Keywords Abstract
Mori, S, R Hara, SK Chan, and A Kato. A Case Study on Planning, Design and Management of Welfare Residential Facilities in Singapore In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Singapore’s social problems arising from an aging society are fast becoming serious to the Nation. Singapore’s senior citizens form 8.7% of the current population and will reach 19% by 2030.Singapore’s Ministry of Health has projected that long-term residential care will grow rapidly. Its strategy to enhance the mental ecosystem is to provide more facilities and services to cater to the needs especially to the lower and medium income group of aging people with mental illness, their care-providers and caregivers. The effective planning, design and management of welfare residential facilities and support services are necessary, essential and urgent to meet rising need to move elderly into institutional home due to the lack of necessary family and extended family support and not necessarily for lack of Asian filial piety.The report on this study and the Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE) on the issues will provide beneficial feedbacks from behavioral issues and other related matters that can help in developing effective programs and meaningful built environments of welfare facilities maintenance in land-limited Singapore. The study also provides the understanding of the common features of facilities composition, room layouts and the constraint aspects of the selected welfare residence facilities under examination
Cheow, PK, and K Nishide. "A Comparative Study on the Utilization of Community and Supplemental Type Toy Libraries." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Since the establishment of first toy library in Japan at Mitaka in 1981, the concept of toy library started to spread among Asian countries. Unlike public library, toy library exists in different ways varies from stand alone facility, supplemental service for hospital or kindergarten to mobile toy library. This variation has caused confusion to many and after many years its existence still remained negligible among the general public. However, a closer look to this toy library will leads one to recognize its contribution and significance to the users as it is not only allows children and their parents to borrow toys, games and others as they would books from a public library, it also provide a place for the children from different families to play together and encourages the exchange of ideas among parents about the development of their children. Therefore, it is necessary to have a better understanding on the utilization of toy libraries before the suggestions for future improvements can be made. Generally, toy library can be divided into two categories, which are Community Type and Supplemental Type toy library. Community Type Toy Library can be considered as a type of welfare facilities under community center, volunteer center or it itself is a stand-alone community facility. Whereas the Supplemental Type Toy Library is usually attached to another main facilities like hospital or nursery and operated as an additional service. Before pin-pointing the existing problems in toy library, it is important to find out the similarities and differences of utilization among different types of toy library. Therefore, this study is generated to compare the users’ utilization of Community Type and Supplemental Type toy library by focusing on the spatial elements as well as the users’ behaviors. From there, merits from each type are suggested for another for better usage of space and more user-friendly environment. For methodology, case studies are used and 2 toy libraries from each type are selected for further survey. The survey is carried out during the operation hours of each sample, by using non-participation observation, behavioral mapping and interviews. The results show: 1) Spatial planning of each sample differs according to the objectives of the toy library, which is largely affected by the type of toy library. 2) The users’ utilization and atmosphere of the place is influenced by the type of space provided in the toy library, as well as the type of toys available at each sample. 3) The way of communication among children users and parents are different at each sample, which is also highly related to the type of toy library. In conclusion, although the 2 types of toy libraries have different target users, the spatial planning should not be limited to certain pattern only. Since each type of toy libraries have their pros and cons, the merits should be integrated into the others in order to optimize the function of toy library.
Roe, J, A Zuin, P Aspinall, and Ward C Thompson. "A Conjoint Methodology for Exploring Place and Activity Preferences for Stress Regulation and Relationships with Green Space." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Significant associations have been found by a number of researchers exploring the relationship between green space and stress. People’s preferences for stress regulation have also been shown to vary by activity and the environmental characteristics of green space (Stigsdotter and Grahn, in press). This current study builds on an earlier pilot indicating that people living in areas of high urban deprivation in Scotland may experience stress differently according to the levels of green space in their living environment (Ward Thompson et al, under review). Our aim was to explore, in a similar population, preferences for stress regulation in relation to self-reported stress and wellbeing and a range of environmental attributes. The research design grew from focus groups carried out with residents in four case study areas in Central Scotland characterised by high levels of deprivation and high versus low levels of green space (n= 29). Findings indicated that preferences for stress regulation appeared to vary in relation to the percentage of green space in the living environment. To explore this further, we used adaptive conjoint analysis, coupled with hierarchical Bayes estimation, to assess activity preferences when choosing a place for stress regulation. Via a computer aided household survey, adult residents living in areas of high and low green space in Edinburgh and Dundee, Scotland (n=406) were presented with a series of scenarios in relation to a question on the need to ‘get away’ when under stress: ‘where would you go to clear the head?’ Participants selected one of four behavioural options based on findings from the focus groups; to seek peace and quiet, to go for a walk, to seek company, or to stay at home. For each option, attributes of the environment were offered in combinations, to explore preferences for achieving stress relief. The attributes – selected on the basis of focus group findings – were specific to each chosen behavioural option but included location, activity, traffic density, distance to preferred location, views, greenspace and the social context. Self-reported stress and wellbeing measures were also captured.Conjoint analysis was run to prioritise the attributes that were most important for achieving the chosen behaviour. Early analysis for all respondents shows location, activity and views to be important attributes in relation the chosen behaviours, but that this varies by sub-groups, for example, by gender and employment status. The full findings will be presented and discussed in relation to the potential of green space to promote stress regulation.
Abdel-Hadi, Aleya, E El-Nachar, H Sefieldin, and Castello L. Paris. "A Customization of Urbanites." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. The construction of places in today´s urban agglomerations is frequently associated to place-making and place-marketing policies. This trend clearly represents a global contemporary planning style. One of its typical manifestations is the insertion of prettified images of places in order to competitively use “urbanity” as a tool to attract people and entertain them in an interspersed assortment of iconic places. Results of empirical research studies demonstrate that stimuli that influence human experiences in the built environment, usually employed in macro levels of urban planning policies, are being increasingly adopted in local level projects, allowing for the presence of global influences in the definition of their identity. This paper addresses the impact global planning transfer renders to the context of local place identities – so as not to distort them exceedingly – and the best ways to evaluate the potential impact of environment-behaviour research on urban-architectural practice.The actual symposium brings a good opportunity to further develop the topic of situating local place identity within a global perspective. From the literature, there are several interesting research inputs that can work as guidance for this purpose. Three of them will be highlighted in the paper, namely the ones that deal with changes: (i) in the control of land (fragments); in the behaviours of people (urbanity); in the uses of vacant land (placeLeaks). Minton’s research indicates that new invented places can create extended fragments, entailing discontinuities in the morphology of the city fabric (Minton 2009:15-18). Consequently, the manifestation of urbanity in these areas may result different from urbanity encountered in spontaneously created places (Castello 2011 a). In other words, place-identity may experience variations, which determine variations in the fruition of urbanity. Finally, as for change in vacant land uses, recent studies argue that people are appropriating cities’ loose spaces and attributing them original uses (Franck and Stevens 2007) besides setting up new informal places of urbanity in the interfaces as PlaceLeaks (Castello 2011 b:3).Figuratively speaking, one can imagine being faced by a sort of a customization of urbanites going on in contemporary places. This disturbing hypothesis implies that design practice and policy, when appropriately managed, can effectively influence – and act – upon the interaction between people and environment, upon present day transactions between urbanites and their places.
Paik, J, S Lee, and D Son. A Field Study on Visual Elements of Sign in Exhibition Convention Centers in Korea, Japan, and U.s.a. from the Aspect of Universal Design In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. As exhibition convention centers are built on a large scale and visitors are continually increasing. And visitors often face difficulty in wayfinding. This study conducts field study and evaluation on the directional & orientational signs of exhibition convention centers from the aspect of universal design.Regarding the selection of study subjects, this study selects two Koreas exhibition convention centers, COEX in Seoul and KINTEX in Gyeonggi-do whose exhibitions are over 30 per year from 2008 till 2010 and whose area of use for exhibition is over 10,000m©÷. And also in the outside of Korea, it selects the U.S.A. biggest exhibition convention center, McComick Place, Chicago, and the Japans biggest convention center, Big Sight, Tokyo.According to the result of evaluating the current status of the sign systems in field study, in terms of colors, COEX and Big Sight conducts color arrangement avoiding complementary contrast or subtle color difference for the people with color blindness or low vision; however, KINTEX uses cold colors rather than warm colors in color arrangement, which can be hardly recognized by the elderly with low visibility to the series of blue colors. McComick Place(A type) uses bright gray letters on the brown background, which is evaluated as color arrangement with rather low visibility. And McComick Place(B type) uses similar colors like the orange and dark reddish brown, which is thought to cause difficulty in recognition to the elderly. In terms of brightness of color, all of the four places provide easily recognizable composition with the brightness difference between the background and letter colors of over 4 levels.In the use of arrows and pictograms, KINTEX uses standard pictograms, but there is no great problem found. However, COEX uses thin arrows that they can hardly be recognized by those with low vision while McComick Place uses the ISOs international standard forms of arrows which are highly recognizable. Big Sight arranges the JISs industrial standard pictograms and arrows with high color contrast that they are recognized effectively.About multi language use, COEX and KINTEX use only two languages which are quite insufficient for exhibition convention center. But Big Sight uses four languages which is the most recommendable. In the selection of fonts, most of them use the sans serif style that there is no such difficulty in recognition; however, McComick Place uses the serif style which has rather low recognition. According to the result of synthetic analysis, Big Sight is the case that applies the universal design most recommendable. It uses great brightness difference in color arrangement so as to enhance recognition and uses achromatic color s effectively. Also, it is evaluated excellently that it actively uses standard pictograms and uses four multi languages for international visitors.
C Thompson, Ward, A Curl, PA Aspinall, J.R. Roe, A Zuin, and S Alves. "A Longitudinal Study of Shared Space Street Improvements and Older People's Quality of Life." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. There is a growing body of literature suggesting that access outdoors and use of public spaces in the local neighbourhood plays an important role for older people in maintaining their quality of life (Sugiyama et al., 2009). In the context of demographic change across Europe, it is important to know whether current policies for designing and renewing neighbourhood environments, especially where there are currently high levels of deprivation, provide appropriate support for an ageing population. Yet older people’s needs are often poorly researched in relation to urban regeneration initiatives. Residential streets represent a readily available outdoor space and a necessary route to activities outside the home and thus may be important determinant of quality of life.This longitudinal study is part of the I’DGO TOO (Inclusive Design for Getting Outdoors 2) research project (see www.idgo.ac.uk). It examines whether and how modifications to the residential street environment based on pedestrian-friendly, shared space approaches such as ‘Home Zones’ contribute to older people’s quality of life. The study was carried out in eight locations across the UK where shared space street projects were planned. Older residents were interviewed in two time periods – in 2008 before the environmental intervention took place and in 2010 or 2011, after the environmental changes had happened. Each experimental site was matched with a control site (where no environmental change was proposed).The data collected by interview included:a) Personal projects involving outdoor activities – what kinds of activities people prefer to undertake, where, and how they evaluate themb) Perceptions of the environment in relation to outdoor spaces around the home, local streets, and the neighbourhood in general.c) Quality of life and self-rated health, using previously validated and tested scales, including CASP 19 and EUROQOLd) Frequency of getting outdoors in summer and winter months.In addition, objective measures included accelerometer data, behaviour observations and street audits. When comparing data from 2008 and 2010, initial findings show that time spent outdoors and the number of personal projects involving outdoor activity have increased in the intervention sites by comparison with control sites. However, quality of life and frequency of going outdoors (especially in winter) has decreased for participants in intervention sites by comparison with control. The presentation will discuss these findings in the context of further analyses and explore the potential reasons behind the findings. The presentation will also identify the challenges and limitations of a study such as this, where the context of deprivation and the age of participants meant retention of study recruits was particularly difficult. Nonetheless, these findings may help inform the design of streets spaces in the UK and Europe by showing which aspects make a different to older people’s everyday life.
Vidal, T, and H Berroeta. "A Multi-Method Proposal to Study Public Space on a Neighborhood Scale from a Transactional Approach." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. The transactional perspective is very attractive in order to analyze and intervene in public space on neighborhood scale. However, language and methodological differences between the various disciplines involved make it quite complex. In this article we present a multi-method qualitative strategy of analysis, integrating various results graphically, in an attempt to bring together the graphic and textual languages that dominate single-discipline approaches of public space. Diverse techniques were triangulated and underwent the same analytical process (Grounded Theory), supported by Atlas / ti and Arcgis software. Using this techniques it was possible to link graphic aspects (maps and images) with comments from researchers and biographical accounts of the participants. So, specific physical spaces were associated with the development and construction of spatial meanings and uses.
Gray, G. "A Phenomenological Study of Social Housing Design and Tenants Needs." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Social housing provision is not merely the case of providing sufficient numbers of dwellings but involves the understanding of the complex and symbolic interaction of tenants throughout their life cycle with this environment. There are inbuilt design affordances that allow the tenant an element of control and ability to create their personal version of an environment that reflects their personality. Matching tenants’ needs to the structure is therefore particularly important in creating feelings of satisfaction, well-being and attachment(Vestbro, Hürol & Wilkinson, 2005).The research question that evolves from this notion is “Does current social housing design in Scotland meet the needs of tenants?” Environmental Psychology is deeply entwined in trying to understand the mechanics of everyday life, from using the spaces we inhabit to interpreting the objects we observe, handle, sit upon and generally use (Brebner, 1982). Examining how tenants judge the built spaces they inhabit and whether their needs are being met can be based on a number of variables, such as:preferences of room size and shape, affordances that radiator, door and window position provide for personalising rooms, aesthetic judgments of style, colour and materials, emotional links, identity and place attachment and feelings of control.The Parker Morris Report (1961),‘ Homes for Today and Tomorrow’, suggests the way to design rooms within social dwellings is dependent on the architect having some form of knowledge relating to, the pattern of room use, the activities that go on in them and the furniture which will be kept in it. Edwards (1974) and Darke (1984a,b&c)found architects expressed difficulty in designing for people living in social housing and suggested the only way to design was to design from their own experiences and to their own preferences as the primary guide to user needs. There has been little research exploring how housing associations (HA) (the main provider of social housing in Scotland) determine the needs of end users. As non-profit making organisations, HAs are the primary structure for devolving control of housing decisions down to a local level.This study uses a qualitative approach to triangulate grounded data via focus groups and individual interviews to compare tenants, architects, and HA professional’s perceptions on social housing designs. Preliminary results suggested that architects in general expressed a keenness to interact with tenants but did not show any clear practical application of it. In contrast tenants viewed any interaction they had with architects as superfluous as architects tended, in their view to “do what they wanted anyway”. HAs seemed not to engage tenants in design issues and had rigid views on how much design involvement architects should have. This paper will further discuss common areas and indeed gaps that exist between each of these key stakeholders and the implications for social housing provision, design and use.
Son, D, S Lee, and J Paik. A Research on Supergraphic Design Used in Hospital for Children In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Nowadays parents care for their children more than before, and children with incurable disease increase for environmental pollution. This increases the demand on hospital for children. Also, they show more interest in supergraphics which can richen such environment for children further. In Korea, however, it is urgent to establish measures because children¡s hospitals lack and hardly reflect child patients emotion or characteristics.Thereupon, this study conducted a case research on the signs and supergraphics in two representative hospitals for children in Seoul(Seoul National University Childrens Hospital) and Pusan(Pusan National University Childrens Hospital), the first and second cities of Korea, based on literature research on two foreign hospitals for children (Philadelphia Childrens Hospital, U.S.A., Kyushu University Hospital, Japan).According to the result of literature research on foreign spaces, Philadelphia Childrens Hospital in the US uses design with the sun, moon, and stars and also various colors to divide space to intrigue children. Kyushu University Hospital in Japan uses various animal images, so its overall atmosphere is dynamic and calm at the same time. Using the medium chroma and medium brightness of colors gives emotional stability. Also, it is the case that utilizes exemplary supergraphics actively using environmental elements such as walls, floors, or windows.According to the result of case study, Seoul National University Childrens Hospital, the largest childrens hospital in Korea, uses blue as its main color and draws characters developed on the walls, floors, ceilings, and signs to intrigue children and make them feel intimacy. About orientational and directional signs, letters are in Gothic style, and two languages of Korean and English are written. And characters are put in the marginal area. However, for the distracting use of characters on the walls and signs, it creates no harmony as a whole and gives a feel of complexity and confusion.Pusan National University Childrens Hospital, the first childrens hospital in Pusan, uses warm colors to give genial feelings and also uses green and blue for highlighting, too. It uses the walls, floors, and ceilings with the themes of the sea world and universe for childs imagination. For orientational and directional signs, letters are in Blurred style(which is not suitable for children), and three languages of Korean, English, and Chinese are written. Although the whole building and facilities apply supergraphics and a plane divisional method, too many bright colors are used that it creates distraction.This study has found that hospitals for children are getting to have design considering child patients. However, the use of distracting characters and too many bright colors rather gives fatigue to children, so it should be changed.
Yanagisawa, K, and K Kajihara. "A Study on Public Procurement for Architecture in France." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. The policy of the national budget of Japanese government had had a tendency to overinvest in social infrastructure to distribute social wealth widely; however, after a change of government 2009, these investments are hold down and new policy that softens social unrest by increasing social security allowance is being executed.On the other hand, for urban planning authorities it should be a pressing matter to improve the quality of living environment. But under the harsh financial conditions, there would be very few chance of success for drastic reforming of city itself. So we need efficient reorganization of cities by superb public buildings to create a competitive environment against rising nations of economics in East Asia.According to other source, in Europe the amount of investment in public works is lower than that in Japan; however, they seem to adopt a smart procurement system for public building, which realizes attractive environment with saving total investment.There are various characters in each country. In UK, they have the well-organized supporting system of public procurement. @In Germany, they focus on the sustainability.On this study, I researched the public procurement in France which have a well-organized system of law in Latin countries and keep the quality of public building by design competition and strict brief. And I would like to uncover a ideal method to achieve excellent public buildings for competitive environment.In France, some architecture-related organizations and committees work on the project to advance it smoothly. MIQCP, government committee, works as a consultant for the architect and support the local government to review. The programist supports the local government to prepare the brief.I researched some document and interviewed these organizations and a local government to understand the system of public procurement and the social position of the professional. The target of the interview; 1)MIQCP, 2)SYPAA, 3)the local government in Argenteuil. And I selected a couple of cases from recent works which won the architectural awards. Through the cases, I researched some brief about the competition and interviewed the architects to uncover the process and condition of the project, as followings;a) Music Conservatory of clichy: Before the review, technical committee which was organize by some architects worked on the project as a adviser.b) Lycee Robert Schuman a Charenton: The local government prepared the strict brief which included some technical solutions.c) The Jussieu Building, universite Pierre et marie curie: The university official prepared the program with the programist. And after the competition, they consulted with the architect to modify the brief.Through the research, it was revealed that the quality of the brief influenced the success of the project and also the quality of the building was kept by the split of work, clarification of responsibility and supporting system.
Lee, SJ, DJ Son, and JK Paik. A Study on the Color Design of Sign System in Inje University Haeundae Paik Hospital In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Together with the growing attention in well-being and health, the scope of hospital is expanding to a place for health care from the place to treat patients. Knowing that the interior environment of a hospital has a significant impact on treatment of patients, the sign system of general hospital is not only effective in delivery of information and wayfinding but also is an important visual element that determines the interior environment of hospital. This study discusses the color design of Inje University Haeundae Paik Hospital which is a large general hospital with 1004 sickbeds opened in March 2010.Haeundae is a famous tourist attraction with the largest bathing resort in Korea. The agenda of Haeundae Paik hospital, with their keywords, environmental conservation and provision of advanced medical care, is in building the medical tour hub that can accommodate not only domestic patients but also foreign patients from over 40 countries. Therefore, the sign system in the hospital should be able to convey a such hospital image, and as well it should have a sustainability and be responsible with changes of information. The color use in interior space of the hospital focuses on minimum irritation to patients who need mental stability, and point colors that can maximize color effects were chosen.As for reference, this study compared the color design of sign system in the Inje University Haeundae Paik Hospital with the colors of sign system in other hospitals analyzed in former studies(Paik 2004, Kwon 2007 and Hong 2010). The study on the effectiveness of sign system in general hospital in 2009 conducted an on-the-spot survey on the informational, directional and orientational signs in 8 general hospitals that were newly built or had a newly designed sign system after 2008 in Busan and Seoul. In the former studies (Paik 2004 and Kwon 2007), there observed was frequent use of bluish green color. Unlikely, increased use of gray and warm color tone in recent trend is noticeable. This changing trend in color use well explains the intention to construct comfortable and patient-oriented environment by giving warm and comfortable feeling.The interior finish material used in Haeundae Paik Hospital are mainly of delicate colors such as beige color marble, white painted glass and maple color. To be in harmony with noble feeling from marble and glass, this study suggest the color of main sign system as follows: plate color(M:20, Y:20, K:80) for the color of sign, white for letters, and bright yellow orange(M:30, Y:100) for arrow and point color (referring to the Standard Color Sample in the Color Standard Guide for Public Design). Also the study worked out a color plan for proper use of point color in right place.The color design of sign system in Inje University Haeundae Paik Hospital is not only practical but reflecting recent trend.
Lambiotte, R, A Noulas, M Pontil, S Scellato, and C Mascolo. "A Tale of Many Cities: Universal Patterns in Human Urban Mobility." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. The advent of geographic online social networks such as Foursquare, where users voluntarily signal their current location, opens the door to powerful studies on human movement. In particular the fine granularity of the location data, with GPS accuracy down to 10 meters, and the worldwide scale of Foursquare adoption are unprecedented. In this work we study urban mobility patterns of people in several metropolitan cities around the globe by analyzing a large set of Foursquare users. Surprisingly, while there are variations in human movement in different cities, our analysis shows that those are predominantly due to different distributions of places across different urban environments. Moreover, a universal law for human mobility is identified, which isolates as a key component the rank-distance, factoring in the number of places between origin and destination, rather than pure physical distance, as considered in some previous works. Building on our findings, we also show how a rank-based movement model accurately captures real human movements in different cities. Our results shed new light on the driving factors of urban human mobility, with potential applications for urban planning, location-based advertisement and even social studies.
Dalton, R, and C Hoelscher. "A Useable Building is a Navigable Building." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. This paper presents the argument that navigational ease has a greater impact on building usability compared to other factors, hence it subsumes other usability considerations. Patterns of human behaviour inside buildings can be held to consist of two types, static occupancy and dynamic movement and need to be readily accessible to both regular users as well as infrequent/first time visitors. Furthermore it is the circulation system of a building that facilitates a high proportion of informal, unprogrammed social interactions that contribute to the social life of a building.This paper will highlight a number of design moves/considerations that appear to either aid or conversely hinder navigability through a series of case studies. The case studies described in this paper primarily include the Heinrich-Luebke-Haus in Guenne (a 1960/70s conference centre in NW Germany), the Kollegiengebaeude I (a picturesque, Jugendstil campus building of the University of Freiburg unsuccessfully fused to an adjacent 1970s addition, located in SW Germany) and The Seattle Public Library (by OMA with LMN Architects, 2004, located in Seattle USA). Through these case studies, the authors will illustrate how certain design guidelines (for example, the use of straighter, more direct routes (Conroy Dalton 2003); unimpeded lines of sight connecting key building spaces (such as entrances, atria, stairs, lifts and escalators) (Gaerling et al, 1986); the avoidance of abrupt changes of direction in corridors; ensuring that differences in floor layout between floors are not significant (Hoelscher et al, 2009); the avoidance of excessive spatial complexity and locations bearing a strong visual similarity to other locations (Weisman, 1981)) can have a strong effect upon navigability. Evidence for these guidelines is demonstrated through studies conducted in the above-mentioned buildings.The methods employed by the authors in these case studies include visual and spatial analysis (space syntax analysis (Hillier 1996)), the use of experimental methods (wayfinding tasks, think aloud protocols, pointing tasks, eye-tracking (mobile and on-screen), memory recall tasks and direct observation), social science methods (self-reporting questionnaires, interviews), simulation methods (virtual reality simulations of both actual buildings and alternative design-solutions of existing buildings and agent-navigation simulations), problem analysis and redesign tasks (architect’s redesign tasks/interviews), a focus on signage (sign and signage-placement analysis and signage re-design alternatives) and standard psychological spatial ability tests (for example mental rotation tests).The evidence from this considerable corpus of work presents a compelling case for the importance of ease of navigation for a building user. It is finally argued that whilst other aspects of a building’s usability may be tolerated, a dysfunctional circulation system rapidly leads to widespread user frustration.
Bonet, N, D Donet, Di Masso, A Castrechini, and S Valera. "Accounting for Urban Insecurity: Everyday Understandings and Ideological Functions in Barcelona's Public Space." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Discourses stressing an alleged increase of perception of insecurity and of fear of crime have been proliferating during the last years in both American and European cities. As a psychological category of experience, urban insecurity features a series of emotions and ideas related to actual or possible risks of victimisation likely to occur to any person, and particularly to vulnerable social groups, in the urban open space. However, urban insecurity does not emerge in a social vacuum. On the contrary, the individual’s psychological experience of feeling unsafe in the city is shaped in the midst of a culturally shared and socially organised set of representations, values and beliefs, which construct the identities, positions and actions of both the vulnerable citizens and the potential offenders. Accordingly, citizens’ ordinary depictions of the urban scene as insecure might map and reproduce, but also challenge and contest, broader cultural and ideological climates which are both politically rooted and consequential in terms of urban control policy making.To illustrate this, we present an empirical study conducted in the city of Barcelona, aiming to explore social representations of urban inecurity as expressed by common citizens in their daily environments. We approached 82 citizens (varying in age, gender and local/immigrant conditions) directly in the streets, using an open-ended questionnaire conceived to trigger people’s spontaneous images, opinions, attitudes and understandings of urban insecurity as subjectively experienced. Interviews took place in two different districts, with high and low objective rates of victimisation respectively. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and we performed a discursive-rhetorical analysis (Billig, 1991; Di Masso, Dixon & Pol, 2011; Potter & Wetherell, 1987), focusing on cultural images and common assumptions, patterns of variability and contradition constructing people’s attitudes towards the issue, and broader ideological resonances related to shared beliefs about the social order in the public space. We argue from the analysis that: 1) there is a clear separation between citizens’ opinions about urban unsafety and their actual experience of feeling unsafe, therefore discourses of insecurity may accomplish social functions other than communicating a sense of personal threat; 2) accounts of urban insecurity construct recurrent patterns of attribution to specific social groups (mostly immigrants), thereby legitimising the subtle expression of xenophobic opinions and warranting measures of social exclusion; and 3) discourses of urban insecurity trigger common ideological tensions shaping public space policies (freedom versus control, police surveillance versus education and community mediation, etc.). The study sheds light on the cultural and ideological processes and consequences that frame urban insecurity as a psychological topic relevant in the agenda of urban policy makers.
Ismail, RI. "Adaptation of Housing Design to Culture Change in Syria: Concepts and Practices of Privacy, Food Preparation/consumption." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Rapid cultural change in contemporary life is affecting housing use and design in Syria, with these becoming more out of sync. This study is investigating the nature of cultural change and its impact on housing use to investigate to what extent it is affecting the appropriateness of housing design.The study is theoretically based on a social constructionist approach due to the complexity and multidimensionality of the study especially in understanding how people interpret their housing use and cultural identity. The academic literature review focuses on the overlap between culture and housing design and reviews the changing nature of these in Syria. Based on a case study approach, the research focuses on the cities in Syria most affected by modernization, westernization and globalization (coastal tourist Lattakia). The research investigates the contextual nature of cultural issues in relation to built environment, drawing on qualitative research methods at both a macro and micro level - e.g. different techniques were used- considering the holistic yet individual implications of the subject. Empirical investigations were conducted with appropriate samples of representative households in two formal ‘generically designed’ housing areas - i.e. those not designed for a specific client and not self-designed/built, but designed by either government or private sector architects for a general population. The first housing area was developed by the state with subsidised housing (Youth Housing) which represents a lower middle class group. The second area was the university area (Tishreen university area) which represents a middle class group with houses designed speculatively by the private sector. In these two areas, 39 households were interviewed using face-to-face questionnaires, photographic documentation, documented licensed housing design plans, and direct observation. Semi-structured interviews with actors involved in generic housing design (academic architects, professional architects and developers) were also conducted. Two key housing use/design issues were chosen to be investigated as key cultural aspects of housing and also highly changeable in the Syrian context: concepts and practices of privacy in the home (family privacy, intra-family privacy, and woman privacy) and trends in food preparation and consumption. Although still in the analysis stage, the study is providing as yet unavailable detailed social and cultural information on actual house use and residents’ aspirations on a number of implications arising from these factors. The output of this research is to recommend design approaches more attuned to current cultural change through a deeper understanding of inhabitants’ current social needs - through e.g. guidelines for bigger kitchens with dining space, which reflects the change in food preparation and consumption, increasing the number of bedrooms to provide more intra-family privacy, and providing study/work space in the dwellings
Reis, A, ML Pereira, and C Biavatti. "Aesthetics of Urban Scenes: an Analysis Through Visual Perception." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. This paper analyses the aesthetics of urban scenes, characterized by different levels of order and visual stimuli, through visual perception of users of Porto Alegre. It follows an investigation regarding the dichotomy between the philosophical and the empirical aesthetics approaches, as well as the impact of formal aesthetics. The existence of differences between the aesthetic responses of architects, non-architects college graduates and non-college graduates is also examined. Still, the reasons for the assessments conducted by these three groups are identified. Considering the environmental aesthetics approach, evaluations of urban scenes with varying degrees of harmony and visual stimuli may provide additional knowledge concerning the dichotomy between philosophical and empirical aesthetics. Data was collected through questionnaires and interviews conducted with 60 architects, 60 non-architects college graduates and 60 non-college graduates. Questionnaires and interviews were complemented by a photographic kit consisting of 3 A3 sheets, each sheet with 3 street scenes. A sample of the street scene consists of scenes of contemporary buildings in Porto Alegre (3 scenes) and historic buildings in Porto Alegre (3 scenes), Prague (1 scene) and Florence (2 scenes), in a total of nine scenes grouped into three categories (not mentioned to the respondent), with three scenes in each category: order and visual stimulus - scenes with a clear organization of architectural elements and compatibility between neighbouring buildings, and with clear visual stimulus or focus of attention; order and low visual stimulus - scenes with a clear organization of architectural elements and compatibility between neighbouring buildings, but with low visual stimulus, what might allow the perception of monotony; and disorder - scenes without a clear organization, both between buildings and among the architectural elements of buildings, preventing the perception of order. Data from the questionnaires were analyzed by means of non-parametric statistical tests, such as cross-tabulations, Kendall W and Kruskal-Wallis. The main results show the potential of empirical aesthetics to explain aesthetic evaluations, and reveal the dominant and positive impact of the idea of order and visual stimuli in such evaluations. Nonetheless, regarding the examination of whether or not the differences between aesthetic evaluations of people with different levels and types of training, a greater aesthetic value was given to the idea of order and a greater aesthetic devaluation was given to the idea of disorder on the part of architects, compared to the group of non-architects college graduates and to the group of non-college graduates.
Reyes-Lagunes, I, P Ortega-Andeane, K Landeros-Mugica, and R Sosa-Echeverría. Air Pollution in Mexico City: a Study of the Psychological and Contextual Factors In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. The Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC) is a mega city which houses a population of more than 20 million inhabitants and is considered one of the 10 most populated cities in the world. The increase in the growth rate of the population and the growth of the urban zone have promoted the use of motor vehicles and also increased the energy demand; this has had a direct impact in the air quality. On the other hand, one of the most disturbing effects of air pollution is the deterioration of physical and psychological health of people (Gutierrez et al., 1997). Taking into account the role of personal factors regarding air pollution, such as health and behavior, the need for psychology involvement has become evident. From the perspective of environmental psychology, 4 psychological aspects are considered to understand air pollution. The perceptions (Rodrígues, 1991), the attributional model associated to behavior (Kelley, 1980), the subjective norm (Schwartz, 1981) and the behavioral intention as predecessors of sustainable behavior (Corral-Verdugo, 2010). The cultural and social characteristics of the MAMC have worsened the air pollution problem; because of this a study to understand psychological aspects of the inhabitants of MAMC is necessary. Method First, an exploratory study was performed to understand and define concepts that were culturally relevant. Afterwards, a descriptive study with quasi-experimental design was conducted in order to find the relation among the psychological variables and the differences between groups. The participants were selected by a random quota sampling, including men and women who lived in the MAMC. Three age groups were considered: 15-18, 25-45 and 45-65 years old. A poll was elaborated including 4 scales: perception, attributional model, subjective norm and behavioral intention. Several parametric statistical analysis, including t-test for independent samples, one-way ANOVA and Pearson´s correlations, as well as Analysis of Principal Component were applied for the psychometric and data analysis.Results and discussion About the perception, air pollution is an important problem, the control is in the hands of scientist and government, and psychological effects are perceived. The attributional model is different for each conduct: responsible use of energy and car maintenance is attributed to personal factors, the use of car or public transportation is associated to their particular characteristics (safety, speed, cost) and buying a new car depends on opportunity. In the subjective norm, personal norm seems to be higher than social norm. In order to create a communication program that promotes actions that help improve air quality in the MAMC, we need to understand how those psychological aspects participate as predecessors of pro-environmental behavior. This knowledge would allow generating a more efficient and specific information campaign that promotes environmentally friendly behaviors.
Lahosa, JM, MT Anguera, S Valera, and F Pérez-Tejera. "An Analysis of Occupancy Patterns in Barcelona's Parks Regarding the Level of Perceived Safety in the Neighborhood." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Fear of crime has become one of the most serious problems of our time, either as a result of living in neighborhoods objectively more 'dangerous', or of the diffuse fear and the obsession with security that characterizes today's society. According to a semiannual public survey, fear of crime and unemployment are on the top of main worries of Barcelona’s citizens. Together with the kind of social processes that characterizes public space in big cities (increased monitoring systems, privatization, standardization and avoidance) more complex patterns of uses and forms of occupation can be found because of higher rates of unemployment, poverty, ethnic diversity, new actors and forms of leisure. University of Barcelona and Barcelona City Council is carrying out a research on the relationship between fear of crime and public space's occupancy patterns. Our interest stems from 1) the risk that urban parks become more conflicted and marginalised areas, feared and avoided by certain groups and 2) the need of psychosocial and environmental evaluation strategies of public space to benefit planners, designers and policy makers.We have developed an ad hoc observation tool, EXOdES, which combines field formats and category systems to allow a systematic recording of variables of different nature (e.g., types of users, activities, psychosocial and environmental variables). During the last quarter of 2010, uses and forms of appropriation of 40 urban parks and squares in Barcelona have been studied. More than 35,000 series of data (or configurations) providing co-occurrence information about who is where, when, doing what, and in which environmental conditions, have been collected.A preliminary analysis of data to explore differences in types of users of public parks, activities and psychosocial and environmental variables regarding the level of perceived security in the neighborhood have been conducted. We have compared observed frequencies in 3 public parks located in high security perceived areas (Les Corts, Sarrià-Sant Gervasi and Gràcia) and 3 parks located in the lowest security perceived district (Ciutat Vella), according to the last Barcelona's Victimization Survey. The results in a sequential analysis suggest a significant lower presence of women and elderly, adults with children and adults with elders in public parks located in Ciutat Vella rather than in those located in high neighborhoods perceived security. Other differences include a significant presence of immigration, homeless people and signs of social and environmental disorder in low neighborhood perceived security.
Yanagisawa, K, and YJ Yoo. "An Analysis of Spatial Evaluation on Elementary and Middle School Special Classrooms." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Since the 1980’s, Japan’s school buildings have introduced multipurpose spaces. It is considered due to the legislation for increasing the area of elementary school 18.0% , middle school 10.5% (based on 2001) by installing multipurpose spaces. Introducing a new learning space has allowed more flexible response to research activities, etc., which used to have limitations in general classrooms. On the other hand, a special classroom has betrayed the necessity for specialized spaces and facilities so that it may correspond to activities of dirtying the floor, involving a loud noise, etc. and meet effective IT service and media space, which are not allowed in general classrooms and multipurpose spaces. In the meantime, there arose problems of difficulty in use by school staff, including efficient activities by special classrooms, securing receiving and notice spaces, coordinating preparation room, etc. So this study made a survey of awareness on the usage of classroom spaces from the view of a teacher. This survey was intended to investigate the relations between students’ learning activities and spaces by understanding teacher’s satisfaction with class environment by subject with significance in independent character of this thesis. It aims to grasp by summary the relativity of each space between activities made in such space and elements required.This thesis carried out a survey to know the awareness of teachers. Questionnaire was prepared to grasp the present condition from the teacher-side evaluation on relations between students’ behavior and space. For subjects, 92 elementary and middle schools whose building was completed between 2000 and 2009 were extracted though reference to literature. Of them, considering elements of public/private, downtown/suburbs, subject classroom/special classroom type, etc., 56 schools were asked for questionnaire to collect responses from 38 schools.By analyzing the results of survey, common complaints for each type of classroom were understood. From a low satisfaction with “notice space”, it is understood that despite expectations for children’s learning desire to improve from seeing wallcharts, its space is actually not sufficient. From a low satisfaction with “furniture”, it suggests that in case of lecture, there is need to install furniture for children’s convenient use, such as direction of experiment and practice tables, number of persons for one table, etc. Satisfaction with “environment easy for research activity” was also found to be low, revealing the biggest complaint about “lack of references, books and computers” in the classroom. This is probably because even special classrooms are gathering demands for the scene of research activity. It is considered necessary to investigate the results of the survey by continuing the research.
Reis, AT, ML Pereira, and C Biavatti. "An Analysis of the Aesthetic Impact of Views from Apartments." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. The aim of this paper is to assess the aesthetic impact, by architects and non-architects college graduates, of views from the living rooms of apartments. Studies of apartments, offices, prisons and hospitals have revealed the importance of views from these buildings. The results have revealed the positive impact of broad and organized views, with the presence of natural elements and some variation. For example, the recovery of patients in hospitals, as well as, the attitudes of office workers, was positively influenced by the existence of views of nature from the interior of such buildings. Yet, besides increasing the architectural quality of the interior of buildings with views to a scenic landscape, a view with a positive aesthetic impact is often the basis for preferences and choices regarding, for example, a place for recreation or residential, also tending to produce an economic appreciation of such sites. On the other hand, views to parking lots, blind walls and walls, views from buildings too close to each other and monotonous facades have caused a negative impact. However, it is necessary to deepen and sustain the universality and reliability of the results already produced, including the aesthetic impact generated by built and natural elements, as well as their distances from the observers. Data gathering means include photographic records, questionnaires and interviews carried out with 60 architects and 60 non-architects college graduates, including an A3 sheet with six views from the living rooms of apartments in Porto Alegre. These views are characterized by buildings with openings, buildings with blind walls, and natural elements, with different distances from the observer and distinct views of the sky, which according to some previous studies tend to produce different aesthetic impacts. Data from questionnaires were analyzed using nonparametric statistical tests such as Mann-Whitney U test and Kendall W. The results show, for example, that the views constituted by natural elements tend to be evaluated as positive and to be preferred, while views characterized by blind walls tend to be evaluated as negative and to be the last in order of preference. Yet, views with no sky sight and characterized by smaller distances between the observer and the viewed elements tend to be less satisfactory or more dissatisfactory than more distant views. The difference in the type of college education (architects and non-architects) did not affect the aesthetic evaluations of views, and did not affect the reasons given to justify the most preferred and least preferred views. The results also reinforce the importance of empirical and formal aesthetics, revealing that views attributes provoked similar reactions for different people and groups. Concluding, this study contributes to knowledge about visual perception and aesthetic quality of views from buildings, specifically, from residential buildings located in different urban areas.
Costa, AP, C Martin, N Bernardi, and D Kowaltowski. "An Architectural Universal Design Charrette: with Professional Sensitivity in Mind." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. This paper describes a design charrette conducted with architects in a Universal Design (UD) graduate discipline. UD was discussed with emphasis on aspects of accessibility and wayfinding. Impacts of UD on the design process, aesthetics, professional ethics and participation of users with disabilities were assessed. The architects participating in the program developed a design project of a public service building. Such buildings are important introductions of local state governments to simplify bureaucratic needs of the population. The group charrette introduced potential users with various disabilities to evaluate the design proposal. Communication tools were employed, such as tactile maps. To prepare the design, the brief was developed through value priorities and the 'problem seeking' method. Wayfinding and legibility of specific services, offered in the new building, were considered of prime importance. The design process, the proposal and the participation of users with disabilities were evaluated. Results showed that architects, even with the specific importance given to UD in the process, were concerned with formal or aesthetic aspects of the design. Accessibility was translated through the introduction of ramps within the building complex and a route leading from the local bus station to the new service building. The documentation of the design process showed little differentiation to a traditional process based on analysis, synthesis and evaluation. Thus, although the professionals were, through pre-design activities, made more aware of UD necessities and more sensitive to user specific needs, the design process proceeded unchanged. New attitudes and procedures were restricted to the communication tools developed for the participatory phases. Thus professionals resist new ways of doing things and will give emphasis to aesthetics and the functional program, elements stressed in both formal education and in architectural critiques. Few new attitudes were observed. This may be due to the fact that the participatory phase was only introduced during design evaluation and potential users were not part of the pre-design and design development phases. Also, the designers of this charrette all came from schools were UD has only recently been introduced into architectural pedagogy, thus not yet an essential part of the professional studio. Analysis of the participatory phase showed that potential users with visual disabilities had difficulties understanding the design itself and the accessible route and wheelchair users criticised various access elements. The charrette showed that to increase professional designers sensitivity towards UD issues, potential users with disabilities must participate from the start in the design process, giving inputs to the pre-design discussions, definitions of the program and direct design development beyond formal aesthetic issues, as well as impact new communication tools which facilitate design evaluation.
Crotch, J. "An Architecture of Experience." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Over the past 20 years technology has become embedded in almost every part of our lives, and nowhere more than in building design and construction. We are now witnessing the results of this technological shift in process within our built environment – some good, some not; as architects utilise and become more reliant on the computer.Thoughtfully created environments offer inhabitants comfort and security and a sense of wellbeing. The consideration and design of experience is an essential component of good architecture, get it right and the users’ quality of life can be enhanced. Get it wrong and there is the potential for a poor and damaging experience for the inhabitant.Has this extensive use of the computer detached architects from the non visual experiences of their designs? Has this new technology moved us away from issues that we once deeply valued – regionality, skill and longevity and replaced them with homogeny, expediency and globalisation? Are we too eager and excited by the initial impact of these astonishing constructions facilitated by the technology at the expense of the end user and their experience when inhabiting these ‘forms’?‘Architecture has the capacity to be inspiring, engaging and life-enhancing. But why is it that architectural schemes which look good on the drawing board or the computer screen can be so disappointing ‘in the flesh’?’ Juhani PallasmaaPallasmaa’s statement is key to the direction and the formulation of studio design briefs for third year undergraduate students at the Mackintosh School of Architecture. The ambition of the year is to provide a platform where human experience within the spaces designed is valued equally alongside planning issues, construction and aesthetics, and aims to embed a social dimension to the process. One of the programme’s intentions is to question the prioritisation of visual experience in the conception and making of buildings through investigations into the multi-sensory realms of architecture with the human at the centre.Through a series of connected briefs the students are challenged to design buildings and environments that have been holistically considered. Technology is embraced and supports hands on workshops and experiential recordings. Slow Architecture and its philosophies are considered alongside the pragmatics and the poetics of the proposals. With sustainability at the core, materiality, construction and how these contribute to an architecture where craft, sensuality, delight and contentment are also explored. Working on the premise that speed driven architecture can result in a visually dominant architecture, one in which the spaces created are viewed rather than felt; the projects require a ‘Slow’ haptic response
Landorf, C. "An Evaluation of Alternative Collaborative Approaches to the Management of Industrial Heritage." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. The Australian mining city of Broken Hill, along with many other industrial areas in the Developed World, has experienced a steady decline since the 1970s. Such sites do not conform to the stereotypical image of heritage as aesthetically pleasing or architecturally significant. Nor do they conform to the stereotypical image of communities empowered with a strong sense of collective identity and economic vitality. Despite this, industrial heritage is currently being utilised in government policy, both to combat the economic and social decline associated with de-industrialisation and to promote a broader understanding of national identity. This is particularly evident in Europe and the UK but also in Australia and parts of South America. However, industrial heritage faces a number of issues that impact on its perceived value and management as a sustainable resource. These include the scale, complexity and geographical remoteness of many industrial heritage sites as well as the finite nature of the resources and technologies that many industrial sites were originally dependent upon. The recent affirmation by UNESCO that heritage is ‘an instrument for the sustainable development of all societies’ offers an additional challenge, not only to industrial heritage but to heritage management practice generally.This paper will, firstly, identify the unique issues facing the management of industrial heritage sites and, secondly, present a management model that responds to the requirements for their conservation and sustainable use. In doing so, the implications of the conventional practice of establishing the criteria for ‘outstanding universal value’ and managing so as to conserve that value, is examined in relation to the requirements for stakeholder collaboration as a key strategy for sustainable development. As World Heritage represents an important benchmark for heritage debate and practice, the paper starts with an analysis of how the concept of ‘sustainable development’ is understood and applied within the World Heritage system. This is followed with the results of original case study research that explores the integration of sustainable development principles, including stakeholder collaboration, into the decision making structures at six industrial World Heritage sites in the United Kingdom. The paper challenges the traditional emphasis placed on tangible heritage and argues that current management frameworks and collaboration processes potentially limit the development of sustainable local commercial activities and associative attachments. The paper then describes a model of sustainable heritage management that is relevant to industrial heritage sites such as Broken Hill, as well as to other complex heritage sites. The paper concludes that, no matter the model of stakeholder participation chosen, the longer-term economic and social viability of many complex heritage sites is questionable.
