circumstances individuals are incrementally asked to assign new codifications and meanings to their surrounding built environment. The contribution thus aims to examine this supposition by comparing urban areas suffering from the aftermaths of intensive de-industrialisation on the one hand and recently evolving neighbourhoods with dramatic growth on the other. In both cases individuals loose important points of identification, which makes a reformulation of their proof of identity compellable necessary. The contribution focuses on two case studies: The district of Lindenau in Leipzig and Miami’s suburban neighbourhoods. Lindenau is a typical working class neighbourhood, which was built during the boom period of promoterism. After decades of drastic restructuring processes of the local economy, Lindenau is now witnessing urban decline and social segregation. However, the district recently attracts a growing number of artists, who use certain decayed streets for their projects. In this respect Lindenau’s declined spaces enable a particular group of people, namely the artists, to produce a new kind of identity through their performing and everyday engagement with the built environment. Miami’s suburban areas on the contrary are experiencing tremendous growth. Since the 1990s there has been a construction boom particularly of residential developments such as gated communities. In most cases the gated communities are characterized by a lack of community building infrastructure, like sidewalks, parks for recreation or open spaces for social gathering. Nonetheless gated communities in Miami have become prominent particularly to retirees from the northern parts of the United States and to immigrated families from Latin America. Here again it becomes very interesting of how they negotiate their identities in regard to the built environment, which is often professionally designed by architects, planners and developers. Both examples show, how individuals are witnessing processes of structural changes and how this leads to different strategies in order to cope with the loss of points of identification. It is found that on the level of the individual, identities are produced on a mental, representational and emotional level, embodied through the practices of everyday life. In both examples however, certain groups of people are excluded from the identification processes. In this regard we conclude that the different interactions by various groups of people in a changing environment will also lead to diverse identification strategies, which are however not open for everybody and thus highly selective.
Andersson, Sarah. Promoting Physical Activity and Active Transport with Urban Design – Local Changes for Global Benefits In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Physical activity is health promoting and active transports are environmentally friendly. These two statements are hardly news, and needs no further argumentation. On city scale level research on active transport habits are proven to be correlated with built structures and access to facilities such as walking paths and bicycle lanes. To promote physical activity and active transport thus require more than possibilities. It requires inviting, interesting and exiting paths and places that motivates people to not only use but enjoy being active in the city and make physical activity a natural and enjoyable part of everyday life. Today the knowledge about what characterizes a motivating landscape is lacking. Psychological theories about motivation contain three dimensions: the self, the social environment ant the physical surroundings. However, the physical surroundings and their part of being motivated to physical activity are so far not described. To grasp the connection between motivation and the structure and design of the urban landscape a phenomenological approach was applied in the current research. To isolate the relationship between landscape and motivation, the informants were asked to describe a situation when they were physically active in the landscape and suddenly got motivated to do something they usually don’t (choose a new path, engage in another activity). The results give an idea of how individuals are influenced by their physical surroundings in order to be creative and physically active in their use of the urban landscape. While out in the landscape, environmental factors can trigger motivation to be physically active both in terms of intensity and duration (time spent physically active). The common thing for the individuals in this study is that the seeking for environments which can fulfill their expectations is an important part of the motivation to increase the duration. The expectations however, can be different. Someone is looking for better bedding and someone is looking for more pleasant surroundings. The seeking for the new and yet not experienced is connected to choosing a path or way that is unfamiliar to the individual. It is experienced as easier to seek in an unfamiliar environment, such as a city you just moved to. To some extent it is important to find what you are looking for in a reasonable time, before you give up and decide to end that day’s exercise. An environment that can fulfill the expectations that the individual is seeking for, provides a good experience with that particular exercise, which makes it more likely that he or she decides to be physically active in the landscape again. The seeking seems to be connected to expectations for certain environmental factors, but paradoxically the seeking preferably takes place in unfamiliar environments. There must be a balance between the opportunity to seek and the possibility to find the expected, since these two seems intertwined in the relationship between physical environment and motivation to physical activity. To find out exactly what environmental factors are desired a broader research is needed, since those desires appears on an individual level. However, those first results of a larger project show that there are definitely opportunities to make local changes to promote physical activity and active transport that gives global environmental benefits.