Aspinall, PA, C Tendo, C Schmoll, B Dhillon, D McNair, C Goudie, and J Roe. "An Eye to Health: Non-Visual Effects of Blue Light for Older People." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Natural day light is good for us; particularly the bright light of the day – or ‘blue light’- in the shorter wave length spectrum (460 nm). This blue light helps set our internal body clocks via special light receptors in the eyes and keeps us in sync with the day-night cycle and our everyday activities which revolve around this – simply known as our circadian efficiency. Too little blue light – or too much of it at the wrong time of day – disrupts the internal body clock, which in turn can lead to serious health problems including depression, cancer, heart disease and diabetes (Holzman, 2011). Older people are particularly susceptible to body clock disruptions owing to the aging lens of the eye which begins to deteriorate – and yellow - in middle age onwards and reduces the transmission of blue light to the light detecting cells in the retina. Because older people are also less physically active the problem is confounded because, generally, they are not getting sufficient exposure to blue light outdoors in order to compensate for the reduced transmission capacity of the aging lens. This paper firstly, sets out the literature context for a study of the non-visual effects of blue light and reports on two exploratory studies exploring effects in older people where the aging of the eye lens has led to cataracts. The first study shows the positive effects of increasing blue light transmission in patients with cataracts on sleep patterns and cognitive function involving complex (rather than simple) reaction time tasks (Schmoll et al, in press). The post operative data was collected 12 days post surgery, suggesting a fairly immediate improvement. The second study is currently exploring the effects of yellow versus clear intraocular lens implants – which have different blue light transmission capacities – in patients with cataracts (n=60) and any differences in sleep outcomes and cognitive reaction times post-surgery. We will discuss the findings in relation to future research designed to explore the effects of artificial blue light exposure versus natural daylight on circadian efficiency in older people.
Masly, D. "Analysis of Natural Lighting with Regard to Design of Sustainable Office Buildings in Poland." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. A new model of sustainable development is based on reducing energy demand and on improving performance and process. The energy efficiency can be achieved through proper natural lighting design strategies, like optimal building form, skin, and orientation for daylight. By using daylight to illuminate the interior of a building, the need for electrical lighting can be reduced and internal heat gains can be minimised. Moreover, buildings that are properly designed to take advantage of natural light provide healthy indoor environments, that are linked to gains in productivity, decreased absenteeism, improved employee morale and increased occupant satisfaction. Daylit office buildings can improve the overall well-being of their occupants.Nowadays the architect begins to have the biggest influence on decisions which shape the indoor environment and conditions perceived by building occupants, and building's energy efficiency. The process of creating sustainable office buildings starts at the beginning of a building life cycle, at stages of planning, architectural programming and conceptual design. The early stages of architectural design involve the design decisions that are crucial for achieving high performance of the designed buildings. Moreover, the right decisions about the massing of energy-efficient buildings are unachievable without advanced computer simulations. However, daylight and other energy tools are under-utilised in the majority of architectural offices.This paper investigates the potential of integration of natural lighting design strategies into the early stages of architectural design process, to improve the energy efficiency of office buildings in Poland and the well-being of their users. A review on new and innovative technologies for utilising daylight in office buildings is presented. This article also demonstrates results of the analysis of various ways to redirect sunlight or skylight to areas where it is required. This analysis has been made with the assistance of Autodesk Ecotect performance analysis tool. Models of selected architectural solutions, for example massing, have been simulated for a parametric analysis, influence of these decisions on the building’s performance has been calculated and visualised. A brief survey on how natural lighting systems have been integrated in the latest office buildings is provided. This article also describes possible methodologies for approaching the design of sustainable high performance office buildings in the moderate zones, providing continental climate with temperatures in winter to -15°C and in summer to 32°C.
Mizumura, H. "Analysis on Relationship Between Attachment and Community Safety @-The Example of Safety Promotion of Komoro City in Japan-." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. IntroductionKomoro city is located in eastern part of Nagano Prefecture in Japan. At present this city has a population of approximately 44,000 and 16,000 households. Mayer of Komoro city, Mr.Serizawa suggested to study about Safe Community activities since December of 2009 and Komoro city was decided to apply to Safe Community in the March of 2010 to get the certification in 2012. Safe Community activities was launched in the middle of 1970's in Sweden for injury prevention and have prevailed all over the world under the system of certification provided by WHO.PurposeThe purposes of this study are to grasp how citizen of Komoro city evaluated their community at the point of security and safety, to grasp citizen's intentions for preparedness of security and safety depending on the degree of household, community based and municipality based, and to analyze the interrelation between their evaluation and their attachment to their home town, Kormoro city.MethodSelf-administered questionnaires were send by mail to the 4350 household with random sampling between February and March 2011, with the request that the completed questionnaire to be returned by mail by the end of March. We got 2035 valid response and response rate was 49.1%. The contents of questionnaire were personal and household data, evaluation on community and neighborhood environments, evaluation on traffic safety and crime safety, evaluation on attachment to their hometown, Recognition and interest of Safe Community activities, preparedness depending on the degree of household, community based and municipality based and so on.ResultsThe largest age group of subjects was between '65 to 74 years old' (27.6%, n=590) and secondly was between '50 to 59 years old' (22.6%, n=482). On the composed of household, 43% (n=919) was 'Two-generation household' and 26.5% (n=566) was 'Couple house hold'. 74.1% (n=1583) of subjects continued to live in Komoto city over 20 years. To evaluate their attachment to their hometown, we ask about their intention to continue to live. 60.4% (n=1289) of subjects answered 'Considerably think to' about the intention to continue to live present domicile. And 58.2% (n=1243) was also 'Considerably think so' about intention continue to live in Komoro city. About results of preparedness depending on the degree of household, community based and municipality based were that On the household level preparedness, 41.9% (n=895) of subjects chosen 'Promotion of traffic accidents' as the most reply. 40.5% (n=864) was 'Injury and accident prevention in house'. As the community based preparedness, 56.5% (n=1207) of subjects answered 'Promotion of traffic accident', 54.4% (n=1162) was 'Safety promotion for elderly people' .On the municipality based preparedness as SC activities, 47.0% (n=1003) of subjects answered 'Safety promotion for elderly people' as the most reply.
Lucas, RP. "Anthropology, Ethnography, and People-Environment Studies." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. IAPS as an organisation has at its heart the investigation of people and their relationship to the environment. This has recently, drawn substantially on urban design, landscape, and various branches of psychology (particularly environmental psychology). There are also a small number of social scientists and anthropologists involved in the organisation, but there is a large untapped resource of research in this field which has direct relevance to the study of people and their lives in the environment.Key to this is Tim Ingold’s important work The Perception of the Environment which draws on the work of James Gibson and others in encouraging a firmly contextualised understanding of how we live in the environment rather than distinct from it. Our lives are materially, culturally, and socially enmeshed with the environment in a number of important ways.This panel brings together a group of researchers responding directly to this call to contextual research, research which redefines the potential of anthropology, architecture, and design.Each of these disciplines has distinctive knowledge traditions and practices which, when given respect and equivalent weight, can enter into meaningful dialogue. This affords different forms of understanding to emerge, based on frames of reference outside of conventional academic and professional practices but with a deeper connection to context.Whilst the benefits of other disciplines are clear and by no means devalued by the inclusion of anthropology, the personal, contextual, and even anecdotal nature of ethnographies of different kinds offers the potential for deeper understanding of people’s life-worlds and, crucially, how to intervene in a more meaningful, helpful, and sensitive manner as designers, be that in architecture, urban design, product design or industrial design.There remains a fundamental problem at the heart of anthropology’s relationship with design disciplines, and that is in the interventionist nature of design. Anthropologists are famously methodologically atheist and even philistine, observing and remarking on what they experience and observe rather than seeking to intervene and make changes in the manner of a designer. This is a creative tension rather than a paralysing one.The symposium asks the fundamental question of how it is possible to produce knowledge relevant to the understanding of how people interact with, and are part of their environment. How is it possible to learn, and what are the methods by which we can find out? How can designers integrate alternative methodologies in order to design spaces?In asking this question a multitude of answers are given rather than a single truth: always responding to the various contexts in which we find ourselves.
Sandstrom, C, and G Ericsson. "Are Attitudes Towards Wolves Changing? a Case Study in Sweden." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. In year 2000 the Swedish parliament settled goals for the large carnivore population size. In a survey conducted in 2004 a majority of the swedes was supporting the goals set by the parliament. However, the survey also showed that the inhabitants in rural and sparsely populated regions with a high density of large carnivores had a much more reluctant or even opposite view towards the population size goals. Now when the parliamentary population size goals have been achieved, and the number of large carnivores has increased, the question is if a majority of the Swedes still are as pleased with the policy objectives or whether attitudes have changed as the large carnivores become more numerous? We conducted a mail survey in 2009, replicating the study from 2004, in order to determine if the Swedes attitudes towards large carnivores changed over the last five years. In addition we contrasted the national, regional and local levels across the two studies. Our results, which relate to the conference themes: 3. Policy Implementation and Management: Attitudes, trust, and environmental concern, to be presented at the symposium “Emotions towards wildlife: Implications for policy and management”, demonstrate that the opinion gaps, in particular between people living in urban and rural areas are increasing.
Hölscher, C, and SJ Buechner. "Attention, Behavior, Cognition – a New Method to Assess Direction Signs." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. The creation, maintenance, and advancement of a complex signage system, as found, for example, in hospitals or airports, require a number of different decisions that affect both, a sign’s legibility and intelligibility. After routes have been planned globally, for each individual sign board the designer must decide (1) which information should be displayed, (2) how the information should be arranged and (3) where in space the sign should be installed. In addition, before a sign is put up, it is advisable to assess whether an additional sign will effectively support a user’s spatial decision making or if it simply adds to visual clutter. In this process a number of methods are commonly used to identify the optimal signage for a particular location. These methods include, for example, the consideration of design guidelines, which are often based on knowledge of human perception and are sometimes regulated by law (fire codes). Additionally, knowledge from former projects is often transferred to the current one and over time best-practice solutions get established. In the majority of cases these methods lead to the desired results, although the effectiveness and efficiency are rarely evaluated with respect to the user’s needs and the sign’s utility for the spatial decision making process. We developed a method that combines behavioral, self-assessment, and eyetracking data in order to assess the effect of direction signs on passengers’ decision making in an airport context. Participants were presented either with the original or with a digitally edited photographic image of a scene that required them to make a spatial decision in order to reach a given target location. The combination of decision errors, decision time, self-assessed confidence and the allocation of attention, measured through eye-movements, allowed us to assess different designs and the effectiveness of a newly placed sign with respect to user behavior. Based on this we were able to recommend a particular design solution. In a further study we tested different design options in a virtual model of a planned extension of the building. This scenario enabled us to give evidence-based recommendation, even before the site was actually built. We consider the method as a supplement rather than a replacement of existing methods for the development and advancement of wayfinding systems with special emphasis on cognitive adequacy for humans.
Jahncke, H, and Terry Hartig. "Attentional Recovery: an Overview of Cognitive Measures." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. "The literature on restorative environments has grown rapidly over recent years. This growth has been accompanied by increasing diversity in aspects of the methods used. This holds true in several ways. Researchers are sampling from a broader range of environments, and trying to capture sensory aspects of those environments other than the visual alone. Researchers are also considering a greater variety of antecedent deficits from which people might need to recover, and with them a greater variety of processes through which they can recover the diminished resources. They also are beginning to address the temporal parameters for those recovery processes and the need for valid measures to represent those processes. These developments are encouraging, but this diversification and the concomitant growth in the complexity of the literature also give reason for concern. In this presentation we address two related concerns that have to do with the measurement of cognitive capabilities thought to be sensitive to fatigue, in particular directed attention capacity. First, research has been troubled by questions about how to establish or represent the need for attention restoration which research participants experience prior to the time available for restoration in one or another environment. Second, research on attentional recovery has produced inconsistent results, and it is not certain what this depends on. Possible reasons include, but are not limited to, a lack of any substantial need for restoration on the part of some subjects, a lack of time allowed for restoration, and the use of measures that are insensitive to the theoretically assumed mechanism. The purpose of this presentation is to overview the cognitive measures that have been employed in efforts to detect restorative effects and consider how long the restorative period must endure to give positive outcomes on performance. We begin by describing the different approaches that have been taken to measuring the antecedent condition, the temporal aspects of the restorative process, and the outcomes of the restorative process within discrete restorative experiences. We then look more specifically at approaches used to induce attentional fatigue within experimental studies, and the measures used to establish whether directed attention restoration has occurred. We emphasize outcomes that reflect on actual changes in cognitive resources with restoration, rather than potential changes or variation in variables described in theory as mediators of attentional recovery (i.e. the components of restorative experiences specified in attention restoration theory). The general conclusion we draw is that researchers need to further specify the term "directed attentional fatigue" and the cognitive processes involved in the development of attentional fatigue and recovery from it. We will end the presentation with suggestions from theories within working memory and some ideas for future research. "
Rioux, L, and A Pignault. Attractiveness and Attachment, Two Different Concepts?study in a Popular Neighborhood of the Paris Region In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. "The attractiveness of a neighborhood is a recurrent theme, mostly referring to all the residential, objective (Vogt and Marans, 2004) or perceived characteristics (Chhetri, Stimson and Western, 2006) which influence the decision to live in a neighborhood. However, in our knowledge, there is little research which focus on the attractiveness of the neighborhood, such as perceived by its inhabitants. Resulting from a strong rootedness, from an "identity of territory " (Payet, 2000), the attractiveness is translated by a movement of aspiration aroused by the neighborhood for those who live but also for those who lived there and feel the need to come back living there in a more or less temporary way (Bordet, 1998).In a study led with teenagers living in neighborhoods with strong cultural diversity in France, Rioux and Mokounkolo (2005) suggest to clearly differentiate this concept from the attachment in the neighborhood which Bonnes and Secchiaroli (1995) define as the emotional constituent of the link which unites a person with a given place. Our research is set in the continuation of this previous study and tries to understand the links between the attachment to the neighborhood and the attractiveness of the neighborhood among the population from the Maghreb living in "Paris suburb".143 participants, from 19 to 73 years old (m = 34.61 ; S.D=18.24) living in buildings of popular neighborhoods of the Paris region (France) answered a questionnaire including- a descriptive part (age, sex and perceived culture of origin), - the French adaptation (Rioux et Mokounkolo, 2005) of the neighborhood Attachment Scale de Bonnes et al. (1997).- the questionnaire of perceived attractiveness created by Rioux and Rouag (2009). It includes twenty seven items distributed in three dimensions: "Services and arrangement of the neighborhood" (12 items), "Atmosphere of the neighborhood" (9 items) and " connections with peers and the neighbors" (6 items).The results very clearly show the necessity of differentiating attachment to the neighborhood and perceived attractiveness. Indeed, these measures both appear not correlated for the participants considering themselves of Moroccan or Tunisian culture. Also, among the Algerian, a single factor structuring the perceived attractiveness correlates to the attachment in the neighborhood (r = .67, p
Shah, AH Harman, AF Mohamed, AK Junaidah, and AH abdul Samand. "Awareness and Community Participation for E-Waste Recycling: Determining Factors for Sustainability." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. For the past four decades, waste management posed a challenge to the government, business, industry and community especially in the Malaysian city. There are many critical issues that require specific attention to ensure sustainable waste management in the Malaysian cities. The critical issues which need attention were increasing volume of waste generation and the difficulties in obtaining suitable land for waste disposals. Malaysia has gazetted its Solid Waste Management Policy in 2007. In this policy many solutions have been identified, and one of the important solutions is to recycle the waste. However waste recycling is not a norm for Malaysian city communities. The current rate of waste recycling in Malaysia is around 5% from the total amount of solid waste generated. Hence there is a gap in term of knowledge, culture and commitment among the Malaysian cities communities in accepting waste recycling activities. To understand the problem a study has been conducted to determine the level of awareness and participation of communities for waste recycling. In this study, e-waste was analysed as the materials and the community chosen for assessment is a community in Shah Alam city and Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) campus community. The findings of the study showed that The UKM campus community awareness is high, around 80% while for Shah Alam City, the awareness level is lower around 42%. As expected participation in e-waste recycling for both communities are lower than their level of awareness, with the UKM campus community participation at 53% while Shah Alam city community, 23% participated. Analysis conducted also found important findings from this study, where there are three types of respondents who affect the efficiency of e-waste recycling. The first group of communities has the awareness but does not participate due to lack of knowledge on e-waste recycling. Hence the percentage of respondent in term of awareness is high for both communities. The second group has high awareness and participates but lack the knowledge. While the third group has high awareness, participates actively and is equipped with knowledge. The findings also shows that most of the individuals involved in the survey falls in the first category, followed by the second group and a small number falls into the third group. Hence in order to make efficient e-waste recycling program a success there is a need to address and to analyse important issues; these issues include knowledge, media for information dissemination, infrastructure, support system (collection services), financial system, guideline for valuation of e-waste, company for waste recovery, legislation for e-waste recycling.
Yokoyama, Y, and T Koga. Behavioral Errors in Residential Facilities for the Elderly with Dementia In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. In this research, the authors focus on frequently reported inappropriate behaviors conducted by the elderly with dementia in the environment of residential facilities. These inappropriate behaviors tend to be taken as problem behaviors by others and often trigger restriction of certain kinds of residents' behaviors by the caring staff. In this research, we intend to take as many of these behaviors as possible as behavioral errors brought by the residents' misunderstanding of the information embedded in surrounding environment. In a previous presentation (Yokoyama et al., 2008), the authors surveyed these behavioral errors in the 2 main types of the residential facilities in Japan, i.e. nursing homes and group homes, and suggested that the environmental differences between the 2 facility types might bring differences in numerical distribution of the categories of behavioral errors. Here, in this presentation, 167 cases of the residents' behavioral errors were collected by interviewing the trained care staff of nursing homes. The authors carefully observed the environment where each of the reported behavioral errors was found, and by showing photographs of it, they further argue in which situation and how the behavior happens. Finally, the argument suggests that some behavioral errors should be caused by misleading or absence of the information embedded in the environment. In the main part, the behaviors of spatial disorientation and wandering about, and those accompany urinary or excretory problems and/or sanitary troubles are discussed. These are included in the most problematic behaviors that burden the caring staff and the findings would support designing better residential environment, from the aspect of enabling environment and from the aspect of better environment also for the caring staff.
Lawrence, RJ. "Beyond Disciplinary Confinement to Imaginative Transdisciplinarity." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. This contribution explores several ways and means of overcoming the barriers to using transdisciplinary concepts and methods that are being applied in both research and professional practice. As an example of a wicked problem this chapter uses housing as a multi-dimensional human construct and process. The author argues that if there is agreement that there are multiple determinants of health, and if there is agreement that there are multiple dimensions of housing, then there is need to move beyond disciplinary confinement to develop new knowledge about housing and quality of life. The author also draws on innovative contributions in Switzerland that extend beyond traditional sector-based approaches by using transdisciplinary principles that integrate the point of view of many actors including those from the affected communities and organizations.Our incapacity to deal with wicked problems as defined in Chapter 1 is related to their complexity, to the compartmentalisation of scientific and professional knowledge, to the sector-based division of responsibilities in contemporary society, and to the increasingly diverse nature of the societal contexts in which people live. In addition, the lack of effective collaboration between scientists, professionals and policy decision-makers has led to the ’applicability gap’ in sectors that deal with both the natural and human-made environment. There is an urgent need for innovative approaches in many situations, such as the blatant failure of the wealthiest countries of the world to provide all citizens with secure employment, affordable housing and appropriate health care that meet at least minimal requirements.Current shortcomings of traditional scientific research and professional practice are not necessarily the result of the lack of political commitment, or financial resources, or viable solutions. They are, above all, the logical outcome of the narrow vision of so-called experts who do not address fundamental issues but only topics isolated from their societal context. In order to deal with these limitations, various sets of obstacles need to be revised or dismantled. First, ontological frameworks or world-views that do not embrace the complexity of the natural and human-made environment; second, constructions of knowledge that value rational, utilitarian approaches to interpret the layout, use and management of human and natural ecosystems; third, specialisation, segmentation and bureaucratisation of knowledge and expertise; and finally, the lack of transfer and communication between professionals, politicians, interest groups and the public.
Mårtensson, F, and S Andersson. "Bonding with the City While Moving Around – the Case of Parkour." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. People engage with place while moving around as part of everyday life, in ways that could have implications for their long term emotional relationship to the city. In this study peoples experience of the urban environment resulting from their recurrent use of it while moving around by feet, was explored among so called traceures active in parkour. The trend started out in the suburbs among young Parisians during the 1980’s. Parkour means route and early influences came from military training on steeplechase courts which inspired them to think of obstacles in the physical environment as challenges. They use the urban environment with their body in complex and playful ways associated with gaining a heightened bodily and mental experience. The purpose of this presentation is to show how this type of recurring bodily use of everyday surroundings also can nurture emotional bonds between people and urban environments.The results presented as part of this investigation draw on a six week field work among a group of traceures in Stockholm, Sweden. The transcripts of interviews with ten persons were analyzed according to phenomenological procedure aimed to capture their use and experience of the urban environment. One phenomenon – friendship with the city - reflects how this way of moving around is associated with a concurrent emotional relationship evolving in transaction with the environment. The results are elaborated on in relation to theory on place attachment about multimodal sensuous experiences supporting the development of strong memories and emotions becoming associated to place. The complex and playful physical interaction with place carried out by a traceur should have implications for their emotional bonds to specific places, as well as to urban environments in general.The results will be discussed in relation to common modes of use, transport and leisure in urban areas and a more sustainable urban mobility. Suggested is that an urban design that promote active and playful modes of moving about could be important to make cities more liveable - not only to youngsters - but to the population at large.
Van Rijswijk, L, and A Haans. "Brilliant Nights and Brilliant Lights: How Does Lighting Affect Safety Feelings?" In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Due to a raised cultural awareness of problems related to climate change and the impending scarcity of fossil fuels, conventional road lighting systems are commonly considered to be a source of energy waste. Recent advancements in LEDs offer promising solutions to reduce energy consumption. Combined with sensing technology, the light may adapt to a pedestrian’s needs, providing light only when and where it is needed. Unfortunately, we do not have a sufficient understanding of how lighting affects a pedestrian’s sense of personal safety to determine how such intelligent dimming should be implemented. According to Fisher and Nasar (1992) peoples safety feelings result from their subjective appraisal of three safety-related characteristics of a street (so-called proximate cues): prospect, concealment and escape. Lighting may be regarded as an objective characteristic of the environment. Yet, how does it affect the more subjective proximate cues and thus people’s safety perceptions? In a first study, participants (n = 31) rated 100 photographs of urban environments either on questions relating to perceptions of safety or on questions relating to prospect, concealment and escape. Participants were very consistent in their judgment of how safe they would feel in each depicted environment. In accordance with Fisher and Nasar (1992), we obtained high correlations (r2.643) between the independent measures of perceived safety and the measures of prospect, concealment and escape. More importantly, measures of the brightness of the scenes were found to be highly related to peoples appraisal of prospect and concealment (r 2 .312), but not to perceptions of safety, suggesting that lighting may have an effect on safety through the appraisal of certain proximate cues. The high correlations between appraisals of the three proximate cues suggest that a more rudimentary psychological mechanism may be underlying these environmental assessments. Closer examined, the proximate cues reveal a clue to a common mechanism. The absence of hiding spots, having a clear overview, and having many possibilities to escape in case of an emergency may all be related to perceptions of control. We tested this hypothesis in a second experiment (n = 82), in which we manipulated participants general perception of control (low vs. high) after which they assessed the safety of 30 urban scenes (i.e., the 10 highest, middle, and lowest ranking photographs of Study 1). We did not find any differences in perceived safety, but our analyses suggest that we might not have succeeded in our manipulation of control. Nevertheless, we did obtain a convincing replication of the safety ratings of the photographs, signifying that (a) lighting may have an indirect effect on safety perceptions through other inferred environmental characteristics and (b) our sample of stimuli has sufficient breadth and internal consistency to vindicate continued use in further experiments.
Monteiro, C, and E Alcântara. "Building Houses as a Way of Creating Place Attachment." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. This article discusses the factors making up place attachment and place identity based on analysis of statements by residents who were rehoused from stilt houses on the riverbank to verticalised apartments, the Abençoada por Deus Housing Project, and residents of houses in a self-managed self-built project, the Dom Helder Câmara Project. Physical, environmental, social and economic aspects were analysed. The focus for the first group was on the typology and building process of he housing itself. For cultural and other reasons, the general preference is for the house and not the apartment. In Brazil and other developing countries, a large proportion of residents in spontaneous low-income settlements participate actively in building their houses and the place where they live. Often through self-building or mutual assistance, this process directly involves residents in decisions about the type and layout of the house according to their wishes and resources. By taking part directly in such decisions, and even in actual building using savings from the household budget, strong objective and subjective links are created with the resulting property; this has a direct impact on place attachment and place identity, as seen in the Dom Helder Câmara project or among residents who built their own houses on stilts on the riverbank. Street layout was another important aspect. The layout of winding streets in the favela allows greater privacy and a feeling of safety, while at the same time promoting neighbourliness, in contrast to the verticalised apartment projects with their rectilinear layout and wide corridors which made residents feel vulnerable to strangers while impeding contact between neighbours. Leisure equipment and spaces to encourage sociability might help strengthen place attachment. Feeling safe is another commonly mentioned aspect. Living in such housing projects tends to be associated with a real increase in violence and feelings of insecurity, generally associated with drug trafficking. In the favela they felt safer and even had a night watchman. Economically, many residents lost opportunities for odd jobs, as well as charitable assistance from churches (food and utensils), while they found they had electricity and water bills to pay. The feeling of rejection of the new housing is widespread; everything is further away, everything is harder. This pattern can be seen in housing projects in Brazil and other developing countries. Nonetheless, such projects continue to be implemented under the national scheme Minha Casa, MinhaVida. Little attention is paid to place attachment and place identity. A deeper knowledge of the basis of these feelings may offer alternatives that incorporate them within housing policy.
Sadler, S, C Hyland, and R Rogerson. "Building Skills in Participation: the Sustainable Communities Challenge." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. The inclusion of local community voices alongside professionals in the creation of sustainable communities has been an important thrust of the UK Government over the past decade in its urban planning policy. The consequent focus on addressing skills gaps among built environment professionals to enable and facilitate such policy was intended to break away from top-down envisioning and generate participative mechanisms to involve communities. However, this deficit model has often undermined the confidence of professionals and failed to address the needs of communities. Derived from a recent ESRC Research Initiative, and designed to build cross-disciplinary skills by researchers in the fields of Geography and Architecture, the Sustainable Communities Challenge was conceived as a game or workshop exercise which allows participants to explore the components, relationships and trade-offs that shape sustainable communities. Based on UK guidelines on eco-towns and drawing on research into energy and waste, the scale of the playing area and symbols is largely grounded in present reality. The game requires team working, negotiation, and provides opportunities to rehearse active citizenship. There is no ‘right’ answer. The symbolic/conceptual nature of the game is designed to assist participants in focusing on values, relationships and consequences rather than individuals, their community and financial costs. The game, played now by over 350 pupils aged 11-14, provides a lens through which to examine key issues that reflect many of those identified in the ESRC Research Initiative and elsewhere in the literature on social learning, planning, urban design and regeneration. Language is important: minor modifications in instructions/presentation can generate quite different behaviours. Collaboration is difficult: team members find it difficult to shed the responsibilities initially allocated to them in favour of the community as a whole. Communities need access to knowledge and experience, without which they may simply repeat old mistakes. Hybrid brokers are important: teams draw on the strengths of individual members to address the challenge but work best with some leadership. There is no requirement for a definitive vision: participants happily work with unclear, even shifting rules. As awareness of the unsustainability of our way of life has become more accepted, the call for engagement at all levels has increased. This paper identifies some of the implications of involving communities and explores how ‘games’ such as the sustainable communities challenge can be used to build skills to support participation at all levels.
Rodrigues, M, and MC Lay. "Built Heritage and Visual Quality of Urban Landscape." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. The article addresses evaluation of cultural built heritage and its contribution to the visual quality of urban landscape, in order to ascertain the level of importance attributed to heritage buildings and identify the physical characteristics of existing buildings on sites of heritage value that are more and less attractive to users, as well as the indication of historical and affective values which possibly influenced the user perceptions with respect to environmental and aesthetic quality.It follows the assumption that the aesthetic quality of the urban landscape is related to physical attributes and associations of morphological and typological elements that make up the urban landscape. Aspects related to the important role urban legislation plays when directed to preservation of urban areas and historic centers were also considered. Historic areas of three cities were selected as case study. Piratini represents cities with preserved historic centers, with a pioneering urban legislation; São José do Norte represents cities where cultural heritage was adulterated due to a lack of legislation that guarantee the preservation of built heritages; Porto Alegre represents cities where cultural heritage was partly preserved. The research was implemented through the use of qualitative and quantitative methods. Mental maps and interviews to users of historic areas allowed the identification of the strongest positive and negative images of public buildings and urban spaces. Questionnaires were administered to evaluate images of urban scenes with different levels of homogeneity, in order to investigate the role built cultural heritage has on the visual quality of urban landscape, measuring the damage to the aesthetics of the city caused by the lack or non-inclusion of issues relating to preservation of cultural heritage in the process of urban planning and subsidize the elaboration of public policies on the preservation and planning issues. Results indicate the relevance of studies focused on the visual quality of the urban landscape as a need to promote actions for qualification of public spaces, and in this context include the recognition that the facades of buildings that make up the urban landscape are collective assets that should be considered for the establishment of guidelines for new interventions and projects that generate positive evaluations. On one hand, results confirm the positive contribution of buildings which constitute the built cultural heritage in the visual quality of the urban landscape, on the other, the adulteration of cultural heritage generate negative evaluations. Accordingly, it is evident the need to curb the actions of distortion, mutilation and even demolition of buildings located in the ancient period of historic centers.
Maantay, J. "Cartography and Communication, Cartography and Communication." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Cartography can be seen as a form of communication currently undergoing a great deal of change. For centuries, cartography has been in the service of those in power, since map-making was such a highly specialized skill and only the royalty - and later, other governmental entities - could support the costly requirements of exploration, surveying, and gathering geographic data and producing maps. But with Geographic Information Systems, GPS, and the Internet, mapping is now in the hands of virtually anybody.VGI (volunteered geographic information) means that ordinary citizens collect and distribute geographic information via GPS and Internet mapping resources. Grass-roots community organizations and environmental advocates are using Geographic Information Science as a way of gathering information on their communities for organization of activities. This paper will trace developments in mapping and explore how maps can be used as a communicative tool.
Andrews, CJ, R Wener, A Keul, and J Senick. "Case Studies of Post Occupancy Evaluations in Green Buildings." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Green buildings must meet clear technical expectations in terms of energy efficiency, use of water, and air quality, among other factors. They also must meet occupant needs for comfort, satisfaction and productivity, and may impact occupant mood and health. Moreover, occupant response to building systems may have a significant effect on the technical outcomes. We are presenting a series of case studies of residential and office green buildings that address these issues.Three case studies from the U.S. include: 1) methods and outcomes of several Post Occupancy Evaluations of LEED Gold office settings in Philadelphia. These assessments address issues related to architectural design, engineering systems, and human behavior, and focus on areas where user satisfaction and energy efficient performance can be improved; 2) an engineering, design and behavioral assessment of a LEED Platinum luxury high rise rental building. Methods include instrumentation to measure water and energy use in individual apartments as well as interviews and questionnaires with residents addressing specifics of their use patterns and perceptions of and satisfaction with the building. Data will be presented on outcomes for this specific building as well as their usefulness in creating agent based models to predict satisfaction; 3) report on ongoing research concerning the potential health benefits to a lower income population that may accrue from living in an Energy Star certified affordable housing development. The population living in this building live in an area in which some chronic health conditions are epidemic - such as obesity and asthma. Both of these conditions may be able to be effected by living in a green building, and this presentation will describe the methods and outcomes of a study to assess whether there is any noticeable impact.The 4th case study presents a field study from Austria of summer use of passive housing and user behavior. In discussions about strengths and weaknesses of passive housing, possible overheating in summer is a main critical point. A field project supported by Wienerberger AG asked about user behavior and satisfaction in passive housing under summer conditions. Ten apartments in three passive housing estates of Salzburg City, Austria, were analyzed. Participants received a diary form and were asked to evaluate three times per day their subjective living room temperature, humidity and air quality, and to record their sun shading and ventilation behavior without behavior briefings. Temperature/humidity loggers were installed in the living and sleeping rooms of every apartment. For every estate, an outside temperature logger profile was obtained. Results for these evaluations and recommendations based on the findings are presented.
Nordström, M. "Children's Attachment to Place from the Perspective of Developmental Psychology." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. To understand how place attachment is formed during childhood, Morgan suggests a ‘developmental theory of place attachment’ (2010), which relates children’s environmental experiences to the interaction with and dependence on their caregivers. Morgan’s model emphasizes how children alternate between exploring the physical environment and seeking reassurance from nearby adults. Two motivation systems are at work, that of exploration and assertion and that of attachment and affiliation (Lichtenberg 1989). Place attachment in view of this model can be characterized as the outcome of the child’s experiences when exploring the physical environment on his own in an emotionally safe way, expressing the child’s own experiences as well as how these have been shaped and influenced by his relationship with the caregivers. In theories on attention there is a similar emphasis on the interaction taking place between the child and his caregiver for the child to attend to aspects of the surrounding environment (Vygotsky 1979, Hansen 2002). Morgan, Vygotsky and Hansen refer to early stages of child development. In this presentation emphasis will be on the environmental experiences of children around puberty. A relational interpretation of children’s dependence on adults for their environmental experiences will be put forward, understanding puberty to be that stage during mental development when the dependence on adults wanes and the individual instead asserts his emotional independence, his own ‘self’ and individuality. At that phase of development physical environment loses concomitantly the fascination that it holds to children, giving place psychologically to a pronounced social environmental interest like finding out about who uses what physical spaces and how. This author has found that place experiences vary considerably between children in different environments. In urban environments children tend to have much less detailed descriptions of their physical environment than children of the same age in countryside environments (Nordström 1990; 2000a, b; 2010). Adult influence is clearly reflected in children’s environmental experiences in places where children belong to different social groups. Children in families not rooted in the local culture show less emotional involvement with the physical environment than children in families who are part of that culture. The author’s presentation at the symposium will describe children’s environmental experiences as an interactive relationship between children and their physical environment from the perspective of children’s parental dependence in an attempt to put attention to the concept of attachment of place from the perspective of developmental psychology.
Brito, HB, Costa A Araujo, T Elias, S Cavalcante, and M Frezza. "City, Daily Mobility and Subjectivity." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Fortaleza, with nearly two and a half million inhabitants, is the third most populous city in the Northeast region of Brazil. In the last two decades, its urbanization process has shown a troubling picture of urban mobility due to the increasing number of motor vehicles, not accompanied at the same rate and speed by the expansion of its road network. Data from the State of Ceará Department of Traffic report that the city’s fleet grew an average of seven thousand vehicles per month in 2010 and nine thousand vehicles by June 2011. Between January 2001 and September 2011, the fleet in the capital doubled, going from 379,408 to 760,747 vehicles. These figures show that the private car represents 93.70% of the fleet. In large cities, this type of vehicle can take up to 80% of the public roads, while serving roughly 20% of the population, thus precipitating a crisis of mobility. This problem motivated the conduction of a research with the community of the University of Fortaleza, the largest private university in the North and the Northeast of Brazil. 600 questionnaires were distributed in order to map the respondents’ forms of mobility. Five focus groups were conducted with a total of 38 respondents, in order to understand how the daily mobility is experienced in the city, the subjective states relevant to the movements and the reasons that support the modal choice. The results indicate that 76.6% among those older than 36 years old and 92.8% of the academic staff use the individual car as the main modal of transportation. The reasons for using the private car are many and can be both individual and collective, subjective and objective. The fear of mugging during the journey was considered the major reason, and other psychological reasons such as the feeling of freedom, power and social status were also mentioned, along with objective arguments such as to transport themselves and their objects effortlessly. The omission and negligence of the government, concretized by the lack of a good public transportation system, the improper occupation of the road system as well as poor planning of the land use in the city, which increases disproportionately in some areas to the detriment of others, also influenced the modal choice of the respondents. It is concluded that the search for solution for the mobility problems experienced by the inhabitants has privileged individual strategies of organization. However, there must be a constant focus on the urban phenomenon of Fortaleza in order to promote other forms of mobility and the consequent use of spaces around the city as a meeting point. That is why a better understanding of the urban mobility crisis in big cities like Fortaleza must involve a more detailed analysis of the various relationships between the use and occupation of the land, transport systems and road infrastructure as well as the interaction between human factor, vehicle, public space and the environment.
Hidalgo, MC, R La Fuente, and I Pisano. Climate Change According Citizens: Psychosocial Indicators, Evolution and Mitigation Responses in Andalusia, Spain In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Climate change poses risks to Andalusia, Spain and to the rest of the world. Andalusia’s policy makers have recognized these risks and have become important actors in addressing this global issue. But to reach the ambitious goals for emission reduction set by the autonomic government, further policy action and public support is needed. Understanding public perceptions of climate change risks is a critical component for motivating public support for future policy action. For this reason, we present results of an annual survey conducted continuously since 2001 to a sample of over 1500 residents in Andalusia over 18 years. The design of the survey contains psychosocial indicators of climate change in the affective dimension (awareness, interest, perceived effects, etc.), in the cognitive dimension (information on the causes, consequences and ways of acting, etc.), in the dispositional dimension (self-efficacy and responsibility, acceptance of personal and community changes, etc.) and in the behavioral dimension (transportation and mobility, energy saving at home and responsible consumption), which allows us to build the social images or representations of the phenomenon over the past eleven years for both the general population and for different demographic groups. The main results show that there have been positive developments in terms of identifying climate change as a concern, interest and current environmental problem, while also there has been a significant advance in the degree of information and knowledge available, the need to accept personal and community changes and the display of certain behaviors that mitigate the effects of climate change. However, despite this positive development, the data presented has not yet allowed us to consider that among Andalusians there is a solid and mature environmental concern when taking into account the most demanding elements and requirements of current models of sustainable development.
Medugu, NI, MR Majid, DU Sangari, and H Sani. Climate Change and Conflicts: Some Salient Perspectives on Nigeria`s Vulnerability In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Edit Climate Change has been considered a reality for over a decade now. This has been evident as a result of rising CO2 levels, coupled with rising earth`s temperatures, melting of glaciers, etc. The consequences of such trends are observable all over the world today in for of more frequent or stronger flooding of rivers, increased storms and snowfall, cloudbursts, as well as droughts and desertification. The aim of this paper is to assess the role of Nigerian government and its citizens in climate change adaptation and mitigation with a view to resolving endemic conflicts associated with such. The paper asserts that global climate change is already impacting Nigeria as manifested by increased flooding, delayed rains, enhanced desertification, increasing bush fires, all of which have grievous consequences for the country`s food security, thus posing a further threat to national security. Indeed, the poor depend on elements of climate like rainfall, temperature and humidity for their livelihoods, and when changes occur as a result of global warming, resources are often depleted, and large populations are often forced to move towards greener pastures. Such mass movements have resulted in large numbers of internally displaced people and/or refugees. Where national borders are crossed, conflicts become inevitable. So far, the Nigerian government has made significant progress in addressing the problem of climate change by preparing, demonstrating, negotiating and developing various policies and plans at national, regional and international levels, although some of these lack full implementation. The paper therefore x-rays the level and consequences of Nigeria`s vulnerability to climate change, and suggests plausible mitigative and adaptive measures aimed at minimizing conflicts.
Després, C. "Collaborative Urban Planning and Design Production, Type and Value of Knowledge." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. I will discuss the type of knowledge generated in participation research, both in terms of its production mode and scientific value. I will argue that Environment-Behavior participatory research has been by and large taught and practiced away from any epistemological paradigm and that this situation may have contributed to its limited dissemination and to the underrating of its value as scientific knowledge. I propose that the way knowledge is built in participation, as well as its resulting integrative nature, are fundamental contributions to the development of post-normal science, and more specifically, of a transdisciplinary research paradigm.Although the concept of participation has been used in planning and architecture since the early 1970s, namely with advocacy planning growing out of a reaction to the urban renewal movement in the 1950s and 1960s, its meaning and use extends far beyond these professions. The renewed intensity given to participation to emerging research fields in the late 1980s, can be related to emerging societal problems and pressure from user groups in relation to peace and conflict research, international cooperation, women’s studies, and nursing care (Elzinga, 2008). Professional workers, often motivated by social movements, asked for their tacit (know-how) knowledge to be integrated in academic research production. As examples of theoretical and methodological outcomes, Elzinga (2008) cites: 1) the concepts of empathy and coping brought by nurses beyond medical knowledge; 2) action research developed by social workers where target groups are integrated in the research at all steps. Elzinga goes on saying that these claims led to the development of innovative research strategies and to the entry of the prefix “trans” to express something beyond “the interaction of different academic tribes as centrepiece”, something transcending disciplinary boundaries.As guest editors of a special issue of the journal Futures on transdisciplinarity, Roderick Lawrence and I (2004) defined transdisciplinary research as projects tackling complex and heterogeneous problems, using non-linear and reflective knowledge production modes, and dealing with local contexts (see also Balsiger, 2004; Klein, 1996, 2004). With no doubts, the concept of transdisciplinarity better fits problem-solving-oriented participatory research than the concept of interdisciplinarity which main aim is to produce scientific knowledge. Moreover, since ethical and aesthetical issues are inevitably imbedded in urban planning and design, they induce a part of uncertainty in the knowledge produced, which is also more readily associated with transdisciplinarity. Finally, transdisciplinary research recognizes the contribution of individuals’ practical reasoning as valuable, which participative and collaborative processes also allow for (Després, Brais, Avellan, 2004). The lack of dissemination of case studies on participation has also contributed to the lack of integration of knowledge in this area of research. Indeed, participation, as a type of applied research most often sponsored, is often left with little or no time and/or money for retroaction and often for publication. Elzinga (2008) criticizes the fact that the literature on participation is largely dominated by descriptive case study reports. In fact, participation theory is underdeveloped, and evaluations of participation methods are rare and often limited to ad hoc suggestions and criticisms about the advantages and disadvantages of various techniques. Indeed, if a fair number of useful handbooks have been published in the last ten years, their main goal is most often to provide toolkits to assist. Despite the exemplary work of several researchers to bring participation in architecture and planning to new analytical levels (Fainstein, 2000; Feldman & Staal, 2004; Forester, 1999; Healy, 1997; Innes & Booher, 2000; Sanoff, 2007; Toker, 2007), we are still is missing a clear framework to compare and contrast the relative merits of participation research, and integrate its resulting forms of knowledge. I believe one reason why this research has been underrated as scientific knowledge is because it has been by and large taught and practiced away from any epistemological paradigm. I propose that the way knowledge is built in participation studies, as well as the integrative nature of the resulting knowledge, are two fundamental contributions to the development of the transdisciplinarity in science that needs to be better acknowledged. Indeed, this recent paradigm might help structure participation as a maturing component of a complex research program on people-environment relations.
Gumpert, G. "Communication and Understanding Urban Behavior." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Cities are places of communication; where, communication is facilitated and whose streets, infrastructures and structures communicate. An increasing number of technologies enable information from the digital world to be layered onto the physical world potentially altering the person/environment relationship by creating spaces in which users interact with their physical surroundings through digital media. . Location-aware technology makes it possible to simultaneously locate oneself and be networked within city spaces. Mobile phones, GPS receivers, and RFID tags are examples of location-aware mobile technologies that mediate our interactions and influence how we experience and move in these spaces. Privacy and surveillance issues proliferate. Urban space is being redefined and reconceptualized with the addition of mobile gaming, locative social media; and the acceleration of “intelligent” infrastructures. New mapping technologies have introduced VGI (volunteered geographic information) thereby empowering ordinary citizens to collect and distribute geographic information via GPS and Internet mapping resources.The city, as an economic, social, and iconic symbol has been and continues to be under scrutiny by economists, geographers, sociologists, urbanisms, planners and environmental psychologists. There is a growing body of scholarship examining human behavior in urban, suburban, and rural environments from communication perspectives. Health initiatives, urban conflict, race, ethnicity diversity, crisis communication, branding performance in urban spaces, regulation, and mobility studies have all been the lens through which the urban landscape has been examined. The goal of this symposium is to bring together scholars and professionals across disciplines to explore how communication issues contribute to understanding the challenges facing the urban human-environment relationship.
Martens, D. "Community Gardening Serving Restoration and Empowerment Processes." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Urban environments offer various opportunities in an individualized society. At the same time they bear considerable risks, requiring adaptive demands due to a high complexity of external stimulation, arousing a strong need for restoration (Hartig, 2007).Attention restoration theory states that physical characteristics in natural environments support this process by evoking automatic attention and restoring focused attention (Kaplan, 1995). Small-scale natural environments in an urbanized society could actively support people’s physical activation, social contact and psychological well-being in an every day context.Urban gardening projects experienced a strong resurgence in Europe in the last years and could play a key role in an escape experience for urban dwellers searching restoration. A temporary project has been initiated at a former airport in Berlin, serving neighbor’s every day restoration by community gardening. On a 5000 m2 public space, about 1000 people with different cultural background built and planted raised plant beds. Additionally, they organized events such as community picnics and workshops on sustainable behavior.Due to the groundbreaking interest in the former airport area, several interdisciplinary studies serve the evaluation of the effects of self-organized community gardening on the social, physical and psychological level.In an explorative approach, qualitative half-structured interviews with initiators and participants are carried out at different stages during the first year after initiation of the project. Questioning the perception of the restorative and social aspects, the research aims to explore direct and indirect effects of community gardening. A focus is laid on the effect according to different economic, social and cultural background.Results show the relevance of restoration and additional factors such as meaning of place and identity processes. Participation and repeated social interactions in the project is shown to increase responsibility and empowerment of the protagonists.Results suggest that community gardening in the neighborhood can provide a base for low-threshold social support. The temporary character of the community garden is critically reflected.Discussing the results, the potential to enhance public health and social equity is promising. By activating people and serving their individual need for restoration, urban intercultural gardens provide an important opportunity to enhance quality of life for urban inhabitants. The positive effect of community gardening in a natural environment is enhanced by social interaction and self-organization. Spatial concepts such as place attachment and identity processes need to be considered carefully in future. Longitudinal designs are planned to represent the development of restoration, social interaction and empowerment processes. An outlook for planning concepts achieving the need for restoration of urban inhabitants is given.