Weiss, Karine, Ludvina Colbeau-Justin, and Fabien Girandola. "Protection Behaviors Face to Environmental Hazards: from Resistance to Commitment." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. The adoption of protection behaviors face to natural disasters constitutes a complex problem for social and environmental psychology as far as it refers to the analysis of the representation of the risk, of the environment, to the study of the vulnerability and the individual and collective capacities to cope, and also to the implication of the populations in the prevention’s initiatives (Colbeau-Justin, Barnier, Weiss, & Feliot, 2006). In this framework, the growing impact of disasters, despite of the technical improvements, can be associated with the individual, institutional and social difficulties to cope with them. So, it is important to think about the best means to reduce the social vulnerability. In this context, it seems evident that the risks reduction has to be linked with a better prevention and with a better preparation of the populations which are exposed. The mobilization of these populations cannot be reached with an approach only based on communication and persuasion, as far as the effects of such campaigns are limited in their impact and in their duration. Because risk is often perceived as uncertain and distant, the challenge consists in mobilizing individual and institutional resources in a long hypothetical term. It is in this context that social and environmental psychology can give new answers to better involve the population in the improvement of the long-term prevention (e.g. Girandola & Roussiau, 2003). It indeed highlights the limits of a communication based on persuasion when the aim is to change behaviors and not only attitudes. That’s why we propose to add a behavioral part to the communication campaigns, using one or several preparatory acts in order to allow long-term behavioral changes (Joule, Girandola & Bernard, 2007). It seems that advertising campaigns aiming at adopting prevention behavior could be more efficient using these preparatory acts because people become actors and not only passive receivers of the communication. Based on a brief literature review about the possibilities and limits of adopting protection behaviors, the purpose of this communication is to show that the commitment communication offers new promising fields of research susceptible to complete effectively the newests theoretical and practical developments in this field (Lindell & Perry, 2004, 2006; Schwab, Eschelbach & Brower, 2006). These research perspectives will be presented and discussed.
Haidl, Katharina, and Renate Cervinka K. Röderer. Psychological Assessment and Evaluation of Gardens in Health Care Facilities In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. There is a long alternating history of gardens at hospitals and nursing facilities. While green spaces were integral parts of these facilities until the middle of the 20th Century, they largely lost their functions for restoration and healing with the advent of modern architecture in hospitals in most western countries. Only their role as open and free space remained. With the invention of patient-centred care, these spaces re-gained new importance due to their restorative and healing characteristics. Since then, the supportive value of nature was considered in planning, construction of health care facilities (HCF) and in refurbishment. Guidelines for design and assessment of healing gardens have been presented and post-occupancy evaluations of gardens were performed. In line with this renewal, an inventory of existing capacities and opportunities of free space at HCF was carried out by the city of Vienna. Results clearly showed that gardens were mainly used as storage and parking lot. In parallel, therapeutic horticulture and clinical gardening expanded from Anglo- Saxon counties to Central Europe. Whereas designers, architects and planners are requested to prepare technical guidelines for the assessment and developmental of gardens, psychologists are asked to provide politicians and decision makers with tools to assess connotative meanings of objects, sites and developments, and evaluate individual users´ conceptions. The aim of ongoing studies is to supplement technical analyses with psychological approaches. We used the semantic differential, a well-proven scaling method, for analysis and evaluation of gardens at HCF and therapeutic objects within these gardens. In a first study (N=64) we analysed garden-experts´ mental conceptions of ideal clinical gardens. We asked them to envisage a green space with optimal conditions for therapeutic activities and to assess its characteristics subsequently by using semantic differential. Factor analyses revealed two factors explaining 40 percent of variance. The resulting profile consisted of 19 pairs of words to describe the garden. In a second study (N=30) the profile mentioned above was applied to analyse developments in a garden of a rehabilitation clinic. Photo ratings of the conditions prior and after shaping activities to improve the garden showed a positive development of the garden’s appearance. The positive verbal evaluations of the garden by its users were corroborated by results of statistical comparisons with the mental conceptions of a well-designed garden for therapeutically purposes. In an ongoing third study (N=36), non-experts rated their inner conceptions of optimal clinical and therapeutic gardens. Further, they will assess photos displaying various objects in gardens of different HCF. A fourth transdisciplinary pilot study is under preparation to compare and evaluate six HCF gardens. Thereby, environmental psychological and technical expertise shall be combined. The design of the study and statistical hypotheses will be discussed in the light of presented results.