Twigger-Ross, C, H Deeming, P Orr, M Ransden, J Stafford, and T Coates. "Community Resilience in the Urban Context: Case Studies from the Uk." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Community resilience can be defined as:“The capacity of an individual, community or system to adapt in order to sustain an acceptable level of function, structure, and identity” (Edwards, 2009 and UK Strategic National Framework on Community Resilience, Cabinet Office, 2011). It has become a key concept within the UK context of emergency planning, in response to the policy drive to local accountability and decision making and in acknowledgement of the limitation of statutory emergency responders in extreme events. Within the policy literature the relationship of resilience to vulnerability is not fully discussed but they are, inextricably linked, the understanding and reduction of vulnerabilities will support the development of long lasting adaptive community resilience which can be drawn upon in emergencies. The key question this research was focussed on was what is the role of communities in response to emergencies and how do different types of community (e.g. with different types of social capital) emerge, develop and adapt before, during and after those emergencies.The two case studies presented here are part of a larger project carried out for the Civil Contingencies Secretariat, Cabinet Office (UK Government ) and the Defence Science and Technology Laboratory which is inputting to the development of community resilience policy. This research informs guidance on practical action to develop community resilience to emergencies.The two case studies are very different but both in urban areas with high levels of deprivation: Great Yarmouth which is at risk of flooding (tidal, pluvial and fluvial) and was affected by a “near miss” tidal surge in 2007 and Peckham, London which was affected by the “riots” in August 2011. The case studies focus on how is the community structured?, How did the community respond to the event? What relationships are there between the community and organisations? What has happened since in terms of resilience building?In terms of Great Yarmouth community resilience is being built on community development. In terms of vulnerability, a key vulnerability of disempowerment is being addressed. There are community development workers who involve, engaged and then empower people to act. By doing this they provide people with connections to others and services, which increases their resilience in emergency situations. In Peckham the event was very recent and so resilience is emerging. The community is working out different ways to build up the community with one group now meeting together because people in the same street stayed indoors alone, frightened because they did not know each other. Other groups are working with young people to support them.. In this case study the complexity of relationships within an urban community: formal and informal networks, links with authority are discussed. The paper discusses how resilience emerges and develops in the context of these urban communities responding to emergency situations. It draws on the concepts of resilience, social capital and vulnerability to provide some practical recommendations for action.
Ohno, R, and RM Syam. "Comparative Study on Residents Activities, Perception and Evaluation in Two Different Type of Donated Post Disaster Housing." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. This paper reports the results of comparative study on two different types of donated post disaster housing projects after Java 2006 earthquake relate to residents’ perception, evaluation and activities of their outdoor spaces. One project is located at New Ngelepen, Yogyakarta where residents were relocated to a new type of settlement and given fixed design post-disaster housing, which drastically differed from their Javanese vernacular dwellings and settlement. Another project is located at Tembi village, Yogyakarta where the residents were given more flexible design post disaster housing and rebuilt on their original settlement. Outdoor spaces in both residential settings function as essential places for the residents daily and community activities were observed. Place-centered behavior mapping was conducted by observations on random days (weekday and holidays) between 8 AM and 8 PM. volunteers observed the residents’ activities by walking a specific route within 15 minutes interval and documenting the types of behaviors, age and sex, location, estimated time, and number of people on diagrams and maps. Questionnaires and structured-interview were also conducted.The purpose of this study is to understand how the residents response to the changes of their dwelling environment by analyzing their behavior in their outdoor space as well as the changes to their community activities and their perception and evaluation on the house outdoor and neighborhood space.Results suggest that because of fixed design limitations of the house and its private outdoor space, residents show high level of dissatisfaction, furthermore since it could not facilitate their social activities, therefore neighborhood facilities and streets now have a bigger and more essential role in facilitating social interactions.
S Xavier, Cantarelli, and A Portella. "Complexity and Order in Commercial Streetscapes: How to Maintain User´s Satisfaction with Visual Quality in Contemporary Cities." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. The aim of this study is to develop and test a methodology to calculate complexity levels of commercial streetscapes and compare whether those levels correspond to the ones perceived by users.An argument defended by the literature is that street facades are perceived as ordered when physical characteristics are structured according to some overall principle based on Gestalt Theory. In this study, complexity refers to a variety of elements and relationships in an aesthetic configuration, which is structured according to some overall principle based on this Theory. This concept is related to the level of order of elements that form an aesthetic composition; places where order does not exist are perceived and evaluated as chaotic and irregular, and not as complex. The perceived quality of a city is very much dependent on the visual quality of its streets, which depends on formal factors such as lengths of blocks, cross sections, widths of roadbeds and sidewalks, building setbacks and heights, frequencies of entrances to buildings, presence or absence of shop windows and shopfronts, and so on. In this study, formal factors are actually physical characteristics of commercial signs and buildings, such as silhouettes, facade details, facade articulation and colours.The method developed here to calculate the level of complexity in street facades was tested with samples from different cities and countries. Part of the sample was resident in Brazil and another part resident in England. The sample of 361 users comprised of different nationalities as the only pre-requisite to participate of the study was to be resident in the cities investigates – Pelotas and Gramado in Brazil and Oxford in England. Users from the following nationalities participated in the survey: Brazilian, British, Indian, Chinese, Mexican, Canadian, French, Italian, Portuguese, Thai, Brazilian/French, German, Greek, Iranian, Pakistani, Saudi, Taiwanese, Uruguayan, American, British/Brazilian, Danish, and Japanese. The results obtained from this sample reinforce the argument that even though user perception and evaluation of public spaces may be influenced by user background, user perception and evaluation of order is the result of an environment in which parts form the whole in such a way that redundancy, self-contradiction, and conflict are avoided.This study hopes that this method can be applied as a tool by urban designers and planners to identify, before a new insertion is built on, whether a new street intervention will increase or decrease people´s perception of visual quality since there is a relationship between the affective dimensions of “satisfaction” with complexity. In terms of the dimension of “satisfaction”, this relationship is directly proportional until an optimum is reached; when this limit is exceeded, the relationship becomes inversely proportional. Also, this method can be used to help reorganize street facades already perceived as negative by users.
Loureiro, A, JI Aragones, P Olivos, and L Lima. Connectedness, Wellbeing, and Nature In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. "Authors have suggested that Connectedness with nature participates in the positive relationship between contact with nature and psychological wellbeing (Mayer et al., 2009). However, there are two dimensions of wellbeing, "hedonic" (eg Diener & Seligman, 2004) which is a subjective dimension related to satisfaction and positive or negative mental states, and another call "eudaimonic", characterized by a sense of optimism, confidence and satisfaction, to provide meaning and significance of life (eg Waterman, Schwartz & Conti, 2008). The main objective of this study is to observe the relation between Connectedness and both types of wellbeing, and with the experience of contact with natural environments.This is the first phase of a larger study. Attended by 207 students, 76% women and 20% male, mean age of 22.08 years old (SD = 5.23). 13.5% said often practice activities in nature during their leisure time, 45.4% do it occasionally and 41.1% never. Was used a questionnaire composed by: the CNS (_ = .801; Olivos, Amérigo & Aragonés, 2011), the EID (_ = .912; Olivos & Aragonés, 2011), and MHC- SF (Keyes, 2009) consists of a hedonic (_ = .780) and eudaimonic (_ = .816) subscales.The EID scale is articulated around four dimensions, including an "identity" component strongest correlated with CNS (r = .758, p <.01 following="" the="" hypothesis="" of="" relationship="" between="" connectedness="" and="" wellbeing="" et="" al.="" both="" component="" eid="" cns="" correlated="" positively="" only="" with="" eudaimonic="" .204="" p="" r=".229," respectively="" other="" three="" dimensions="" environmentalism="" enjoying="" appreciation="" nature="" did="" not="" correlate="" two="" types="" wellbeing.="" also="" observed="" significant="" differences="" in="" levels="" by="" self-="" reported="" frequency="" activities="" showing="" that="" higher="" contact="" greater="" connectedness.these="" results="" confirm="" environmental="" identity="" is="" a="" complex="" construct="" includes="" to="" as="" well="" mentioned="" before="" aragon="" correlates="" has="" been="" proposed="" literature="" although="" this="" study="" specified="" type="" wellbeing.some="" issues="" remain="" outstanding="" which="" must="" be="" addressed="" second="" phase.="" particular="" it="" consider="" what="" extent="" direct="" natural="" environments="" have="" an="" effect="" increasing="" but="" on="" hedonic="" also.="">
Pol, E, and R Improta. Construction Process of a Wind Farm in South of Brazil: Its Implications for this Neighborhood In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. In many countries a growing promotion of renewable energies is observed, mainly because their quality to be clean energies that contribute to the sustainable life in the planet. In South America the reality of the renewable energy implementation is a novelty. Environmental psychology research has pointed that in the development of these projects, many times, the concern is more economic and environmental than social, when this is so; different degrees of rejection are observed among the neighbors (Devine-Wright, 2010; Pol, et al., 2011). In relation to the wind farms, aspects related to physical construction characteristics, like visual impact and noise (Wolsink, 2007), could influence on wind farm acceptance. Thus, there are other aspects like the degree of inhabitants` participation in the process of wind farm construction (Devine-Wright, 2005; Schweizer-Ries, 2008) and others that can influence the symbolic, affective and socially constructed aspects (Devine-Wright, 2005). Besides, a research done in the North of Brazil (Improta & Pinheiro, 2011) has found that factors like: wind farms as a symbol of progress, and the scholar level of residents, can influence the wind farm acceptance. Having in mind this novel reality of South American, this present study aims to longitudinally establish positive and negative factors that influence the acceptance of a wind farm by the population that lives nearby, during the construction and operation phases. For this, place identity, social representation and lifestyle concepts will be used. This research is still running. In this conference the preliminary data obtained in the wind farm construction phase will be reported. The wind farm affected area named Cerro Chato, is located in the south of Brazil. It is an agricultural area occupied by farms, where 45 wind turbines will be located in 24 properties of this area. The research procedure has been carried out with semi-structured interviews of 26 inhabitants, divided into four groups: 1. farmers that will have aerogenerators in their properties, 2. farmers that will not have wind turbines, 3. farms that did not want to have aerogenerators in their property, and 4. farmers employees who live in the properties interviewed. The interviews have been recorded and they are being transcribed to subsequently perform a discourse analysis. The preliminary results show that there is a positive perception of this wind farm. The people interviewed know about the project, about renewable energies and the importance of it as a clean energy production, and visually they consider them a positive asset. Meanwhile, a close interrelation has been evidenced between the company and the group of land owners who will have wind turbines, in comparison to other groups. Finally, it can be thought that if there is frequent interrelation between the company and the inhabitants, the latter seems to develop a positive perception towards the wind farm, as stated on previous researches.
Khan, H. Contemporary Vernacular': in Search of a Context Based Architecture In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. The advent of ‘internationalism’ in post independent India resulted in, like elsewhere in the world, a systematic erasure of the local aesthetics, craftsmanship, breaking of the link to the rich traditions & cultural heritage. This link resulted in an architecture that respected its people, culture, climate, craftsmanship & had vernacular continuity. This alarming situation coupled with an irrelevant imported western academic curriculum resulted in present day architecture which thrives mostly around pastiche western imagery & iconography. There is an urgent need for evolution of a language that is based on the rich traditions of the past and assimilation of traditional Indian architectural principles which encompassed within itself freedom & responsibility, creativity & common sense, continuity & growth, problem solving with creativity, aesthetic aspirations & construction technology, crafts, craftsmanship & continuity. Our architectural practice is an attempt at devising & implementing an architectural language assimilating the above within a contemporary framework. This we call “contemporary vernacular” which hopefully shall result in restoring the broken link. As practicing architects, we feel a huge vacuum in terms of research in this area. Extensive research of this broken link, its subsequent dissemination to architects, designers, workers & society at large and the predominantly western based existing building regulations & byelaws to facilitate “contemporary vernacular” resulting in synthesis of research, policy & practice.
Banzhaf, E, and A. Kindler. "Contrasting Demographic and Land-Use Dynamics: the Dichotomy of Urban and Suburban Development in the Metropolitan Area of Santiago." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Population growth and ongoing expansion in Santiago puts enormous pressure on the environment: agricultural land is being transformed into built-up areas, while the share of green space dwindles. Suburban construction produces long-term environmental impacts such as higher imperviousness of land surfaces. Demographic and land-use change are major drivers of urban growth. The simultaneous processes of increase and decline of population and expansion of built-up areas into the suburban area are studied for the 34 municipalities of the Metropolitan Area of Santiago de Chile (MAS), subdivided into 22 central urban municipalities and 12 suburban municipalities. Land-use dynamics occur as a result of population and economic growth, and the subsequent increase in transportation infrastructure. Population growth and socio-spatial differentiation increase housing demands to satisfy both basic and higher accommodation requirements. Identifying the principal features of land-use change is an important task and findings provide information on time, space and quantity. Changes in the demographic dynamics of MAS will be analysed as major drivers of environmental quality and quality of life. Environmental quality is described as a complex multi-dimensional set of abiotic, biotic and human characteristics localised in place and time. Human beings highly influence the urban environment through various constructions modified and perceived as components of their surroundings which impact their social circumstances, health and well-being.In order to investigate population change as a driving force for urban growth, use was made of urban and regional statistics taken from census data. Using census data and Geographic Information Systems (GIS), the number of inhabitants per municipality was determined. Investigations of population dynamics made on two spatial levels comprise the MAS in total and the subdivision of the urban and suburban municipalities. The analysis of population dynamics was made for the time period 1992-2002-2006-2009 to establish the spatial distribution of the population and the changes over time, and to identify growing, declining or stagnating municipalities in the MAS with respect to the spatial indicators of environmental quality.Land-use classifications and changes were calculated based on remotely sensed data for four time steps (1993, 2002, 2005 and 2009). They indicate urban growth by delineating built-up areas, and transformation from agricultural use and other open spaces in the MAS showing the increasing amount of built-up areas for each of the years under investigation and the direction and pace of urban growth. The increase in built-up areas shows how settlement expansion rises from 500km² to 575km²(=15%)between 1993 and 2009. Selected source and performance indicators are analysed to assess the impact of human settlements on the ambient environmental conditions towards environmental health and well-being.
Cuervo, I. "Convivencia: Co-Existence as a Problem and Solution in a State-Sanctioned Social Housing Development in Bogotá, Colombia." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. is paper will address the emerging theme of convivencia, or co-existence, from my doctoral dissertation that examines the influences of the meanings of home and habitat of key actors (e.g. residents, municipal agency staff, planners, and architects and developers) involved in the production and consumption of social housing in Bogotá on associated housing, neighborhood and community building practices. There is an absence of research that explores their conceptual clarity among involved actors, which is fundamental to success in the kinds of consensus-building and participatory initiatives that housing planners argue is the basis of good housing practice (e.g. Healey, 2003). It is believed that through their distinct communities of experience and professional practice and resulting parlances, the types of actors differently incorporate psychological, spatial and socio-structural dimensions in their meanings of these two taken-for-granted terms. For example, developers, designers, and municipal entities are more concerned with function, aesthetics and costs of the project. Whereas, residents might be more concerned over decision-making and space control in and near their housing (Sinha, 1991). While the final goal is to improve living conditions, the various voices sharing this goal have yet to be deconstructed in the housing, planning or policy literature in either the United States or Latin America. Utilizing an interdisciplinary perspective culled from the social sciences, architecture and urban planning literatures, this study will examine the issue through a field-based qualitative case study of one of Bogotá’s state-organized social housing initiatives. Data collection methods of in-depth narrative interviews, participant observations, a focus group and archival research have been able to capture Metrovivienda’s varying efforts in their new communities. Referencing socio-structural forces, the dissertation will illustrate the multi-faceted stories of each kind of actor that highlight the influence of their personal, social and physical understandings of home and habitat on the housing, neighborhood and community building practices of the agency’s social housing development process. Influenced by post-modernist epistemological practices, planning and housing research have begun to embrace this narrative turn to understand practice through stories and rhetoric (Sandercock & Attili, 2010). Preliminary analysis of data is revealing that convivencia is surfacing as a major theme whose dynamics in state-sponsored housing poses significant challenges. However, convivencia, as envisioned by research participants, can also serve as a concept by which to organize planning at the housing, neighborhood and community development scales.
Kabisch, S, and Mira R. Garcia. "Coping with Urban Vulnerability in the Interface Between Research and Practice." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Using the concept of urban vulnerability, we would like to discuss the specific coping and adaptive capacities of cities and their inhabitants in hazardous situations. In this frame social vulnerability and the vulnerability of the built environment are of high relevance. We draw our attention to natural hazards like floods, drought or fire which become a social catastrophe by human action and behavior. Three main points are in the focus: i. the concept of urban vulnerability with its specific characteristics in contrary of and as addition to other vulnerability concepts as base for discussing empirical cases and developing adaptation and management strategies, ii. results of empirical research and experiences of coping with hazards with special focus on the effected population, iii. observations and reflections on concrete experiences in bringing research results in practice action and decision making. On the example of both success stories as well as failures we will discuss the challenges of dealing with vulnerable situations in different social contexts. The scientific questions revolve around the level of preparedness to hazards, the adaptation, and the recovering from catastrophes. Within this context, communication strategies and trust are important in terms of distribution of appropriate information and behavior strategies. Based on empirical research results the exchange between scientists, planners and decision makers is simultaneously intended to evaluate the research results for being practice relevant. The overall aim of the session is to strengthen the interrelations and the contact between experts coming from research and from practice. What kind of scientific results do we need to generate in order to address specific knowledge in different urban habitats? Summarizing, how can we transfer scientific knowledge into professional practice?At the end of the symposium we would like to shape take home messages concerning what can we learn from each other and how can we improve our competences in dealing with uncertainties and surprises in vulnerable situations. Program Introduction: Kabisch/Garcia-Mira Presentation 1: Urban vulnerability concerning flood risk in growing and shrinking cities (Kuhlicke, Kabisch, …) Presentation 2: The social dimension of forest fires: efficient communication and participation in vulnerable human habitats. (Ricardo Garcia-Mira and Adina Dumitru) Presentation 3: Multiple vulnerabilities in informal neighbourhoods: conceptual and ethical issues between research and practice (Denise Piché) Presentation 4: …… (Clare Twigger-Ross) Conclusions: Kabisch/Garcia-Mira Corresponding author: SigrunKabisch, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Department of Urban and Environmental Sociology, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig, Germany, sigrun.kabisch@ufz.de
Kuo, CC, and JL Kuo. "Coping with Urban Vulnerability Through Human Design Behavior." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. The authors examined the deterioration of the water environment. They went back to the process of human development to check how human design behavior step by step destroys the water balance on earth. Behavior such as deforest, the digging of ground for basement space in the buildings, hard pavement in the cities, the sewer system, the development in the wetland area, and the claimed lands in the waterfront area all disturbed the water system. It is found that human beings large scale of disturbance of nature are actually have to be blamed for all the flood disasters happened in recent years around the world. Although New technology and big construction projects such as Thames barrier, the Mose project in Venice were created to prevent flood, the impacts are still unclear. It is concluded that concept for design needs to be altered and human economic growth needs to be limited if we want to mitigate the threat of flood hazard.
Kabisch, SKGM. "Coping with Urban Vulnerability to Natural Hazards in the Interface Between Research and Practice (Symposium with R Garcia-Mira)." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Using the concept of urban vulnerability, we would like to discuss the specific coping and adaptive capacities of cities and their inhabitants in hazardous situations. In this frame social vulnerability and the vulnerability of the built environment are of high relevance. We draw our attention to natural hazards like floods, fire or earthquake which become a social catastrophe by human action and behavior.Three main points are in the focus:i. the concept of urban vulnerability with its specific characteristics in contrary of and as addition to other vulnerability concepts as base for discussing empirical cases and developing adaptation and management strategies, ii. results of empirical research and experiences of coping with hazards with special focus on the effected population, iii. observations and reflections on concrete experiences in bringing research results in practice action and decision making.On the example of both success stories as well as failures we will discuss the challenges of dealing with vulnerable situations in different social contexts. The scientific questions revolve around the level of preparedness to hazards, the adaptation, and the recovering from catastrophes. Within this context, communication strategies and trust are important in terms of distribution of appropriate information and behavior strategies. Based on empirical research results the exchange between scientists, planners and decision makers is simultaneously intended to evaluate the research results for being practice relevant. The overall aim of the session is to strengthen the interrelations and the contact between experts coming from research and from practice. What kind of scientific results do we need to generate in order to address specific knowledge in different urban habitats? Summarizing, how can we transfer scientific knowledge into professional practice?At the end of the symposium we would like to shape take home messages concerning what can we learn from each other and how can we improve our competences in dealing with uncertainties and surprises in vulnerable situations. ProgramIntroduction: Kabisch/Garcia-MiraPresentation 1: Urban vulnerability concerning flood risk in growing and shrinking cities (Kuhlicke, Kabisch, …)Presentation 2: Communication and participation procedures on vulnerable human habitats threatened by forest fire (Garcia-Mira and Adina Dumitru)Presentation 3: ?Presentation 4: ?Conclusions: Kabisch/Garcia-Mira
Wheeler, BW, M White, and MH Depledge. "Costal Proximity and Human Well-Being." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. "Research regarding the positive role of natural environments in supporting good health has primarily focussed on urban greenspace, woodlands, or undifferentiated 'nature'. Little attention has been paid to increasing our understanding of the potentially different impacts on health and wellbeing of different environments - either in terms of environment type or quality. As part of the Blue Gym programme of research around aquatic environments ("bluespace"), health and wellbeing, we carried out a study to investigate relationships between proximity to the coast and self-reported health. The coast has long been used as an environment for convalescence, holidays and physical activity, and in this study we set out to investigate whether simply living near to the coast could be associated with better population health and wellbeing.Applying methods similar to those used in some previous greenspace and health research, we used 2001 census data and carried out a small-area cross sectional study. The 2001 census asked every person to rate their general health status in the previous 12 months as 'Good', 'Fairly Good' or 'Not Good'. We calculated the proportion of the population rating their health as 'Good' for Lower Layer Super Output Areas (LSOAs) across England. There are 32,482 LSOAs in England, and these areas are used to produce small area statistics on a wide variety of issues including health and socio-economic status. These census data have frequently been used to study the distribution and determinants of poor self-rated health. However, we considered good health as the outcome, reflecting our interest in salutogenic (health promoting) environments. Responses to this type of simple single item question have been shown to be strongly related to more sophisticated measures of physical and mental health such as SF-36.We used a Geographic Information System to calculate each LSOA's proximity to the coast. We then used multivariate regression models to investigate associations between good health prevalence and coastal proximity. Analyses were adjusted for potential confounders including greenspace, inland waters, age, sex and socio-economic deprivation, and were stratified by urban-rural status. Proximity to the coast was found to be positively associated with good health, with effects strongest in urban areas. There were also indications of interactions between coastal proximity and area deprivation, with consequent implications for health inequalities."
Marshall, P, R Cain, Smith J. Payne, and R Squire. "Creating a Restorative Staff Room in an Emergency Department; the Problems of a Windowless Interior Room." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Working in an Emergency Department (ED) is a demanding occupation, requiring high levels of concentration and long working hours. Stress and burn-out are commonly reported by medical staff, and can result in job dissatisfaction, absenteeism, and high staff turnover, in addition to the negative effect on patients, both medically and of their overall hospital experience. The attentional demands of the multiple tasks staff have to juggle can add to the build-up of stress and potential burn-out. Therefore staff need a quality period of restoration during their short breaks to ensure they recover from attentional fatigue and have time to reflect over their experiences on the shift so far, both emotionally and technically. As well as supporting staff well-being, having restored staff helps maintain the provision of quality patient care.Much research has shown that visiting natural environments, viewing nature through windows, or the addition of indoor plants can enable restorative moments. Unfortunately, plants are often not allowed in hospitals because of infection control and not all rooms in a hospital have windows, thus other environmental features need to be considered to create a restorative environment. This study therefore took a participatory design approach as research into psychological restoration has largely ignored windowless, interior environments, thus limiting possible evidence-based solutions. This also ensures that staff themselves can help shape and decide on the future of their own staff room, which will maximize its compatibility with their restorative needs.To identify problems with the current staff room postcards with postboxes were placed around an ED asking staff to describe occasions when they were able or unable to restore in the staff room. These provided all staff the opportunity for brief contributions. This was complimented with ten in-depth interviews with staff members discussing problems with the staff room. From this key issues with the staff room were established involving features within the room, but also how they wanted to use the staff room and how colleagues' behaviour helped or hindered their chance of restoration. All staff members (n=193) will then be invited to provide suggestions for possible solutions to the identified problems via an interactive ipad/computer kiosk located in their staff room. Through a series of different stages, staff will be able to suggest ideas, comment on other's ideas and vote for the best solution. Staff's attentional capabilities (necker cube puzzle) and self-report restoration measures will be assessed before and after any modifications are made to monitor the effectiveness of the staff room as a restorative environment.The proposed solutions, modifications made to the physical environment and/or people's attitude and use of the staff room will be described. The success of making an indoor, windowless, staff room within an ED a restorative environment will be discussed.
Greaves, M. "Creating Sustainable Places - Enquiry by Design and Knockroon." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. The quest for ensuring the liveability and functionality of human settlements engages politicians, professionals, investors and not least local residents and stakeholders, often with divergent interests, with tasks of considerable complexity. The revitalisation of deprived communities, as well as the creation of sustainable new ones, is one of them, and the magnitude of the task requires appropriate techniques or models of engagement, based on robust and time-tested design principles, which involve local stakeholders at the earliest possible stages of the planning and development process. This presentation uses the case study of Knockroon, an urban extension to the town of Cumnock, Scotland master-planned by The Prince’s Foundation to illustrate an influential model of planning in practice.In the UK, the Prince’s Foundation for Building Community, an educational charity established by HRH The Prince of Wales, which exists to improve the quality of people’s lives by teaching and practising timeless and ecological ways of planning, designing and building, has pioneered a collaborative planning approach called Enquiry by Design (EbD). It trusts in empowering people to join the design process and make a real difference to the design of their local communities. It also believes that successful towns – old and new – share certain design characteristics which, when deliberately applied to today’s town-making and appropriate technologies, result in enduring, thriving neighbourhoods that don’t damage the environment, result in improvements in public health and deliver development rooted in its location. In contrast to conventional development, where specialists who act in series often successively limit the outcome, direct interaction often results in the identification of new and better design possibilities, i.e. the process is proactive rather than the ‘normal’ sequentially reactive modal of planning. This collaborative, holistic and highly disciplined process harnesses the talents, technical expertise, local knowledge and energies of all interested parties to create and support a viable design solution. All concerns – technical, political, environmental and social – are tested and challenged by the design itself, so that the design leads rather than follows the process. At the close of the EbD the product, often a masterplan, is a shared vision for future development based on robust sustainable design principles. The intensity of the process can be disquieting to those in the habit of sequential meetings however, once experienced few doubt the capacity of such a process to be a more exciting, cost-effective and efficient means of civic engagement and community building than conventional public processes.The process is explained in detail through the example of Knockroon in Cumnock, one of the most deprived towns in Scotland. In July 2007 HRH The Prince of Wales put together a rescue package in conjunction with the Scottish Government, Historic Scotland and the Prince’s Charities to save Dumfries House and its contents from being sold at auction. Knockroon Farm formed part of the estate, and there was an opportunity to consider developing this land to strengthen links between the Dumfries Estate, Cumnock and the neighbouring town of Auchinleck. A five day Enquiry by Design was held by The Prince’s Foundation in February 2008 to explore potential options. The EbD resulted in the production of the Knockroon Masterplan, a blueprint for an urban extension to the town founded on sustainable principles. Thanks to the consensus building, consultative process Knockroon is being built as be a compact, walkable new neighbourhood whose design concepts have been inspired by the best architectural and town making traditions of Scotland. Although construction only commenced in April 2011 Knockroon is one of the most talked about recent developments in Scotland, in regards to the process used to produce the masterplan and for the nature of the development itself. In May 2009 the Scottish Government awarded Knockroon exemplar status under the Scottish Sustainable Communities Initiative (SSCI) identifying it as one of 11 such projects within Scotland selected as best capable of demonstrating how sustainable communities can be delivered.
García-Mira, R, Vega P Marcote, and A Dumitru. "Creating Visions of the Future: the Use of Back-Casting Scenarios in Defining Change in Universities." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Back-casting scenarios constitute a relatively new methodology in the field of sustainability and climate change. Despite its appearance and theorization in the decade of the ´70s, it is only recently that it has become widely used as an instrument in helping decision-making processes in policy-making. The back-casting scenarios methodology appeared in response to the discontent with the traditional methods of trend extrapolation in energy forecasting, where it was assumed that energy demand would increase gradually and renewable energy technologies and energy conservation efforts were ignored (Vergragt & Quist, 2011).In future and sustainability studies, back-casting scenarios are defined as a methodology that allows us to envision and analyze different types of sustainable futures and develop agendas, strategies and pathways to reach them (Vergragt & Quist, 2011). It has a strong normative component, as it starts from desirable future states or set of objectives and then analyzes the steps and policies that are needed to get there, in order to be able to design agendas that can be implemented and that normally require cooperation and communication among different types of actors in complex socio-economic and political environments. It is considered a useful qualitative tool in going toward alternative futures in issues of climate change (Giddens, 2009).The present paper will present the results obtained from applying the methodology of back-casting scenarios to the study of sustainable objectives and pathways to reach them in the case of universities. It will present results obtained at the University of Corunna, by using a process-oriented scenario-development method which combined stakeholder and researcher input to generate images of the future and desired end-states. We will discuss the pros and cons of the method of back-casting scenarios, its uses in studying (un)sustainable practices in large scale organizations and the implications for future research and policy development in public organizations.
Ortega-Andeane, P, I Solovyova, R Bozovic, and U Nanda. "Culture and Context: Perception of Healthcare Art Across Three Countries." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Evidence on the impact of nature images has been found in research with hospital patients (Ulrich, 2008, Nanda, Hathorn & Neumann, 2007). The use of art in healthcare environments has become increasingly common (Nanda, Eisen & Baladandayuthapani, 2008). Art is viewed as a positive distraction from stress of the hospital among patients and possibly staff (Ulrich et. al. 1991; Ulrich, Zimring, Quan, & Joseph, 2006). In a previous study art preference study (Nanda, Eisen & Baladandayuthapani, 2008) showed significant difference in the ratings of design students and patients. Findings showed that there was a significant difference in the ratings of the two groups. Furthermore, the emotional rating scale (how does the art picture make you feel) was highly correlated to the selection scale (would you put this art picture in your room) for hospital patients- while this was not the case with the design students. What is the role of culture in the above questions and in how does it impact healthcare design?A total of more than 600 design and non-design students from National University of Mexico, National University of Singapore and University of Texas San Antonio rated images of visual art included abstract, representational and nature images from Mexico, Singapore and Texas representative of the unique cultural contexts, in addition to images that strictly adhere to the evidence-based guidelines for healthcare art laid down by Ulrich & Gilpin (2003) and examples of classic high art.At the end of the survey students re-rated the images again as if they were hospitalized and lying in a patient room. An analysis of preferences across cultures, design disciplines and emotion and selection was undertaken.Results show a surprising amount of agreement across cultures on image rating for hospital rooms. Level of agreement for art selection for personal rooms is significantly lower. This is true in both design and non-design students. Landscapes with a high depth of field, bright colors and verdant foliage were rated consistently high across all cultures, regardless of indigenous elements, with few exceptions, that suggests that there is a certain universal appeal for restorative images of nature that go beyond cultural and educational boundaries. The study showed that empathy (how this art would make you feel) is a stronger determinant of selection than culture, or education, when it comes to art selection for hospitals.
Schneider, M, O Klein, S Lord, and L Barra. "Daily Mobility, Activities and Territorial Independence: Two Days Around the City with Pre-Teenagers." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Pre-adolescence is a crucial age where young individuals are in-between. The child is no longer young, but the teenager is not old enough to have the independence and the freedom to get around. However at this age the child strongly needs to leave the family nest, in order to perform independent activities in urban environment. Independence is a key aspect that characterizes teenagers’ development, especially when the young individual acquires motile competencies.Research shows that in early adolescence young individuals exhibit needs for independence in terms of movements in order to construct their own activity space. This is observed trough increasing of both outings and interpersonal contacts outside the family environment. The trip from home to school is a journey that is one of the determinants of personal action space development.However, it can be in strong dependence to parents and automobile if educational facilities are located outside the home neighborhood. In metropolitan areas, many young teenagers find themselves in situation where schools, friends and points of interest are located on unreachable territories without the parent’s car.We explore these questions with an action-research conducted in Luxembourg as part of Interreg IVb ICMA (Improving Connectivity and Mobility Access). Little information is available on these young urban actors. Indeed surveys relating to children are delicate to process, particularly because of strict regulations related to child rights and multiple needed authorizations (parents, schools, committee). In this context, 46 pre-adolescent children aged from 11 to 13 years old have been followed for two days using GPS technology. This geographical data has been coupled with assisted questionnaire on daily mobility, modes of transportation, mobility preferences as well as independence in movements in the city.Combining these two techniques of investigation allowed improving quality of sensible data by controlling, according to space and time, information collected directly from children as well as their trips (number, duration) and their activities (location, time). A principal component analysis conducted on geographical datasets coupled to a hierarchical cluster analysis allowed to construct a children typology based on mobility patterns, visited places and mobility strategies. Results show that if the automobile and the role of parents explain much of the observed mobility patterns, spaces and times where autonomy was possible allow greater appropriation of the territory for these pre-teenagers. Well-serviced urban environments allowed for greater independence, but also for more extensive action spaces. Meanwhile, living in suburbs naturally induces greater (parents’) car dependency. Given to the suburban children’s mobility uses as well as their preferences and competencies still in development, major questions about the future of the mobility of these young “automobilist” must be putted forward.
Castillo, B, P Páramo, A Jengich, P Ortega, F Vivas, A Mustaca, C Pascuali, and M Denegri. "Degree of Optimism, and Attribution of Responsibility on the Environmental Conditions in Latin America." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. and to whom participants attribute responsibility for the solution of environment problems. A total of nine hundred and sixty people in eight countries: México, Costa Rica, Colombia, Venezuela, Perú, Brasil, Chile and Argentina were investigated -120 in each one- at the local, national, and global special levels. The study follows Gifford et al. study (2008) which explored people’s perceptions on environmental problems in 18 nations.The current study focuses in Latin-Americans nations including to the Environmental Future Scale of Gifford et al. some environmental items relevant for the region, and also the Responsibility Attribution Scale to the solution of the environmental problems of Barros, Pinheiro and Gunther (2010). Due to the complexity of the instrument and in order to avoid boredom, the questionnaire was assisted by researchers to facilitate the understanding of the questions and the correct way to answer the scales of the state of the environment and responsibility attribution at different levels in the present and the future. Considering that the study is in course we expect to have the final results by the time of the next IAPS conference in Glasgow.
Vasilikou, C. "Degrees of Environmental Diversity for Pedestrian Thermal Comfort in Dense Street Networks." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. The present work addresses the contribution of local urban design towards the development of a comfortable microclimate at street level for pedestrians. The current environmental agenda for urban design points towards compact urban form and walkable polycentric city structures. In designing connected street patterns as social places that enhance permeability, a certain degree of complexity seems to be deemed necessary to avoid the monotony of a rigid grid and thus, provide environmental diversity and freedom of choice. The two latter concepts have been found to affect crucially the thermal sensation and microclimatic preconceptions of pedestrians and consequently their use of public space.Walking in the city and having the possibility to do so comfortably and safely in terms of environmental conditions seems to form an informal measure of space quality with environmental benefits, as well as socio-economic correlations. Central point of this research is the pedestrian network of streets and squares and their urban morphology (fine urban grain). Recent studies in urban design emphasise the importance of environmentally friendly (‘sunlit, wind- and pollution-free’) spaces and successful places with vitality. Metropolitan city centres provide an example of a palimpsest of urban patterns and historical urban layers that present adaptive opportunities to continuous use and vitality. In view of the current debate on sustainability and compact urban form, the research addresses the quality of pedestrian street movement in relation to the awareness of available choices through environmental diversity. The latter is defined as the spatial and temporal variation in the environmental conditions of the different urban spaces that form the pedestrian network (including, along with the linear street element, different spatial configurations that form widenings and small squares along main routes). In that context, emphasis is given on the microclimatic variations between different ‘thermal urban rooms’ and their influence on the outdoor environment and users’ comfort.Addressing pedestrian movement through a methodology of sequential analysis, along with the assessment of variations in the thermal sensation of users through ‘microclimatic walks’, could lead to a greater understanding of use patterns, pedestrian experience and behaviour. The degree of diversity that results from different urban geometries along street networks (more realistic forms in dense historic cores) is coupled with the relevant occupancy and frequentation patterns by people on a daily basis and also between seasonal variations. The expected outcome will provide an insight in the link between microclimatic conditions and pedestrian experience of dense street networks. One of the main research aims is to develop an architectural language that integrates information of pedestrian thermal comfort in the design process.
Marquardt, G. "Dementia-Friendly Architecture: Integrating Evidence in Architectural Design." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. The rising life-expectancy promises a compression of morbidity and the acquisition of several additional years in good health. However, at the same time the risk of developing dementia increases by age. Experts estimate that currently 35.6 million people with dementia live worldwide. This number will double within the next twenty years and will rise to 115.4 million in the year 2050. The symptoms of dementia occur slowly over time, affecting memory, orientation, attention, language and problem solving. In absence of effective medical therapies the individual’s quality of life has been focused by researchers of various professional backgrounds, among them Architects, striving for the design of therapeutic environments.People with dementia’s well-being, functionality and behavior can be supported through dementia-friendly design, which supports autonomy, provides sensory stimulation and promotes social interaction (Cohen & Weisman, 1991). Further, a specific spatial design is necessary: Research indicated that with advancing dementia storing and retrieving a mental visual image becomes increasingly difficult and results in the inability to generate a cognitive map (Poettrich et al., 2009).In nursing homes, the circulation system has been identified as the most determining environmental factor on the resident’s wayfinding abilities: In straight circulation systems, residents were able to find their way better than in any layout that featured a shift in direction, such as L-shapes (Marquardt & Schmieg, 2009). Therefore, people with dementia need direct visual access to all places relevant for them to perform their activities of daily living.Further architectural studies also indicated that people with dementia’s spatial recognition needs to be supported: In order for them to understand the meaning and function of a room it has to be architecturally legible and needs boundaries that clearly separate it from other spaces. A study using the architectural methodology space syntax showed a relationship between the spatial layout of the home and the successful performance of the resident’s activities of daily living (Marquardt et al., 2011). The results imply that enclosed rooms with a clearly legible meaning and function (such as kitchen, hallway, living room) might be better memorized and associated with the spatial layout of the home, resulting in better performance. Floor plan designs that are very open and interconnected might account for difficulties in the spatial representation of people with dementia, increasing the level of dependency on a caregiver.The need to combine two contrary goals striving for evidence-based architectural designs for people with dementia constitutes a challenge for architects: To allow for visual access to all relevant places, and simultaneously to create boundaries to separate spaces one from another in order to render them architecturally legible.
Anusas, M. "Designing Environmental Relations: Perception, Form and Experience." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. This paper argues that modern physical design formations, which are based upon an object-based way of perceiving the world, have the effect of inhibiting rich and engaged relationships between people and their surrounding environments. Through drawing on critical perspectives in philosophy, anthropology, design, architecture and landscape architecture, the paper links anthropological critiques on the dualism of society and nature, with distinctions between human-made and natural objects, built and natural environments, physical surfaces and infrastructures and cartesian divisions between mind and body. These conceptions are shown to influence design thinking, and consequently, the material form of everyday products, architectures and spaces. With this, modern design demarcates physical boundaries within everyday environments and limits the human experience of physical formations to shallow interactions, simplified material contact and reduced structures of skill and practice. The result of this is a modern material culture which affords little opportunity for an environmental ‘education of attention’ (Gibson 1979: 254) which might draw human experience into the sensorial depths and complexities of environments around them; and consequently encourage inhabitants to become aware of how daily life is continually sustained by flows of matter, energy and life. In response to this critical argument, the paper concludes through discussing an alternative perspective on environmental perception put forward by Ingold (2011) and extends this line of thinking to consider its implications for design practice. Presented here are examples of emergent and conceptual design practice in product, architectural and spatial design, which have the potential to disrupt conventional structures of perception and form, and draw people into intricate and layered environmental experience. The ideas in this paper emerge from current research work by the author and they are also informed by a recent international interdisciplinary research project between designers, artists, anthropologists and environmental researchers entitled ‘Designing Environments for Life’ (Ingold et al 2010). Elements of this paper were recently presented to the Scottish Government as part of a research and policy knowledge exchange activity. However, the ideas within the paper are not limited to a Scottish context, and their presentation at IAPS 2012 is to explore their relevance to a wider international audience in environment research and policy making.
Doyle, MR, and C Després. "Designing for Mobile Activities: Wifi Hotspots and Users in Quebec City." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. The use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) has historically been bound to particular places. With the rapid proliferation of mobile technologies at the beginning of the 21st century, ICTs no longer connect places, but individuals [1]. Liberated by more powerful portable devices and an increasing ubiquity of telecommunications and wireless Internet (WiFi) networks, individuals may choose where and when their ICT-based activities are practiced. Binary notions of public and private, personal and professional, which were once confined to particular places, are blurring and mobile [3]. Places are both locally bound and globally connected [4].The variety of devices upon which mediated activities can now be conducted in addition to the rising availability of free Wireless Internet in public places, facilitates the nomadic nature of the ICT-carrying individual. While ICTs have taken some of the blame for a loss of interest in public spaces in the past [5, 6, 7], their role in “reactivating” public spaces as places of work and leisure may reverse this trend [8]. In fact, the most recent study from the Pew Internet and American Life Project [9] found that Internet users were more likely to visit public places than non-users, in contrary to the belief that Internet use leads to domestic cocooning.In this context, activities—along with people—are mobile. How could an understanding of the mobility of activities aid in questioning the design of public spaces? For architects and urban planners, this goes against traditional Taylorist planning principles [10], in which single functions are assigned to specific spaces [11]. Mobile devices and their respective infrastructures (like WiFi) are seldom approached by architects and urban planners as something to be taken into consideration when designing public places: their presence is often reduced to something seen as ancillary or even invasive.This communication will attempt to discuss the implications of 'mobile activities' on architecture and urban planning by looking at WiFi use and users as sources of inspiration for designing places of gathering in the 21st century. Analysis of server data from a local WiFi provider, ZAP Québec, and of results from an Internet survey of its members, carried out as part of a Master of science in architecture conducted in Quebec City at the Interdisciplinary Research Group on the Suburbs (GIRBa) at Université Laval [12], identify the most frequented hotspots and three WiFi users profiles. A spatial analysis, derived from the Pattern Language developed by Alexander and colleagues in the 1970s [13], reveals the common urban and spatial qualities that characterize the most frequented hotspots. While the exploratory nature of the study may raise more questions than it answers, its findings aid in discussing the impacts that mobile technology use may have on the conception of public places in the 21st century.
Bethelmy, L, S Collado, H Staats, and JA Corraliza. "Developing a Bond with Nature: How a Summer Camp Affects Children's Emotional and Cognitive Experience of Nature." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Spending time in nature during childhood appears to have a positive effect on adults' environmental orientations and pro-environmental behaviours (Chawla & Cushing, 2007; Thompson, Aspinall & Montarzino, 2008). Recently attention has been paid to the importance of emotional affinity or connection with the natural environment predicting pro-environmental behaviour (Kals, Schumacher & Montada, 1999; Müller, Kals & Pansa, 2009). This affective bond appears to be created during childhood (Hinds & Sparks, 2008) and it is a predictor of environmental friendly practices (Cheng & Monroe, 2010). Several factors may influence children's environmental bond such as nature near home (Collado & Corraliza, 2011), parent's environmental values (Cheng & Monroe, 2010) or environmental education programs (Evans, Brauchle, Haq, Stecker, Wong & Shapiro, 2007). There is also some initial limited evidence that a summer camp spent in nature may strengthen this bond (Ernst & Theimer, 2011). We hypothesized that a stay in a summer camp in nature constitutes a package of factors that have been proven to be influential: most of all the long term direct exposure, usually combined with play and educational interaction with nature, approved of, if not explicitly stimulated by parent who sing up, and pay to send their children to a camp. The present study intends to assess the possible effects that stays in different natural vs. urban summer camps have on children's environmental orientation variables such as Emotional Affinity toward Nature (EAN) or children's ecological worldviews and how these variables might affect different types of children's pro-environmental actions like intentions to visit natural environments and to carry out pro-environmental behaviours. A sample formed by 390 children (mean age = 10.88; SD = 2.17) who attended different sleep over summer camps in Spain was used. Data were collected on the first and last day of the camps. The first (C1), second (C2) and third (C3) camps were placed in natural settings and the fourth camp (C4) was set in an urban area. C1 and C2 were summer camps in nature without environmental education (EE) activities and C3 was a summer camp in nature with EE. Our results show that spending time in natural camps increases children's EAN as well as children's ecological worldviews and willingness of carrying out different behaviours compared to children spending time in an urban camp. No differences were found between the natural camp with EE and those without them. Spending time in a natural camp was found to be a predictor of willingness to carry out pro-environmental behaviours, and this relation was mediated by EAN and ecological worldviews. These results can be useful for future interventions aimed at raising children's environmental attitudes and willingness of carrying out pro-environmental behaviours. And this may in the end lead to adults' improved attitudes, and more favourable environmental behaviour. This research has been carried out supported by the Spanish Ministry of Sciences and Innovation (PSI 2009-13422).
Antoni, A, J Le Conte, and R Rodrigues. Diagnosis of the Uses and Comfort Flexibility Potential in the Smart Grids In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. The research of energy gains begins with the study of the amounts of energy that are not consumed. In this sense, any savings from demand response (which consists of curtailing power used or starting on site generation which may or may not be connected in parallel with the grid) represent a major track for energy recovery and storage. Furthermore, the inclusion of energy produced from renewable energy in the grid, which are subject to fluctuations in production are very important (i.e. solar radiation and wind force are uncontrollable), requires adaptation from energy suppliers. The concept of smart grids is then presented as a solution with establishing, at a regional scale, an intelligent grid that interconnects “conventional” and renewable energy to a set of instrumented buildings whose energy management is driven by an aggregator. Within this concept, final users must necessarily be considered, given the fact that they are the core of a system that is intended with the ability to predict the effectiveness of the changes it induces, such as the introduction of demand responses (thereby reducing the peak demand for electricity). This study aims to develop a standardized diagnostic methodology in order to assess the potential flexibility of energy consuming infrastructures of the smart grid demonstrator of Veolia Environnement (Reflexe project, co-financed by ADEME). We considered the flexibility in terms of comfort of the user. This study was carried out in three phases. First, we visited diversified buildings (hostels, office buildings...) located in the south of France. Those visits allowed us to evaluate flexibility and relevance of the diagnosis. Second, we conducted semi-structured interviews with eleven final users in order to identify standards of comfort and enrich the questionnaire that will be implemented in the last phase. Then, final users from two buildings were asked to complete an online survey. The questionnaire was based on a literature review on the models of behaviour predictions (Ajzen, 1991, Kaiser et al. 1999; Bamberg & Moser, 2007), and also on theories of comfort (Amphoux, 1989; Le Goff, 1994). Several energy-related behaviours were measured: reducing the use of air conditioning / heating, turning off the computer/using the sleep mode; switching off the lights. If the perceptual evaluation of the physical environment (temperature, air and sound quality...) seems to predict the global comfort level, the semi-structured interviews leads us to think that other criteria may influence it, such as the feeling of control or social norms. More generally, this study shows that the assessments of levels of comfort may affect the predictive power of their intentions to perform pro-environmental behaviours in their workplaces. We will discuss the results of the study in terms of energy demand response potential and intervention to implement to foster the behaviour change.
Casakin, H, C Ruiz, and B Hernandez. "Differences in Place Attachment and Place Identity in Natives and Non-Natives of Israel and Tenerife." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Attachment and identity are the two links most studied in the recent decades, which leaded to numerous definitions and theoretical positions on the relationship between each other. Increasingly more authors, who agreed on the distinction between attachment and identity, have dedicated their studies to test such differences (Chow and Healey, 2008, Devine-Wright, 2009; Hernandez, Hidalgo, Salazar-Laplace and Hess, 2007; Lewicka , 2008; Rollero and De Piccoli, 2010). A line of research that aims at extending the scope of these investigations is concerned with the comparison of place attachment and place identity in territories where the motivation of residents to establish themselves differs. In this study we present the hypothesis that in territories such as Israel, non-native speakers quickly develop an identity with place, whereas in other places such as Tenerife, place identity takes longer to develop. In order to test this claim, a questionnaire containing scales of attachment and identity with the city (Hidalgo and Hernandez, 2001) was administered to a sample of 493 participants - 219 residing in Tenerife, and 274 in Israel. From participants of Tenerife, 121 were natives and 98 non-natives, while in Israel, 171 were natives and 103 non-natives. In order to compare the means in both variables, we calculated the averages in each scale for each subject, and their scores were considered as standardized z-scores. A MANOVA analysis was performed with the standardized scores as dependent variables and two factors: place of residence (Tenerife or Israel), and origin (native or not native).Results indicated a significant interaction of site X origin for attachment and identity with the city. For the non-natives, no significant differences in attachment were found between Tenerife and Israel. However, differences in identity were observed for this group, where the non-natives from Israel scored higher. Moreover, the mean scores obtained for both links in the group of natives were higher in Israel than in Tenerife. Regardless of whether participants are native or not, mean scores for place attachment in Tenerife were higher than those for place identity. In contrast to this, mean scores in place identity in Israel were higher than those of place attachment.An explanation for these findings might be that while people who move to Israel already have an attraction to the territory, non-natives who displace themselves to Tenerife are usually more motivated by economic reasons than by their attraction to place. We discuss these and other results in light of their contribution to the clarification of differences between place attachment and place identity, and their possible consequences for adaptation and integration to place.
Drucker, S, and G Gumpert. "Digital Media and the Augmented Space: Mobile Place Attachment and Identity." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. "Modern life is lived in the interstice between physical and mediated spaces (between physical local and virtual connection) the relationship to public space. Media theorist Marshall McLuhan observed, "All media work us over completely. They are so pervasive in their personal, political, economic, aesthetic, psychological, moral, ethical, and social consequences that they leave no part of us untouched, unaffected, unaltered." This paper investigates the impact of communication technology on place attachment and place identity. The traditional notions of place identity and place attachment confront the realities of a digital media environment in which the individual blocks, filters, monitors, scans, deletes and restricts while simultaneously constructing a controlled media environment. The ability to connect globally has the tendency of disconnecting from location. The ability to personalize creates feedback loops and media cocoons. Prior research has posited that place attachment can be operationalized in terms of various dimensions including place dependence and social bonding which may be altered by media usage. Twigger-Ross and Uzzell (1996) stated, each and every aspect of identity has some elements related to the place yet as our relationship to physical place changes, identification (the cognitive component) is unlikely to remain untouched. An assortment of technologies enable information from the digital world to be layered onto the physical world altering the person/environment relationship by creating spaces in which users interact with their physical surroundings through digital media. In this investigation, we adapt identity theory to reassess place attachment, a multidimensional concept with cognitive and affective elements altered by "me media" use and augmented spaces. It is hypothesized that communicative and spatial choices that revolve around personal choice, impose new acoustical and visual dimensions on cognitive and affective dimensions of space. A "Mediated Spatial Interstice Theory" will be proposed in which the physical environment and the media environment co-exist, define each other and refine dimensions of place identity and attachment. "
John, C, I Legwaila, and L Eckart. "Distance and Perceived Attractiveness of Reclaimed Limestone Quarry Landscapes: a Non-Monotonic Relationship." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Because of their magnitude, quarries are usual visible from near to distant viewpoints (Ramos et al 2006). The extent of their visibility depends of the size of the quarry, its contrast with the surrounding landscape, and its location relative to other features in the landscape. All these are affected by the distance from which the quarries are viewed.This study assessed the relationship between distance and the attractiveness of reclaimed limestone quarry landscapes. Empirical studies have been conducted to establish the type of relationships that occur between distance and perceived visual qualities of landscapes. Different landscape dimensions have been used in these studies, eliciting different types of relationships (Buhyoff & Wellman 1980; Hull & Bishop 1988; Hull and Buhyoff 1983). However there has not been agreement on any single relationship function between distance and the different landscape dimensions studied.In this study the landscape dimensions studied were reclaimed limestone quarries. Ten different scenarios of reclaimed quarries were simulated by applying different reclamation techniques and different land uses. From these simulations, fifty still images were captured at different distances along an established transect. Ten videos were also recorded along the same transect. These were used in a survey of seventy (70) students from the University of Sheffield. The images were presented through an overhead projector to each individual student at time. Students were asked to rate the quarry landscapes on their attractiveness. The results were divided into three groups based on the students’ field of study. The groups were: Landscape students (twenty seven students from the Landscape Department); Built environment students (twenty three students from Engineering, Architecture and Town and Regional Planning departments) and Others (twenty students from all other disciplines). This was done in order to establish if there was any difference in how the groups perceived the landscapes.It was found that distance had a non-monotonic, quadratic, concave down functional relationship with attractiveness of reclaimed limestone quarry landscapes. These results were significant at p
Jacobs, M, JJ Vaske, and P Fehres. "Do Emotional Dispositions Toward Wildlife Have Predictive Potential Next to Wildlife Value Orientations?" In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. The concept of wildlife value orientations (WVOs) has guided several studies into human relationships with wildlife. WVOs are patterns of basic beliefs that give direction and meaning to fundamental values in the context of wildlife (Manfredo, 2008). Research has revealed two primary orientations: domination (wildlife exists for humans to use) and mutualism (wildlife have rights and deserve care). WVOs have predictive potential for acceptability of wildlife management actions (Teel & Manfredo, 2010). As emotions are a basic mental capacity that shape many mental dispositions (Jacobs et al., 2012), we hypothesised that emotional dispositions have predictive potential for acceptability, next to WVOs. In a survey (n=369), we measured emotional dispositions toward wolves in two ways. First, valence (the positive-negative dimension of emotions), measured by four items (á=.92). Secondly, seven discrete emotions, measured by one item each. WVOs were measured similar as in previous studies (e.g., Vaske et al., 2011). As dependent variables, acceptability of two potential wildlife management actions in problem situations was measured: lethal control or doing nothing. Four regression models were tested to predict acceptability: (1) valence, (2) discrete emotions, (3) valence and WVOs, (4) discrete emotions and WVOs. Valence only predicted acceptability of lethal control of wolves (R=.39) and acceptability of doing nothing (R=.26). Also, discrete emotions predicted acceptability of lethal control (R=.49) and doing nothing (R=.30). Including WVOs increased the predictive potential for lethal control (R=-.60 for valence and WVOs, and R=65 for discrete emotions and WVOs). In these models, domination was consistently the best predictor (â=.40/.38), and emotions were better predictors and mutualism (e.g., â=-.25 for valence, â=-.12 for mutualism). Predictive potential for acceptability of doing nothing was not increased by including WVOs in the models. Neither domination nor mutualism was a significant predictor for this management option. We conclude that emotional dispositions toward wildlife have predictive potential next to WVOs. Remarkably, for acceptability of one extreme management action (lethal control) domination was a better predictor than emotions, while for another extreme action (doing noting) emotion was the only statistically significant predictor. Our results suggest that emotional dispositions toward wildlife are relevant for policy makers and managers, as they explain support for or opposition against wildlife management measures.
Anable, J, APN Van der Jagt, T Craig, M Brewer, and DG Pearson. "Do Landscape Aesthetics Go Beyond Scene Content? Testing the Preference Matrix Using an Improved Methodology." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. IntroductionThe goal of this study was to investigate the extent to which the informational variables from the preference matrix (Kaplan and Kaplan, 1989) are predictive of landscape aesthetics. In a recent meta-analysis covering empirical research on the preference matrix, it was concluded that consistent support was lacking for each of its component variables (Stamps, 2004). Possible causes for the inconclusive findings in the past are outlined and addressed in the present study. Amongst the methodological improvements are the use of a statistical test which takes into account the ordinal distribution of the data, improved definitions of some of the preference matrix items based on participant comprehension scores, a substantially sized image database (N = 1600) with high quality images from natural, built and “mixed” scenes, and use of beauty rather than preference as target variable since the latter is deemed to be sensitive to the goals and intentions of people (Herzog & Leverich, 2003). In addition, any confounding effects of scene familiarity and both natural and built content on ratings of the variables from the preference matrix were taken into account and the frequently suggested interaction between complexity and coherence was investigated.Method Results and Discussion In contrast to findings reported previously (Stamps, 2004), this research shows that all variables from the preference are positively predictive of beauty. The lack of consistent findings in previous studies is therefore likely a consequence of methodological shortcomings. In addition, this study has been the first in which support for an interaction between coherence and complexity was found. Furthermore, both natural and built content of a scene, as well as its familiarity, were found to be related to reported beauty. This finding is interesting because it implies that natural and built content are concepts that are not directly opposite. It is concluded that the preference matrix should be regarded a valuable paradigm for informing future research that has a focus on human preference for specific kinds of spatial information.
Hunziker, M, J Frick, N Bauer, and E von Lindern. "Do People from Urban and Rural Areas Differ Regarding Restoration in the Forest? a Swiss Nationwide Comparative Study." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. There is good evidence that people generally prefer natural environments, for example, forests, over urban environments regarding restorative purposes (e.g. Hartig & Staats, 2006; Nordh et al., 2009). However, it is still an open question whether people from urban regions differ from people living in rural regions regarding their preferences for forest characteristics, their motives for visiting forests, their perceived person-environment congruence, and in their self-reported restoration after forest visits.We focused this issue by eliciting a Swiss national representative sample (N = 2623) using computer assisted telephone interviews and a web-based survey. We split the sample into an urban (n = 2182; mean age 52.7 years, SD 16.3; 51.7% female) and a rural (n = 441, mean age 50.7 years SD 15.6; 50.8% female) subsample, based on criteria provided by the Swiss Federal Statistical Office. In a second step, we compared both groups regarding their agreement on eight motives for visiting forests, their preferences for different forest attributes, their performed activities, their travel mode to the forest, their rating of restoration, and perceived disturbances while recreating. Furthermore, we also analyzed in how far a calculated person-environment-fit value (based on preferred and perceived forest characteristics) contributes to reported restoration. Results indicate significant differences between people living in rural and urban environments. For example, people from urban areas reported more disturbances while being in the forest, agreed more to the motive ‘experiencing nature’, and preferred brittle wood more compared to people from rural areas. On the other hand, people belonging to the rural subsample reported a significantly higher person-environment fit for forest characteristics, liked the forest more, and needed less time to reach the forest than people from the urban subsample. A linear regression analysis on reported restoration resulted into different beta weights for both groups. For example, the person environment fit was only significant for urban peoples’ reported restoration, while agreement on motives was relevant for both. However, experienced disturbances did not impair reported restoration, whereas having a forest-related job significantly lowers reported restoration for both groups. Overall, our findings suggest that people differ depending on whether they live in a rural or urban environment regarding restoration relevant dimensions, although they report a comparable amount of restoration after forest visits. This is congruent with results from other studies, emphasizing the general restorative effect of visiting natural environments like forests. Interestingly, having a forest-related job was negatively associated with reported restoration, independently from living in a rural or urban environment, although the effect was stronger for the rural subsample. This might be an indicator that restorative environments can be threatened or ‘contaminated’ by interweaving work, every-day life and recreation. Therefore, we suggest that future research in the human-environment domain should focus the role of possible ‘carry-over effects’ and address the question, how restorative qualities of different environments can be preserved or even enhanced.
Steinführer, A, and N Jürges. "Do Stakeholders Really Need (Or Want) Transdisciplinary Research? Considerations from an Ongoing Climate Change Project." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Climate change today represents a major societal topic in relation to which opinions are expressed by both so-called ‘lay persons’ and ‘experts’ – a distinction which, however, remains rather blurred. While daily-life assumptions about ever hotter summers and wetter winters, respectively, might easily become subject to mutual agreements, in professional spheres climate change is nothing unquestioned. Depending upon concrete fields of expertise, climate change might be an obvious problem to researchers but not to the stakeholders that are to be involved in the respective research project. How, then, to decide upon the relevance of a certain topic? Who defines the problem and whose representations are ‘right’ in such a case in the end?In the paper we will discuss some considerations on this ambiguity based upon first insights from an ongoing research project that deals with interdependencies between land use and climate change in Germany (CC-LandStraD). The inter- and transdisciplinary project covers all relevant land use sectors (agriculture, forestry, settlements and transport as well as nature conservation) and, by way of interdisciplinary modelling, intends to develop future land use scenarios under conditions of climate change. By scientists, agrarian, forestal, settlement and transport land use and nature conservation are expected to contribute to climate change mitigation but at the same time also to adapt to the predicted impacts of climate change. In such an understanding, ongoing land use change will progress also in the future. In a transdisciplinary endeavour, the project tries to involve stakeholders from relevant national associations and interest groups repre-senting all of these land use sectors. One of the methodological tools applied are semi-structured interviews in which the stakeholders’ perceptions of climate change impacts and potential or necessary mitigation and adaptation measures are explored. In future project workshops, the stakeholders are then expected to present their views on the meaningfulness of the developed scenarios, the indicators considered and the expected outcomes. The stakeholders are thus ascribed a major role not only in the process of the project but also for its progress and overall outcomes. While from the perspective of applied research (and research funding, respectively) this role is becoming desirable and almost fashionable, it is questionable whether all of the stakeholders really want to play it as it makes science (even) more uncertain to them.Currently, the interviews are being carried out. Therefore, the 2012 IAPS conference is a good opportunity to reflect upon some expected and unexpected findings.
Tseng, TA, CC Shen, and JJ Lu. "Do the Children's Involvement of Different School Campus Area Affect their Percieved Sense of Place and School Identity?" In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. The main purpose of this study is to discuss the relationship of childrens behavioral involvement, sense of place, and school identity in schools. This study chose students from third to six grades to take quantitative surveys and assisted with qualitative in-depth interviews. A total of 122 students took the survey and 21 of them did in-depth interviews. This study discovered in students involvement, the involvement of ecological area mainly came from importance; this indicated that children thought doing activities at the ecological area was more important and more meaningful. The involvement of play area and outdoor spaces came from centrality; this showed that these two areas were the childrens main activity area, and they mentioned these two areas to others more often. The sense of place of ecological area and play area mainly came from place dependent, and the sense of place of other outdoor spaces came from place attachment. Involvement had significant positive influence on sense of place, which indicated students had higher attachment to the place when with more involvement behavior. Although the ecological area in the school had lower student behavioral involvement, it played an important role on student's social psychological involvement, and was also an important basis on forming sense of place. It could be further used to promote positive identity of the school.
Beute, F, and YAW de Kort. "Does Need for Restoration Direct Us to Nature? Testing Viewing Patterns After Emotional and Cognitive Stress Induction." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Restoration theories teach us that views to nature and spending time there help us restore from attention fatigue and socio-emotional stress. Research has also indicated that we have a beneficially adaptive taste, in that our preference for restorative environments increases with our need for restoration (Hartig & Staats, 2006; Staats et al., 2010). Such an adaptive appetitive system would help us seek out more restorative contexts when we need them. In the current studies, we wanted to investigate this adaptive system further, exploring whether need for restoration would not only have us prefer natural elements more, but also direct our visual attention towards natural elements – opportunities for restorative escape – faster and more explicitly. We used eye tracking to investigate the elements individuals scan and fixate on when presented with new scenes.Eye movements are rapid and largely beyond our conscious control. In between movements the eyes briefly fixate on specific elements in a scene. This scene scanning involves both top-down and bottom-up processing. Bottom-up processing involves matching the position of certain critical objects with stored cognitive maps. Top-down processes were first demonstrated by Yarbus (1967), who showed that cognitive tasks will influence which objects are attended to. Whether restorative need impacts such top-down processes in scene processing is as yet unknown. Our research question therefore was: Does need for restoration influence scene processing; more specifically, do people fixate more, and more quickly, on natural elements of scenes after stress induction?We performed two experiments (N=60 and N=50), in which we fitted participants with an eye tracker, induced stress (vs. no stress in the control condition), and then presented them a set of pictures. In Study One we employed an emotional stressor: we induced a mood by asking participants to recall an episode in their life where they experienced this emotion (e.g., Hucklebridge, 2000). In Study Two we used a cognitive stressor: the Markus & Peters Arithmetic Test (MPATest, Peters et al., 1998). The images all contained mixed content (i.e. natural and man-made elements, which were coded as either natural or urban Areas of Interest (AoIs). In both studies we compared heatmaps (the duration of fixation on natural vs. urban AoIs) and scanpaths (the order in which participants scanned the image) between the stress and control conditions. The studies were ongoing at the time of submission; results will be available in December 2011. These will tell us whether our visual scanning system helps us seek out opportunities for restoration under stress as compared to neutral mental states.
Howieson, S. "Does Research Evidence Produce Action?" In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. "Why is the evidence base being ignored? Despite there being a compelling body of evidence that demonstrates the world wide asthma pandemic (Howieson 2006) in temperate climates is being driven, in the main, by poor housing design (lower air change rates leading to high internal humidity and house dust mite infestation), as yet little or no action with regard to policy or legislation has been forthcoming. Developers in the UK are currently being encouraged, by revised codes, to build dwellings that will actually compound the problem. This paper will present evidence form 25 years of research into the relationship between housing and health. It will demonstrate that poor house conditions and fuel poverty produce up to 60 000 excess winter deaths (Howieson 2005) in the UK each year and that the drive for energy efficiency has caused the asthma pandemic. Despite there being many examples of how to remediate the existing stock (Howieson 2003)(Wright 2009) and build new 'healthy' dwellings the industry lobby continues to muddy the waters for short term financial gain. This has resulted in a confused and piecemeal approach by governments and policy makers that is failing to address the crucial issues. It will ask the big question, "Are governments actually interested in protecting their citizens or are they simply the elected representatives of commercial vested interest?"
Sava, FA, A Gavreliuc, CM Ilin, Z Bogathy, and A Dumitru. "Drivers of and Barriers to Sustainable Practice at Work Perceived by the Employees of an Romanian Company." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. This study was conducted as a part of Work Package 2 within the project LOCAW, in order to identify drivers of and barriers to sustainable practice at work in a company which is the Romanian regional operating company of public water and waste-water services. The data were obtained from processing the open answers in the 119 questionnaires which was structured in the analysis of three categories of practices: consumption of materials and energy, generation and management of waste and organization-related mobility.The results show that the most of the perceived barriers against adopting sustainable behaviours related to the responsible consumption of energy and other resources seemed to be placed at different levels, in equal measure (3 factors for each category): individual and collective human elements (carelessness, habit and convenience), sociocultural elements (education, mentality and lack of environmental culture), and also political, economic or institutional elements (high prices for water systems and electricity use, lack of environmental policies and lack of founds). Retrospectively, the mentioned drivers for the consumption behaviours were more widely represented: organisational and institutional elements (awareness of environmental responsibility, changing working hours, management involvement and inspection), discursive constructions of actors and popular discourses (accountability campaigns, media promotion, open information and posters for environment protection), political economic and institutional elements (fines, rules and creating conditions for the exercise of the ecological instinct), material elements and spatial physical features (using e-mails, using economic bulbs and control prints) and, with fewer items, individual and collective human elements (encouragement and exemplification).Waste generation and management - the most represented attitude towards the perceived barriers is that there are none or that they don’t know. The subjects indicated as stoppers the individual and collective human elements and sociocultural elements. The attempt to map the drivers for these waste collection sustainable behaviours brings up the same weird observed situation. The most important perceived facilitators for actions related to waste were selective waste collection, as much as there are none.Organisation-related mobility - The most important mentioned barriers against adopting responsible travel behaviours seemed to be: individual and collective human elements and organizational/institutional elements. The same phenomenon of polarity previously identified, the prevalence of the “potential disengagement” factors/attitude close after the most important factors, can also be observed here. The drivers for the responsible travel behaviours in the organisation: material elements and spatial physical features, organisational and institutional elements and political economic/ institutional elements.
Lappin, S, M Dean, C Hayles, and J McCullough. "Dwellings Designed to Reduce In-Use Carbon Emissions: Temperature, Humidity and Perceived Comfort." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. It is internationally accepted that the human race is affecting climate change due to its carbon intensive infrastructure and institutions. In many developed nations one third of carbon emissions are created by domestic energy. In response, many building assessment tools have been developed to reduce carbon emissions in construction and use. The UK aims to reduce carbon emissions by 80% by 2050 relative to a 1990 baseline. With this aim, the UK has implemented the Code for Sustainable Homes (CSH) as a national standard, mandatory for all new social housing. CSH assess the sustainability of a home across nine categories: water, energy, minerals, surface run-off, waste, pollution, health and well-being and, management and ecology. There are six levels of achievement. Code 3 requires 10% reduction in carbon emissions compared to 2006 building regulations and code 6 aims to achieve zero carbon in-use.This paper discusses the role of new housing in reducing carbon emissions. Studies outline that even if occupants live in identical homes, some households use up-to-three times as much energy as their neighbours. Inhabitant perceptions and behaviours will therefore largely determine the energy efficiency of a home. This study investigates how domestic energy consumption is related to inhabitant perceptions and consumption behaviours, focusing on heating and ventilation by investigating inhabitants’: perceptions of climate change; perceptions of their consumption behaviours; actual consumption behaviours; and, perceived comfort related to actual temperature and humidity. Where relevant, the impact of fuel poverty will be considered.Two social housing schemes (accessed through Oaklee Housing Association) were selected to offer insight into differing approaches to achieving Code 4 of CSH: natural materials and timber frame construction (6 homes); and, masonry construction (12 homes). Oil/gas and electricity monthly meter readings will be taken during the winter period from August 2011 to March 2012 (18 homes). In-depth data collection will consist of the following (10 homes): household qualitative interviews, including inhabitant perceptions; temperature and humidity in each room during one week (January to March 2012) alongside a household diary of perceived comfort and use of heating and ventilation systems.Results will be outlined and are expected to identify: variation in energy consumption; drivers and barriers to reducing household energy consumption; impact of household perceptions on consumption behaviours; and, variation in temperature and humidity required for comfort. This methodology will be repeated in summer (April to August 2012). Conclusions will consider if such dwellings both reduce domestic energy consumption and meet comfort and economic need. Findings will be disseminated to policy makers and designers to advise a way forward to reducing domestic carbon emissions grounded in the perceptions and behaviours of the inhabitant.
Steinführer, A. Dying' Settlements and Residents 'left Behind': Some Reflections on Demographic Fatalism In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Demographic change and its impacts on settlement structures currently represent a major topic of public concern and scientific debate not only in Germany. Yet, it is not a new one. Already in the 1970s one could read about “dying” villages in the areas close to the (then) Inner German Border. These settlements exist still today. But, once again, villages in peripheral regions across the country are subject to widespread assumptions about left-behind residents and the limited futures of the settlements in which they live. Many local and regional practitioners order demographic prognoses (or carry them out themselves) in order to become more certain about the future of their town or city. Local demographic change is, as a rule, understood as a univocal, unambiguous process that will determine the world in which we will live. In the case study presentation I would like to reflect upon science-policy interactions on issues of demographic change and, particularly, on the role that scientists should, in my mind, play with regard to per se uncertain futures. The presentation is based upon on different research studies in the past years that were and are dealing with the local impacts of population decline and demographic ageing in Germany.
Hiob, M, and P Metspalu. "Dynamics of Building Activity in Historical Residential Neighbourhoods in Tartu and Tallinn, Estonia. Spatial Planning Perspectives." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Concerns about the quality of living environment have been in the focus of spatial planning since the very beginning of the discipline. The idea that the physical form of the environment could affect social and economic wellbeing or even determine the quality of life has been quite central to planning thought. Although the understandings what makes a good living environment and how could it be achieved have varied greatly over time, the recent sustainability paradigm in spatial planning has been seen as a ‘common good’ to improve process/procedural approaches, alongside substantive/design approaches.Our paper is taking a closer look at the planning procedures and documents in four valuable residential neighbourhoods in Tartu and Tallinn, Estonia. The historic residential districts near the city centre constitute remarkable cases for contemporary spatial planning with great potential in achieving the three E-s - environment, economy, and equity - of sustainability and demonstrating a strong “spirit of place”. We are presenting a critical analysis of strategic comprehensive plans and theme plans of the neighbourhoods, looking at the theoretical approaches lying behind the planning solutions. The description of Estonian planning system and factors influencing it (like Soviet legacy) are given for background information.The general purpose of the comprehensive plans in historical neighbourhoods is both to preserve the historic physical character of the district and to ensure the residents good living conditions. The new buildings and extensions of the existing ones should not overuse the site and take advantage of the sparse density of neighbouring plots.In Estonian planning framework, comprehensive plans can be changed by detailed plans, which provide the obligatory grounds for issuing the building projects and permits. Although the planning act sees this as an exceptional procedure with possible alterations carefully considered, it was a common practice in the beginning of the century. In our analysis overview of the detailed plans and new buildings constructed over the years in research areas is given. The magnitude of the alterations is assessed as well as the conformity with the comprehensive plans. Thus the detailed plans and new buildings indicate the scale, pace and character of the actual developments in built environment.The conclusions deal with trends of development in historical residential neighbourhoods. Future potential of the research areas supported by current comprehensive plans is envisaged and suggestions for the planning practice are given.
Lee, YJ. "Eco-Community Empowerment Strategies: Case Study of Taipei, Taiwan." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Recently, the concept of sustainable development has prompted reflection on how industrialization has damaged the relationship between humans and nature. Particularly, discussions on urbanization and urban resource centralization have coined numerous concepts, such as eco-state, eco-city etc., that incorporate sustainability into spatial planning. Among these concepts, eco-community is a community-based sustainable strategy for proactively fixing the relationship between humans and nature. The government of Taipei, Taiwan launched a series of eco-community development plans in 2008 and 2009, focused on community participation. In this case, the implementation process can be considered a community empowerment mechanism for achieving sustainable development. The establishment of eco-communities will bring Taipei closer to sustainability, while community identity, consensus and capacity accumulation derived from building eco-communities can provide a foundation for future environmental governance. This study examines strategies and mechanisms for eco-community development in Taipei, including a core value of public participation, a selection mechanism based on community-based proposals, and principles based on cultivating sustainable methods of community management. Seven communities were chosen as demonstration of eco-communities, and spatial features, issues and planning strategies are explored for each community. The final section of this study presents general statements on the role of community initiatives in creating eco-communities.
Depledge, M, M White, K Ashbullby, and S Pahl. "Effects of Coast, Countryside and Urban Open Spaces: Psychological Responses to Visiting Different Environments." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Introduction In the context of high and rising levels of mental ill health, research interest in the potential health improving effects of physical environments is growing. Outdoor environments including the coast, countryside, and open spaces in towns and cities, can provide valuable opportunities for recreation and leisure activities. To date, research on the wellbeing benefits of outdoor environments has primarily focused on what have been defined as green spaces. Yet recent work on the role of blue space (including the coast, beaches, rivers, and inland waterways) has indicated that blue spaces may be preferred and have greater restorative effects, over and above green or urban spaces without water. MethodUsing data from 2750 English respondents drawn from 2 years of the Monitor of Engagement with Natural Environment (MENE) survey (Natural England, 2011), this study investigates psychological responses to leisure visits to different environment types (coastal and seaside; countryside; open spaces in towns and cities). Specifically, we explore if visits to the coast and seaside are more likely to be associated with (i) higher affective responses (i.e. positive emotion) and (ii) relaxation and peace as a motivation for the visit, when compared to visits to the countryside and open spaces in towns and cities. ResultsThe findings show that visits to coastal and seaside locations are associated with more positive psychological responses than visits to the countryside or open spaces in towns. These findings hold when taking account of (i) demographic variables, (ii) the presence of others on the visit and (iii) walking (one of the most frequent activities undertaken in the natural environment). We also find that relaxation and peace is more likely to be cited as a motivation for visits to the coast and seaside, than visits to the countryside or open spaces in towns and cities. DiscussionThis study provides new evidence that visits to coastal and seaside locations are associated with (i) more positive affective responses and (ii) relaxation and peace as a motivation for the visit, when compared to visits to the countryside or open spaces in towns and cities. This study also presents novel evidence that walking in coastal and seaside environments is associated with more positive affective responses than walking in the countryside or open spaces in towns and cities. ConclusionFurther research is required to fully understand the beneficial effects of exposure to different types of natural environments on both psychological and physical health, in addition to the mechanisms that may underlie a blue space effect. Nonetheless, for policy makers, health care practitioners and academics these findings imply that greater attention needs to be paid to coastal and seaside environments and the role they can play in promoting human health and wellbeing.
Evans, GW, and GW Vaid. Effects of Housing Quality on Well-Being: Evaluation of Slum Rehabilitation Policy in India In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. The city of Ahmedabad in India contains 137,815 slums characterized by a compact area with poorly built tenements, usually with inadequate sanitary and unhygienic drinking water facilities. The government of India has introduced various rehabilitation policies to ameliorate living conditions in low-income neighborhoods. However, the presumption of positive impacts on families of such policies warrants careful investigation. Millions of dollars are spent and large number of people uprooted. Yet little evaluation of the benefits of housing improvements has been conducted.Previous studies have shown that people in poor housing are more likely to suffer from health consequences and psychological distress (Wilner et. al, 1962; Evans et. al, 2000). But there is a dearth of research in developing countries like India, where the issue of sub-standard housing is even more critical. Also, most research on effects of housing quality has looked at either physical or mental health to evaluate well-being. But well-being is affected by various domains like physical health, psychological state, social relationships, and personal beliefs (Diener, 1994).This study examines the relation between housing quality and overall well-being of people in low-income neighborhoods. It answers two key questions: does housing quality improve from slum housing to public housing provided under rehabilitation policies?; does housing quality influence aspects of well-being such as health-mental and physical, perceived stress, self-mastery, hope and social ties?There are two groups with 75 women residents of identified housing in each group. One group currently lives in slum housing but will be slated to move into public housing in the future. A second group has already moved to public housing from slum housing. The move of slum-dwelling families into public housing provides a set of circumstances where similar populations may be subjected to a differential change in housing environment alone and can be tested for subsequent change in quality of life. These groups are compared on aforementioned variables using standardized validated scales. For the first wave of the study data is collected while one group is still living in the slums. Second wave will start post rehabilitation of this group into public housing providing longitudinal data on the same sample. This data will be analyzed using statistical analyses such as t-tests and regression.I hope to find indications of improved housing quality in public housing from slum housing and people in public housing reporting better well-being. The results from this study may provide preliminary evidence that housing quality is important to slum dwellers and suggest that improvement in housing quality from slum-neighborhoods to public housing matters. Cross-sectional data will also lay the groundwork for a longitudinal study. This study can help to evaluate and thus inform future housing policy in India from a psycho-social perspective.
Lay, MC, and M Lima. "Effects of Size, Spatial Configuration and Location of Social Housing Schemes on Social Interaction." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. The article deals with social housing implemented by the BNH (National Housing Bank) in Brazil in order to subsidize future social housing production by government agencies. It aims at understanding how the layout of housing schemes related to size, spatial configuration and location, can affect social interaction among dwellers as well as interaction between the housing scheme and its urban context.Methodological procedures included archives information, physical measurements, observation of behaviour, mental maps with interviews and questionnaires. Following the perceptive approach adopted, user satisfaction and environmental behaviour are employed as indicators of environmental performance and social interaction. The layout characteristics studied are related and influence the type and intensity of social interaction between residents and its urban context. Furthermore, it is verified if the integration of scheme in the urban context, due to its configuration, helps residents integrate into the district/ city and feel recognized as belonging to the city, as well as increase satisfaction with their place of residence. It is intended to provide theoretical subsidies that might contribute to implementation of housing schemes that will encourage social interaction among dwellers and between the housing scheme and its surroundings, based on the premise that it is an essential quality of cities to fulfill the role of place of meeting and social exchange, promoting contact between people. That is, urban structures might stimulate the occurrence of interaction among citizens as a consequence of density, level of permeability between public and private spaces, urban diversity and urban vitality.
Collins, K, L Barbosa-Ramirez, and A Kamal. Emerging Demand of Oil and Gas Workforce Housing in South Texas: Lessons from Local and State Policies and Practices In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. From 2000 to 2010, Texas grew from 20,851,820 to 25,145,561, reflecting a 20.6 percent growth, however, the Middle Rio Grande [MRG], a region located in south Texas comprised of nine counties, had a slight increase of 0.8 percent. In 2008, most MRG counties coincided with the Hawkville Field discovery, known as Eagle Ford Shale wherein the MRG is located. The shale is one of the major US Oil and gas discoveries, created numerous new jobs, and is estimated to have 20 to 30 years lifespan causing a significant economic contribution to the MRG region. Despite this slight regional change from 2000-2010, oil and gas companies are desperately recruiting out-of-region’s workers for their new construction and development contracts (Eagle Pass Business Journal, 2011). In Dimmit County, located both in Eagle Ford Shale area and in MRG, there are over 50 oil and gas companies opened offices and operations to service the booming oil and gas plays. In the city of Eagle Pass, motels and hotels occupancy rates have skyrocketed, providing housing for oil and gas workers. The newly recruited workers have also been accommodated in manufactured homes, placed in vacant lots, resulting in undesired communities. This provoked an exploration of case studies of workforce housing to be incorporated and adopted in MRG region,during and after the oil and gas peak.This paper explores workforce housing policies in the US through utilizing a qualitative approach comparing four case studies of workforce housing projects in Oregon, Vermont, Pennsylvania, and North Dakota. It highlights the challenges and programs incorporated in the local, city, and state policies of housing. This analysis is part of an extensive funded study on housing assessment in MRG region that we’re currently undertaking, which also analyzes the population forecasts in the region.In this phase, we looked into the policies and partnerships of different agencies, local and state governments, and developers to establish a rapport that was based on understanding the assessment parameters driven from the review of relevant scholarly work. Those parameters were identified as: the scope of the project, location, demand, capacity, tenure, housing types, employer’s share, employer’s type, funding and financing sources, and policy-related issues. Through a qualitative method of comparing different literature on the identified case studies, we found the following premises: housing tenure is often dominated by rental properties; employers contribute 0-8% of the development cost; the projects are comprised of more than 200 units; and lack of affordable housing in most of the cities and states wherein these housing projects were built is a primary concern. Though this is an outcome of a limited comparison of four case studies, this paper stresses that the current housing policies lacks a mechanism for collaboration between the local/state programs on one hand and the developers and employers in the other hand.
Kilvert, E, V Henshaw, H Jamil, C Kentish, O Mould, and A Michaeladis. Emotion in Motion: a Methodology for Investigating Emotional Response to the Streets and Urban Spaces in Hanley, Stoke-On-Trent In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. In recent years, architects, urban designers and planners have been criticised for pursuing an ocular-centric approach prioritising the look or style of a street, building or site above other sensory components including the sound, smell and overall ‘feel’ or emotional response it provokes. Emotional theorists frequently consider a positive-negative valence when attempting to unpack people’s emotional response to ‘objects’ including people, situations and the world around them and similarly, many sensory modes have been considered as contributing only negative aspects to urban life e.g. unwanted noise. The investigation and measurement of emotional response to the built environment and its sensory components, and specifically with respect to incorporation into design practice, remains limited. This case study outlines a recent project undertaken in Hanley, Stoke-on-Trent by 5th and 6th year students at the Manchester School of Architecture. The project sought to devise and test a methodology for investigating emotional response to the built environment, through the measurement of heart rate, sight, sound and light level, and developed an installation to represent the study findings. In doing so, the project identified different profiles of emotional and sensory stimulation according to urban typology and relationships between varying sensory stimulation and emotional response.
Huang, H, M Schmidt, and S Klettner. "Emotions and Affective Qualities Experienced in Urban Space." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Introduction:Navigation systems help us make decisions in environments. The outputs are route calculations on the basis of objective data. However, environments are perceived not only according to physical features but also in terms of their affective qualities (Russell, 2003). Information about the external world is translated into an internal affective state that indicates whether approach or withdrawal is required (Feldman Barrett et al., 2007). Hence, we argue that the affective perception of space moderates individual's decisions in space and thus also route decisions. However, route calculations on the basis of affective data about space, is a novel approach. Before we can provide this kind of user-centered navigation services, we first need to understand how urban space is perceived. This paper reports on results from quantitative and qualitative studies, conducted in the project EmoMap (funded by the BMVIT program line ways2go), exploring people’s emotions and affective qualities in response to urban space. Method:We assembled sets of emotions and affective qualities deriving from literature. A focus group selected all terms relevant to urban space and amended missing or inaccurate ones, resulting in two extended sets of 68 emotions and 67 affective qualities. Subsequently, online questionnaires were carried out, with the aim to reduce the sets of emotions and affective qualities to the most relevant terms. Participants were instructed to use a rating procedure to indicate frequency and importance of emotions or affective qualities for pedestrians in Vienna. Results & Discussion:Results of the online questionnaire on emotions (N=99) suggest that the most relevant positive emotions evoked in Vienna are in relation to the categories of excitement (e.g., feeling curious, interested, stimulated, inspired) and safety; whereas negative emotions refer to experiences of stress (e.g., tensed, rushed, confined). Results of the online questionnaires on affective qualities (N=102) suggest highest ratings for the positive categories of diversity, interest and attractiveness, and highest ratings of the negative affective qualities of traffic, noise and stress. In our research, we applied retrospective methods for obtaining information about subjective experiences in urban space. However, these methods are susceptible to cognitive biases. Hence, future work of the project EmoMap will focus on subjective experiences not only about space but in it. Affective data will be gathered georeferenced and in real-time. The future aim of the project is not only to gather a great number of affective space-data, but also to enrich navigation systems with them and therewith improve services for wayfinding.
Johansson, M, and M Jacobs. "Emotions Towards Wildlife: Implications for Policy and Management." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Human appreciation of nature and natural elements is ubiquitous. The role of emotions in human relationships with nature has received increasing attention within environmental psychology, for example by employing constructs such as affinity with nature. Also, researchers are recognizing the importance of studying emotions for understanding human-wildlife interactions (Jacobs, 2009; Johansson & Karlson 2011). Emotions are basic mental processes that underlie and shape, for example, memories, motivation, decision making, and perception. Sudden encounters with wildlife often evoke strong emotions that a person remembers (Jacobs, 2009). Emotion constitutes a potent internal force that drives our attraction to wildlife and our motivation to view wildlife (Manfredo, 2008). Emotion-driven circuits inform decisions about wildlife-related behaviours. Individuals with strong emotional dispositions toward wildlife are more likely to identify wildlife in a complex natural scene (Öhman, Flykt, & Esteves, 2001).The study of emotions toward wildlife is relevant beyond academia. Wildlife policy makers and wildlife managers need to face the challenge of dealing with a public that is often diverse (Sandström & Ericsson, 2009). Emotions towards wildlife are often strong, and may be highly polarized. Acceptable management strategies are therefore often hard to achieve. Understanding these emotions towards wildlife leads to an improved understanding of conflict over wildlife, and is likely to contribute to trust and participation in wildlife management.This symposium brings together scholars who study emotions toward wildlife.Issues that will be discussed include the kind of emotions that are important in relation to wildlife, the measurement of emotions toward wildlife, and the consequences for wildlife policy and management. The discussions will relate to the conference themes: 2. Planning, Design and Evaluation in Human Environments: Person-environment congruence in urban, and atural environments and 3. Policy Implementation and Management: Attitudes, trust, and environmental concern. The symposium will contribute to identifying future theoretical directions, new interdisciplinary perspectives and applications in wildlife management for research into emotions and wildlife. The following presentations will be given:Sandström & Ericsson: Are attitudes towards wolves changing? A case study in SwedenVaske, Jacobs & Fehres: Do emotions toward wildlife have predictive potential next to wildlife value orientations?Jacobs, Vaske & Fehres: Self-report measures of emotional dispositions toward wildlife: reliability and validityFlykt, Johansson, Karlsson & Lindeberg: Physiological and behavioural responses in human fear of brown bear and wolfKarlsson, Johansson & Flykt: Managing human fear of bears and wolves Johansson, Karlsson, Pedersen & Flykt: The feared object in fear of brown bear and wolf
Faith, V, K Hadjri, C Rooney, and C Craig. "Engaging Older People with Dementia in Architectural Design Research." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Long term institutional care for people with dementia is estimated to cost the UK economy £20 billion. Global ageing populations predict an increase in dementia. This has highlighted the need to focus on the design of dementia care environments as an alternative means to alleviate some of the common symptoms associated with dementia. Traditionally community care for dementia had been the focus until recently. However, there is now a demand for dementia specific long-term institutional care facilities to provide greater support for the person with dementia, their carers, visitors and relatives. The perception of the physical environment alters with the onset of cognitive decline. Eyesight and hearing for instance are aspects which are often affected in older age and can further deplete wayfinding processes, especially for those with cognitive impairments. Other symptoms of the disease which are aggravated by poor design include aggression, stress, anxiety, incontinence and incidences of trips and falls. These all impact negatively on the psychological wellbeing of the person with dementia and can therefore affect other residents and staff members.The physical environment is widely recognised to influence the behaviour and wellbeing of people living with dementia. A well designed environment can improve the condition, alleviate carer burden and increase psychosocial interaction.There has been a shift in attitude towards design research. It should include the lived experiences of people with dementia and engage with them to provide a better understanding of the role of the environment on their perception of space. This paper examines the efficacy of particular strategies when engaging people with dementia in design and how to address inevitable ethical considerations of the research. Actively engaging with dementia residents in architectural design can provide an insight which could transfer to practitioners, influence policy makers and benefit human-environment interaction. Engaging with those under study in their environments can have a potential impact on professional practice and impact on policy. The formulation of policy comes with a caveat due to effect on professional practice and the potential for environmental determinism to become the norm. This study identifies the need to address issues of human dignity and non-discrimination when engaging in design research with older people. The paper also proposes that care should be taken when investigating the relationship between humans and their environment and that it should be reflective on the social environment also. The strategies suggested in this study aim to provide a richer outcome which may result by effectively working with designers, residents and their carers.
Gatersleben, B, and EV White. "Engineering the Restorative Garden: Examining the Effect of Flower Colour on Restoration." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. ere is a great deal of research which demonstrates that living near nature has beneficial effects on wellbeing (e.g., Kaplan and Kaplan, 1989; Kaplan, 2001; Leather et al., 1998), that exposure to natural scenes has positive effects on physiological arousal and health (e.g. Bodin and Hartig, 2003; Hartig, Evans, Jamner, Davis and Garling, 2003; Ulrich, Simons and Miles, 2003; Parsons, Tassinary, Ulrich, Hebl and Grossman-Alexander, 1998) and on cognitive functioning (e.g. Kaplan and Kaplan, 1989; Hartig, Mang and Evans, 1991). There is, however, very little research which specifically examines the environmental features that promote restoration. And yet some research has shown a difference in perceived restoration with different vegetation types. White and Gatersleben (2011), for example, found that participants reacted differently to particular types of plants on green roofs, finding tall, flowering, meadow plants more restorative than shorter, succulent plants. This research examines the role of flower colour on restoration. According to the Flowers and Plants Association (2008) around 2 billion pounds are spent annually in the UK on cut flowers. And there is some evidence that people respond positively to natural scenes with flowers (e.g., Kaplan, 2007; Todorova et al., 2004). Very little is known, however, about how the colour of flowers affects people. Wexner (1954) found that people readily assign moods to colours, such as serene for blue and exciting for red. And garden designers and those in similar fields use colour in order to evoke particular moods in the viewer. An experimental study with undergraduate students at the University of Surrey examined the effect of flower colour in gardens on environmental restoration. Participants were asked to imagine that they were mentally exhausted and in a negative mood. They were then asked to imagine walking through a garden shown in a photograph. The photographs showed either blue/purple, yellow/green, or red/pink flowers. Analyses were conducted to examine whether preferences, affective quality and restorative effects were influenced by flower colour and whether this varied depending on people's attitudes towards the different colours.