Tabernero, Carmen, and Jose A. Corrali Hernéndez. "Psychosocial Approaches to Motivational Analysis of Environmental Behavior." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. This communication reviews Cognitive – Affective - Personality research that have employed a social cognitive framework to study the dynamic processes by which personsituation interactions influence behavior across a range of environmental situations. Social cognitive theory provides a framework for better understanding how dispositions and situations influence motivational processes and behavior and for the integration of knowledge across areas of research that are closely related. The presentation includes analyses of the cognitive and affective motivational processes that mediate the impacts of different individual and situational factors on proenvironmental behaviour. Within the social-cognitive perspective the mediating processes that underlie and motivate behaviours – goals, attitudes, expectancies, attributions, affective reactions, and plans – are sources of coherence in person-situation interaction and cross-situational stability of behaviour. The paper unites a variety of related ideas, levels of analysis and methods using the social cognitive framework, investigate how they complement each other, and explore the opportunities for social cognitive theory to provide an integrative framework for environmental behaviour research. In a first moment, we will review the studies examining whether self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation are related with environmentally responsible behaviour. Research has analyzed the role of past environmental behaviour, self-regulatory mechanisms (self-efficacy, satisfaction, goals), and intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in relation to ERBs. This research has used self-report methods and has considered a multilevel perspective for the analysis. In a second moment, we will show the development of a short scale to measure proenvironmental motivation. The scale was developed from the scales of internal and external motivation to answer without prejudice of Devine et al. (2002) and the scale of motivation to answer of not sexist form of Klonis, Plant and Devine (2005). The Internal Motivation subscale referred to people’s concern with acting consistently with personally important pro-environmental standards. The External Motivation subscale referred people concern with acting pro-environmentally to avoid negative reactions from others. And finally, we will considerer a different view to create motivational processes, a motivational dimension of natural settings. Recently, the importance of the referring nature like motivational is had underlining. The evidences on this problem come from the study of the subjective feeling of entailment with natural settings; this it is the case of the studies on connectivity with the nature that has arrived to be defined as a specific characteristic that orients the performance and the decisions of the people. In this paper we will try to display a systematic scheme on the motivational paper of the nature and the predicting power that a naturalistic direction can have in other dominions of the human behaviour, with special reference to the scope of the proenvironmental responsibility. Also, a summary of the theoretical and methodological problems appears that raises the use of the naturalistic direction like an essential component of the profile of psychological performance of the people. In summary, goals and motives create stable and distinctive networks of relationships that shape how a person accesses symbolic and affective representations. Situations influence how and when cognitive and affective processes are activated.
Johansson, Maria, Mats Gyllin, Jesper Witzell, and Marianne Küller. Public Acceptance of Policies for Biodiversity Conservation in Broad-Leaf Forests In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Human activities have a significant role in the escalating loss of the global biodiversity. Approximately 10 percent of regional plant and animal species are threatened in Sweden, mainly by modern practices in agriculture, forestry and fisheries. People in Sweden are concerned about the disappearance of plants, animals, and wildlife habitats, and express a great concern for biodiversity conservation. Previous research show that a favourable attitude and a strong personal norm towards biodiversity conservation are significant predictors of public intention to support conservation of local biotopes. However, the public seem to have very vague ideas of what measures might be relevant to protect the local biodiversity. People may therefore respond negatively to those interventions introduced by environmental managers in forest areas. Although some forest owners have introduced conservation measures on their land, many still seem hesitant towards new approaches in forest management. Based on Value-Belief-Norm (VBN) Theory, the present study aims to analyse psychological antecedents of public acceptance regarding policies for local biodiversity conservation of broad-leaf forests. It is asked i) to what extent public acceptance of biodiversity conservation policies can be explained by the VBNtheory and, ii) if the psychological antecedents of acceptance of biodiversity conservation policies may differ between landowners, members of an outdoor organisation and local residents. In a first stage of the empirical work environmental managers at the Swedish Forest Agency and the County Administrative Board were asked to list appropriate conservation policies for broad leaf forests. Forty-five policies representing a wide range of strategies were chosen and categorised as ecological, financial/administrative and social policies. At the second stage the policies were written on cards and approx 120 participants (including forest owners, members of an outdoor organisation and local residents) individually sorted the policies for acceptance by means of the Q-sort method. Moreover they responded to a questionnaire covering the constructs of the VBN-theory. The paper will present statistical results concerning the relation between the VBNconstructs and acceptance of the three categories of polices, and possible differences between the three groups of participants will be analysed. The results will give and idea of which conservation measures may, and which may not, be controversial. Environmental managers will get an idea of what conservation measures are perceived as acceptable in broad-leaf in different user groups, and the different user groups will get a deeper understanding of each other’s needs and preferences. The results will further be discussed in the context of public participation in local biodiversity conservation.