De Bourdeaudhuij, I, J Van Cauwenberg, V Van Holle, P Clarys, and B Deforche. "Environmental Factors Influencing Older Adults' Walking for Transportation: a Study Using Walk-Along Interviews." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Background: Current knowledge on the relationship between the physical environment and older adults’ walking for transportation is limited. Qualitative research can provide valuable information and inform further research. However, qualitative studies are scarce and fail to include neighborhood outings necessary to study participants’ experiences and perceptions while interacting with and interpreting the local social and physical environment. The current study sought to uncover the perceived environmental influences on Flemish older adults’ walking for transportation. To get detailed and context-sensitive environmental information, it used walk-along interviews.Methods: Purposeful convenience sampling was used to recruit 60 older adults (50% females) residing in urban or semi-urban areas. Walk-along interviews to and from a destination (e.g. a shop) located within a 15 minutes’ walk from the participants’ home were conducted. Content analysis was performed using Nvivo 9 software (QSR International). An inductive approach was used to derive categories and subcategories from the data.Results: Data were categorized in the following categories and subcategories: access to facilities (shops & services, public transit, connectivity), walking facilities (sidewalk quality, crossings, legibility, benches), traffic safety (busy traffic, behavior of other road users), familiarity, safety from crime (physical factors, other persons), social contacts, aesthetics (buildings, natural elements, noise & smell, openness, decay) and weather.Conclusions: The findings indicate that to promote walking for transportation a neighborhood should provide good access to shops and services, well-maintained walking facilities, aesthetically appealing places, streets with little traffic and places for social interaction. In addition, the neighborhood environment should evoke feelings of familiarity and safety from crime. Future quantitative studies should investigate if (changes in) these environmental factors relate to (changes in) older adults’ walking for transportation.
Köckler, H. "Environmental Procedural Justice from a Households` Perspective." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Procedural Justice is dealing with the meaningful and equal inclusion of people in political decision making processes. In the discourse on environmental justice procedural justice is seen as a prerequisite for distributional justice (Maguire & Lind, 2003). In principal all citizens have the equal right to engage in decision making processes. Such an engagement is one option for people to cope with their local environmental burden. For example those who are exposed to transport related emissions (noise, air pollution) could form a pressure group, take part in local transport planning processes or sue. But why don’t they do so? Is this a matter of social disadvantage or of peoples’ attitude only?To follow this questions a theoretical framework called MOVE (Model on Households’ Vulnerability towards their local Environment) has been developed (Köckler, in print). MOVE explains the interplay of environmental quality and coping capacity of people living in the respective environment that leads to their coping-behavior. Getting involved with environmental decision making processes is one option for a household to cope. As MOVE is integrating the Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1991) and the Conservation of Resource Theory the factors of coping capacity go beyond common variables like income and education.Furthermore factors like fluency and communal mastery are considered (Hobfoll, Jackson, Hobfoll, Pierce, & Young, 2002). These resources determine the actual behavioral control, which is part of the Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen & Gilbert Cote, 2008). With regard to environmental procedural justice it is presumed that unequal access of resources determines peoples coping behavior. Based on MOVE a telephone survey was carried out in winter 2010/2011 reaching about 300 households. The quota survey aimed at reaching households in polluted or less polluted neighborhoods equally. Therefore the Ruhr Area, an old industrial region in western Germany, with high social and environmental gradients was selected as research area. With regard to socially disadvantaged groups the survey aimed at including Turkish migrants in polluted and less polluted neighborhoods. Regarding environmental quality there is a focus on noise (Lden) and air pollution (PM10; NO2). First results of regression analysis show that for people in heavily polluted areas different resources predict their behavioral control compared to those in less polluted areas. Furthermore people who live in heavily polluted areas have fewer resources available with regard to all the resources that produced significant results in the regression analysis.
Gatersleben, B, and M Andrews. "Environmental Restoration in Natural Environments High and Low in Prospect and Refuge." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. IntroductionThere is plenty of evidence to suggest that people recover more quickly from stress and mental fatigue in natural then in urban environments (e.g. Berto et al., 2005; Hartig et al., 2003; Ulrich et al., 1991). But, we know little about the environmental features that aid restoration. Environmental Restoration Theory (Kaplan and Kaplan, 1989) suggests that non-threatening natural environments help people rest their mental fatigue because they attract attention involuntarily. Environments which are difficult to negotiate or may harbour a threat are not likely to be restorative, as they require directed attention to deal with such threats or challenges. In reality most natural environments are full of factors that demand directed attention (e.g., to prevent tripping). We studied actual and perceived restorative in natural environments which score high or low in prospect and refuge. Prospect-refuge theory suggests that humans prefer environments high in prospect (a wide field of vision) and refuge (places to shelter), because they afford survival (Appleton, 1975). Prospect and refuge affects preferences and fear ratings for both natural and urban environments (e.g., Andrews and Gatersleben, 2010; Fisher and Nasar, 1992), but we know little about the restorative potential of such environments. Environments which provide little shelter or no field of vision are expected to be less restorative as they required directed attention to deal with potential threats.StudiesIn an on-line study people (n = 198) were exposed to slides of natural environments scoring low, moderate or high in prospect-refuge. As expected, environments high in prospect-refuge were perceived as more restorative and less threatening. But findings varied for perceived physical and social threats. In a lab and field experiment 17 participants made a walk through both a real and a similated environment low or high in prospect-refuge. In both the field and the lab experiment respondents recovered more quickly from mental fatigue and negative mood in environments high in prospect-refuge than in environments low in prospect-refuge. Significant results were found for physiological measures as well as self-reports. Fear arousal increased during exposure to environments high in prospect-refuge but actually increased in environments low in prospect refuge. ImplicationsThe findings of the research have implications for the planning and design of natural environments such as country parks which many people visit because of their restorative potential (a place to get away and relax). Such benefits may not be achieved if a visit requires directed attention and if the environment is perceived to harbour physical and social threats. Creating open environments with high levels of prospect and refuge are more likely to be restorative.
Andrews, CJ, U Krogmann, and E Hewitt. "Evaluating a Green Luxury Rental High-Rise Apartment Building in Nyc." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Green features often appear first in high-end markets where consumers are willing to pay a premium price. This case study of one of the first large residential buildings in New York City to receive a LEED Gold rating illustrates how the luxury market responds to greenness. This building is located in Manhattan within walking distance of the financial district. It is 27 stories tall and contains 293 apartments, most with spectacular views. The total floor area is 33,100 m2, and estimated occupancy is 578 people. The first tenants moved into this rental building in 2003. It is of glass-and-brick construction. Its green features include a vegetated roof, an integrated solar photovoltaic array, daylighting, operable windows, a tight building envelope, energy-efficient HVAC systems, highly-filtered ventilation air, various smart-building features to facilitate monitoring and control, Energy Star appliances, green cleaning practices, and most unusually, a wastewater treatment plant in the basement to allow water re-use. The data collected for this evaluation includes a building-wide survey of occupants’ perceptions and motivations, occupants’ utility bills, detailed occupant interviews and energy and water end-use monitoring for a subset of apartments, discussions with the building’s owners and operators, and investigation of the neighborhood context. The data collection period was from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2011. This paper highlights three findings of interest to the IAPS community, selected from the many results of this detailed evaluation. Each addresses a question about the role of green features and their interactions with human behavior. Can a green building also be luxurious, that is, can it meet the highest standards of occupant comfort and convenience? This building serves as an existence proof that green can be luxurious. Daylighting and good indoor air quality are features that are directly visible to occupants and particularly add luxury. However, much behind-the-scenes work by operating personnel is necessary to ensure that green features function without placing demands on tenants. Can a luxury building be resource-efficient, given that utility bills represent an infinitesimal economic burden for its wealthy residents? The answer is mixed. As with comfort and convenience, much of the building’s resource efficiency is traceable to design and operating decisions that are not directly in the hands of residents. The operating personnel and the building’s owner place a high priority on efficient operation of this well designed building, provided they do not affect occupant satisfaction. Some occupants pursue efficient energy and water use for non-economic reasons, because they harbor pro-environmental attitudes and beliefs. Others do not, so there is wide variation in relevant occupant behaviors. Is greenness a significant differentiator that affects location decisions in upscale, urban rental markets? Greenness appears to be a significant driver of residential location decisions only at the margins, and among this sample it is less important than traditional factors such as convenience to jobs, great views, and a high-amenity neighborhood. These findings highlight the importance of understanding likely occupant behavior from the outset, during design, in order to secure green performance and general success in the upscale urban rental market. The authors will close their talk by demonstrating a simulation model that brings such insights to the design process. This work was funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation.
Shibata, Y, and N Matsubara. Evaluation of Kitchen Space in Homes from the Viewpoint of Creating a Barrier-Free Environment for the Elderly in Japan In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. The purpose of this study is to clarify the evaluation of kitchen space in homes for the elderly in order to create a barrier-free (B.F.) environment. Physical B.F is a traditional element of B.F.. We add a sensory B.F.. and environmental B.F.. (Environmental B.F=Physical B.F. + Sensory B.F.) Our previous research had found the following results:1) Physical environmental barriers were found in most respondent's houses. 2) For a B.F. kitchen space, the satisfaction rates with the thermal environment were the worst of the several sensory factors for the elderly. Moreover, satisfaction with the thermal environment is lower in summer than in winter.These findings suggest that to achieve a B.F. kitchen environment for the elderly, it is necessary to seriously consider measures to prevent heat disorders in summer. Thus, additional research was needed to clarify the actual condition and satisfaction evaluation of kitchen space for the elderly from the viewpoint of B.F. design.All these aspects are important in this study of kitchen space, because creating a B.F. environment for preparing meals is important to improve the elderly's quality of life. We conducted a questionnaire survey of elderly and middle-aged subjects. The results can be summarized as follows:1. The elderly have experienced accidents or incidents in the kitchen. The percentage of respondents who experienced incidents was as follows: burn (46.8%), fall (30.5%), struck head on the shelf (22.5%).2. Installation of B.F. facilities. The installed B.F. facilities (safety goods) in the kitchen were Worktop for wheelchair users (3.3%), cooking chair (5.6%), Heating (42.5%) and Cooler (40.6%). Specifically, for those living alone, the percentages were as follows: Worktops for wheelchair users (5.1%), cooking chair (2.6%), Heating (38.5%) and Cooler (33.3%). 3. Satisfaction rates with the thermal environment were the worst among several sensory factors. Moreover, satisfaction rates with the thermal environment in summer were lower than that in winter. Therefore, it is necessary to seriously consider prevention of heat disorders in summer.4. The satisfaction rates of respondents living alone were lower than those living with an offspring's family.From the social perspective, it is necessary to establish support systems to support older people living alone. Neighbourhood or parent-children communications can be considered as important support mechanisms. To achieve a barrier-free kitchen design for the elderly relates to the elderly's quality of life.
Poortinga, W, C Suffolk, and L Whitmarsh. "Evaluation of the Introduction of a Charge on Single-Use Carrier Bags in Wales: Attitude Change and Behavioural Spillover." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Wales is the first country in the UK to introduce a charge on single-use carrier bags in order to curb their use. From October 2011 onwards, shoppers will have to pay 5-pence for each single-use carrier bag at point of sale. This presentation will report preliminary results of a field experiment evaluating the attitudinal and behavioural impacts of the bag charge. Around five hundred telephone interviews were conducted in Wales before the introduction (September 2011). The same respondents were re-contacted six months after the introduction of the bag charge (April 2012). A similar survey was conducted in England as a control group. It is expected that the charge will substantially reduce the use of such bags in Wales, and that - due to cognitive dissonance/self-perception processes as well as experiences with the benefits of the policy - the policy will become more acceptable after its implementation. It is further explored whether the policy may lead to behavioural spillover in other waste-related behaviours as a result of the development of more positive waste-related attitudes and norms.
Hagbert, P, and M Mangold. "Evolving the Definition of Home – Adaptation of a Concept in a Global Resource Perspective." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. How we design, build and maintain our homes and most of all perceive them holds an important part in the discourse on global resource distribution. Home as a concept is vague and basic, yet influential, ranging from the physical manifestation to the social constructs or theoretical platforms surrounding it. The way home is commonly portrayed in a commercial and political context emphasizes individualistic consumption and ownership. Relating to a cultural communality based in a post-industrial supposed consensus on what the “good home” is, natural or social resources compete with perceived value in short-term financial capital gain. The issue of developing sustainable living environments is especially urgent in emerging urban regions, although depopulating areas are similarly facing large challenges, particularly on how to manage a sustainable de-growth. These situations are directly connected to the discourse on how we are to build for current and future extremes of environmental and/or economic turbulence. In the context of global constraints and their impact on how we are to [re]build living environments in the future, this paper addresses the adaptability of the concept of home and the factors that influence this adaptability. The potential of introducing new ways of residing is dependent on the design of systems where a redefinition of home is of particular interest.The overall aim of my research is to explore how the concept of home is applicable in architectural academia and practice with focus on the sustainable development of current and future living environment. This pilot study creates the conceptual framework and the foundation for further collection of essential data. A theoretical model is illustrated by two precedent dialectics: the motivational justification of need/desire (Maslow, 1947) and the cultural influence of identity/communality (Altman, 1987). The study is based on literature, accessible databases and previous work at the institution including semi-structured interviews and key informant interviews with residents, realtors, housing authorities, residents’ associations, developers and designers. By creating an analytical tool for the concept of home, the role of the architect in defining home becomes more apparent. Challenging the architectural profession, this entails creating attractive environments that facilitate a balance of resources in the context of rapid global changes whether climatic, societal or financial. The analysis contains multi-level factors concerning among others; legal, architectural, political, commercial and behavioral prerequisites of the concept of home. Case studies of selected residential areas of varying building typology, socio-economic and cultural composition are placed in the defined dialectic contexts. The study shows the relevance of evolution of the concept of home in the adaptation to new, sustainable living environments.
Andrews, C, J Senik, Sorensen M Allaci, G Maelis, and R Wener. "Expanding the Definition of Green: Impacts of Green and Active Living Design on Health in Low Income Housing." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. This project attempts to broaden the notion of green building design to take into account other design–related issues that have important health consequences, addressing asthma and obesity in a new apartment building in a low income community. We examine how the synergy between environmental benefits and human health promotion is experienced by residents in a lower income community, and whether the health disparities commonly found in low income communities can be attenuated by sustainable, green residential building design. Affordable housing is an underutilized opportunity to intervene broadly in the inter-connected problems of poverty, environmental conditions, and poor health. This includes addressing Active Living by Design to support healthful living by encouraging increased levels of physical activity among building residents, which has multiple health benefits. This approach, for example, encourages increased use of stairways, more outdoor and active versus indoor and passive activity, encouraging walking to local activities, etc. We also address the impact of green management (that is, the actions of facilities maintenance personnel) and of green behavior (such as the actions of occupants) to support the effectiveness of the design in increasing sustainability and improving air quality. The impact of even the best design may be muted or thwarted by poor or limited operation and maintenance (such as changing filters, keeping equipment operating optimally), and/or inappropriate behavior by occupants (approaches to cleaning, adjustments of thermostats, etc.). We will therefore look at the impact of programs that encourage supportive action by facilities managers and occupants. This is a participatory and longitudinal study that incorporates interventions and evaluations at multiple levels across multiple sectors that include (1) building-level policies and programs that can affect all residents and even neighborhood quality of life; (2) apartment-level activities that can improve household economic and energy impact and indoor air quality; and (3) individual level education on healthy eating and active living that can improve health literacy and household health outcomes. A number of features of the building environment are considered. Low-toxin / low-VOC materials, reduced chemical cleaners, integrated pest management, and ventilation using operable windows and mechanical systems are examined for their effects on health and satisfaction. The roof top garden, an aesthetic building design, and onsite services are also evaluated for their role in offsetting the stress of poverty, pollution, inequity, and neglected city neighborhoods.This research was funded by a grant from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development Green and Healthy Homes Technical Studies Program.
Mathers, A. "Experiential Mapping: a Sensory Evolution of Professional Planning and Design Tools Through Community Participation." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Whilst communities' everyday environments are increasingly subjugated to the will of professional trends and tools, concern arises as to the potentially damaging impact of the experientially sterile spaces that result (Habraken 1998; Dovey 2010). People with learning disabilities (PWLD) are amongst some of our most excluded communities, for whom environmental change has a heightened impact and who are rarely included in design decision-making (Mathers 2010). As identified by Hall (2010), in order to address the imbalance in professional control we must seek to transform the processes that facilitate current inequality. In the field of landscape architecture, Experiential Landscape (EL) has developed mapping tools and training workshops to aid understanding of individual/collective experiences in environmental planning and design (Thwaites and Simkins 2007). Previous use of these tools has focused upon professional employment; therefore to assess their effectiveness for community use, a knowledge transfer partnership was formed with a local vocational training centre for PWLD. In 2010 a four-month qualitative study was carried out with centre trainees and staff. The EL mapping toolkit was employed to reveal existing and aspirational site experiences, facilitated through use of complementary sensory methods which included visual, auditory and kinesthetic techniques. A number of community benefits arose from this process including empowerment of the involved PWLD and development of their environmental awareness (the fieldwork experience activated the participants to create a self-organised, conservation group to tackle environmental issues of key significance such as littering and site-specific garden development). Academic outputs included the advancement of a jargon-free professional mapping technique and the development of sensory action-generating research. In addition, Sheffield City Council selected this project for their 2011 Sheffield Showcase in order to publicise good practice in community participation.
McClure, J, P Diniz, TL Milfont, and R Fisher. "Experimentally Manipulating Values to Motivate Pro-Environmental Behavioural Intentions." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. "Environmental problems are a result of maladaptive human behaviour. One way to tackle these problems is to foster values that underlie environmental attitudes and behaviours. Research has shown that certain values (e. g., self-transcendence values like social justice and world of peace) are positively correlated to environmental engagement, so fostering these values might foster environmental action. Values research has used the value self-confrontation technique (e.g., Maio, Pakizeh, Cheung, & Rees, 2009; Rokeach, 1973) to manipulate value change. In the typical use of this paradigm, individuals receive feedback emphasizing a "deficiency" in the extent to which they possess a specific set of values compared to a referent group. The perceived inconsistence between one's values and the values held by the referent group lead to an increase in importance attributed to the "deficient" values. That is, the self-confrontation technique lead to a change in values, and can be used to impact environmental behavioural intentions and actual behaviour. The present research aims to evaluate how values can be experimentally manipulated to change people's behavioural intentions towards the environment. Two experiments are planned. Experiment 1 aims to expand on a study by Maio et al. (2009, Study 1). These authors used the value self-confrontation technique to manipulate value change in a laboratory setting. For experiment 1 we replicated their study using a survey design with a sample of 138 participants from the general population (instead of undergraduate students) to check if a different method of data collection and different population will produce similar results, and whether the value manipulation will have the expected effect on environmental behavioural intentions. Because participants completed pre- and post-measures in a single assessment, a critic of Maio et al. (2009, Study 1) and our experiment 1 is that participants might become aware of the desired manipulation (i.e., the issue of experimental transparency). Experiment 2 overcomes this possible limitation by having the pre- and post-measures weeks apart. A total of 186 university students from Victoria University of Wellington took part in this experiment. For both experiments participants answered a set of critical measures: a modified version of the General Ecological Behaviour (GEB) scale, values list from the Schwartz Value Survey, a group identification measure, and three filler questionnaires. This talk will report the findings of these experiments for the first time. Studying changes on values and how it affects environmental behavioural intentions offers insights into more effective techniques that could be used to encourage people to live in a more sustainable manner. The findings from my research may offer a more effective solution to current behaviour change programmes that rely a "
Su, ML. "Exploratory Study on Fractal Analysis for Linking Urban Streetscape and Pedestrian Perception." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Being capable of describing organic objectives such as snowflakes and leaf veins, the fractal geometry is suggested by Mandelbrot(1982) in order to depict the natural order lays beneath the chaotic and irregular impression. This movement of the field of modern mathematics has been identified as increasingly topical to the built environment as well. The new understanding offers potential for analyzing the complex nature of the spatial growth of cities, architecture design and cityscape assessment (Batty and Longley, 1994; Bovill, 1996; Hagerhall et al., 2004).The special interest in the cityscape aesthetics has motivated several attempts to investigate the potential of fractal analysis techniques for visual quality evaluation. Considering the complex and comprehensively composed streetscape, it is a critical issue for urban designers to make street features aesthetically ordered and visually coherent while still keeping the character and the variety. Our intuitive capacity for visual appreciation, including senses of 'rhyme', 'rhythm', 'balance' and 'harmony', can result in visual pleasure. Notably, while the similarity in the patterns and elements varies from the simple kind to more complex subsystems, it comprise 'a system of interesting affinity' which composes aesthetic coherence and visual pleasure (Carmona et al., 2003, p.131). In order to systematically evaluate the aesthetic order of streetscape, there have been a number of studies adopt the fractal analysis method as a new approach to investigate the relationship between cityscape's fractal character and the corresponding human perception of visual quality.Based on the fractal analysis methodologies and examinations for British townscape (Cooper, 2003; Cooper and Oskrochi, 2008), the aim of this research is to investigate the wider applicability of the relationship between fractal dimension and environmental perception for streetscape, and takes Taiwan as the case study area. The research focuses on two facets¡X1) physical domain and 2) psychological domain, starting by identifying the potential of fractal geometry to be applied in man-made environment and then three issues' the fractal dimension, streetscape and pedestrian perception.This study is one of the ongoing studies for environmental fractal analysis. It has initially identified and developed the correlations between fractal dimension, pedestrian perception and streetscape elements. It gives the confirmation that fractal dimension are strongly consistent with the level of environmental aesthetic attributes. This piece of research is regarded as preliminary in fractal study and therefore hopes that this work will encourage further studies aimed at investigating the relationship between fractal dimension and high quality urban spaces.
Ratcliffe, E, B Gatersleben, and P Sowden. "Exploring Perceptions of Birdsong as a Restorative Stimulus." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Introduction: Exposure to nature can restore positive mood and attention after stress or fatigue (Kaplan & Kaplan, 1989; Ulrich, 1983). Restoration literature has largely focused on visual experience of nature, but recent studies have indicated the importance of audio stimuli in such environments. For example, Kjellgren and Buhrkall (2010) noted that participants missed natural audio stimuli such as birdsong when absent, and Alvarsson et al. (2010) found that bird and water sounds together were rated as more pleasant than sounds from the built environment. Pleasant music has been shown to act positively on mood and performance (e.g. Thompson et al., 2001), and research into such effects as a function of natural sounds will enhance multisensory understanding of restorative environments. However, the authors are not aware of any published studies on perceptions of isolated birdsong as restorative, or how such perceptions and preferences may vary between different bird calls. These questions will be addressed through an exploratory qualitative study, in the context of a larger project examining quantitative restoration from stress and fatigue after exposure to preferred and non-preferred bird calls (cf. Alvarsson et al., 2010; Jancke et al., 2011; Goel & Etwaroo, 2006). It is expected that birdsong will be related to positive perceptions of the natural environment, and that preference and perceptions of restoration, as well as familiarity and symbolic associations, will vary between different bird calls. Method: The research questions above will be addressed via semi-structured interviews. Topics will include: Sounds positively and negatively associated with nature, including birdsong, and psychological states generated by them Preference or non-preference for natural sounds, including different bird calls Restorative perceptions of different bird calls (after imagined stress or fatigue) Familiarity and associations with different bird calls Findings from this study are expected in early 2012. Implications: Examination of the unique contribution of audio stimuli to subjective restoration will more accurately represent sensory experience in restorative environments than study of visual stimuli alone. This will enable prevailing theories of restoration (e.g. Kaplan & Kaplan, 1989; Ulrich, 1983), which focus heavily on visual experience, to be tested in additional modalities. Study of responses to and associations with natural sounds may also clarify whether restoration is a product of the symbolic or perceptual qualities of a stimulus, or both. The project also aims to increase public engagement with nature via empirical evidence of the effects of natural sounds such as birdsong on mood and performance. This work will strengthen links between ecologists, conservationists, and social scientists, and support evidence-based policy for conservation and heritage groups
Foureur, M, N Leap, and JD Harte. "Exploring the Influence of Design on Communication in Maternity Care." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Aims: To capture the organisational and communication dimension of birthing in order to analyse if the birthing space has any impact upon these dimensions. The study will explore the benefits of using video ethnography to observe, record, and analyse the effect of physical context/environment on communication, behaviour and interactions between women and their care providers within the labour and birth room in two Sydney maternity units in Australia.Background: Prior research about birthplace and communication has been undertaken through narrative accounts of experiences provided by women and midwives and via observation. These studies have revealed that women, midwives and other health care providers regard the hospital labour and birth environment as a highly stressful location that is often characterised by poor verbal communication that may lead to unsafe care. In other studies women have reported less than adequate or limited options for use of the physical spaces within the birth room that they regard as contributing to difficult and unsatisfying birth experiences.Experts in the area assert that most communication occurs at a non verbal level, therefore filming interactions between women and staff within particular labour and birth environments is important to fully understand the relationship between environment and non verbal as well as verbal communication.The premise of this study is that optimally designed birth units could reduce staff and women's stress, positively influence the quality of communication and quality of care, facilitate physiological birth, and increase woman/baby safety thereby reducing the likelihood of adverse events and litigation.The influence of design on communication has been established in other video ethnographic work in health that we have recently completed. Video filming is internationally recognised as an innovative research method in the areas of intensive care, emergency, spinal care and trauma units as well as ambulance services, handover and open disclosure studies.Participants: Volunteer staff and a total of 10 birthing women and their supporters will be recruited to provide video recordings for analysis.Video: Using an unobtrusive, hand held video camera, recordings will be made of samples of communication interactions between staff (at the desk and during handover), and between staff, women and supporters (during admission plus one hour_ handover plus one hour).In depth interviews will be conducted with each woman and with staff, during which the video will be reviewed for reflexive interpretation and for any edits or deletions of footage.Analysis: Video and interview data will be subjected to qualitative ethnographic analysis.
Warren, P, K Tooke, R Danford, A Gilpin, S Bradley, and R Ryan. "Exploring the Relationship Between Community-Based Urban Greening and Neighborhood Green Space Use in Boston, Massachusetts(Usa)." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Disinvestment in many post-industrial cities has led to property abandonment in residential areas, creating vacant lots in the urban fabric. In the inner-city neighborhoods of Boston, Massachusetts (USA), some vacant lots have been transformed into community gardens and parks through the efforts of local neighborhood organizations, while other lots continue to be abandoned and neglected, with successional vegetation recolonizing the sites. This research study focused on evaluating the social and ecological impacts of these urban greening projects. The study used behavioral observation of green space users, as well as interviews with volunteers who helped build and/or maintain these gardens, to understand use patterns and other benefits that local residents derive from these gardens. Other ecological studies, not reported in this presentation, involved sampling of birds and insects. Conducted over two field seasons, the study compared 10 pairs of urban green spaces with nearby vacant lots. The first field season studied an array of urban greening projects, including parks, schoolyards, street improvements, and community gardens, while the second field season focused primarily on parks and community gardens. The results of this study found significantly more use in the community developed green spaces, including both passive use, as well as active use. Neighborhood engagement with these small sites included both entering the site for passive recreation, as well as often talking with neighbors and others on the adjacent sidewalks. Community gardens along with parks with playground structures received the most use compared to other parks and urban greening projects. This pilot study is part of the larger Boston Metropolitan Area Urban Long-term Ecological Research Area (BMA-ULTRA-EX) Project which is an interdisciplinary project developed to study the relationships between urban ecosystem state and structure and the socio-economic and bio-physical drivers of change to these systems.
Cowdroy, R, and P Michialino. "Extending 'home': Strategies for a Sustainable Regeneration of Public Housing." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. The development of affordable urban housing, historically, has been linked to the process of industrialisation and the contextual urbanisation of the labour masses (Arku & Harris, 2005; Morgan, 2005). The transformations produced by the shift from the industrial to the post-industrial era involved profound changes in the city, and the stock of public housing built during the industrial era is now often obsolete, showing its limits not only in terms of construction, materials and technology, but also at the urban, social and economic levels (Kennett, 1994). The problem of regenerating or re-building important stock of social housing, which have became increasingly obsolescent and unpopular, requires specific responses from policy-makers and social housing landlords (Hall & Hickman, 2005), and can play a major role in the urban transformation to adapt to a post-industrial and sustainable era (Smith 2006).Numerous factors indicate good practices for contributing to sustainable housing regeneration (Winston and Pareja Eastaway, 2008), however their synthesis in a project process appears extremely complex.The integration in the urban context, or, more often, the lack of integration of the architectural and urban form, is the factor that probably contributes most heavily to the stigmatisation of the social housing areas (Blanc, 1993). The ghetto-effect due to the concentration of low-income households is among the most frequently recognised urban character of public housing areas (Priemus and Dieleman, 2002).This study analyses the sustainability of different responses to the problem of obsolete public housing, particularly focusing the perceived values and meanings of home, (a) as abode/house, (b) as living environment (immediate surrounds and neighborhood) and (c) as where I come from (home town, etc).Looking at three case studies in Italy, Belgium, and France, it discusses competing strategies for approaching the regeneration processes, studying the impact of political, spatial (urban and architectural), social, psychological, economic factors on the social and cultural values of ‘home’.The case studies show that sustainable regeneration projects of obsolete public housing encompass multiple levels of complexity, and therefore the criteria for the decision making are numerous and can be contradictory. The social identification and the socio-cultural values take particular account of the role of the place in generating references of identity (we belong to that settlement); extending the meaning of ‘home’ and challenging the boundaries between private and public action; and the embodiment of the memory of the place. The successfulness of the regeneration project in addressing these factors, and in enhancing and extending the meaning of ‘home’ and a shared perception and sense of responsibility and ownership between residents appears to be a key factor for a regeneration sustainable and successful at various levels.
Monteiro, R. "Farmers and Farmkeepers: Architectural Subordination and Social Subjection." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. "The research has been developed in the rural area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, a place that has undergone major socio-spatial transformations in the 1970s under the impact of the "green revolution". The small agricultural production that fueled the urban centers became unviable when the markets began to be supplied on a massive scale for the production of agriculture focused business. The intense process of migration from rural to urban population, coupled with the organization of leisure that was already occupied the highly urbanized societies caused a territorial fractionation in the region and the entry of an urban middle class that became the owner of "farms "used as second homes. The remaining local population was impoverished and found a way to survive in domestic service in resort properties, in wich we meet now interpersonal experiences, whose power analysis reveals situations of coercion in family-family relationship, deepening the sense of social exclusion as present in Brazilian society. From the architectural point of view, the units adopts a pattern that tends to play on a miniature scale the big house / slave quarters relationship, the typical socio-characterization of the period of slavery in colonial Brazil: a larger building, super busy at certain times and under busy most of the time, and a smaller building attached to the first, all the time occupied by a family contracted to provide various services to owners, and they keep the vegetation of the land and any creations (especially dogs), the practice of cleaning external and internal areas of the home, and pay homage to the owners and guests of varying lengths. In our research we interviewed the farmers and their respective farmkeepers of four towns. It was a total of 40 interviewees. In the analysis of the interviews we concluded that the owners think about themselves as an elite social group. The most common among them is an attitude of exclusion related to the other segments of the local population. On the other hand, homekeepers women express negative feelings concerned to the living conditions of their children, unable to fully exercise their citizenship in the place they inhabit. The two houses do not have physical boundaries that separate, and the rules of interaction include a sense of convenience introjected by all who inhabit the lower housing, responsible for containment of movements in an imaginary circle that never exceeds three meters in radius. Those who inhabit the headquarters of the property does not recognize the existence of any limit and use the whole area, even some internal areas of the farmkeeper residence. The practice of places allows us to conclude that the relationship farmer-farmkeepers is marked by repression, domination and expropriation of identity, in which architetural subordination and social subjection are part of the same series of phenomena."
Maruthaveeran, S, and CC Konijnendijk. Fear of Crime in Natural Environments: a Review In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. This article reviews the literature on fear, and particularly on fear of crime occurring in natural environments in urban areas. Applying theories related to fear of crime, namely indirect victimization model , disorder model & community concern model) and prospect and refuge theory this review paper aims to analyse the findings of past studies on fear of crime in these environments, for example in terms of what factors evoke feelings of fear or fear of crime in a natural environment. In addition, the authors also examine literatures on perceived danger (cognitive appraisal) in natural environments because fear (emotional reaction) must always be accompanied by a cognitive element (Gabriel & Greve, 2003). The results of the review include an overview of the regions which have conducted studies on fear of crime in natural environment, types of natural environment studied, the most common types of environmental stimulus used, the methods applied, types of respondents, and main study findings. Finally based on a synthesis of the literature a conceptual framework is presented. The proposed conceptual framework highlights the factors which evokes fear of crime in natural environment and its interactions, and argues for including the prospect-refuge theory. The paper concludes with identifying research and offers suggestions for future research
Ciaffi, D. Fopex.org - a Website to Educate to Community Planning and to Share Experiences in the World In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. "Fopex means Formation et Partage d'EXperience. This website is positively inspired to ted.com "a nonprofit platform devoted to Ideas Worth Spreading". Following the same approach Fopex would select and collect best Community Planning concepts and practical implementations. We wish to take the opportunity of this important event to share our challange to a larger community of schoolars amd practictioners in the field of inclusive urban planning.Fopex offers three different kinds of media:- short videos the speakers focus their very core ideas by which;- traditional power point presentations;- scientific papers and related technical materials.The website accept contributions in the original languages and always toghether an English/French version.The poster will be presented toghether with a working prototype to be tested by the participants toghether with the authors. "
Høyland, K. "From Knowledge About Users, to Premises for Planning?universal Design as a Method for Improving Quality!" In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. "Universal design is a term used differently in various disciplines. I the book “Inclusive design”(Vavik 2009) the authors sums up that in spite of this we are dealing with a (people – centret design approach.. However within the profession of architecture the term is primarily used to describe minimum demands on solutions and standards related to accessibility. This article discusses how universal design can be used as a method to increase quality and contribute to more user-driven innovation. The method is inspired from the methods used by product designers, but the article also discuss the differences and equality between this to different disciplines.Several arguments are relevant to emphasize that a people oriented approach are necessary for Architects. Physical surroundings can expand or restrict the usability of physical surroundings. The physical environment can be considered as structural objects that influence everyday life. The article discusses how this methodological approach used by product designers can be further developed in the field of architecture, including existing theories and analytical tools developed by researchers in architecture. The article describes conditions for this type of quality development and what this approach entails. The article is based on existing theories(Latour 2005; Kirkeby 2006; Paulsson 2008) and empiric research of three cases. Studying the planning processes focusing on a specific user perspective.If this kind of methodical approach is going to be implemented, it is assumed that a common recognition that the environment do affects our everyday life. The method indicates that the environment has different influence on different people, depending on age, culture, ability and their role in the building. Dealing with “all” the method requires a more systematic collection of different people's experience and use of physical solutions. This kind of insight must be obtained and disseminated in a form that can give designers the opportunity to innovate and develop new kinds of solutions. In order to discuss the quality aspects, it is also required to express goals for what one wants the environment to "support”. Finally, a common "language" to discuss and systematize the various dimensions of the interplay between people and environments are needed. ”.The architects task is to convert series of visions of what the environment shall support, into physical spaces. It is a matter of transforming abstract relationships into material reality. To help this translation a more methodical approach can help improving this prosess."
Cervinka, R, R Hemmelmeier-Händel, I Hämmerle, K Röderer, and T Hauer. From Open and Green Space at Hospitals to 'healing Gardens'?transdisciplinary Assessment and Recommendations for (Re)Design In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Open and green spaces in hospital serve manifold purposes (e.g. transportation or storage. Furthermore, they are prized places for building activities rather than used for therapeutical or preventive issues. In accordance with Hartig and Cooper Marcus (2006), outdoor space at health care facilities should support well-being and health, such space should be designed as ‘healing garden’ also. The project was aimed to assess the physical structure and the accumulated subjective experience of such spaces situated at three hospitals in Lower Austria. We applied a transdisciplinary approach, combining landscape planning, environmental psychology and management.Methods were: (1) assessment of physical structure, (2) internal rating of experience using questionnaire and rating scales, (3) external online-rating of photos, (4) co-operation with managers and planners, (5) presentation and discussion of outcome with decision makers and politicians.Results show distinct differences in the physical structure as well as different effects on experience. Findings provided evidence (1) for redesign at site, (2) impacted improvement of construction work, (3) set the basis for post-occupancy evaluation, and (4) delivered an approach for evidence-based design recommendations with respect to fostering well-being and health in open and green spaces of hospitals.
Brewer, M, PA Aspinall, Ward C Thompson, R Mitchell, A Clow, D Miller, J Roe, and B Duff. "Green Space and Wellbeing: Relationships Between Gender, Patterns of Salivary Cortisol, Self-Reported Stress and Levels of Green Space in Deprived Urban Communities in Scotland." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Although levels of green space have been associated with positive health benefits, including stress reduction, very few studies have investigated these associations using stress biomarkers with participants in everyday, residential settings. This paper follows an earlier, exploratory study (Ward Thompson et al., (under review 2011)that showed significant relationships between self-reported stress, the diurnal pattern of cortisol secretion, and quantity of green space in the residential environment using a small sample from a deprived UK city (Dundee) (n=25). This study replicates the study design in a larger sample (n=106), comprising multiple measurement of salivary cortisol over two days in men and women not in work, aged 35-55, in the same city context. The sensitivity of measures of green space in predicting patterns of cortisol concentrations in participants was tested using both a continuous measure of percentage green space in the neighbourhood and a binary category of green space split at a regression discriminator of 43%. Results from linear regression analyses show a significant and positive effect of higher green space levels on self-reported stress and diurnal slope patterns of salivary cortisol (3, 6 and 9 hours post awakening). Main effects of gender were found on self-reported stress, with stress being higher for women. Significant interaction effects between gender and percentage green space were found on mean cortisol concentrations, showing a positive effect of increasing green space on cortisol levels for women, but not for men. This study confirms and extends findings from our earlier study showing how - in deprived city areas – higher levels of green space close to home are associated with better health and how these effects may be particularly pertinent to women and/or those in poorer mental health.
Uzzell, D. A., and R Azzawi. Green Unions, Green Workplaces: Unions and their Members Making Sense of the Transition Towards a 'low Carbon' Economy in the Uk In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. With policies to tackle climate change becoming increasingly central in social and economic policy making at all levels, from the global to the local, labour is a dimension which cannot be overlooked and there is growing recognition, both from within the labour movement and from the wider policy making community that trade unions have an important, perhaps unique, role to play as stakeholders in the development and implementation of environmental policy due to their high levels of membership, global presence and central position in both consumption and production.National carbon reduction policies will undoubtedly have far-reaching consequences for the nature of work and the modern workplace and while the labour movement nationally and internationally supports action to reduce carbon emissions, it is at the same time campaigning to ensure that workers’ interests are protected in the shift to a green economy. This concept of a ‘just transition, in which green jobs are decent jobs and workers have a right to a voice in the workplace, is a central theme in much of the trade union literature on green issues at both the national and international level. While the concept of ‘just transition’ would appear to offer a way forward for the labour movement, for many, the partnership between labour and the environment, is not straightforward.Moreover, research on trade unions and environmental policies remains scarce (Räthzel & Uzzell, 2011). Little is known and understood about how, and to what extent, the involvement of trade unions as stakeholders in the policy process, as well as principles of ‘just transition’, are embraced and understood by union members at the shop-floor level. Through field studies involving in-depth interviews with union officials and the administration of a questionnaire amongst union members, the present study therefore aims to elicit key psychological constructs such as fear, pride, uncertainty and confidence which underpin the knowledge, experience and attitudes of workers whose jobs and places of work are being affected by measures which are being implemented to meet the requirements of a low carbon economy. Breakwell’s identity process model (Breakwell, 1986) with its four key principles of identity: continuity, self-esteem, self-efficacy and distinctiveness, may provide a useful theoretical framework for exploring whether, and if so, how and to what extent, identity processes are affected by the greening of the workplace and the demand for new green skills.The present study represents research being undertaken at master’s level which is due for completion in September 2012. The poster will therefore present preliminary findings and should be regarded as work in progress.
Gumpert, G, and S Drucker. "Health and Therapeutic Cities of Communication." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. There is has been a great deal of research in the area of health communication and an equally significant body of work exploring the relationship between health and the person-environment. This paper will offer a bridge between these two distinct disciplines of related work. Dissemination of information about health in urban environments, and the phenomenon of communication as a constituent of health will be examined. Further, the authors introduce the concept of the “therapeutic city.”According to the World Health Organization, Health Communication embraces the following:1) Health professional-patient relations,2) Individuals’ exposure to, search for, and use of health information,3) Individuals’ adherence to clinical recommendations and regiments,4) The construction of public health messages and campaigns,5) The dissemination of individual and population health risk information, that is risk communication,6) Images of health in the mass media and the culture at large,7) The education of consumers about how to gain access to the public health and health care systems, and8) The development of telehealth applications.Their emphasis is on the dissemination of information about health. Missing is a focus on the phenomenon of communication as a constituent of health. The irony is extraordinary – the ability to communicate, or the inability to communicate, and the means of expression are irrelevant - placed somewhere in the recesses of insignificance.These dissemination related approaches can be supplemented by exploring how modifications in the built environment can encourage physical activity and enhance socialization and help prevent the elderly, in particular, from being isolated.the therapeutic city recognize the connection of health and the physical and social landscape of cities. The link of design and health is an accepted notion. Yet, the conceptualization of communication as a co-existing determinate of quality of life, is strangely overlooked.The conception of the therapeutic city links both the physical and social landscape with media.
Lupala, A, I Malmqvist, and J Msami. "Health Care Facilities in Rapidly Urbanizing Cities: the Case of Dar Es Salaam City, Tanzania." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. For long time provisioning of health care facilities in Tanzania has been based on threshold population and hierarchy of administrative units. Even after liberalizing health care service delivery, the motive has been the same and the approach has been applied to both urban and rural settlements. However, this approach has been seriously overtaken by the rapid urban population growth in towns and cities in Tanzania. Sustainable urban form and central place theories are used as a framework of analysis of the research issue. This paper applies multiple case study analysis to understand key variations that exists among the administrative units in Dar es Salaam which prompt for new approach for providing urban health care facilities.Focusing on the case of Charambe and Chamazi Administrative Wards, which are among the 73 Administrative Wards which comprise Dar es Salaam city, the study analyses physical accessibility, densification of settlements and population dynamics, and how they influence location and distribution of health care facilities. The geographical information system (GIS) is used to analyze the spatial distribution of health care facilities and how they correlate with other urban functions such as physical accessibility and residential housing.The study has found that provisioning of health care facilities based on the hierarchy of administrative units is not successful due to the oversight of the variation which exists among administrative wards due to rapid urbanization. The specific limitations of provisioning of health care facilities based on the administrative units includes its failure to analyze the demographic characteristics of both urban and peri-urban wards; settlements’ densification due to informalities in land development and potentials of physical accessibility in attracting private health care providers.The paper concludes that location and distribution of health care facilities in rapid urbanizing context should respond to the population dynamic, nature of the city growth and physical accessibility. Due to difficulties in regulating spatial location of private health care facilities, there are very big spatial disparities of distribution of health care facilities in urban areas. It has been empirically confirmed that private health care providers concentrate in highly accessible areas in the inner city leaving peri-urban and less accessible areas with poor distribution of health care facilities. Therefore, public-private model of health care service delivery which emerged after privatization, should not only focus on the administrative units and threshold population as the key criteria to provide health care facilities but also take into account variations that exist within these units.
García-Mira, R, and A Diaz-Ayude. "Healthy Work Environments: Psychosocial Evaluation in Organizational Environments." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. The term Healthy Organizations, in relation to Healthy Work Environments, was developed for the first time by Rosen and Berger in 1991 and included in “The Healthy Company: Eight Strategies to Develop People, Productivity and Profits”. Using this concept they tried to identify organizations that share a group of common values in order to identify a set of environmental and organizational common practices (Pulido et al., 2009). Gimeno et al. (2008) propose ten theoretical dimensions as a group of the most important components to help us for identifying a Healthy Organization: Self-confidence and tranquility to continue in the position, Training, Participation in the job organization, Equality and no discrimination, Health and safety conditions, Competitive strength, Recognition/Appreciation and reward, Autonomy and responsibility, Identity and loyalty, and Involvement and motivation.The aim of this study is to analyze the conceptualization of a healthy organizational environment through the workers' perceptions in order to contribute to the improvement of the screening methods of determining dimensions of organizational health status perceived by the Personnel of Administration and Services (PAS) occupying jobs in the areas of Reception, Library, Student Bureau, Dean Bureau and other administrative offices and campus services in A Coruña, at the campus of Oza, Elviña and Zapateira of the University of A Coruña (Spain). The sample was attempted with a total number of 232 workers. Of these 232 subjects, valid data was collected from 86 subjects (N = 86).A descriptive analysis of the sample and a factor analysis, multidimensional scaling analysis and cluster analysis were conducted with all collected data. Analyses performed with the data showed three main factors or dimensions that characterize the university as an organization that are -Healthy and Equality, Stability, Recognition and Working environment-, -Involvement, Excellence in management and Occupational safety and health policies- and -Participation and Quality of resources-. It also verifies the existence of two dimensions in relation to social perceptions of collective PAS of the university as healthy organization, one organizational dimension, which includes aspects related to the organization environment, and a personal dimension, which includes aspects related to the worker.These results may imply a guide for future research on the study and evaluation of the presence and intensity of psychosocial risks in organizational environments as well as a more effective and efficient development policy of human resource management to promote adaptation between the employee and the organization in a healthy environment.
Winterbottom, J, D Booker, G McCartney, R Jones, and S Palmer. "Hia of the Glasgow 2014 Commonwealth Games." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Glasgow’s bid for the 2014 Commonwealth Games include admirable aspirations regarding the Games’ contribution to health improvement. However, lessons from previous events indicate that the event is not, in and of itself, sufficient to ensure improved health. Aim:To conduct a Health Impact Assessment (HIA) to assist in developing a legacy of health improvement for the Games. Objectives:• To take a partnership approach • To engage key decision makers at an early stage • To use a variety of techniques to engage stakeholders • To identify and prioritise the elements of the Games with respect to major negative effects to be mitigated, those which provide realistic positive opportunities and those which are likeliest to add value • To make recommendations and continue to engage with decision makers to influence strategies for health improvement Methods:A systematic literature review of the health impacts of previous mega-sporting events was conducted. The stakeholder involvement stage of the HIA involved a process of engagement comprising five parts: • an event for key decision makers • presentations to existing community groups • an electronic and paper-based questionnaire • interactive workshops and feedback sessions • the Glasgow household survey. Results:Findings and recommendations are made under 13 key themes which have emerged from the HIA process. The 5 themes which represented the top priorities for Glasgow's people included 2014 infrastructure facilities, civic pride, image of Glasgow, regeneration and economy/employment. Decision-makers responsible for the Games Legacy Strategy have embraced the findings and recommendations of the HIA and are using it to inform their approach. Conclusion:The HIA of the 2014 Commonwealth Games has successfully laid the groundwork to assist in the development of a sustainable legacy of health improvement. Evaluation of the extent to which the HIA recommendations were incorporated will be conducted next year.
G Aktas, Guner. "Hierarchy in Space Definition of Interiors Within the Shopping Centers as Recreational Public Spaces, a Case Study from Ankara - Turkey." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Shopping centers are among the most influential contemporary structures and have recently emerged as recreation complexes due to recent social and cultural developments. Shopping centers can be considered as spaces in which concepts such as; interior and exterior, private and public, domestic and non-domestic, place and non-place could be discussed significantly. This study aims to question the effects of interior space definition, space compositions, space hierarchy and significance of space in food court areas on both shopping center users and also on the shopping center itself. The main aim of this study is to analyze the effects of the spatial characteristics and interior arrangements in food courts which are significant places in shopping centers regarding spatial preferences and behavior of its participants. Private and public space territory definitions through space determination and grading will be discussed. In the content of the study, theories and development process of the recreation concept will be discussed. The role and effects of emerging recreational public complexes and the supportive role of recreational activities in public complexes will be evaluated.The development of shopping culture and shopping centers with respect to contemporary consumer culture will be identified. Concepts and collaborating aspects of interior space, space hierarchy, space definitions and their relationship with the users will be examined in food court areas of shopping centers. A case study will be conducted in three of the selected shopping centers in Ankara, Turkey. Aim of this case study is to analyze the spatial relations and organizations in recreational areas of a public space. The obtained results will be discussed and evaluated to provide a source of information regarding the design of spatial relations and interior space organizations in contemporary public recreation complexes.
Shah, AH Harman, AF Mohamed, AS Abdul Hadi, S Idrus, and R Rainis. "Housing Experiences as Indications for Livability: a Case from Seremban Municipality Area, Malaysia." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Housing experiences describe the livability of a place in a manner that synthesizes economic and social considerations that make up the decision of purchasing a housing and settling down in a place. The perceived values of house and place can change either positively or negatively once the individuals experience living in a neighbourhood. This paper discusses such an experience in a rapidly urbanising context of Malaysia. It highlights the findings of a research at the local municipality level, using the Seremban Municipality area as a case in point. The study links place perception during the time the individuals in the neighbourhoods made the decision to purchase or rent with the post-occupancy perception of the housing areas after a certain period of stay. While the first perception was based on post experiences of others, the perception was later modified by personal experiences. Both types of experiences contribute to the perceived livability of the place and the subsequent decision of continuing to live in the area or move elsewhere. This approach differs from the classical view of housing that relegates housing to just another service for basic economic activities. The view infers that the spatial pattern of housing growth is largely due to the location of economic activities. While this was the case of urban growth that was highly dependent on spatial proximity, current development trends, especially that of transportation technologies and a post-fordist de-clustering of economic activities, have extended the potential interaction distance between land uses, and resulted in a different basis for housing expansion patterns. Housing projects are currently built spatially farther from economic hubs and draw the dwellers from all over the place, even outside the region. Housing construction projects at times even precede basic economic activities for the area. While there are many land economics variables that potentially contribute to the location of these housing projects the paper argues that the pattern of housing proliferation is also due to earlier local settlements that serve as seeds for the growth of the housing sector. Using in-depth interviews and a questionnaire survey of residents in several housing areas, the study analysed the perceptions and decisions made based on several parameters. Considerations that structure the study include a need to understand how people at the neighbourhood level perceive their surrounding environment and the problems that work against the neighbourhood to become livable. The paper also looks into the steps that should be taken to deal with the problems and the spaces of hope that resulted from both expectation and experienced reality. The implications for housing education and planning also will be discussed in an attempt to link housing experiences with sustainability.
Miedema, E. "How Can Architecture Contribute to the Re-Socialization Process of the Forensic Psychiatric Patients?" In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Forensic psychiatric care is a Dutch care system for those who have committed a crime partly due to a mental disorder. A forensic psychiatric patient is a convict who has committed a severe crime resulting in a prison sentence of at least 4 years. During the trail or during the imprisonment the convict is found to have (a) severe mental disorder(s). This convict will be placed in forensic psychiatric care where he will be place under (obliged) psychological treatment. These, now called, patients live in forensic psychiatric care from 2 to 10 years. Some will never leave forensic psychiatric care institutions since the treatment does not result in enough safety for society. The buildings for forensic psychiatric care fall within the requirements of as well prisons as psychiatric hospitals. There is a big contrast in these institutions since one should feel as punishment and the other as a treatment environment. Problem statement: How can the build environment contribute to the resocialization process of the forensic psychiatric patient? How can one design a treatment environment where the patient feels safe and at home with the security levels needed within an enclosed facility with the contrast of survivability and possibility for privacy? MethodThe study consists of three approaches; a theoretical study, four case studies and a design study. The theoretical study is a result of interviews, literature studies and documentaries about forensic psychiatric care. The limited literature is found in documents from the Dutch Government, architectural literature of normal psychiatric care and psychology literature. Also in the literature on healing environments and environmental psychology. The main goal of this study was to find out what forensic psychiatric care is, how it came to be and how people become forensic psychiatric patients. I have interviewed psychologists, facility managers of forensic care institutions, architects with experience in forensic psychiatric care institutions and had short talks with patients. When analyzing the case studies the focus did lay on several keywords and how these where implemented in the design. The keywords where found in the theoretical research; natural environment, order and disorder, survivability, autonomy, safety layers to protect society and protection from that same society and fellow forensic psychiatric patients, the quality of the spaces [bronnen]. The focus of the research lays in architectural elements, which contribute to those elements. The cases are also being compared by their quality of the spaces by looking at the admittance of daylight, used materials and acoustics. The methods are observations of the environment and of behavior (of different users groups) and in mapping the environment.The design study is testing the found results of the first two steps by translating this into a new forensic psychiatric institution. The design focuses on the entire process of resocialization and research the differences between different steps of this resocialization . It is an example on who to design for this specific target group. In the context of the research, the design is not only testing the results, but also a hypothesis for a right solution.The next step would be to test the building on its actual effect on length, stay and quality of living and usability for all user groups. To conclude whether the hypothesis is correct and were we need improvements. Results and DiscussionThe result of the theoretical study was an overview on what forensic psychiatric care is, what kind of people live in this type of institution and what requirements the forensic care institutions should care about. This includes an overview on the researches done on this type of build within environmental psychology and specially in the field of healing environments. The comparison of the several cases resulted in do’s and don’ts for forensic psychiatric institutions. The design research is still in progress. At this point there are design guidelines and is a general idea on how to translate the specific needs to a building. There is a discussion on whether the patients in forensic psychiatric are a being ‘punished’ enough within those institutions. One may say that the imprisonment is enough punishment and one should have an ideal treatment environment with extra attention to a good environment since they should feel at home in an enclosed environment. Another might say those patients live in better environments like many ‘normal’ people do and they do not deserve this. This will become a more in-depth discussion by starting from the variation of perceptions of the target groups of this institutions and the affordances the building should deliver taken the different users groups into account
Aoki, T. "How Did Environmental Concern and Social Capital Change After the Great Disaster?: Japan's Case." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. On March 11, the big earthquake and tsunami hit Japan creating massive destruction. Besides it, the explosion of nuclear plants forced many local residents to evacuate and escape from the effects of radiation. For those who decided to stay in the affected areas, this epic disaster brought them serious difficulties. For instance, most people were without water and electricity for more than two weeks; and almost all the gas tanks were destroyed by fire, meaning that people could not drive their cars for more than two weeks. In addition, people were forced to queue in long lines to buy daily necessities such as food, water, and clothing. People who remained in the disaster areas had no choice but to accept such difficulties.On the other hand, however, there is a possibility that facing such trauma can alter one fs behavior toward the environment: living under such severe conditions, people are forced, out of sheer necessity, to behave more pro-environmentally. To survive, they must adopt a more pro-environmental behavior. That is, people can not help experiencing saving life regardless of their intension for pro-environmental behavior. Once they accept new behavior for a saving life for a while, they can realize that current situation is not so inconvenient. Consequently, people could realize that their consumption levels before the disaster were conspicuous due to the big disaster. Considering that such experience could lead to a change of perceived behavioral control and activate subjective norms, there is the possibility that people will continue to live more simply for years after the disaster.Hence, analyzing the attitude and behavior changes after the big disaster can give us important insights into the following questions: Can a disaster lead our attitude and behavior to a more pro-environmental outlook? What kind of experience will lead to pro-environmental attitude and behavior? Analysis of the responses and suggestions to these questions would be critical to making informed public policy for sustainable development. Hence this research aims to clarify the impact of the recent natural disaster on one fs environmental attitude and behavior. In that analysis, I also analyze the psychological process in changing attitude and behavior. Finally, public policy to enhance pro-environmental behavior is discussed.To collect the data, I first conducted an interview with people who lived in evacuation centers in twenty disaster areas. A questionnaire was designed and conducted, targeting people who live in temporary houses provided by the Japanese government or a local government. Finally, statistical analyses were conducted.Results of the analyses suggest that activating subjective norm and change of perceived behavioral control contributed to attitude and behavior change as expected. Furthermore, it is suggested that seriously traumatic situations would be needed to facilitate change in environmental attitude and behavior.
de Kort, YAW, and KCHJ Smolders. "How do You like Your Light in the Morning? Preferences for Light Settings as a Function of Time, Daylight Contribution, Alertness and Mood." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Research has shown that lighting can have an influence on wellbeing, health and performance. In this study, we explore whether lighting preferences reflect these effects. Results of a longitudinal field study by Begemann and colleagues (1997) revealed that on average, office employees’ preferred a higher illuminance than prescribed by current standards for office environments, which are mainly based on ergonomic needs for visual tasks. In addition, they found that the light preferences varied with time of day – roughly following a natural daylight curve. These individual light preferences are said to also depend on a person’s level of alertness and mood, although this has not been investigated yet. In this study, we explored whether time of day, daylight contribution, alertness and mood have an influence on light preference. Preferred light intensity, i.e. illuminance, was investigated in two experiments to assess light preferences with and without daylight contribution. In both experiments, a mixed-group design was applied in which respondents participated in two to four separate visits with N = 36 (72 sessions) and N = 27 (78 sessions), respectively. Participants first completed the 5-minutes auditory Psychomotor Vigilance Test as an objective measure of alertness. After this test, participants completed self-reported measures of alertness and mood. During this first part of the experiment, the light condition was 500 lux and 4000K at work plane. After completing the subjective measures for alertness and mood, the illuminance was set to 200 lux (4000K). We then asked participants to select the lighting level they felt would be optimal for performance on a subsequent attention task. To avoid a stimulus range bias – Fotios and Cheal (2010) suggested that participants tend to adjust the lighting to the middle of the range in preference tests – the paradigm was designed such that participants could only alter lighting settings upward in small steps of 100 lux, i.e. increase the illuminance up to the point they felt the lighting was optimal. Participants then completed the Attention Network Task, evaluated the lighting condition, and reported their beliefs concerning the effect of light on performance and mood. The results of the first study (without daylight contribution) show that subjective alertness and vitality influence people’s light preferences: when participants suffered from sleepiness or a lack of energy, they preferred a higher illuminance level than when they felt more alert and energetic. Participants preferred a higher illuminance than current standards for office environments, especially when participants felt sleepy and less vital. Light preferences did not vary with time of day, as reported in Begemann and colleagues (1997). Data analyses of the second experiment (with daylight) are still ongoing and will provide insights into whether daylight exposure also plays an important role in light preferences throughout the day.
Bauer, J. "How Does the Building Sound?developing a Hearing Aid for Architects." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Imagine you were asked to name your favourite building. Have you ever closed your eyes when visiting that building and listened to its sound?When the Italian architect Renzo Piano was asked in a BBC Interview how he begins to start thinking about a building, he answered: “... I don't remember one single job ... that I started to work on without trying to understand the place, and to listen. You know place[s] talk, you just have to shut up and listen...” (R. Piano, BBC 2004).While Renzo Piano in his interview obviously refers to listening skills in a rather metaphorical way, there is also an environmental dimension to hearing in Architecture: noise and sound.In the context of architectural design education, noise and sound awareness appears to be slightly underdeveloped. While a 5 year architectural program will primarily focus on the visual, building acoustics, even in the real world, is mostly limited to noise control, and room acoustics tends to be reserved to specific projects such as concert halls or theatres.In our approach to architectural education, we have set up a programme that integrates sound perception into the design process from the conceptual stage.In recent years, we have been confronting architectural students in 2nd year design studio with audio samples, hoping to stimulate them and to make them reflect on sound as an exciting design tool in architecture.Every time we introduce the topic to 2nd year students, we provoke surprise: “Hearing in architecture”? However, students who have learned that light is much more than just being bright or dark, will easily understand that sound is much more than noise or silence, and that sound planning can be much more than just using anti-noise-panels.We have used audio samples that would represent real-world-situations, and our experiences so far suggest that most young architects, even at the early stage of 2nd year studies, are very curious and interested to (re-)think sound, and that they are well able to derive precise descriptors from their aural stimulation such as reverberation and speech intelligibility (J. Bauer, 2009).Currently, we are extending our catalogue of stimulating audio samples and the identification of acoustic descriptors deriving from it. At the same time, we do not want to overload this list; we believe that fewer hearing experiences and their meaningful conclusions are more valuable for a sound design process than an endless list of criteria that hinder rather than aid the creative design act, particularly in the framework of an undergraduate design education. We are also working on the idea to use our class room (and its poor acoustics) as a sound design lab “on the job”.The paper aims to summarize the latest experiences and findings in our approach to build up a “Hearing Aid” in 2nd year architectural design studio.
Andrade, C, ML Lima, and M Bonaiuto. "How Hospital' Physical and Social Environments Relate with Patients' Well-Being." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Evidence has been accumulated showing that the objective features of hospital physical environment have an impact on patients’ general well-being. For example, Ulrich (1984) showed that the patients in a room with a view of nature had shorter postoperative hospital stays, recovered with more emotional well-being, and took fewer potent analgesics doses than patients in similar rooms with a view of a brick wall; and Swan, Richardson, and Hutton (2003) found that appealing rooms result in more favorable patients’ judgments of the hospital, stronger intentions to use the hospital again, and stronger intentions to recommend the hospital to others, than typical rooms in the same hospital. Despite this evidence, little attention has been paid to the psychological processes through which this well-known relationship occurs. Using structural equations models, we tested the general hypothesis that the relationship between healthcare physical environment conditions (assessed by two independent architects) and satisfaction with the care unit is mediated by perceptions of quality of physical environment (e.g., design features of hospital inpatient area) and social environment (e.g., interactions with staff, privacy) (Study 1). Results showed that the effect of objective environmental quality (assessed by two independent architects) on satisfaction with care unit is only mediated by perception of quality social environment. We also found that this mediation is moderated by patients’ status.Using multi-group analysis, we found that, as for the total sample, for inpatients the effect is mediated by quality perception of social environment, whereas for outpatients mediation occurs through perception of physical environment. In addition, quality perception of physical and social hospital environment were significantly correlated, a result also found in previous studies.The goal of study 2 was to disentangle the contribution of physical and social environment to the variability of patients’ well-being (measured by satisfaction with care unit and mood). To this end, we planned an experimental study in which we manipulated the perceptions of quality of physical and social environment, opening a window for exploring how much these dimensions affect well-being and how they interact with each other. In this study, we focused on outpatients experience in a healthcare centre. Pre-tested stories of care and pictures of hospital areas were used to manipulate the perception of quality of social environment and physical environment, respectively. In a 3 (social environment: positive vs. neutral vs. negative) X 3 (physical environment: good vs. neutral vs. bad) between participants design, the effect on well-being was analysed. Results of studies 1 and 2 will be discussed.
Ruohomäki, V, M Lahtinen, and E Palomäki. "How to Attain Energy Efficient and Human Working Environments?" In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Sustainable development is global, continuous and controlled change that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own. This means that environment, humankind and economy are taken into equal consideration in planning and decision-making.People spend the majority of their lives in build environment in enclosed rooms. Therefore, the quality of buildings has a decisive effect on the well-being and satisfaction of the users. The human dimension of sustainable development requires that work and work environment will be planned in such a manner that a person will be able to work efficiently and maintain good health and working capacity. Workplace solutions should support the meaningful work, feeling of control and participation, as well as sense of community and well-being. User-oriented and participatory approaches are relevant when planning working environments that support well-being and productivity. Participative planning can also be used to motivate users to save energy and improve space efficiency.This project is based on multidisciplinary approach for user needs as a driving force to develop a model for future working environments according to latest knowledge about workplaces, indoor environment and energy efficiency. This study focuses on evidence-based research on human experiences in the build environment and its practical implications in three pilot organizations, where improving energy efficiency is the primary purpose of renovation.The aims of the project are, firstly, to develop a participatory design approach to promote energy efficiency targets and sustainability in renovation project, and secondly, to assess the impact on user well-being and productivity. We have a prospective longitudinal research approach, in which the impact of renovation of the building is examined from both a process and end result standpoint. As an intervention method during the renovation process, we apply common meetings, participatory workshops and user journeys in order to meet user requirements and their ideas for improvements.We evaluate user's experiences on their workplaces, their well-being and work performance with quantitative and qualitative methods both before and after the renovation process. Survey method is applied to assess perceived indoor environment, satisfaction with the working environment and functionality of the places, work performance and occupational well-being of all users. With thematic interviews, we collect viewpoints of different user groups, their work specific needs and wishes for their workplaces as well as their occupational well-being and satisfaction.
Küller, M, E Marcheschi, T Laike, Caroline M. P. Hagerhall, R Taylor, and C Boydston. "Human Eeg Responses to Exact and Statistical Fractal Patterns." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Attention Restoration Theory point to nature as a particularly good candidate for restoring the ability to focus and inhibit distractions. However, little effort has been directed to elaborating on what makes nature's visual pattern unique for restoration purposes. One suggested explanation is the fractal properties of natural patterns (Hagerhall, 2005). Both perception studies (Hagerhall et al., 2004) and studies using quantitative electroencephalography, qEEG (Hagerhall et al., 2008) have pointed to that visual patterns with mid fractal dimension, D, seem to be the most relaxing and preferred. However, it has so far not been investigated if these responses are being driven by fractal geometry in general or by the specific form of fractal geometry found in nature. In natural scenery it is so called statistical fractals that are common because of nature's integration of randomness with the underlying fractal scaling properties. A natural fractal hence looks different from an artificial exact fractal (where the patterns repeating are identical at all scales), even if the two patterns have the same D value. We have here conducted the first study in which we consider both types of fractals and morph one type into the other.qEEG was recorded from 35 subjects viewing 9 images, combining 3 fractal dimensions and 3 levels of randomness. Each image was shown for 60 seconds, interspaced by 30 seconds of a neutral grey image. The data was mainly treated by analysis of variance (repeated measures design), including both within-group (fractal dimension, level of randomness) and between-group (order) variances. Bonferroni correction was carried out and the significance level set to p<.005. the="" study="" confirmed="" our="" hypotheses="" in="" that="" it="" showed="" alpha="" power="" indicator="" of="" a="" wakefully="" relaxed="" state="" and="" internalized="" attention="" was="" largest="" for="" fractals="" found="" nature="" i.e.="" incorporating="" high="" randomness="" mid="" to="" low="" fractal="" dimension.="" statistically="" majority="" results="" were="" tendencies="" p_.05="" but="" reaction="" patterns="" consistencies="" which="" point="" human="" response="" parameters="" dimension="" have="" some="" fundamental="" base.="" must="" be="" considered="" as="" preliminary="" encouraging="" given="" relative="" visual="" simplicity="" patterns.="">
Zara, H. "Human-Environment Relationships in the Context of Intense Rainfall: the Case of a Community at the Periphery of Caracas." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Increases in frequency and intensity of extreme weather events such as heavy precipitation and droughts have been observed worldwide (World Meteorological Organization, 2010). As a result, people around the world are being and will be affected by the loss of homes, water scarcity, food insecurity and the incidence of diseases, among others (Richardson, et al., 2009). In Latin America, the increased intensity and frequency of such events adds to the complex social problems facing the continent’s most vulnerable populations, exacerbating problems of provision of basic services, pollution, poverty and unemployment (Garibaldi & Rey Santos 2006; Hardoy & Pandiella, 2010; Magrin, et al., 2007).In the case of Venezuela, heavy rains that have hit the most vulnerable sectors of the country have highlighted the complexity of the underlying social vulnerability to these climatic events. However, few studies have investigated the relationships between individuals and their local environment in the context of extreme weather events in vulnerable populations. This presentation will discuss the findings of a PhD research project that aims to explore human-environment relations from a psychosocial perspective, using as research strategy qualitative case study of a community located at the periphery of the Metropolitan area of Caracas. It is suggested that human-environment relationships can be better understood through an exploration of a) the social impacts of intense rainfall in that particular place, b) people’s understandings of the local environment in the light of their experiences of intense rainfall c) the particular socio-economic issues of the place that are shaping the relationships between people and the local environment and finally d) people’s understandings of community and their own ability to influence community decision-making towards the local environment. Ethnographic methods such as participant observation, walking interviews and group discussions were used for data gathering.
Thompson, RC, S Pahl, KJ Wyles, and K Schenke. "I do like to Be Beside the Seaside: a Field Study on the Psychological Benefits of Visiting Rocky Shores." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. IntroductionNature has been found to be restorative in numerous ways, for example for health, attention and mood. However, nature is often examined in a very broad way without considering the varying types of natural environment. Recent reports (e.g. UK National Ecosystem Assessment, 2011) and psychological literature have indicated that water is an important element (Völker & Kistemann, 2011; White, Smith, Humphryes, Pahl, Snelling & Depledge, 2010). Studies have shown that psychological benefits increase with the amount of blue space (White et al., 2011). However, ecological validity can be low as the work is typically carried out in the laboratory using a fairly homogeneous sample such as students. More research is therefore needed that examines psychological effects within a more water-based environment and with a broader general public sample. With over 20,000 km of coastline, the UK is spoilt with many blue space environments. Over 35% of this coastline is an intertidal area where solid rock predominates (rocky shores), which has numerous biological functions as well as being a popular destination for visitors. Consequently, this study examined before-after effects of a visit to the coast on current visitors. Methodology A before-after survey approach was used. Current visitors (n = 214) to two sites were asked to complete two short surveys, one before they entered the shore and one as they left. Both surveys examined affect (via positive and negative affect and attention) and marine awareness towards rocky shores. A novel measure was also used during the after-survey that examined each individual activity performed, whereby participants described every activity they did during their visit and rated their mood and arousal based on the Circumplex Model of Affect for each one. Results & DiscussionEven though visitors were found to arrive in a positive mood, analysis found that visitors leave the coast with significantly heightened positive mood. It has also been found that marine awareness towards the biology and ecology of a rocky shore significantly increases with this simple leisurely visit to the coast. The specific activities carried out on the coast were also seen to have different impacts on affect. The findings clearly support the laboratory studies indicating that blue-space environments are psychologically beneficial. These findings show that specific environments need to be examined in both a controlled laboratory as well as in the field, and that blue-space may be a key ingredient in the beneficial effects of nature. AcknowledgementsResearch was funded by an interdisciplinary ESRC/NERC studentship.
Wirth, P. "Impacts of Renewable Energies on Landscape Development in Germany - How to Manage Our Environment?" In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. "One important facet of contemporary landscape change in Germany is caused by political decisions in favour of renewable energies. In particular the increasing use of wind, solar and bio-energy has become a decisive part of energy and climate protection policies. It is foreseen to enhance the share of renewable energies in the total consumption of electricity on minimum by 30% until 2020. In the same time the proportion of renewable energies in heat supply shall rise on 14% in Germany (BMU 2010). This implies a radical change in energy policy and is only possible by strong investment in new facilities. These developments have spurred a public debate on the impacts of renewable energies on landscape development. Rather traditional notions of landscape, basing on agricultural and silvicultural land use patterns often are articulated in contrast to concepts of "energy landscapes" in which technical elements (wind, solar and biogas power facilities) and biomass production are seen as an expression of innovation and modernisation. The most intensive discussion concerns wind power, focusing on visual and ecological impacts. Therefore, wind power use has become the most frequent trigger of landscape-related local debates in Germany (Leibenath & Otto 2010). Considering the described situation the question arises who is responsible for the shape and the change of our landscape. One could get the impression that political decisions at European and national levels dictate framework conditions reducing the options of local and regional actors substantially. From this point of view it is no wonder that conflicts appear as mentioned above. But what can be done by local people to deal with landscape changes caused by higher decision-making levels? How can landscape development be managed? This refers to questions of actors, actor constellations and modes of interaction (Scharpf 1997) in relationship to landscape development. The research project LaGo (Landscape Governance) of the Leibniz Institute of Ecological Urban and Regional Development tries to reflect problems of the described type from different theoretical positions. This contribution highlights the relevance of networks of actors to influence landscape changes at a local/regional level using the example of renewable energies in Germany. It aims at a better understanding of landscape change in a multi-level governance system. "
Wester, U, Kvist S Lindholm, M Wejdmark, P Pagels, C Boldemann, F Mårtensson, A Raustrop, N Cosco, R Moore, B Bieber et al. Implementation of Saluto-Synergetic Land Use for Outdoor Preschool Environment in Local Government In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Health programs compete for resources and attention, e.g. community-based intervention programs for physical activity vs. skin cancer control. Children’s physical outdoor environments may favorably impact both and several other factors relevant to the health of an increasing number of young children who spend the lion’s share of their waking hours at preschool. The impact of the outdoor environment on physical activity and sun exposure was studied in various landscapes at different latitudes to explore whether outdoor environments with high play potential due to space, vegetation and topography would promote health by stimulating play, increased physical activity, and sun-protective behavior irrespective of location. Based on the findings, criteria were formulated to be applied in local government. In Swedish municipalities land use policies and administrative management of outdoor land use have been adapted to monitoring the quality of preschool outdoor environments (upgrading and planning). New guidelines have been implemented and integrated. Inexpensive methods for assessing, selecting, and upgrading preschool land could be adapted to latitude, climate, and varying outdoor play policies (including gender aspects). Criteria could be explored worldwide. Their aptitude compiled in a database for monitoring and evaluation should further discussed.
Mastandrea, S, and G Carrus. Implicit and Explicit Preference of Natural, Built and Artistic Environments In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. In environmental psychology, the majority of studies on preference made use of direct measures which rely on participants’ explicit cognition. At an explicit level, the research in the social psychology of the environment show consistently that 1) people prefer natural environment vs. built ones; 2) people receive major psychological benefits from the connectedness with natural environment vs. built ones (e.g. Hartig & Staats 2006; Kaplan & Kaplan, 1989; Ulrich, 1983). At an implicit level only few studies suggest a preference toward natural instead of built environment (Korpela, Klemettila & Hietanen, 2002; Schultz & Tabanico, 2004). The aim of the present research is to study the implicit preference toward natural and built environment, using a standard version of the Implicit Association Test (IAT), with environmental pictures stimuli.In the present experiment, the two categories are 5 natural and 5 built pictures and the two attributes are 5 positive words and 5 negative words. The logic of IAT is that this association task should be easier when the two concepts that share a response are strongly associated as compared to when they are weakly associated.In first study (n = 22) , results show that participants were much faster in automatically associating natural pictures with positive words than associating natural pictures with negative words.In a second study (n = 48) the same natural environmental pictures of the previous study were compared with pictures of built environments having a particularly high artistic valence (Italian Renaissance squares), and which can therefore be assumed as fairly comparable to natural settings in terms of their perceived restorativeness. Results show again that the strength of association between “nature” and “positive” is still reflected in fast reaction times. In a third study (n = 55), we used the same picture stimuli of study 2 (natural vs. built/artistic settings), but this time the built pictures were identified with the label “artistic”. Results show that in this last case latency times decreases when built/artistic environments are labelled “artistic”. Natural pictures are always associated to positive words with faster latency times, but this time the reaction times are quite faster also in the association between built/artistic and positive words, so that we can assume that they are automatically evaluated in a way that is more similar to natural settings (although still not equal).Taken together, these findings seem to confirm that people prefer natural over built environments also at an automatic level. However, when built environments that present artistic features are labelled as “artistic” the difference in reaction times and therefore the preference between natural and built/artistic is attenuated. This might also suggest the role of cultural and social construction processes also in the psychological mechanisms involved in the formation of environmental preference.
Tor, D. "Important Physical Characters for Quality Teacher Education: the Delphi Study." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. "n order for prospective teachers to be effective professionals and for teacher educators to fulfill them with the notion of teaching profession, buildings where education takes place would create impact in relation to developing professional and/or occupational features of a teacher candidate. The main purposes of this study were to identify the essential characteristics of physical environment to access quality teacher education and to identify the importance and role of these physical characteristics for effective and efficient teacher education. The education building should be peculiar to the field of education. However, there is lack of knowledge concerning which physical characteristic the education faculty building should possess. Therefore, the main significance of this study was to provide the insight to professionals about which physical characteristics of faculty building are important. As a research methodology, a Delphi study, consisting of an open ended survey followed by 2 questionnaires, will be utilized in order to reach the purposes. Delphi is a method which enables structuring a group communication process so that the process is effective in allowing a group of individuals, as a whole, to deal with a complex problem. To accomplish this "structured communication”: some feedback of individual contributions of information and knowledge; some assessment of the group judgment or' view; some opportunity for individuals to revise views; and some degree of anonymity for the individual responses need to be provided (Linstone & Turoff, 2002). For first phase of Delphi Study, researcher asked the participants that “which physical characteristics the education building should have for effective and efficient teacher education and why these characteristic are important. 34 teacher candidates participated and send back the questionnaire via their personal e-mail until 26th of October, 2011.So, the researcher has still analyzed the date using content analysis. After data analysis is finished, the scale developed based on round 1 will be applied two times to same participants to elicit consensus and divergence on categories. Then research will reach the most important physical characteristics of education building for teacher education. After first cluster of data obtained from round 1, results are as follows. Teacher candidates mentioned about technology, ambient environment of the building and classrooms, cleanliness of environment, size of the classrooms, furniture and materials, spaces for social and academic activity. As a conclusion, teaching profession is not just about transmitting knowledge. The responsibilities of teachers are uncountable. They are seen as artist, researcher, guide, facilitator, observer, clinician, diagnostician, and tactician. Therefore physical environment and physical setting of the faculty building meet the needs of teacher candidate. "
Akagi, T, S Ajisaka, and M Kobayashi. Improving Living Environment for Elderly Persons on Visual Image Through Representative Well-Being In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. "Background: Everyone feels a little well-being in everyday life, and the people are keeping well-being in a heart little by little. Especially for elderly persons, many well-being are woven into their "life". The reminiscence method, one of the psychological treatments, has patient recall his past well-being and cures his mental trouble. Recently, the quality of life came to be made much of in the living environment of the elderly persons. The conventional living environment is important the "equipment" and "functional" and "assistance of ability for the elderly". However, planning based on well-being of the elderly is a reality that did not take place. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to clarify the improvement of the living environment for elderly persons on visual image through representative well-being. Method: The subjects are twenty elderly men and women over seventy years old. The study was performed as follows. 1) Subjects person image the happiest everyday scene in the conventional life and interview it. 2) All remarks based on interviews will be recorded in the IC recorder. 3) The expert of drawing draws a picture of the visual image based on interviews. 4) In every step of drawing, conformity between the drawing and the subject's image has to be confirmed. Accuracy of the drawing shall be heightened with retouching and amendments until its accord with the image is approved by the subject. This study uses qualitative analysis. The obtained remarks shall be translated word for word, be formed in a concept and be categorized. Analysis of visual image clarifies the process of drawing and derives the relation between the story and the drawing. Results and Conclusions1) Many representative well-being are the scenes in the living room or the dining room, and it is imaged that people are meal scenery or doing something in peace. It is identical with the representative well-being of 40s and 50s generations. The visual images vary by gender. 2) In the case of male subjects, they talk about many memories. However, visual image is often his present life now, and the characters are two people of him and his wife. Men in these generations have been working in the midst of the economic growth era of Japan without looking well after his family. Therefore, it is observed that the present time after retirement can be recollected as the happiest family life. 3) On the other hand, representative well-being of elderly women is different from that. In the case of women, scene of the period of child care is drawn. In addition, the whole family including a child and the husband tends to be drawn. It is identical with the representative well-being of women in the 40s and 50s generations, and falls under the most enriched period of childcare. This is thought that the women are involved with a child closely unlike men. "
Dahm, S. "Individual and Facility Factors Affecting High Levels of Social Interaction at Facilities." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Mixed-use development has been promoted by the UK government in new housing developments as an urban form which provides opportunities for people to interact which in turn is seen as a prerequisite for ‘building new communities’ (ODPM, 2003). Research has confirmed that social interaction is an important building block for social cohesion, sense of community and health (Cattell, 2008; Jacobs, 1963). However, there is an ongoing debate about whether socio-economic or environmental factors (such as the built environment) are the most important determinants of social interaction (Haggerty, 1982). Empirical research into built environment factors considered important for social interaction has so far neglected the contribution facilities can make to this and has instead focused on housing layout, street design and public spaces (Gehl, 2001). Three areas with a range of local facilities on the outskirts of a British City were chosen to investigate whether individual or facility factors contribute the most to social interaction at facilities and to draw relevant conclusions for policy makers. Households were selected by random sample within the three suburban areas (n=167) using a self-completion survey questionnaire. The data was analysed using logistic regression.The dependant variable was created combining 2 variables measuring high intensity social interaction (greet or talk to) and high frequency social interaction at a facility (every time or most times). The independent variables were grouped into five individual models (demographic, socio-economic etc) and two facility factors, type and accessibility. Several individual factors were found to be significant contributors to high levels of social interaction, such as employment status, having children, class and residency length. Gender on its own was not significant, unless it was tested in interaction with household composition. On the facility side, the area was found not to impact on levels of social interaction. Preliminary results also indicate that the type of facility has an impact on social interaction, the accessibility only with regard to certain types, and that some design features also have an impact. Overall, it appears that individual factors play a more important role in determining whether a person has high social interaction at a facility or not. This means certain ‘types’ of people not only use facilities in different ways (Fisher & Bramley, 2006) they also have different levels of social interaction at them. This questions the government’s implied assertion that communities can be built as long as the ‘right’ mix of uses and facilities are supplied (ODPM, 2003). If high levels of social interaction remain a policy goal in new housing areas, then policy makers and planners should match the expected resident profiles with the type of facilities this particular group will use and thereby increase the likelihood of social interaction happening at these facilities.
Bonaiuto, M, S De Dominicis, F Maricchiolo, G Carrus, M Bonnes, and E De Gregorio. "Individual and Organizational Drivers and Barriers to Low-Carbon Practices at Work: a Preliminary Qualitative Analyses in an Italian Energy Company." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Large organizations are responsible for a significant amount of GHG emissions, and recent estimates suggest that the potential contribution of large organizations to global warming over the next 100 years will even increase. Within this framework, a worthy issue for environmental psychological research is the investigation of the factors promoting or hindering the transition to more sustainable everyday behaviours and practices in the workplace. The study presented here is part of a larger EU-FP7 funded research project, currently in progress, which groups together seven different research teams from six different European countries: Spain, Italy, Romania, Sweden, The Netherlands, UK. In this case, we will present the results of a qualitative study, carried out with the aim of assessing the existing everyday practices and behaviours in the workplace, which have an impact on the level of greenhouse gas emissions, in a large Italian company in the energy production sector. The environmentally-relevant everyday practices in organization considered referred to three main categories of organizational practices: 1) Consumption of materials and energy; 2) Waste generation and management; 3) Organization-related mobility. Three different sources of data and information were used: a) interviews with key-informers situated at different levels of decision-making; b) focus groups; c) analysis of organizational documents. All the material gathered was subject to thematic content analysis procedures, using Computer Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis Software (CAQDAS), specifically the ATLAS.ti software. Results from the three data sets converge in showing the presence of main barriers (e.g.: ‘Time is a barrier for sustainable mobility’; ‘There is no automatic switch off of lights at work’) and drivers (e.g.: ‘People save energy at home to save money’; ‘The organization encourages policies of consumptions reduction’) at both the individual and organizational levels. These identified factors are incorporated into a theoretical model, predicting sustainable individual and collective practices in the workplace. This model will be subsequently tested in a quantitative study, conducted through standardized psychometric tools. The implication of the findings will be discussed, in light of the possible organizational strategies and policies in order to enable transition to a more sustainable working environment and working practices.
Bonnes, M, G Carrus, S De Dominicis, E De Gregorio, M Bonaiuto, and F Maricchiolo. "Individual and Organizational Drivers and Barriers to Low-Carbon Practices at Work: a Preliminary Qualitative Analyses in an Italian Energy Company." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Large organizations are responsible for a significant amount of GHG emissions, and recent estimates suggest that the potential contribution of large organizations to global warming over the next 100 years will even increase. Within this framework, a worthy issue for environmental psychological research is the investigation of the factors promoting or hindering the transition to more sustainable everyday behaviours and practices in the workplace.The study presented here is part of a larger EU-FP7 funded research project, currently in progress, which groups together seven different research teams from six different European countries: Spain, Italy, Romania, Sweden, The Netherlands, UK. In this case, we will present the results of a qualitative study, carried out with the aim of assessing the existing everyday practices and behaviours in the workplace, which have an impact on the level of greenhouse gas emissions, in a large Italian company in the energy production sector. The environmentally-relevant everyday practices in organization considered referred to three main categories of organizational practices: 1) Consumption of materials and energy; 2) Waste generation and management; 3) Organization-related mobility. Three different sources of data and information were used: a) Interviews with key-informers situated at different levels of decision-making; b) Focus Groups; c) Analysis of organizational documents. All the material gathered was subject to thematic content analysis procedures, using Computer Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis Software (CAQDAS), specifically the ATLAS.ti software.Results from the three data sets converge in showing the presence of main barriers (e.g.: ‘Time is a barrier for sustainable mobility’; ‘There is no automatic switch off of lights at work’) and drivers (e.g.: ‘People save energy at home to save money’; ‘The organization encourages policies of consumptions reduction’) at both the individual and organizational levels. These identified factors are incorporated into a theoretical model, predicting sustainable individual and collective practices in the workplace. This model will be subsequently tested in a quantitative study, conducted through standardized psychometric tools.The implication of the findings will be discussed, in light of the possible organizational strategies and policies in order to enable transition to a more sustainable working environment and working practices.
Naoumova, N. "Influence of Chromatic Complexity and Coherence on Evaluation of Urban Scenes." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. In this paper we discuss the aesthetic quality of the historic centers related to polychromy of the urban environment. According to various sources the main cause of people discontent with respect to the city coloration is a decreased knowledge on perception of environmental colors during the last decades. Different researches on colors could be of interest for urban planners and designers for several reasons. The most important aspects are the chromatic perception properties and aesthetic qualities, which are intimately related to people preferences and general well-being of public. In the designing for a community, the search for the reasons, which are behind the evaluation of beauty and feeling of pleasantness, becomes highly useful and important to suggest chromatic strategies and principles of color planning in the urban environment. The aim of this study is to investigate a relationship between aesthetic appreciation of urban scenes (with old buildings of different styles) and such factors as presence of different levels of chromatic complexity and coherence in these scenes. Also, a study and comparison of perception of the urban environment by individuals of different cultures and backgrounds are carried out. The concept of aesthetic response developed by Nasar (1998) and Stamps (2000) is used as a criterion for such evaluation. The result of the aesthetic appreciation of the built environment, in this case, appears as a synthesis that includes different points and perspectives of evaluation, related to the representative values of the physical forms themselves (formal characteristics of the applied colors) and also to the semantic values enabling the color interpretation (symbolic characteristics of colors). In this work both aspects, formal and symbolic, are considered. The study data are collected through questionnaires distributed among 96 Russian and Brazilian respondents (also divided in groups of non-architects and architects). Questionnaires are provided with kits of images including urban scenes with historical buildings in the city of Pelotas, Brazil. The scenes are classified into three categories with different degrees of chromatic visual complexity. Data of questionnaires are analyzed by nonparametric tests. The obtained results show, in particular, that color contributes to assessing the coherence and complexity of the scene by means of chromatic attributes. Scenes with moderate level of complexity tend to be positively evaluated and to be preferred, while scenes with low and high level of complexity tend to be negatively evaluated and have fewer preferences. The study points out that scenes including old and new buildings can be considered coherent by respondents, if these scenes have a unified style of coloration. It is worth to note that similarity of hue selection is not so important as that of the overall tone of the facades (related to the clarity value of color and contrasts among used chromatic combinations).
Gambim, P, and MCD Lay. "Influence of Territorial Behavior and Group Image on Social Interaction Between Different Socioeconomic Groups." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. The intensive changes in the last century have affected the way people cope with their environment. There was a rising of ephemeral social contacts in this process of social life segmentation and increased heterogeneity. In spite of that, local sociability is still considered an important mechanism of social integration and of coping with diversity. Place identity and use of the neighborhood are understood as influencing on the social interaction in a community, nonetheless, evidence has not been provided so far to suggest which variables most affect social interaction between different socioeconomic groups living in the same urban environment.According to literature, aspects such as socioeconomic status and ethnic background help to explain use on urban places, and many authors (e.g. Rapoport, 1978) corroborate that perception of similarities can affect territorial behavior, influencing the social interaction in a place. Territorial behavior helps to organize social life in terms of who, what, how and where any activity can be done, also informing the levels of privacy and territorial control regulating a place. On one hand, it is related to the definition of physical and symbolic boundaries that promotes the emergence of social image, and place identity. On the other, those barriers defines the level of access into a place, allowing to identify who is or not part of the place, regulating the social contact. This paper empirically addresses the effects of spatial attributes mainly relate to the territorial behavior. It discusses how those practices can be arranged when different socioeconomic groups are living in the same local neighborhood, especially in terms of how they can regulate the interaction between them and the establishment of a social image. The research consists on a comparative study of three central areas in the city of Porto Alegre, South of Brazil. In these areas, characterized by high and medium income population, low-income groups were introduced through social housing re-urbanization projects. Results show that the possibility of identifying a common image, defined on the basis of territorial behavior, hence perception of homogeneity in the neighborhood, satisfaction with residential place and relationships between neighbors, contributing to promote social interaction between different socioeconomic groups. Furthermore, for one of the studied areas, it was confirmed that differences in territorial behavior increase the perception of diversity among residents and also the desire to avoid contact in neighborhood public spaces, which implies less potential for social interaction among the different groups. The findings enable better understanding of social interaction between different socioeconomic groups living in the same neighborhood. It is expected that it can stimulate discussion on the issues of diversity, identity and its effects on social interaction, in order to implement congruent urban policies.
Betancor, V, and A Rodriguez-Perez. Infrahumanization and Environmental Context In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Infrahumanization studies have verified that people attribute uniquely human characteristics to their ingroup and restrict this possibility to the outgroup. The aim of this study is to determine whether pleasant or unpleasant physical contexts change the norms of the outgroup infrahumanization. Therefore, participants were presented a task of visual recognition of words preceded by images that were manipulated on the physical context on which ingroup and outgroup pictures appeared. The results show that there is a greater association between ingroup and secondary emotions than between outgroup and secondary emotions when the background is a pleasant context. This difference disappears when are presented in an unpleasant physical context. These results show the importance of physical contexts in the group identity.
Matthies, E, C Littleford, García R Mira, and I Kastner. "Initiating Changes in Organisations - a Forgotten Field of Environmental Psychology?" In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Already in the early 1990s, Paul Stern encouraged further research about energy using behaviour and energy-related decision making in organisations. Nevertheless, there are only a few empirical approaches in this area until today. Despite there being a number of studies and a couple of meta-analyses there is still a lack of systematic knowledge concerning the efficiency of intervention strategies in the organisational context.Nowadays, there are increasing tendencies to save energy in private households as well as in organisations - partly due to financial reasons, partly because of the social-economical responsibility to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. Therefore, increasing approaches to turn more attention to the research area of saving energy in organisations have been made recently.In this symposium, latest research findings concerning saving energy in organisation will be presented. Firstly, we will discuss the principles and determinants of the users' behaviour in organisations. Secondly, we will examine potential approaches to set up user-focussed interventions as well as the energy-saving potentials that can be achieved by these measures.
Grierson, J, N McLean, P Robinson, J Barber, and A Corbett. "Integrated Green Infrastructure and Water Visioning - Five Design Studies Within the Glasgow and Clyde Valley." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. The Green Network Integrated Urban Infrastructure Project demonstrates best practice in sustainable urban drainage and inclusive urban planning by developing a series of exemplar design studies for five sites across three local authority regions in South West Scotland.The project was commissioned by Glasgow City Council and chaired by the Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA) in association with the Glasgow and Clyde Valley Green Network Partnership. The stakeholder team included South Lanarkshire Council, Renfrewshire Council, Scottish Natural Heritage, and the Forestry Commission.A strategic surface water management strategy and associated site arrangement were developed for each site through collaborative working between stakeholders, local authorities, the architect and the strategic drainage engineer to inform an integrated approach towards site development.The exemplar sites vary significantly in size, topography and hydrological constraints ranging from a rolling greenbelt site within East Kilbride (2500 new homes, parkland and primary school) to an urban quarter in Glasgow City Centre (live-work units, new cultural area, river walk). The resultant proposals described within the design studies create new and distinct neighbourhoods with a range of residential and community facilities with unique characteristics relevant to their individual site's constraints and opportunities.Integrated urban design and visioning is a harmonious sequence of built and landscape components, with placemaking at its core. It explores contemporary urban design challenges brought about by sustainable design ambitions to support the health and well-being of people along with maintaining the natural equilibrium in the face of climate change.The key project principles are as follows:• Plan integrated infrastructure to inform future development;• Consider topography, local context and the water journey in parallel with one another;• Establish partnership working;• Create holistic water environments;• Ensure a multi-benefit approach towards open space (health, ecology, recreation, flood alleviation);• Prioritise safe walking and cycling above vehicular movement.The presentation will provide an overview of the principles of integrated urban design and water visioning and outline the process undertaken by the Project Board and design team to realise the design study proposals. This will be demonstrated through a detailed description of the approach taken for two of the five study areas under the following themes:- Multi-disciplinary working and stakeholder collaboration;- Hydrological strategies that respond to site topography;- Forming blue-green routes and quality open space, and- Enhancing wildlife habitats and ecological benefits.