Hanss, Daniel, Ann Bostrom Gi Böhm, and Robert O’Connor. "Public Perception of Climate Change: a Cross-National Comparison." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. Climate change is one of the most urgent problems of modern societies. Its consequences will affect human welfare, economic development, political stability, and social justice in many parts of the world. Humans play a prominent role with respect to climate change: They cause the problem by emitting greenhouse gases, they suffer from the consequences, and it is humans who have the capacity and responsibility to address and master the problem. Therefore, it is important to understand how the public perceives climate change and its consequences. Investigating the public perception of climate change will also help to understand if and under what conditions people are willing to engage in mitigative actions. And since climate change is a problem of global dimensions, it is important to compare public perceptions across nations. The present paper presents a cross-national survey that compares climate change perceptions of undergraduate students in economics across five countries: Norway, Finland, Germany, Austria, and Bangladesh (total N = 600). Perceptions of climate change were compared to perceptions of another challenge to modern societies with potential effects on human welfare and economic development: pandemic influenzas. The questionnaire consisted of six parts: a) risk perception of climate change, measured on 12 psychometric scales (e.g., perceived threat, perceived benefits, knowledge, dread, moral concerns), b) risk perception of pandemic influenzas (measured on the same scales), c) perceived causes of climate change (importance rating for 12 causes, e.g., car driving, destruction of tropical forests, ozone hole), d) perceived consequences of climate change (likelihood of 11 consequences, e.g., food shortages, diseases, climate refugees, species extinction), e) perceived efficiency of various mitigative actions (rating for 11 actions, e.g., taxes on fossil fuels, fertilizing oceans, emission trading, replacing fossil fuels with nuclear energy), and f) support for the same list of mitigative actions (rating). // Two main questions were addressed in the data analysis: a) How do people perceive the risks from climate change compared to those from pandemic influenzas? b) What is the relationship between knowledge of causes and consequences, perceived risk, perceived efficiency of mitigative actions, and policy support for mitigative actions? // Furthermore, differences between nations were analyzed for both research questions. With respect to risk perception for climate change, human causation is generally very salient, and the consequences seem more threatening to humans in general than personally. Pandemic influenzas, in contrast, are seen as less anthropogenic and the consequences seem more relevant personally. Bangladesh deviates from the other countries in that Bangladesh respondents see climate change as more threatening and less controllable. There is little variation across countries with respect to the relationships between variables. Risk perception is related with knowledge about consequences; policy support, in contrast, is more strongly related to the perceived causes and to whether the actions are seen as efficient in mitigating the causes. This implies that people support preventive actions more than adaptive strategies. In addition, we find that misconceptions which have been found in previous research still prevail in our study (e.g., the ozone hole is seen as an important cause of climate change); and that some mitigative actions that are discussed in the scientific debate as potential solutions are neither perceived as efficient nor supported by the public (e.g., fertilizing oceans, putting dust into the atmosphere). The fact that national differences are more pronounced in risk perception than in the correlational structure of the variables may suggest that even though people differ in their perceived vulnerability, the general process of risk perception and evaluation is universal across cultures.
Russell, Sally. "Pulling on Heartstrings: a Study of the Effectiveness of Emotionally Framed Messages to Encourage Proenvironmental Behavior." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. In this presentation, I report the results of two quasi-experimental studies where I aimed to examine the effect of particular emotional displays on participants’ proenvironmental behavior. I argue that examining discrete emotions facilitates a more sensitive investigation of the role of emotion in explaining proenvironmental behaviour. Further, I argue that past research that has relied on the aggregation of emotion into positive and negative valence may have masked discrete emotion effects. In Study 1, 194 masters-level and senior undergraduate students viewed a news video about climate change where the news reader displayed one of five emotions. A control group read a written report of the news. The dependent variable was recycling behavior following the viewing. In Study 2, 135 office employees viewed the same five news videos online; the dependent variable in this study was requesting further information. Results were that displayed emotion had a significant effect on proenvironmental behavior following the viewing. The sadness/ hopelessness condition in particular resulted in significantly less proenvironmental behavior. These results emphasize the need to study the effect of discrete emotions, rather than just positively versus negatively valenced emotions. The findings of this research extend earlier work by demonstrating the effect discrete emotions can have on particular types of pro-environmental behaviors. The findings of this research also provide opportunities for future research to explore how environmental and sustainability change programs might be created that can trigger more proactive responses to climate change issues. For instance, the reliance on negative images of environmental destruction, the loss of mega fauna, may create a sense of helplessness rather than become a rallying point for individuals to engage in proenvironmental behaviors.
Zuin, Affonso, and Simon Bell. "Qolsim – a Conjoint Analysis-Based Simulator for Residential Location Choice Likelihood." In Vulnerability, Risk and Complexity: Impacts of global Change on Human Habitats (IAPS 21 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Leipzig, Germany: Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, 2010. This presentation results from ongoing work within the project PLUREL (Peri-Urban Land Use Relationships – Strategies and Sustainability Assessment Tools for Urban- Rural Linkages), from the Sixth Framework Programme Priority 6.3 - Global Change and Ecosystems. It has been developed in the working module carrying out impact assessment for sustainability dimensions under specific land conversion scenarios. In this context, the task of searching for adequate social indicators that would reflect how land use change (LUC) affects residents’ Quality of Life (QoL) was undertaken. Many attempts have been made to compose comprehensive lists of social indicators by welding factors coming from different fields together. Many of these lists, however, had their lifespan limited to the projects to which they were applied. Therefore, the approach adopted here was to focus on pre-existing indicator lists proven to be sustainable, selecting a limited set from them. It was decided that residential location preferences by different resident types in urban, peri-urban, and rural areas would be an adequate means to assess the possible impact of these changes on QoL. However, technically measured levels of indicators are seldom, if ever, a factor in people’s decision of where to live. People’s preferences for residential location depend on a series of factors, most of them connected with what they perceive each place to offer for their QoL. Still, from a given set of QoL indicators, each would be valued differently, depending on each person’s life circumstances, personal preferences and habits. One given place would afford different things to different people. Therefore, the concept of ‘affordances’, as instantly detectable functions, is present in the theoretical grounding of the present study. In addition, studying preferences so as to offer the possibility of predicting choice behaviour according to changes in the scenario was recognised as the adequate procedure. This has been an area of study in applied psychology which, with mathematical modelling, yielded a powerful tool for marketing and many other applications: Conjoint Analysis –CA. CA is a group of statistical techniques for measuring relative importance of choice attributes when considered jointly. It takes advantage of the fact that people choose more efficiently when making relative choices than when making absolute judgements. A ‘Market Simulator’ is a possible output of CA, being a userfriendly tool based on the statistics of a conjoint study. It quantifies the likelihood of choice for different scenarios in which one or more attributes change. CA requires the definition of the components of choice scenarios in terms of attributes, e.g. ‘air quality’, and levels of each attribute, e.g. good, fair, poor etc. Hence, eight QoL indicators were selected as attributes from the initial sets: air quality, access to green spaces, access to public transport, commercial facilities in the neighborhood, noise pollution, dwelling suitability, safety and security, and waste collection. These were broken down into categories through which they are normally perceived, as in the example given, to obtain the levels for the Adaptive Conjoint study designed. This presentation explores results obtained for two case-study regions, Manchester and Warsaw, from a sample of 250 respondents in each city, collected between May and September 2009. Conjoint relative importances of the eight indicators studied are compared, showing that, in general, respondents find ‘safety and security’ the most important attribute, while access to green spaces is the least important. However, importance varies among sample segments, as will be shown. QoLSim, the simulator, is demonstrated as a working instrument, allowing preferences for different QoL scenarios by the full sample and by different segments to be examined.