Ghavampour, E, and B Vale. "Integration of Place-Making Theory." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. This paper reviews the different theories used to define and recognize factors which contribute to an enhanced quality of space (sense of place). It also looks for similarities in different approaches. Human geographers have stated that a strong sense of place is the result of human interaction with the environment. Some have stressed the importance of activity (Relph 1996) and practice (Cresswell 2009) as well as materiality (physical setting) and meaning. Agnew (1987) offers a conception of place as the geographical setting for social action. As a result, he defined three components: locale, the setting for social relationships; location, the geographical area encompassing the setting for social interaction; and sense of place, the local structure of feeling. For these researchers meaningful places emerge in a social context and through social relationships. Psychologists view the quality of space as a linkage between conception, physical setting and activity (Canter 1977). Urban designers also contribute meanings to their designs to make successful places (Montgomery 1998). Different specific studies have looked at one or two of these components or have investigated links between them: physical setting and activity (Gehl, 1996), physical setting, meanings and symbols (Eco, 1968), built environment and perception (Lynch, 1960), behavior and physical setting (Gibson, 1966). In a study of successful spaces the Project of Public Space (2000) found four keys for successful place making (access and linkage, comfort and image, activities and sociability) which all result from physical setting, meaning and symbols. With advances in transportation and mobility, and increasing globalization, traditional definitions of the three elements of place are being questioned. Physical distance is shaped by use of transportation and the internet and place is now a switching point in the world network. Mobility shapes a multi cultural society (through migration, tourism, refugees) that gives multiple meanings and different responses to globalization. These make different physical settings and activities in different societies. As a result, Doreen Massey (1994) advances the notion of a progressive sense of place and global sense of place. She sees places as a social relationship and argues that with globalization, relationships are becoming more stretched than before. As a result, there is no boundary between inside and outside. So while in the first definition people defend the outside, here there is nothing to define a boundary. She questions the traditional theories of place as these do not see place as a process. Instead, she talks about a global sense of place and defines place as a progressive process. However, this paper contends that meaning, physical setting and practice are still the elements of place. The first is rooted in culture, the second is about materiality, and the last is influenced by human behavior.
Ozten, O, and H Turgut. "Interactions Between Urban Dynamics and New Spatial Patterns: the Case of Istanbul." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Recent urban dynamics clearly developed new types of urban developments,urban behavior,spatial politics and an interactive spatial culture.Globalization, internationalization and the rapid flow of information have played a significant role in the transformation of socio-cultural and urban identities.Cities are more into fluidity and mobility where social,cultural and economic facts can rapidly be transferred from any one locality to other. Yet, powerful effects of globalization on economy, society, and urban environment created fragmentation as well as an interesting transition of each system accordingly.While urban transformation in regard to globalization created sharp cuts on former urban texture and typologies, new spaces and identities had been produced with the formation of recent networks and encounters.These changing dynamics have affected continuity and development trends in urban-housing patterns and housing preferences.Multidimensional outcomes of this transformation are manifesting peculiarities of activity patterns, behavioral relationships, and socio-cultural norms, as well as architectural and urban configurations.As a rapidly growing city, Istanbul has currently become the ‘stage’ of global social, economic, political transformations, visualized in the urban and architectural field.While the urban boundaries of the city rapidly extend, rapid architectural and urban transformations in the inner city raise crucial questions.A series of luxurious housing settlements have been erected in and/or around the informal housing areas of the globalizing city. In the context of transformation process within the recent years, this paper is aimed to expose the relationship between urban dynamics and new developments of Istanbul.The paper consists of three main sections.It starts with the main discussions on globalization and urban dynamics within cities in general. It will focus onto the society culture, fragmentation of the built environment and politics of space under globalization effects on this rapidly growing city.Secondly,the paper focuses on the city of Istanbul’s changing urban texture. It exposes the effects and outputs of recent urban dynamics onto the city and focuses to the newly emerging housing patterns. The authors are aiming to bring out a critical discussion on the city silhouette, where separating and overlapping urban functions are easy to catch through on any site section.The paper targets to conclude its urban development statements for the city, where recent urban dynamics are restructuring the cityscape and the society in physical,social and cultural means.Based on the general framework, the general discussion will focus on recent housing projects, new development trends, former urban patterns and new forms of socio-cultural interactions.Authors aim to bring reflections as a concluding discussion about the city’s general development attitudes and a critical review on its ongoing and forthcoming development.
Jimenez-Dominguez, B. "Interactions Between Urban Planning, Participation and Public Space." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Urban planning is associated with public space in its historical attemps to build citizenship through shared spaces which are also symbols of wellbeing,places of social encounter, personal expression, political debates and resistance from the perspective of the civil society. At present public spaces go beyond places like the streets, parks, squares, open cafes,incorporating the spaces of consumption, the media and the network society. This diversity puts participation in the agenda via collaborative planning which is already in the political discourses elevating civil society to the level of decision-makers through direct involvement and dialogue with public agencies allowing them if are truly inclusive to use local knowledge and experience to make decisions that reflect social needs with the help of facilitators, expert opinions and research which must result in more meaningful and more effective and creative participation. So it is important to discuss it from the perspectives of different disciplines, like urbanism, architectura, psycology and the social sciences.
Devine-Wright, P. "Investigating the Role of Procedural Justice in Explaining Different Forms of Protest Behaviours: a Powerline Case Study." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Several recent studies have emphasised the importance of procedural justice in going beyond simplistic ‘NIMBY’ explanations for public protests against large-scale energy infrastructures such as wind farms and high voltage powerlines. These have drawn on calls for planning procedures to be more transparent, equitable and participatory, as advocated by sustainable development theory and legally enshrined in the Aarhus convention. This study seeks to extend the literature on procedural justice and the social acceptance of energy infrastructure by seeking to explain the determinants of different forms of behavioural engagement, arguing for important distinctions between diverse actions such as petition signing, making financial donations to protest groups and attending public meetings organized by development organisations. This was investigated in an empirical case study of a controversial proposal to construct a 60km high voltage overhead powerline through a rural area of South West England. 503 adult residents of the town of Nailsea, Somerset, completed a questionnaire survey in July/August 2009. A series of logistic regressions were conducted to establish the relative importance of procedural justice, as well as other variables (including socio-demographic characteristics, perceived impacts, trust and place attachment) in explaining behavioural engagement. Three specific forms of engagement behaviours were used as dependent variables in the analyses: attending meetings organized by the developer, signing a petition to object against the proposals and engaging with a local action group set up to protest against the powerline. These analyses showed that procedural justice was significant in explaining protest group support but not petition signing, supporting the proposition that distinctions should be made between different forms of public engagement. Conceptual and applied implications of the findings for the literature on procedural justice are discussed.
Devine-Wright, P. "Investigating the Role of Variety and Intensity of Place Attachment in Predicting Social Acceptance of Energy Infrastructures." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Several recent studies have proposed a role for place attachment in understanding so-called ‘NIMBY’ responses to large-scale energy projects, including hydro-electric power stations and offshore wind farms. This study seeks to extend the literature on social acceptance of energy infrastructure in two ways. First, it goes beyond a single measure of intensity of attachment to place to include two measures of varieties of place attachment: place discovered and place inherited. Second, the conceptual framework included several constructs shown to be relevant in influencing social acceptance: procedural justice, trust and perceived impacts – yet not captured in previous place attachment research. These were investigated in an empirical case study of a controversial proposal to construct a 60km high voltage overhead powerline through a rural area of South West England. 503 adult residents of the town of Nailsea, Somerset, completed a questionnaire survey in July/August 2009. A series of logistic regressions were conducted to establish the relative importance of several sets of variables: socio-demographic characteristics (age, gender and educational attainment), project related beliefs (negative and positive impacts, procedural justice and trust in the development organisation) and place attachment (intensity, discovered and inherited). Findings suggest that collectively, these measures explain 39% of the variance in levels of acceptance, with most of the variance explained by project-related variables, with trust being the most important of these. In the final model, socio-demographic variables were not significant; however, two place attachment measures did significantly contribute to explaining social acceptance of the powerline after controlling for project related variables: intensity of place attachment and place discovered. Interestingly, these effects were in different directions: stronger place attachment related to stronger powerline support, with the opposite the case for place discovered. Conceptual and applied implications of the findings for the literature on place attachment are discussed.
Astbury, J. "Inviting Landscapes – Facilitating People-Nature Collaboration for Urban Sustainability." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Although the majority of people worldwide now call a city home, many urban landscapes convey the message that the city is beyond the control of ordinary citizens. These landscapes often communicate obduracy with large fixed structures that seem resistant to change (Hommels, 2005). In addition, they tend to limit direct contact with nature and conceal ecosystem functioning (Hough, 2004; Miller, 2005) as well as ecosystem services (the benefits that people derive from nature).These messages conveyed by urban landscapes combine to discourage citizens from active participation in enhancing the resilience of urban ecosystems. This is unfortunate because people and nature can fruitfully collaborate in the provision of green infrastructure (“natural, semi-natural and artificial networks of multifunctional ecological systems within, around and between urban areas, at all spatial scales” (Tzoulas et al., 2007)). Urban landscapes have the potential to facilitate this collaboration. This untapped potential warrants exploration, particularly in the current context of crumbling conventional infrastructure, limited resources, and uncertain climate and energy futures.There are many ways that citizens can interact with nature that will contribute to the development and maintenance of green infrastructure. Activities might include planting and looking after trees; introducing more permeable surfaces; restoring streams and wetlands; greening vacant lots and roofs; growing food; constructing adventure playgrounds that reconnect children to nature; and making footpaths and cycle routes more attractive to promote active transportation. The possibilities are wide-ranging and the idea is not to dictate but rather to invite actions that are driven by the skills and interests of the people involved—and the ecosystem in which they find themselves. This will hopefully initiate a virtuous cycle of social learning (collective learning through action and reflection), skill development and deeper engagement, which will lead to further action. As the landscapes in which these activities unfold communicate strong messages about what should happen there, it raises the question of how to stimulate citizen-led greening of infrastructure using the medium of landscape. This requires an understanding of the complex ways in which people and nature interact in cities.This paper proposes a conceptual model of people-nature interactions in cities that combines the concepts of the cultural landscape, the ecological landscape and the social-ecological system (SES) within a critical realist framework. An analysis of interviews with people involved in greening initiatives in North West England contributes to validating this model.The goal of this exercise is to explore how urban landscapes could be made more ‘inviting’ to citizens who might wish to collaborate with urban nature and transform urban places in ways that enhance sustainability.
Dalton, N, R Dalton, and C Hoelscher. "Ipfad: an Ipad App for the Real-Time Recording and Encoding of Direct Observations of Wayfinding Behaviour." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012.

This paper describes an iPad App, known as iPfad ('Pfad' means 'path' in German) created for the real-time recording of wayfinding behaviors in buildings and outdoor environments. This paper will start by describing antecedents to the iPfad App and will cover computer- and hand-based methods formerly employed by researchers of navigation in complex environments. In particular, it will describe the real-time data logging tool WayTracer (Kuhnmuench & Strube, 2009), upon which iPfad was based, highlighting the similarities and differences between the two approaches.The main section of the paper will describe the primary features of the iPfad App. These consist of the 'Home page' (where new participant records are entered and where the experiment-recording phase is initialized) and the 'Map' page (for behavior recording/encoding). The Map page screen is further divided into two sections: the upper 'map' section and the lower 'events' section. The map section displays the current floor level (for a multi-level building) and is a 'drawable' part of the screen, allowing the experimenter to trace the path of a subject onto the screen as they observe their progress through an environment. (For GPS enabled iPads in outdoor environments with good GPS coverage this path is created automatically, however since this is not applicable to most interior settings, the hand-drawn trace option is available.) The coordinates of the participant’s location are recorded in real-time. The lower half of the screen consists of a series of buttons to log actions. The buttons are classified as changes in floor level (the displayed map will be updated accordingly), as path events (starting a new task, pausing, backtracking, arriving at a false destination, becoming lost/giving up the task), the use of external aids (signage, maps, external views to the outside or equivalent invariant views, asking for help) and other log/action events (saving a compass direction in a pointing task, recording the location of a significant remark, if simultaneously recording an audio transcript). Every time an event is logged a colored 'dot' on the traced-path is created: it is time-stamped and its location noted in the log-file. The text-based log-files, annotated maps and any associated audio files are saved for subsequent retrieval.The third section of the paper will describe a case study in which the iPfad App was used. This took place in The Seattle Public Library and consisted of four wayfinding tasks undertaken by 28 participants and observed using iPfad. Post-experiment, the experimenters were asked to gauge the usability of the iPfad App by filling in a usability questionnaire and selecting descriptive words from a version of Microsoft’s Product Reaction Cards (Benedek and Miner, 2002). The final section will discuss the usability of the iPfad App based on the case study's feedback and will discuss implications for the automation of data gathering of human behavior in the future.

Furtado, F, O Bezerra, and E Alcântara. "Is Urban Sustainability Possible in the Face of Accelerated Property Development and Major Public Works? the Case of Recife, Brazil." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Some Brazilian cities are currently growing very fast because of the increased construction of skyscrapers, or public works in the context of events for the 2014 World Cup. One example is Recife, a coastal city in northeastern Brazil. Its flat topography, close to sea level, together with a pattern of occupation marked by reclamation of mangroves and floodplains, cutting into embankments on hillsides, insufficient macro and micro drainage networks, and precarious maintenance and operational services combine to make Recife one of Brazil's most vulnerable cities.Regional development policy has encouraged growth, for instance in industry associated with the Port of Suape, and this is set to increase. Rental and freehold property values have risen steeply. The number of cars on the roads during rush hour causes gridlock, while the public transport system is inefficient and underrresourced, reducing quality of life and increasing CO2 emissions. Urban accesbiility and mobility have become one of the city's main problems. Though Recife is known as the “Venice of Brazil” because of its topographical similarity with the Italian city, its lack of appropriate infrastructure to deal with the physiographical limitations make the region highly vulnerable to flooding and major catastrophes, a tendency aggravated by climate change. This geophysical vulnerability could be mitigated by efficient municipal management (public bodies, institutions, planning, projects, political initiatives) together with a drainage infrastructure and other elements needed to reduce the impact of heavy rains.This article discusses the city's growth and its present and future impacts, seeking to analyse how the municipal management system is equipped to deal with these changes and associated impacts. What are the possible implcations for climate change? What contribution is made to global warming? How could these impacts be reduced through mitigation at the level of administration? These reflections are intended to contribute to a deeper understanding of possible ways to turn a situation of vulnerability in Brazil's coastal cities into the potential for resilience, taking Recife as an example with a view to reinforcing urban planning and city management in the face of climate change. The resuts of this process form part of an ongoing postdoctoral research project.
Johansson, M, M Jacobs, F Mårtensson, and M Jansson. "It is Nice to Stay by the Shrubbery- the Role of Greenery at the School Ground as Reflected in Children´s Use, Preferences and Emotional State." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Research and practice on green school grounds are today guided by the assumption that greenery is important for children´s well-being during recess. Outdoor play in green settings among preschoolers support joyful vigorous outdoor play and attention functioning. Less is known about the role of greenery for the well-being of children during middle childhood. While the study of the very young children relied on interpretation of video recordings, self-assessments and self-report could be expected useful in the study of school age children. We have investigated how children´s emotional state is related to their use and preferences at school grounds in year 4 (10 year-olds) and year 6 (12 year-olds).The study included 234 children, that is 97% of all the 4th (10 years) and 6th graders (12 years) at two schools. Both schools are part of “Green school grounds” initiated 2010 by the council of Malmoe, a city of 300 000 inhabitants in southern Sweden. One school ground represented a ground with more greenery and the other a ground with less greenery. During one week, two times a day after recess, children´s use of their school ground and their emotional state after recess were documented through self-report. Mood icons were used to assess their emotional state in the dimensions of valence (unpleasantness-pleasantness) and arousal (deactivation-activation). The children also reported two favorite activities and two favorite places at the school ground as part of a survey during the last day of the field work.Preliminary results show that a majority of children at the two schools evaluate their emotional state after recess as a mood of happiness and alertness, with 58 % of the 4th graders and 44% of the 6th graders reporting maximum points in both dimensions. Maps of school ground activity show that children reporting a more “neutral” emotional state differ from children in a more positive emotional state in what routes they take and what places they choose. Children´s school ground use is incongruent with what favorite places and favorite activities they report. The role of greenery for children´s use of the school ground and how this is related to their preferences and emotional state after recess will be described for girls and boys in the two age groups. Conclusions are drawn about what type of knowledge different types of self-report and assessments of school ground use during recess yield.
Shojai, A. "Japanese Neighbourhood, a Study on Morphology and Development." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Japanese neighbourhood can be characterized as mixture of houses, apartments, schools, shops and offices. Here, the street facade changes constantly due to the continuous ups and downs, and backs and forth following the changing numbers of floors in neighbouring houses and apartments as well as their position to the street and also to one another. Consequently the presence of the a range of open spaces formed and scattered among the buildings, in scale and character depending on where the buildings rest free from their neighbours, has contributed to the visual excitement and more importantly adaptability of these neighbourhoods to various forms of buildings and structures. As a consequence, individual buildings are recognized more as masses than merely facades as it is the case in many jammed neighbourhoods in big cities around the world. As Barry Shelton says “There can be an enormous variety of plots (shape and size) Thus much of it is a collage-like scene which offers little clarity of pattern, form or line.”(Shelton, p. 152)Here, despite the character of most individual houses and apartments which nowadays more or less resemble Western types one can however, very much, appreciate the atmosphere of a Japanese city and neighbourhood considering their scale and arrangement in particular which still follows their precedents in the traditional neighbourhoods.There are certain qualities which make the distinctive character of a contemporary Japanese neighbourhood such as the intimate scale of its grains - the plots and the buildings - their different sizes and shapes, and their arrangement contributing to the intimacy and visual sophistication and excitement of the residential areas, as oppose to large housing or high-rise developments to accommodate the large population. However, as a consequence, these neighbourhoods are stretched out far from the urban centres but on the other hand are easily connected and reached by the introduction of fast and extensive transportation systems.This research identifies the distinctive spatial arrangement of a typical residential environment in a Japanese city through a morphological and typological study of a neighbourhood in Sapporo, as an example of a city influenced by its western precedents from the very early stages of planning. Later it studies the evolution of the neighbourhood over the past many decades in search for any development in its pattern; and finally introduces the pattern and development of a typical contemporary Japanese neighbourhood as a unique and notable example of the coexistence and integration of dwellings and functions of diverse scales which accommodate different purposes within the scale of the neighbourhood and are adaptable to the ongoing developments.
Elali, G, and C Liberalino. Kalina Maia Square Socio-Environmental Evaluation and Subsidies for Interventions in the Built Environment In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. In a study that intend to understand the use of squares as leisure environment, we sought to identify the main activities, the people who develop them and the spatial and temporal configuration of this occupation, taking as case study the Kalina Maia Square located in Natal RN - Brazil. This research employed several research methods that contributed to the environmental evaluation, resulting in subsidies for urban designers, whether in new projects or renovations, by assisting in the maintenance of these spaces and/or enhancing the transformation of these spaces in places. As research methods were used behavioral mapping (place-centered and people-centered), behavior trace analysis, field diary records and interviews with the users. The results show that the square is used by people from different ages and social classes, which can be subdivided into groups with specific days and times to attend the place. The relationship between spatial configuration and behavior shows that there is a compartmentalization of uses, being possible to identify the environmental characteristics that most favor some of the observed activities. Among many results, some deficiencies were identified in Kalina Maia Square, which can be adjusted to further improve the environment and to be avoided in new gender designs. One of these is the limited investment in afforestation, that difficult the use of the space at times in which the temperature is too high, causing discomfort to potential users. Another one is the use of some weak and unsafe building materials. Moreover, the concrete equipment (playground and conventional gym) were not properly planned in ergonomics and safety terms for children, which increase the possibility of minor accidents. There are also no ludic equipment, which would attract more people to the place, in addition to differentiate a square from others, facilitating the processes of place identity and place attachment. One last point would be a greater concern with interventions with community participation in its planning and execution. Although the square was a kind of response to a community demand (especially the girl Kalina Maia), in its design, implementation and maintenance, there is no direct neighborhood participation. This research is important for future interventions both in the studied square, as in the maintenance of others that are similar or in future projects, by highlighting the importance of designers to appreciate human affairs, and not only construction techniques, costs or prototypes previously determined for squares. In this sense, the contact with users is a significant contribution to proposed public spaces whose use is effective and thus to promote the development of relationships with the place.
Idone, MT, C Serenelli, and E Fakqui. Landscape as an Expression of People-Environment Relations. from Journey to Planning, Moving Along a Pilgrimage Route in Italy In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. expressed by the diversity of European landscapes experienced along historical trails (Thomas-Penette, 2000). These form a web of cross-cultural interconnections along which the discovering of local configurations of human-environment relations and landscape perception is driven by the practice of journeying and walking (De Seta, 1982; Turri, 1998) The research explores the topic of European Cultural Routes in order to figure out their capability in acting as means of local development that takes into account the role of Landscape Planning underlined by the European Landscape Convention (2000).Such objectives are investigated within the case study of the Lauretana pilgrimage route in Italy, that allows us to explore the issue of human-environment relations at both extra-local and local scales, through the investigation of the role of terms such as pilgrimage and pathway. The former defines a framework of significance in which we can organize historically and spatially the pilgrimage’s traces spread out over the landscape (Tosco, 2009); the latter is seen as the first step toward a place-oriented landscape planning (Gambino, 1994), thanks to its connection with local landscapes and people. Here the fieldwork begins, along the pathways and with local people living the landscapes they cross (Lee and Ingold, 2006; Ingold and Lee Vergunst, 2008).The research project started with the idea of recovering the ancient Lauretana Pilgrimage Route (LPR) that local civil and religious Authorities of Marche Region (Italy) have been carrying on for about three years. It aims to give Lauretana the label of European Cultural Route according to the European Council’s Programme on Cultural Routes (CM/Res(2010)52).LPR is a network of medieval Christian ways of pilgrimage toward the Marian Sanctuary of Loreto (Avarucci, 1998), whose main axis is the 16° century postal road crossing Central Italy, following part of the older Flaminia roman road of west-east connection. It became after the 16° century one of the most important itineraries of the Italian Grand Tour (Brilli, 1996).Into the local and European institutional framework, about two years ago a research group from the University of Florence began to explore the connection between the Lauretana recovery project and Landscape Planning (Falqui et al., 2011), focusing on the pilgrimage route as means of landscape perception and knowledge for planning and design, through the historical practice of journey and its current reconfiguration, and looking at sustainable development according to the European Landscape Convention (ELC, 2000).
Dupont, L, and V Van Eetvelde. "Landscape Perception Analysis of Built and Natural Environments Using Eye Tracking: Comparison Between Experts and Non-Experts." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. In the European Landscape Convention, landscape is seen as a key element in individual and social well-being and its protection, management and planning entail rights and responsibilities for everyone. Furthermore, the Convention states that landscape is an important public interest and constitutes an important part of the quality of life for people everywhere, contributing to the formation of local cultures and Europe’s natural and cultural heritage and identity. Consequently, it may be valuable to include people’s perception of landscapes into landscape planning. Therefore, it is important to know how people observe landscapes and how different landscape features are perceived. Most landscape perception studies use landscape photographs as visual stimuli, usually in combination with a questionnaire. It is, however, difficult to objectively measure how people observe landscapes. An innovative tool for measuring people’s landscape perception is provided by eye tracking. This technology enables to measure the speed and direction of eye movements (saccades) and fixations while observing images. Consequently, the entire scan path, made by an observer on an image, can be reconstructed and visualised. The aim of this study is to examine the difference between built and natural environments, represented by a set of landscape photographs ranging from urban to rural landscapes in Flanders (Belgium). Additionally, the observation patterns of different groups of respondents are compared (experts versus non-experts). The methodology consists of three steps. First, landscape photographs were taken in different landscape types, using a fixed focal length and a tripod. Second, the experiment was executed using an iView X RED eye tracking system. In this study, around 40 observers (20 experts and 20 non-experts) participated to the test. The experts consisted of graduate geographers and master students of geography, while undergraduate geography students participated as non-experts. During the experiment, the respondents were instructed to observe the landscape photographs for a few seconds, without executing specific search tasks. After the eye tracking measurements, the respondents were asked to rank the pictures from rural to urban landscapes in an additional questionnaire. Finally, the output of the experiment was statistically analysed to identify significant differences in perception between the landscape types ranging from urban to rural environments on the one hand and between the experts and non-experts on the other hand. The results were then visualised in fixation and saccade maps. Based on these maps, two-coloured heat maps were created to represent on the photographs which elements in the landscape drew most attention. The technique of eye tracking and the results of this study may be helpful in transdisciplinary landscape planning and design as it offers insights into the observation patterns of rural landscapes and built environments.
Mosler, S. "Landscapes of Hope: the Role and Value of an Urban Brownfield Site for Community and Town." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. This paper deals with the role and value of an urban brownfield site as a mediator and driver for developing urban design concepts in the context of Chelmsford town, historic market and former industrial town in Essex, UK. The case study site is a former industrial site in Chelmsford. The Marconi Company Ltd. was founded by Guglielmo Marconi in 1897 as The Wireless Telegraph & Signal Company. Marconi was the first who established the radio factory and from Chelmsford it was exported all over the world. Opened in June 1912, the site has obtained the character of its former industrial use and is still intact in its presence as part of the heritage and town infrastructure. Marconi's factory site is now derelict and a vast hole in the urban grain. It is almost 10 acres in the heart of the town centre surrounded by residential and mixed areas including a university, and green corridor with River Chelmer. The site is now in the hands of developers waiting for its future scheme.Throughouthe time Marconi Site has gained different meanings to different groups and became a landscape of opportunity and hope as each of these groups such as owners, developers, town authorities, NGOs and communities have had their own expectations and value systems for its future use. In order to combine research and policy making, the site was investigated, and redesigned by the postgraduate landscape architecture course students at Writtle School of Design. Future scenarios were identified as new urban development models regarding the role and value of ecological and socio-economical processes. Three groups were aimed to be involved in this process: Local authorities, NGOs representing locals and developers. Local authorities such as Chelmsford Borough Council and Essex County Council, Changing Chelmsford and RSA (Chelmsford) (NGOs) were actively engaged in the development process. Communities were considered as catalysts for the development of a new scheme.As the last step in the process, projects will be exhibited in the town centre to assess the residents’ ideas, values and perceptions for the present situation and proposed scenarios for the site in this design based research project.The project intends to remake urban space conspicuously responsive to an urban situation, performing in a periurban landscape through concept, context, function, meaning, affect, form, and aesthetic. The remade landscape is created in response to the following needs: ecological function, local and regional identity, public art and design practice, and functional use and dynamic of buildings, and associated spaces, as well as community use and movement by people. Innovative design and research, creation of urban public landscapes and related rural landscapes introduce a pedagogy informed by interpretation and realisation for a more sustainable connected urban landscape system.
De Bruyne, E, M Beijer, PC Le Roux, and AM Gosselink. "Lessons Learned from Scenario-Based Thinking in Workplace Research." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Risk management is a top priority for organizational management when making crucial decisions regarding the physical and organizational requirements of new workplace concepts. In evidence-based research and design the availability of valid and reliable data on the relationship between user-requirements, organizational goals and ambitions, and the translation thereof to conceptual choices, is an integral part of the ability to minimize risks when considering the future effects of new workplace solutions. In acknowledgement of this, the Center for People and Buildings (CfPB) has since 2009 applied the PACT-model – a model specifically developed to relate workplace activities and types of workplaces to one another in order to develop different case-specific scenario’s based on organizational goals and ambitions, the work processes and the extent of flexibility and multifunctionality provided by/required from the new workplace environment. Outcomes of the scenarios provide insight in the physical and organizational consequences of change elements related to growth/downsizing of the organization, changing work processes and the adoption of more flexible work styles, including the possibility to work at home.This methodology in which possible future developments in work and workplaces, are combined with knowledge of organizational goals and ambitions has proved extremely helpful in comparing the anticipated effects of various alternative workplace concepts in the early stages of the change process. Although effective in assisting the decision-making process in individual case studies, the combined longitudinal effects of this approach have not yet been reviewed. The purpose of this paper is therefore to provide a qualitative review of the effectiveness and added value of scenario-based thinking in effective decision-making on the long-term vitality of organizational accommodation. To provide the required insight, a cross-case analysis of all case studies undertaken by the CfPB with the use of the PACT-model is being undertaken. The central question to be answered relates to the identification and extraction of best and bad practice data regarding the decision-making process itself, the manner in which scenario-based alternatives are formulated and the effects associated with each of the developed scenarios.The application of scenario-based techniques in selecting alternative workplace concepts, is providing a means of assessing the anticipated organizational, physical and financial costs and benefits related to each of the scenario-based solutions prior to the implementation thereof. By creating insight in the similarities and differences between proposed scenarios (in the early stages of the change process) and the actual performance of implemented strategies (in the post-occupancy evaluation stages) the effectiveness of this methodology in environment-behaviour studies, and the opportunities for continued research is emphasized.
Beute, F, KCHJ Smolders, and Y de Kort. "Lighting and Self-Regulation: Can Light Revitalise the Depleted Ego?" In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Recent research has demonstrated that light increases alertness and performance on cognitive tasks even during daytime (Phipps-Nelson et al. 2003; Smolders & de Kort, submitted; Vandewalle et al., 2006). Neuroimaging has indicated that light during daytime – in particular after sleep deprivation - increases activity in the thalamus and prefrontal cortex (Vandewalle et al., 2006). The prefrontal cortex is the area where executive functioning is said to reside, and perhaps also self-regulation (Wagner & Heatherton, 2011). After earlier experiments demonstrated improvements in performance on vigilance tasks during an hour long exposure to bright light (Smolders & de Kort, submitted), we now wanted to test the effect of brief lighting exposure on replenishment after ego-depletion. Ego depletion is the term used for the mental state after exerting self-control. Research has shown that performance on subsequent tasks is impacted after ego-depletion, indicating that self-regulation relies on a limited resource (e.g., Baumeister et al., 1998). Considering the effects of light on performance and brain activation we hypothesized that bright and/or blue light might help replenish this limited resource. We therefore designed a study to test such effects. In a pilot study (N=64), we depleted participants’ resource for self-regulation by asking them not to eat from a dish of freshly baked muffins. We then offered them a 1-2 minute light treatment of a high (6000K) vs. low (3000K) colour temperature. Immediately following this light treatment, they performed the grip test, of which a baseline measurement was taken upon entering the lab, and completed a short questionnaire assessing mood. As control measures we used self-reports of perceived lighting characteristics and evaluation, and beliefs concerning effects of light on physical and cognitive performance. Initial results showed non-significant trends of the colour temperature manipulation on changes in subjective vitality (p=.07) and duration of the grip test (p=.11). However, if we selected only the participants (N=41) who accepted the muffin we offered at the end of the experiment (a behavioural indicator for their appetite for muffins and hence an indirect indicator of how taxing the depletion induction was), the effect of the light manipulation was significant, both on subjective vitality (F=6.79, p=.01) and on duration of the grip test (F=4.35, p=.04). Persons in the high CCT group improved their performance on the grip test (M=12.3), whereas performance in the low CCT group worsened (M=-.15.8). For the actual experiment we will employ a different ego-depletion induction and the design will also include the non-depleted conditions for both light settings. The experiment is currently being planned; results will be presented at the conference.
Nordh, H, and Caroline M. P. Hagerhall. "Links Between Enclosure and Potential for Restoration." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Parks play an important role as restorative places in urban areas, and it has been shown that even small urban parks can fill this need, but to a varying degree dependent on the content and size (Nordh et al., 2009). Small parks have a disadvantage in relation to large parks in that you cannot escape the impact of the surrounding buildings and streets just by walking further into the park. Hence it is likely that the properties of the edges are especially important to consider in the design of restorative small urban parks. Spatial borders and their openness, what you can see and by whom you can be seen, has a prominent place in some of the main theories of the field. For instance Prospect Refuge Theory (Appleton, 1975) promotes that enclosure, such as cover behind ones back, is important for the possibility to relax. As found by other researchers enclosure, such as a dense vegetative edge, can also promote the feeling of entering a whole other world, an experience that in the vocabulary of Attention Restoration Theory (Kaplan, 1995) is referred to as a sense of Being away.In this study we will explore the impact of enclosure on the likelihood to rest and recover from stress. Based on an existing small urban park, that in a previous study scored medium on a restorativeness scale, we have built a digital model in which the park content is kept constant while the closure of the edge differ from open (no edge vegetation) to semi open (only trees) to enclosed (trees and bushes). These are edge conditions that would also be commonly found in practise. Each park model will be experienced by an independent group of subjects by means of a pre-fixed walk from outside the park, via the edge and into a central point of the park. Questions about restoration and the sense of being away will be asked. Results will be presented at the conference.
Lewicka, M. "Localism and Activity as Two Dimensions of People-Place Relationships: Towards a More Differentiated View of Place Attachment." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. "Based on a series of interviews with residents of Worcester, David Hummon (1992) distinguished five different attitudes held by people towards their communities: everyday and ideological rootedness (here called traditional and active place attachment), alienation, place relativity and placelessness.. Lewicka (2011) in a large country-wise survey confirmed existence of these five types also in the Polish population and demonstrated that they differed with respect to a number of psychological variables: socio-demographics, social capital, cultural capital, value structure, measures of life satisfaction etc. Although the two place-attached (rooted) types had a lot in common (they were more satisfied with their life than the nonattached types, had a better social capital and were more other-directed), they also differed on a number of dimensions (e.g. cultural capital, social activity).In this paper I will show that the typology of people-place relationships applies to other countries as well by demonstrating similar results for Ukraine (country-wise survey, N=3000 participants). I will also show results of the discrimination analysis performed on all correlates of attachment with the purpose of identifying basic dimensions that differentiate the five types. Included into the discrimination analysis were socio-demographic measures such as age, education, measures of mobility; measures of social capital (bonding and bridging, neighborhood ties, trust, social activity), cultural capital (cultural activity, size of home library), measures of self-continuity and of personal values, life satisfaction etc. Of the four discriminatory functions the first two, labeled "localism" and "activity" were identical in the two countries and explained over 80 percent of variance. In both countries the actively attached participants scored high (above zero) on both functions (were both "local" and "active"), the traditionally attached participants scored high (above zero) on localism but low (below zero) on activity, and all nonattached types scored low on localism and either low or average (around zero) on activity. The data are discussed with reference to the concepts developed by Maslow, to Beckley's ideas of place as anchor and as magnet, and to the social psychological theories of "Big Two" (community versus agency personality dimensions). It is concluded that research on place can be easily incorporated into a broader framework of social and personality studies."
Keddy, KM. "Looking Back on a Post-Disaster Response: Analyzing Medical Activities to Understand the Transformation of Public Buildings to Medical Facilities." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. The Halifax Explosion in December of 1917 in Nova Scotia, Canada resulted when a munitions ship collided with another ship in the Halifax Harbor during World War I. This resulted in approximately 12,000 damaged buildings, 6,000 people left homeless, approximately 1,600 people dead, and close to 9,000 people injured (Kitz 1989: 23). This was the largest human-caused explosion prior to the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan during WWII, causing a tsunami in the Halifax Harbour as well as total destruction for miles.Numerous perspectives on the Explosion exist including historical accounts, literary expressions, scientific studies, and relief responses. However, the medical aspect of the disaster has not been analyzed in a way that provides a reconstruction of the post-disaster built environment in Halifax that emerged to handle the injured and the remains of the dead. Numerous public buildings were quickly transformed into medical facilities such as dressing stations, depots for medical supplies, eye surgery clinics, emergency hospitals, and a city morgue.This research is an analysis of the descriptions of the post-disaster behavioral activities of the medical personnel to help construct an accurate representation of the post-disaster built environment. My argument is that by looking at the documented human behavior and activities of the medical personnel, the socio-spatial characteristics of the newly transformed medical buildings will be reflected in much the same way that the opposite approach of behavioral plan analysis works to reveal behavioral implications.My research questions include, what architectural characteristics of the buildings enabled the transformation from one building type to a medical facility building type? How well did these buildings accommodate the new programmatic requirements? Careful review of the activities and physical setting descriptions found in personal narratives, letters, newspaper articles, committee notes, and pension claims documents found in the provincial archives have revealed how people managed and experienced the immediate medical response required and the physical settings that accommodated these activities.Halifax had preparedness unlike other disasters because it happened during World War I, it was a major military port, and at that time in Halifax, there were numerous trained medical personnel, military and convalescent hospitals, as well as many war-time activities done by volunteers and an infrastructure already in place for returning war veterans. This interpretive-historical study contributes new insights to the existing perceptions of the post-disaster phase of the Halifax Explosion. It also contributes to the research on ‘disaster healthcare’ illustrating how types of disaster readiness and the transformation of the built environment can contribute to a reduction in medical complications and deaths.
Abbasalipour, S. "Making a Bridge Or a Door?the Changing Interface of Shopping Centres and Surrounding Urban Public Space." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. More recently, in many developed cities, there has been a shift away from the common inward-looking and enclosed shopping centre towards designs that lead to the emergence of new kind of spaces, where the public space of the city and the private space of the shopping centre meet and overlap - what will be termed ‘interface spaces’ in this paper. Through the rapidly growing opening up trend of shopping centres, especially in the Sydney metropolitan area, what is revealed is the ambiguity of these interface spaces. Although shopping centres have been criticised for their negative consequences attributed to privatisation of urban public space, interface spaces are undefined in what has been recognised as private and what has been known as public. Indeed, rather than negative development, the opening up of shopping centres to surrounding urban public space and emergence of interface spaces signify the provision of a balance between the public and the private realms – i.e. ‘publicization’ of private spaces rather than ‘privatization’ of public spaces. To clarify the concept of interface spaces in the contemporary urban context, this paper explores the theoretical analysis concerning provision and challenge of ‘publicness’ in relation to the emergence of interface spaces in the Australian urban context. Drawing on the notions of ‘bridge’ and ‘door’ in order to connect or separate, this paper proceeds to investigate the interconnectivity of interface spaces and urban public/private spaces to understand what role these new spaces can physically and experientially form in the urban future.
Flykt, A, M Johansson, and J Karlsson. "Managing Human Fear of Bears and Wolves." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Decision-makers and managers spend substantial amounts of funding everyday on various interventions aimed at management of the large carnivores, for example different measures to mitigate depredation on livestock, e.g., removal of carnivores and fencing of livestock (see Linnell et al. 1996 for an extensive review). Management of species that occur in low numbers is challenging as relatively small management actions may have a large impact on the population. Management of controversial species is challenging because management actions may trigger public responses that have a large impact on support for political goals (Feral 1995, Okwemba 2004). Large carnivore management involves species that may be both rare and controversial. It is therefore important to study the effects of proposed management actions before they are implemented.Research point to a complexity of interacting socio-cultural (Skogen and Thrane 2008) and psychological factors (e.g. Manfredo 2008; Teel and Manfredo 2010) behind human responses to wildlife. This complexity makes it hard to predict the public response to single management interventions (Hazzah et al. 2009).In order to gain insight on how people view different management actions aiming at reducing human fear for wolves and bears, we asked people in areas with presence of large carnivores (n=391), on their opinion for one or more of a limited number of management actions to be applied in their region. Preference for or against different management actions was captured by nine sub-questions following the question: “what is your opinion on the authorities implementing the following management actions in the area where you live?”. Responses were given on a 5-point Likert scale (1 = Should not be implement and 5 = Should absolutely be implemented). The suggested management actions are currently used or discussed in Sweden and ranged from different types of information to carnivore population limits and allowing personal protection like pepper spray and firearms.Based on the responses a Potential Conflict Index, PCI, (Vaske et al. 2010) was calculated. The PCI-values indicate that different types of information, setting a management goal for carnivore populations and making it illegal to dispose of potential large carnivore feed close to houses are more often preferred and have a lower potential for conflict compared to measures as a more liberal use of pepper spray or fire arms. The presentation is suggested for the symposium “Emotions towards wildlife: implications for policy and management and links to the conference subtheme Policy Implementation and Management: Attitudes, trust, and environmental concern.
Rentfrow, PJ, and S Gosling. "Mapping the Personalities of Cities." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. The cities in which we live are profoundly important to our way of life: Cities are places where individuals come together, fall in love, start families, go to work, worship, and spend their free time. In other words, cities are where the psychology of everyday life unfolds. Curiously, however, psychology has had hardly anything to say about person X city interactions, or how people shape cities and vice versa. This is odd considering that cities differ on so many characteristics known to be linked to psychological factors. For example, some cities are liberal (e.g., San Francisco), some have strong economies (Houston), and some have high crime rates (St. Louis); at the same time, research in psychology suggests that political orientation is linked to Openness, that occupational success is linked to Conscientiousness, and that prosocial behavior is linked to Agreeableness. It is therefore conceivable that such city-level trends reflect, at least in part, the psychological characteristics of the residents. Perhaps San Francisco is liberal because a lot of open people live there; and maybe Houston’s economy is vibrant because there are large numbers of conscientious people there. The present research attempts to integrate theory and research in psychology and regional science by examining the personality profiles of cities. Using personality data from large Internet samples, this work examined citywide personality differences in the US. The results showed clear personality differences between cities. For instance, San Francisco, New York, and Austin ranked among the highest cities on Openness, whereas Detroit, Cleveland, and St. Louis ranked near the bottom; Boston, New Orleans, and Pittsburgh were among the highest cities on Neuroticism, whereas Miami, Salt Lake City, and San Diego ranked near the bottom. To determine whether city-level personality is represented at the geographical level, correlations between city-level personality and various social indicators were examined. The results showed that city-level Openness, for instance, was positively linked to the proportion of gay residents and artists, as well as patent production; and city-level Neuroticism was positively related to mortality rates. Taken together, these results suggest that some personality traits are concentrated in certain cities and that the links between personality and behavior emerge at broad regional levels.
Patriquin, D, and E Halpenny. Master Naturalists Program Lessons - Transforming Views of Environmental Stewarship and Nature In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. This presentation outlines the results of an empirical study of a municipal government initiative designed to foster urban residents’ environmental stewardship of natural areas. This training initiative, titled the Master Naturalist program, involved 30 classroom hours of knowledge provision about natural systems as well as how local authorities and civil society environmental management and planning programs worked. Once completed the Master Naturalists trainees were expected to complete 30 hours of volunteerism aimed at enhancing environmental conservation and protection in Edmonton, Canada. These trainees could initiative their own projects or contribute to a pre-existing government or NGO environmental programs focused on Edmonton’s natural areas.Projects included public education programs linked with the UN’s Biodiversity Day, pulling of invasive weeds and planting native plant species in Edmonton’s river valleys, and launching a neighbourhood-based advocacy group focused on the conservation of nature in a particular river valley ravine. Once their volunteer hours were completed, the participants’ were granted the Master Naturalist designation and encouraged to continue similar volunteer campaigns in subsequent years. Program evaluation research was conducted in 2009; the study examined the effectiveness of the program through the viewpoint of participants (n=25). Pre-, in-situ and post-program data collection was conducted utilizing self-completed questionnaires, focus groups, and in-depth interviews. In addition to collecting participant’s observations on the utility and efficiency of the training program, participants’ views on “nature” and “stewardship” were explored and examined for changes during the participants’ engagement in the Master Naturalists training program. In keeping with the IAPS 2012 focus on attitudes, trust and environmental concern, this presentation reports on the impacts of this training program on participant’s perceptions of nature and stewardship, and explores the implications of these changes for the participant’s future engagement in stewardship of Edmonton’s natural areas and their influence on other members of their community. Theories of social learning (Bandurra, 1970; Schusler et al., 2003), social networks (Boden et al., 2005; Moody & Paxton, 2009), volunteer motivations (Measham & Barnette, 2008; Ryan et al., 2001) and social capital (Glanville & Brikenstock, 2009; Peterson et al., 2006; Pretty & Smith, 2005; Putnam, 2000) were used to explain some of these observations. Transformation of participants’ perceptions of their role in advocacy and adoption of sustainable lifestyles were identified by Master Naturalists participants. Their adoption of modelling or leadership roles within the community will be discussed in the presentation. Operational and policy implications are outlined for the City organizers of the program.
Siebra, LM Gonçalves, Valera S Pertegàs, and Gratacòs J Roig. Methodological Challenges in Studying the Perception of Public Art In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. The quality of life in the cities may be a result of urban planning, design, and the use of places and meanings attributed by their citizens. Public art is anchored in this triad and brings to urban space aesthetic values, historic landmarks, and symbolic aspects of its society. The main challenge in studying the perception of public art in Barcelona was to create a dialogue between psychology, fine arts, and urbanism. The transactional approach of psychology (Proshansky, 1976; Altman & Rogoff, 1991) was used as the theoretical basis. The concept of public art was considered in a holistic way, which included the object, the context and the meanings attributed by the subject. Thus, at the same time, public art demands concreteness, spatiality, and sense. Studies of landscape preferences (Ulrich, 1983; Kaplan, 1983; Galindo & Corraliza, 1999) also set up the theoretical framework in addition to studies focused on aesthetics appreciation (Temme, 1992) and aesthetic judgment of art works (Leder et al., 2004). The general purpose of this paper is to analyze the affective and cognitive processes that result in perception of citizens about public art in Barcelona, so it was essential to identify objective and subjective variables which influence these preferences and collaborate in the construction of symbolic meanings. A research instrument, including graphic and verbal qualities, was designed to be used on the Internet. It was necessary to ensure aesthetic quality, when working with images of public art, especially sculptures. Furthermore, the verbal precision was important in formulating evaluation questions of pieces of art in their specific context in urban public space. The implementation strategy was based on building a social network by sending e-mails to a small group of contacts, to whom the research was presented with invitation to participate in it. This initial group was asked to collaborate, while also acting as intermediary to send the survey link to their own contacts. The positive aspects can be highlighted by the short-term data return and the quality of data obtained. In 60 days it exceeded the number of 350 respondents defined as a goal. This strategy facilitated the collection of data and its organization. In addition, it confirmed that electronic media can be used in scientific studies to ensure quality, safety, and reliability. At first, data analysis was performed in a quantitative perspective, identifying the main preferences regarding the investigated pieces of public art. After that, content analysis was used to evaluate the reasons of choice and the symbolic meanings attributed to the art works, which focused on the qualitative aspect of this study.
Beute, F, and J Roe. "Methodological Innovations in Restoration Research." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Beneficial effects of nature have been widely documented and the restorative potential of natural versus urban environments is well established. Yet even after several decades of research, just how this process evolves is still something of a mystery. In recent years, we have seen a steady growth in the amount of research being performed in this domain, but we are also witnessing an increasingly broad perspective on the topic, incorporating more diversity in the restorative stimuli used, a larger range of antecedent conditions being considered, and a more broad scope on the potential processes and outcomes of restoration. In this double-barreled symposium, we will bring together many of those new perspectives on and methodologies employed in restoration research.Part I: New insights in restorative mechanisms and effects In the first part of our symposium, the focus is on methodologies casting new light on the underlying mechanisms of the restorative process. We start with an overview and critical analysis of cognitive measures employed in earlier studies, and then present work employing innovative methods to investigate restorative mechanisms and effects, including EEG recording, eye tracking, cortisol measurements, ego-depletion paradigms, and experiences of pain. Methodological innovations also pertain to the stimuli considered in restoration research, including for instance fractals, light, and virtual reality. Part II: New insights in restorative preferences and strategies In the second part of this symposium, the focus is more on the individual as an active player in restorative processes. We present a range of methods to explore the nature of individuals’ preferences and restorative strategies. Such methods include the use of more quantitative techniques such as conjoint methodology correlating self-reported stress with behavioural options and environmental attributes, comparisons of self-reported perceived restorativeness of experiences in digitally manipulated environments, and cluster analysis of recreational goals and activities during nature visits, but also qualitative methods employing participatory design techniques and depth interviews. We will close the session with a panel discussion reflecting on the pros and cons of this diversity in methodology and perspective: are we enhancing the field, complementing each other’s findings and deepening our understanding, or are we drifting apart?Part I: New insights in restorative mechanisms and effects Chair: Femke BeuteHelena Jahncke & Terry Hartig. Attentional recovery: an overview of cognitive measures. Hagerhall, C., Laike, T., Taylor, R., Küller, M., Marcheschi, E. & Boydston, C. Human EEG responses to exact and statistical fractal patterns. Yvonne de Kort & Femke Beute. Does need for restoration direct us to nature? Testing viewing patterns after emotional and cognitive stress induction. Jenny Roe, Catherine Ward Thompson, Peter Aspinall, Mark Brewer, Betty Duff, Richard Mitchell, Angela Clow & David Miller. Green space and wellbeing: relationships between gender, patterns of salivary cortisol, self-reported stress and levels of green space in deprived urban communities in Scotland. Femke Beute & Yvonne de Kort. No artificial ingredients added: Naturalness and the replenishment of ego-depletion by bright and sunny nature. Karin Tanja-Dijkstra, Sabine Pahl, Matthew White, Jackie Andrade, Jon May, Robert Stone, Malcolm Bruce &David Moles. Virtual reality, restoration and aversive experiences: distraction, relaxation and perceived control.Part II: New insights in restorative preferences and strategies Chair: Yvonne de KortHelena Nordh & Caroline Hagerhall. Links between enclosure and potential for restoration.Jenny Roe, Affonso Zuin, Peter Aspinall & Catherine Ward Thompson. A conjoint methodology for exploring place and activity preferences for stress regulation and relationships with green space.Degenhardt, B., Kienast, F., Irngartinger, C. & Buchecker, M. Nearby outdoor recreation in Swiss peri-urban areas: Restorative needs and behaviours of different user groups.Payne, S., Cain, R., Marshall, P., Smith, J. & Squire, R. Creating a restorative staff room in an emergency department.Dörte Martens. Community gardening serves restoration and empowerment processes.Panel discussion: are we enhancing the field, complementing each other’s findings and deepening our understanding, or are we drifting apart?
Banzhaf, E, J Richert, and A Zabojnik. "Monitoring and Managing Brownfields in the City of Leipzig." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Tremendously high dynamics of urban development where growth and shrinkage processes occur at the same time are observed in cities of many Northern American and European countries. Suburbanization going along with an expansion of residential and commercial areas at the urban fringe is simultaneously observed and interacts with a declining or stagnating population as a consequence of de-industrialization. In the last 50 years, about 370 cities with more than 100,000 residents have undergone population losses of more than 10%. In extreme cases, the rate of loss reached up to 90%.As a diverging development inner cities with their compact urban form suffer from residential vacancy and are mostly affected by industrial derelict land. New steering concepts need to be elaborated and put next to the well-established planning instruments to become helpful an innovative and multi-purpose governance in this situation. The existence of urban derelict land can be the opportunity to minimize the amount of further land consumption, to develop a different inner structure of the city, and to redevelop urban areas of residential vacancy with densification projects and urban brownfields into commercial sites or to revitalise derelict land as new open spaces for an enhanced environmental quality.The City of Leipzig, Germany, is a typical case study for de-industrialisation processes and offers a multitude of brownfield sites. During the German Democratic Republic it gave home to labour for thousands of industrial workers, but after reunification took place in 1989, the industrial sites were outdated, and Leipzig first underwent typical shrinkage processes. During the past decade Leipzig slowly changed its character into a modern urban centre of the tertiary sector with urban brownfields as a challenge and creative opportunity.It is a challenge for planning authorities as well as for scientists to handle the brownfields in terms of their different qualitites, quantities, neighbourhood context and options for re-valuation. Location, amount and spatial configuration of urban brownfields need to be followed-up in terms of their spatial and ecological fingerprint to support sustainable management decisions. Therefore researchers and planners work together: they map, monitor and analyse brownfields in order to regenerate the valuable space for different purposes. The City Council’s compensation land use management tool helps to consider if sites are suitable for revitalisation of green networks to enhance the environmental quality in certain residential areas and to compensate the sealing of soils through newly developed sites. Another aspect is to redevelop brownfields for commercial purposes for which the commercial sites information system has been established. For the sake of sound planning, monitoring and analysis have become a transdisciplinary task for science and governance institutions that allows to picture different perspectives for brownfield sites.
Hsieh, TS. "Moving to the Recycling Wonderland? Cross-Cultural Discussions on Opportunities for Better/worse Environmental Practices." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. This paper investigated long-term changes of environmental consciousness and recycling behavior considering different contextual factors in the USA and Germany. A mixed-method, qualitative inquiry was used to examine how relocation impacted people’s ecological thinking and behavior. 45 in-depth, semi-structured interviews in two groups: Americans who moved to Munich and Germans who moved to New York City. Most interviews were conducted in interviewees’ homes. Photos were taken inside the apartment, common areas of the building, and recycling containers in public spaces to help determine recycling accessibility. Different from existing behavioral change studies which mostly focused on interventions and short-term effects, this research examined both spatial and temporal factors in wider spectra. When people move to another country, most of the individual characteristics do not change, which increase the explanation power of contextual factors on conceptual and behavioral change.This research broadly defined and discussed “changes” in three different aspects: 1. Perceived changes: participants’ self reports on behavioral and conceptual changes in the host country; 2. Reflected changes: people reflected on their changes when they visited their home countries after relocation; 3. Predicted changes: participants were asked to imagine their own changes after moving back to their home country. The author hypothesized people’s recycling behavior will change after relocating to another country, and the direction of changes will depend on the supportiveness of the host country.Contextual factors in different domains were found to be important for people’s behavioral change: immediate physical environment, available information, social support, economic incentives, and political environment. Results showed that different domains of contextual factors constantly penetrated each other: policy disparities between the two cities influenced the perceptions of accessible recycling resources. Different social milieus also affected people’s awareness of existing policies. Even when recycling facilities are available, people’s behaviors can be influenced by the larger context of cultures and sometimes stereotypes: Germans recycled less after moving to New York due to lack of social support, inconsistent recycling opportunities, and distrust in American government on implementing environmental policies. Moreover, Americans learned to recycle more and engaged in more pro-environmental activities because of the strong and consistent environmental-friendly practices in Germany. Finally, relocation stimulated people to re-examine and re-define their past experiences and to realize their environmental consciousness. This research confirmed the importance of contextual factors in people’s recycling behavioral change and concluded that a comprehensive environmental-friendly culture is significant to modify people’s attitudes and behavior.
E Mishchenko, Demir, and O Kepez. "Multi-Method Applications in Evidence-Based Research on Health and Environment: Applications in Micro and Mezzo Scale Environment." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Evidence-based research has been used in environment behavior research and research results have been utilized in policy and practice since Ulrich’s famous 1984 study of view from patients’ rooms and its relation to their recovery time from surgery. Especially adopted by research in healthcare environments; recent literature reviews revealed that even though there are numerous studies employing evidence based research design, methodologies are mostly confined to a single method leaving multi-method applications in research designs scarce (see Devlin and Arneill, 2003; Ulrich et al. 2004). On the other hand, multi-method approaches allowing for validation and triangulation ensures that the “research results are valid and not a methodological artifact” (Campbell and Fiske, 1959). Therefore in evidence based research, use of multi-methods will not only allow us to examine the same phenomenon from different perspectives but it will also enrich our understanding of the issues under study and strengthen the possibility of implications for practice.This paper argues the need for multi-method research designs in evidence-based research giving examples from completed research that studied the relations between health and the environment. To this end, two different research designs conducted at two different contexts, one at the building scale and the other at the neighborhood scale will be presented: (i) a study investigating the impact of group homes on the health and well being of their elderly residents and the other (ii) investigating the relations between the neighborhood design and the physical activity and social interaction of their residents. Both research studies have employed objective methods including behavior mapping, geographic information systems mapping, space syntax analysis as well as objectively recorded subjective data including surveys and interviews. The process constructing the methodology in multi-method evidence based research and application of these methods during the study will be presented and the implications for further research and evidence based practice will be discussed from the viewpoint of practical considerations, challenges and recommendations. The significance of this research is that it underscores the importance of the use of multi-method and mixed-method research designs in evidence based research and transfers the experience from two comprehensive research studies and attempts to link these with design practice and policy.
Piché, D. "Multiple Vulnerabilities in Informal Neighbourhoods: Conceptual and Ethical Issues Between Research and Practice." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. The presentation reflects on four years of action-research in a poor informal neighbourhood located in the immediate vicinity of Dakar’s main garbage dump where multiple hazards, risks and vulnerabilities are encountered. Most often unrecognized except for their most visible forms, they are associated with air and water pollution, accident prone physical environments, flooding, climate change (and, more generally, ecological change), informal urbanization, poverty and patrimonialist governance. They are aggravated by rapid urbanization and population growth rate, if only for the sheer number of persons exposed to hazards and risks. How does one work in an unplanned and socially excluded settlement? How is the interface between research and practice then redefined? What kinds of research, action and knowledge transfer strategies are then effective? The presentation delves into conceptual, methodological and ethical issues facing the researcher in this context. Conceptual and methodological approaches to vulnerability are examined in order to underpin the necessity for the researcher to navigate between broad ecological models and a finer grain ethnological examination of human environments. The weaknesses and usefulness of two comprehensive models are discussed: WHO’s ecosystems approach to health and Moser’s asset-based framework to vulnerability. The first stresses the interconnectedness between environmental processes, although calling for positivist measurements of risks and impacts. The second sheds an interesting light on resources (assets) rather than problems, but its notions of vulnerability, resilience and adaptation raise questions of theoretical cohesion and utility. These models help in the detection of unrecognized problems and resources, but grounded research and small-scale action-research are still called for to understand persons/community/society/environment interactions and processes of social change. Various ethical challenges ensue from research choices in informal settlements blurring the links between research and practice. Researchers must learn to navigate between an understanding of the local culture and the irreversibility of social change, across the complex landscape of power relationships, between the praise for autonomous development and the requirements of structured urban services. Two particular dilemmas are discussed. What are the avenues for knowledge transfer to practice when decision makers only pay lip service to research results and participatory processes? How does one react to divergent attitudes between local and foreign researchers to sharing research results with a destitute community? Complementing approaches to vulnerability such as Moser’s, Sen’s human rights and capability framework offers ethical guidelines to these practical challenges, leaving however unresolved the theoretical gap between the notion of vulnerability and the win/win rational for participatory action-research.
Owczarek, D. "Municipal Policy Regarding Gated Communities – Warsaw Case Study." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Phenomenon of gated communities seems to develop steadily in Warsaw (representative big city for Central Europe) since late 90ties. Numerous scientists highlight negative consequences of living in GC i.e.: decrease of frequency and quality of social interactions (Blakely, Snyder, 1997, Putnam, 2000; Lewicka, 2002, 2004; Atkinson, Blandy, 2006; Owczarek, 2011), decrease of social actions undertaken for the sake of local neighbourhood (Blandy, Lister, 2006) as well as decrease of civic engagement (Owczarek, 2011) and decrease of place attachment (Wilson-Doenges, 2000). Process of gating intensifies social polarization and segregation, which is reflected by residential location in cities. Moreover, gating means privatization of public space, lack or poor quality of public spaces behind fences, fragmentation of urban structure, urban sprawl and suburbanization, dullness of residential landscape (Blakely, Snyder, 1997, Zukin, 1995).In spite of such dynamic and alarming transformations in Polish cities (esp. Warsaw) local governments do not seem to have any policy regarding the phenomenon. Lack of regulations and development strategies of GC is pointed out in public debate and in scientific literature (Glasze,2003) as one of the key factors that give the green light to proliferation of guarded housing estates. Weakness of local institutions and local law leaves factual power of shaping urban space in hands of developers. Presentation during IAPS Conference will show analysis of Warsaw City Hall’s policy regarding GC. Such interdisciplinary and holistic elaboration (social, spatial and policy aspect) can be groundwork for improving local policy (evidence-based-policy paradigm).Objectives: analysis of municipal policy on GC during last 15 years (main aims and directions, actions and decisions, consequences on development of GC in Warsaw), analysis of relations between municipal authorities, investors and inhabitants. Method and sample: The project is based on two methods: A. desk research on municipal documents: master plans, development strategies, decisions on land development conditions, etc.; B. IDI’s with representatives of Warsaw authorities and developers constructing gated real estates in the city.Results and discussion: Collected data and outcomes are to some extend representative for big cities in Central European countries. Thus they can be a starting point to larger discussion on practical actions which address policy-making regarding phenomenon of gating (not only to discussion on social and spatial consequences of gating). Moreover they can be base for participatory method of solving the problem of gating (i.e. co-solving method) and for development of urban structure and local communities.
Milne, EJ. "My Ideal Home': a Sensory Exploration of House and Home by Young People Living in 'home Like' Environments." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. This paper draws on preliminary findings from a two year ESRC funded research project examining how young people maintain and (re)create identities and a sense of belonging (or not) in ‘home-like’ environments where they are not living with their biological parents. Influenced by a diverse body of work (DeNora, 2000; Bull, 2007; Smart, 2007; Mason and Tipper, 2010; Miller, 2008; Pink, 2010), which argues for greater attention to be paid to sensory experience (and objects) in sociological research, this paper will highlight the importance of embodied, sensory experience for young people to feel at home or belong within a space. May (2009) highlights the importance of embodied, sensory experience to feeling at home or belonging within a space and urban and music sociologists have argued that ‘sensory experience can [...] provide a strong sense of place and belonging’ (Adams et al. 2007, p. 206). For example, several writers have pointed to the use of music to gain a sense of control and ‘warmth’ in public and other spaces (DeNora 2000; Bull 2007). Indeed DeNora points to the potentially heightened importance of music to those living in reduced material circumstances. The links between young people’s relationships and sensory experience of space of places are also suggested in important human geographical work on the meanings and feelings attached by children to particular spaces (Hart 1979). Rasmussen refers to architect Norberg-Schulz’s ‘genius loci’ or the ‘sensations and interpretations that are linked to particular spaces’ (2004, p. 168). However, young people’s embodied, sensory experience of domestic space and its links to their relationships have been less explored.Based upon an analysis of sensory data (photographs, audioscapes, maps, drawings and interviews) created by participants in the Young People Creating Belonging research project, this paper will discuss their experiences of living in ‘home-like’ environments. In particular, it will present and examine the ideas of participants in creating the ideal material and sensory environment to enable them to feel ‘at home’, across multiple spaces.
Strickland, A, and T Hadjiyanni. My School and Me: Exploring How Urban School Environments Relate to Student Identity In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Children who attend schools in high poverty, urban areas are already receiving certain messages about “their future place”, based on stereotyped beliefs of race, class, socio-economic status or other factors. While there have been numerous investigations into how these factors affect a student’s educational identity and success, the built environment has been largely absent from the discussion. The school environment serves as the context for a child’s learning, social interactions, and critical stages of identity development yet little is known about the active role it may play in shaping the child. This study seeks to explore the varying ways by which an interior school environment informs the identity definition of the child, specifically within the context of a high poverty urban neighborhood. The study is encompassed within IAPS’s (2.1) Person-Environment Congruence in Urban and Natural Environments.While concepts of place-identity have been investigated since the 1970’s, current calls for how to go about exploring the relationship between environment and identity ask for a focus on the ‘process’ by which identity is constructed (Lewicka, 2011). To address this need, the study will use Erikson’s identity model as a foundation to inform the process of identity construction and apply it to the ways in which identity and physical interactions are related. In order to explore the possible degree to which place and identity may interact at a point in time, the concept of “insidedness”(Relph,1976), developed with place literature, will be employed.This will be a phenomenological, qualitative study, using interviews and auto-photography to explore the relationship between interior environment and identity. Participants of the study will be 10 freshman students from a Minneapolis high school, located in a high poverty area and data collection will be carried out in two stages. First, participants will take photographs of self-selected interior elements and simultaneously record their thoughts, feelings and attitudes. This data will inform semi-structured, open interviews that will elicit a greater understanding of the relationship between selected interior elements and individual student. Analysis will follow procedures typical with this type of research.The expectation is that this study will provide a greater understanding as to how elements of the interior school environment may effect students’ identity. The results will have implications for the design of spatial characteristics, such as layout, finishes or daylight access and provide insight into environmental factors that support a child’s educational success. A greater understanding of this relationship will contribute to the development of place-identity theory and help construct a solid foundation for the teaching and practice of holistic design.
Degenhardt, B, F Kienast, C Irngartinger, and M Buecker. "Nearby Outdoor Recreation in Swiss Peri-Urban Areas: Restorative Needs and Behaviours of Different User Groups." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. "This study aimed at identifying types of users of nearby outdoor recreation areas (NORAs) with respect to individuals' recovery needs and behaviours. We applied a combined cluster and linear discriminant analysis approach to analyse workday and weekend visits of 389 respondents with respect to 17 recovery goals, seven recreational activities, and the use of eleven recreational infrastructure elements (road type, bench, etc.). The analysis revealed four user groups which were labeled (a) the "Contemplative Distance Seekers", (b) the "Nature-related Retreatants", (c) the "Reflective Sporty", and (d) the "Childfriendly Sociables". They differed not only with respect to why and how they use the NORA, but also regarding their age composition, their use frequency of the NORA, duration of stay in the NORA, and the routine of their route usage. The findings support the hypothesis that visitors of NORAs form different user groups that discriminate by their specific recovery strategies. We conclude that landscape management measures aiming at improving public health should be designed by keeping the needs of these user-groups in mind."
Pinheiro, José Q., and TM Farias. Neighbourhood and Place Attachment in Brazil: the Role of Social, Environmental and Cultural Aspects on Local Affective Bonds In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. "We investigated the place attachment to neighbourhoods in the city of Natal, the state capital of Rio Grande do Norte, in Brazil. Neighbourhoods are the proximate spaces to places and its components, and vary in their physical, social and cultural aspects (Guest & Wierzbicki, 1999). They may involve more or less contact among residents, local participation, institutions, symbols and individuals or groups who identify and qualify the local context. Place attachment, on its turn, is a positive affective bond between persons and environments, whose principal characteristic is people's need to stay closer to the object of attachment (Hidalgo & Hernández, 2001; Lewicka, 2010).In face of the contemporaneous declining of neighbourhood ties and their importance to the understanding of the social-environmental context of cities, we decided to investigate, in neighbourhoods in which such affective relations are still preserved, how they develop, their dimensions, and the factors responsible for their maintenance. We employed a panel of experts to jointly discuss the theme and to select two neighbourhoods in the district of Alecrim. Eleven residents of these neighbourhoods, acknowledged by local population as knowledgeable of local reality, were interviewed about the relations among the locals. The results clearly indicated three main dimensions related to the development of place attachment in the investigated neighbourhoods: (1) the social dimension, particularly due to the cooperation among residents; (2) the physical, related to both the daily basis services offered in the vicinity and the geographic position of the district, central to the city; and (3) the symbolic dimension, associated to the many local traditions of festivities, religious events, songs, football clubs and the greatest "feira" (outdoor market) of the city, all carrying and reinforcing the name of the district. The social support network among residents was indicated as the main component of attachment to the place, and strongly connected to the intention of socializing at the neighbourhood level. Such support is strengthened by the meaning residents attribute to the place as a fundamental element for their social network establishment. The physical surroundings act as mediator to many activities in the neighbourhoods, as in the case of socialization practices on the sidewalks, or frequent "street events" involving the population. The cultural characteristics were pointed out as pride-producers for the residents, besides creating a clear image of the district for outsiders. In addition, it is important to mention that such aspects of the local culture are part of the abovementioned intention of socialization at the neighbourhood level based on values transmitted within family generations or brought from cities of smaller scale. "
Haans, A, and Van Rijswijk. "New Ways of Lighting the Streets at Night: Implications for Practice and Research." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Road lighting has changed little since the invention of electric lighting in the 19th century. However, radical changes in outdoor lighting are to be expected. There are increasing concerns about the abundance of light at night. Climate change and the impending shortage of fossil fuels, as well as current knowledge on the detrimental effects of luminous pollution make conventional lighting, which is operative even when no street users are present, no longer justifiable. At the same time, technological developments in solid state lighting, such as Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) or Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs), offer many new possibilities: They allow better control over the illumination output and color spectrum, and the flexible OLEDs can make any street furniture to act as luminaire. Clearly, there is both a societal need and a technological drive for radically changing the way we light our streets at night. Combined with sensing technology, LED-based luminaires may adapt continuously to street users, providing lighting only when and where it is needed most. Similarly, energy may be saved by tuning the color spectrum to those wavelengths (i.e., blues and greens) to which the eye is most responsive during the night (i.e., under mesopic conditions. These new lighting solutions have implications for both practice and research. Little is yet known about how much energy these new technologies practically save, or how they support the functions of street lighting (e.g., visibility, crime reduction, and providing a sense of safety at night). Much can be learned about evaluating users’ experiences with these technologies especially when implemented in existing neighborhoods. It is often difficult to make theoretically informed decisions on how new lighting solutions need to be implemented, let alone to predict how they affect people’s safety feelings. This illustrates our limited knowledge of how lighting affects perceived personal safety. Intelligent road lighting, for example, requires knowledge not only about how much lighting is needed, but where it is needed as well. How visibility changes under mesopic lighting conditions is yet another question that needs more research attention. This symposium brings together five presentations that advance our understanding of the possibilities and psychological barriers of new lighting technologies: Haans, A. & van Rijswijk, L. Shedding a light on pedestrian attention: Anxiety and gaze patterns. Kuhn, L., Johansson, M., & Laike T. Residents’ perception of outdoor LED-lighting during the winter season. Reuss, M. & Schweizer-Ries, P. Experiences from implementing energy efficient street lighting: Public safety perceptions, participation issues and the relevance of decisions by the municipality. van Rijswijk, L., & Haans, A. Brilliant nights and brilliant lights: How does lighting affect safety feelings? Vitta, P. et al. Psychophysical aspects of energy-efficient solid-state street lighting.
Chui, SCK. "Newspaper Coverage of Water Restrictions in Melbourne, Australia in Relation to Climate Change Adaptation." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. From 1997 to mid-2010, Melbourne has experienced a significant reduction in water supply reservoir inflow (Melbourne Water Corporation 2010). The 2009-10 La Niña brought welcome rains, but long term prospects remain uncertain in the face of climate change (Cai and Cowan 2008, Solomon et al. 2007). In response to the drought, water restrictions were enacted by the Victorian government to reduce water demand while infrastructure projects were commissioned to increase the water supply. These water restrictions limited the use of water outdoors, and have had negative impacts on the vegetation of the suburban landscape. Adaptations can be made to mitigate these negative impacts by reducing the need for the use of potable mains water in the landscape. This paper presents the findings from a content analysis of articles relating to water restrictions in Melbourne newspapers to identify changes in the way the topic was discussed within the public discourse. The study found that, between 2007 and 2010, expressions of uncertainty and scepticism about climate change had increased over time in newspapers in Melbourne, consistent with the politisation of the topic and its transition from a scientific debate into a political debate. The study also found that the acceptance of the responsibility of households to adapt to the immediate drought was especially high in the local newspapers, despite any difference of opinion there may be about the role of climate change in relation to the severity of the drought. This study is a part of a larger research program looking at the relationship between the public discourse surrounding water restrictions and drought, people's personal attitudes towards climate change, and changes to the physical suburban landscape as a result of drought adaptation. A better understanding of how and why suburban dwellers make landscape adaptations to climate change will contribute towards more effective climate change adaptation in the future.
Beute, F, and YAW de Kort. "No Artificial Ingredients Added:naturalness and the Replenishment of Ego-Depletion by Bright and Sunny Nature." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Both views to the outside and exposure to light can help us recover from stress and improve health, mood, vitality, and cognitive performance (Berman et al, 2008; Boyce et al, 2003; Partonen & Lonnqvist, 2000; Ryan et al, 2009; Walch et al, 2004). People often prefer being in a natural over the more artificial built environment (Hartig & Staats, 2006), and prefer daylight over artificial light (Veitch & Gifford, 1996). Preference has been linked to restorative potential (Van den Berg et al., 2003). Beneficial effects of nature are attributed to psychological processes (Kaplan, 1995; Ulrich, 1983) whereas effects of light exposure have mostly been attributed to biological processes, although psychological mechanisms have also been proposed (Boyce et al, 2003). The striking overlap in effects attributed to daylight exposure and viewing nature - both natural phenomena - inspired us to investigate and compare the restorative effects of both phenomena within various paradigms. In the current series of studies, we have investigated the ego-replenishment potential of these two phenomena. Ego-depletion theory (Baumeister et al, 1998) holds that self-control relies on a limited resource. When exerting self-control on a task, performance on a subsequent task also requiring self-control will be reduced either through resource depletion or resource conservation (Muraven et al, 2006). Recently, a theoretical link between ego-depletion and restoration theory has been made (Kaplan & Berman, 2010). In the present studies, we tested whether nature and light indeed can help overcome ego-depletion. More specifically, we tested whether the degree of naturalness of these two phenomena influence the restorative potential. For this purpose, we performed a series of studies (all N = 80 – 90). We used a typical ego-depletion design, in which a first task requiring self-control was followed by a second task also requiring self-control (dependent variable). In between the first and the second task participants were exposed to our experimental stimuli (pictures or light), enabling us to test ego-replenishment. In study 1 we manipulated view type (natural vs urban). In study 2 we manipulated the perceived naturalness of light (natural vs artificial) by providing participants with differential descriptions of the same light-source. A third study is foreseen, testing real daylight versus artificial light. In all studies light intensity was kept constant, thereby excluding biological effects. During the experiments, psycho-physiological measures were taken and perceived stress, trait and state self-control, and need for restoration were probed where possible. Results of Study 1 indicate a clear replenishing effect of nature on self-control. Data collection and analysis of study 2 are still ongoing. The joint results of these studies will provide insights in the underlying restorative processes, the role of naturalness, and the restorative potential of daylight and nature.
Sim, D, E Edgerton, and L Ritchie. "Objective and Subjective Impressions of an Environmental Intervention in Dementia Care Homes." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. The physical environment has been increasingly recognised as an important therapeutic tool in dementia care. This study was designed to demonstrate the positive impact that environmental interventions can have on people with dementia. The present study involved designing implementing an simple and cost effective intervention in the living areas of dementia care homes, by re-arranging the existing furniture in the room. The research was based on the theoretical background of Lawton’s Environmental Docility hypothesis (1979) and the Behaviour Constraint Model of the environment-behaviour relationship (Proshanky et al., 1970). From these theories a number of principles were developed to inform the intervention. The intervention was designed to increase the choice of areas in the room and affordances for different activities, as well as providing visual access to nature with views from the window. Based on these principles an intervention was put in place in 7 living areas across three dementia care homes. A behaviour mapping methodology was employed to assess the behaviour of the residents pre and post intervention. Following the intervention in each care home, a focus group or interview was conducted with care home staff to explore understanding of the environment-behaviour relationship, their perceptions of the intervention in the care home and their understanding of the impact on the residents. The results demonstrate positive changes in behaviour post intervention, including an increase in active behaviours and a decrease in agitation. Staff views of the intervention and their knowledge of the environment-behaviour relationship differed between care homes. This has been placed in context of supporting information from other sources (e.g. the Care Commission) which showed that staff who worked in care homes which were rated poorer on aspects of the environment had a deeper understanding of the importance of the environment, viewed the intervention more positively and were more likely to comment on a change in the behaviour of residents, for example noticing an increase in positive social interactions between residents. The staff perceptions of the intervention will be discussed alongside the objective behaviour observations of the residents. These results will be framed in terms of implications for integrating the use of environmental interventions with existing policies in dementia care.
Weeks, G. "Objectively Healthy Cities' – Urban Design for the 21St Century." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. “Healthy City” initiatives are all the rage, but what, in the 21st century, makes a healthy city? Pre-industrial cities were frequently ravaged by famine and disease; this was exacerbated by intense overcrowding following the industrial revolution. At present, the biggest cause of preventable death in the developed world is heart disease, while rates of depression and mental illness have increased steadily since the 1970s (Frumkin et al, 2004). An oft-cited underlying reason for the recent changes is a lack of physical activity among a significant proportion of countries’ populations. The predominant policy response has mostly taken the form of campaigns to raise awareness among the population and encourage behavioural change. At a national level, both the UK Chief Medical Officer and the US Surgeon General advise 30 minutes of physical exercise per day. This advice, and accompanying policy, is bolstered by very comprehensive research.Such advices - and accompanying policies - have however met with limited success; sedentary activities have increased over the past decade. This is because many policies aim to deliver results by changing people’s behaviour. This is very difficult to do successfully; behavioural initiatives have to be targeted across a population, addressing very wide ranges of underlying behavioural reasons for physical inactivity. They also rely on a high degree of general self-discipline.Physical activity can be divided into two main types; recreational and utilitarian (Frank et al, 2003). Recreational activity is behavioural and is undertaken by virtue of its inherent pleasure - someone rarely goes rock climbing, for example, for reasons other than recreation. Utilitarian exercise, by contrast, is undertaken as part of some other task cycling to work, for example. Recreational activity is thus determined according to the preferences of the individual. Utilitarian activity is by contrast undertaken as a pragmatic response to the physical environment. This is of particular relevance to the design of the built environment with respect to public health and wellbeing. In this paper, I will describe and analyse the extensive body of research that has been taking place into the relationship between the form of the built environment, levels of physical activity and health. I then examine ways in which the form of the built environment – particularly walkability – can be objectively measured and positively correlated with levels of physical activity and thus health, irrespective of expressed preferences for exercise. This in turn can be used to draw up identifying characteristics of the types of urban form that are the most conducive to physical activity. This has significant policy implications for urban design and its potential for contributing to improved public health, social cohesion and environmental benefits.
M Allacci, Sorensen, C Andrews, J Senick, and R Wener. "Occupant Behavior in Multi-Tenanted Office Buildings and Impacts on Energy Efficiency." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Multi-tenanted buildings are notoriously complex to manage due to heterogeneous populations, work objectives and styles, hours of operation and other factors, requiring an extraordinary amount of flexibility in building design and operation that often is not present. This research on energy efficiency and occupant behavior in multi-tenanted buildings investigates direct and indirect effects on energy use taking into account such factors as developer/owner requirements, building design and systems, construction outcomes, and building operator and occupant behavior. Field work was conducted between 2008 and 2012 in the Greater Philadelphia region and focused on comparison of two adjacent LEED certified buildings. Research design and methods were drawn from the tradition of comparative post occupancy evaluation (POE). Data collected and analyzed for this evaluation includes building owner, design team and tenant interviews, tenant and occupant focus groups, an occupant survey, building walk-through observations, utility bill and building automation system sensor log analyses, and building performance benchmarking. Three findings of this research stand out in highlighting the moderating nature of human behavior on building performance outcomes. They suggest that when building design and operation compromise usability, building occupants exhibit adaptive behaviors that can contradict the building’s design and performance intent. Disconnect between core and shell design and construction, and interior fit-out of tenanted spaces In the subject buildings the intent of the design– e.g., maximization of daylighting – is counteracted by interior organization of workspace. This disconnect is a prime example of an on-going challenge for building designers to acknowledge the extent to which energy efficient design strategies are affected by a dynamic occupant workforce and result in compromised outcomes in energy efficiency. Concurrently, they render the building less usable by both building occupants and the building operator.Diffused and confused locus of controlIn commercial building operation control over property management and function is diffused among the building developer/owner, manager, and tenants/occupants. A level of cooperation among these parties is therefore required to meet energy efficiency and related objectives. In this study, some level of confusion was discovered regarding control over lighting and HVAC. Occupant responses to these conditions are found to be diverse, may adversely affect building performance and result in lower satisfaction with the building environment.The role of direct feedback and lack of economic motivation A third finding of this study, which needs to be confirmed by additional research, is that occupants of commercial office space may lack economic motivation to conserve energy, especially if it comes at the cost of individual comfort in the workplace, even while claiming to hold pro-environmental values. This contradictory situation may be compounded by a lack of direct feedback regarding energy use, which seems to be especially common in multi-tenanted buildings in the U.S. The authors will discuss approaches to address challenges of energy management in multi-tenanted buildings. An important component of instilling these fixes is more accurate portrayal of the moderating affects of occupant behavior especially as relates to the usability of various green building systems and conflicts among organizational scales. This work was funded by the US Green Building Council, Liberty Property Trust and the US DOE Greater Philadelphia Innovation Cluster.
Ciaffi, D, and A Fubini. Odart (One-Day Real Time) Consultations Through 3D Spatial Models: Sharing Urban Design and Development Issues with Local Communities of Interests In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. "Normally urban designers and planners interact with the communities involved in urban transformations by the means of traditional media such as sketches, plans, sometimes only by discourses, focus groups or brainstorming. By this way driving concepts and key words are focused with the help of a facilitator. Urban designers and planners have then to make an interpretative effort in the successive technical phase. Some literature recognized and criticized a big gap between the spatial effective results of the transformations discussed during such kinds of local communities’ consultations.ODART (One-DAy Real Time) consultations through 3D spatial models is a method the authors experienced and decided to propose in order to set up differently the process shortly described above.The strategy is to reduce the distance between experts and people exercising their own capability of interaction. The amelioration of the understanding of the urban/neighbourhood different scenarios is twofold: on one hand the experts can collect a multifaceted variety of proposals and check their design assumptions and criteria; on the other hand people increase the awareness of the different aspects of the project such as potentials, strengthens, risks etc. In the experiences of the authors both profane participants and experts acquire the way to better interact in a very short time.The paper aims to test the ODART approach within the debate on innovative tools of urban and spatial design. Basically it consists in selecting 3 to 5 communities of interest involved in the urban/neighbourhood future transformation (i.e. traders, students, members of local associations, artists interested to the renewal of a central square). Each community of interest is represented by 10 to 20 people with homogenous characteristics. They are all invited from the City Council to a 2-hour consultation organized as facilitated interaction among them and the urban planners and designers in charge who have to work in real-time on a 3D virtual model.This event is possible at two precise conditions: ability in the using of modelling programs in order to visualize what participants suggest during the session and preparatory work consisting in "sketching-up" the context and the layers of different alternatives.The experiences of urban planning on which ODART is based are two and both has been carried out in 2011 in two small cities (25.000 and 11.000 inhabitants) in North-West Italy. There is a difference between these two case studies not just related to the scales of the two transformations but also in terms of different care and different timing of the planning processes.Authors would like to orient the conference discussion to morphologic and immaterial results, trying to answer to the following question: "To what extent this method of consultation can support urban planning and design in environmental, social, economic and institutional terms?”."
Chemrouk, O, and N Chabbi-Chemrouk. "On Assessing Environmental Quality: the Re-Appropriation of Local Know-How." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. "environmental protection as well as subjective criteria related to quality of life.The concept of environmental quality therefore, takes into account not only the impact of social and political choices of a given society on its environment (economic and ecological), but also the impact on the population affected by these choices,how this population lives and feels everyday.Environmental quality would therefore be measured by a ratio of economic and social benefits of a society’s social choice over the environmental consequences weighed by the ability to make that choice last over time.Indicators, and other targets have become today's panacea for all environmental issues, the proposed paper begins by demonstrating the need to investigate the meaning of environmental quality according to each context "instead of assuming it" and generalizing the use of universal indicators. It emphasizes on the subjective and latent dimensions of this concept and shows that the Environmental Quality (EQ) is not a simple addition of technical criteria.Developing regions, particularly in Africa are recording the highest rate of urbanization. This urbanization usually develops in the peripheries in the middle of rising levels of poverty, increasing the proliferation of slums and the informal sector in general. The recent emphasis on sustainability and the promotion of environmental quality should be seen as an opportunity to resolve some aspects of this crisis and the re-appropriation of local know-how as alternatives to the sustainable development of these vulnerable settlements."
Raanaas, RK, KH Evensen, JK Lassen, Caroline M. P. Hagerhall, and R Hassan. On-Site and Photo-Based Evaluations of an Indoor Office Environment with Nature Elements In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Psychological benefits from nature elements in the built environment find support in a growing number of empirical studies. Office workers who spend most of their day indoors lack direct contact with nature surroundings, and we question whether indoor plants in the office may work as psychologically restorative agents in the work environment. The study investigated what qualities the introduction of living plants into an office setting adds to the perception of and emotional response to the indoor environment. Assessments of both a real office and a photographic representation of the same office were conducted. Using two complementary methods of environment evaluation offering different experimental advantages, opens for better understanding of effects of living plants in our immediate surroundings. Study 1: On-site assessments of an office setting with flowering and foliage plants were compared to assessments conducted by two other groups exposed to a decorated, and a control condition (N =56). Instruments from Human Interaction Model (Küller, 1991) were utilised. The Semantic Environmental Description (SED) was followed by a scenario task introducing a self-report measure of emotional response to the environment (Basic Emotional Process). Study 2: Photos of the three environmental conditions were presented in a virtual reality theatre with a curved screen (7 meters width x 3 meters height, curving 160 degrees). Three groups of participants (N =51) evaluated all three pictures in different orders with the same instruments as in study 1, opening up for within-subject comparisons. Sense of presence was measured after the session. In study 1 the plant condition was described with more positive adjectives than the other conditions. When plants were present in the office, the room was evaluated as more pleasant and complex than being in the control condition, but not different from the decorated condition. Positive emotional response to the setting was predicted by perceived pleasantness, complexity, and percentage of positive adjectives. Due to the lack of difference between the plant and the decorated condition we could not conclude whether there was the plants’ quality as natural elements, or the added stimuli that altered the perception of the environment. The results from the on-site evaluation, providing ecological validity, will be combined with results from the photo-based evaluation (under analysis), offering both better experimental control and within-subject analysis. The complementary use of methods may contribute to the knowledge of effects of living plants in the built environment, and answer the question whether such modest interventions with plants can have a positive impact on well-being.
Portella, A, and Fantinel G Ferreira. "Order, Similarity and Variety: How to Create Attractive Places Through Formal and Symbolic Attributes of Building Facades." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. y centres are public areas where human experience is transformed into signs, symbols and patterns of behaviour, which result from the combination of formal and symbolic factors. The intensity of use and changing demands of shop owners in how they operate their shops make the application of aesthetic controls related to commercial signs and building facades fundamental. With regard to these controls, reconciling design considerations with commercial needs of shop owners and the interests of the local community is a particular concern. In this context, this study seeks to identify formal and symbolic attributes of commercial street facades that influence user perception and evaluation of visual quality taking into account the following users groups: consumers of social classes A and B (annual salary _ £30,000), and consumers of social classes C and D (annual salary _ £30,000 _ 20,000). The objective is to identify principles of architectural design that make places become satisfactory for people, stimulating diversity in public space.The case study approach is applied in Pelotas. This is a city located in the South of Brazil and its commercial city centre is comprised of historic and contemporary buildings. In the last few years, this city centre has experiencing a change in its shops location: shops, which are focused to a certain social class, have been located near each other. This fact contributes to the fragmentation of the public space in different social classes. Questionnaires and a focus group are applied to 132 respondents to understand which type of streets people most like: the ones characterized by similarity (where shops look the same and are built to attend similar social classes) or by variety (where shops look different and are built to attend different social classes). As other studies already prove, standardisation of design can result in all city centres looking the same, with little sense of place. On the other hand, fragmented strategies of aesthetic control can result in a series of conflicting styles.Qualitative and quantitative methods are applied to analyse the data. Photomontages of the streets facades analysed are printed out and attached to the questionnaires. The first results indicated that users prefer streets with higher variety of shops when the formal elements of facades are ordered according to the principles of Gestalt Theory. Streets comprised of shops which attempt to attend just one specific social class are evaluated as less interesting, while some of the streets comprised of different shops according their formal attributes are evaluated as negative when the complexity is too high or when order does not exist. In this way, the outcomes of this paper indicates a set of principles that can help local authorities to avoid social fragmentation in commercial city centres and at the same time promote streetscapes evaluated as positive by the majority of users.
Aljawabra, F, and M Nikolopoulou. "Outdoor Thermal Comfort in a Hot Arid Climate: the Thermal Experience of People from Two Different Continents." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. The thermal environment in outdoor spaces can significantly influence users’ thermal perception and thus their use of these spaces. The means in which people thermally adapt influence their evaluation of their environments. Consequently, aiming to improve microclimatic conditions in urban spaces can enable people to spend more time outdoors, with the potential to influence the social cohesion of a space and increase economic activity. Since these issues have been rarely approached in the context of the hot arid regions, this study had the purpose of extending the understanding of the complex relation between the outdoor thermal environments, in its micro level, and the use of outdoor spaces in hot arid regions by studying the thermal sensation of the visitors. It aims at finding relationships exist between these issues and cultural and social aspects of their local visitors. Case studies were carefully selected in two different parts of the world (Marrakech in North Africa and Phoenix-Arizona in North America) to represent a variety of users in a similar climatic context. This enabled us to study the effects of the socio-economic and cultural diversity on thermal sensation, behaviour and use of space. Field surveys included structured interviews with a standard questionnaire and observations of the human activities, along with micro-climatic monitoring, were carried out during winter and summer. The analysis consisted of evaluation of the thermal sensation of participants with investigating of the socio-cultural impact on their behaviour in the outdoor space.
Eriksson, M, A Butler, and U Berglund. "Participative Mapping Within Landscape Analysis – Intervention in a Real World Case." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. The implementation of the European Landscape Convention calls for just and efficient methods for including the public’s perceptions when analyzing their nearby landscapes. Our project aims to try out inclusive methods suitable within road- and railway planning and with a certain focus on identity. We chose an urban fringe landscape where there were many conflicting interests due to exploitations that impacted living areas as well as natural and cultural interests. The case was a proposed connection between three main roads with the aim to ease the burden on central parts of the city of Norrköping, Sweden. Two areas for permanent living and one for summer houses are situated in the area that might be affected by the new road – more or less depending on the choice of alternative. Our intervention was not part of the road project but can be viewed as an extension of the consultation process, with no formal power in reality.We decided to construct and test a “participative mapping, light”. This means that we aim for a method that is easy and quick to participate in and that is simple to administrate. The aim is not to reach the highest levels of participation but rather to create a structured and fair consultation. Though, we reasoned, a criterion must also be that it opens up for further participation, that it bring on contacts for activities like walking tours, focus groups and interviews. According to the Convention of the Right of the Child, children should also be included.We chose to perform the activity in a place where many people go for other reasons, outside the only food market in the largest living area. We put up a stand with two big maps (orthophotos) of the neighborhood. People were asked to mark their places of importance, as individuals and for the community, on the maps. There were nails with different colors according to the more specific kind of uses/reasons that we had categorized in advance. Children (up to 16 years) used specially marked nails. During the two occasions and in total five hours that the activity was ongoing 95 people participated. They were fairly evenly distributed concerning age and sex. We got information on places for activities like play and recreation, for more practical use, for viewpoints and on places for experiencing the landscape. The categories for the “common” places were about organized activities, places for special occasions and landmarks. All categories were further specified and exemplified. Upon that we also asked for important routes, which were categorized and drawn on separate maps.Some people were well aware of the road project and wanted to discuss it. Others knew less and asked for information. In total people put 389 nails, and helped us to identify many “important areas”. Four people wanted to be contacted for interview and further information. The analyze is ongoing concerning which (kind of) areas and routes people identify with or feel attached to and the reasons for this.
Michialino, P, S Wilkie, and R Cowdroy. "Participative Urban Regeneration: the Implications of Co-Production for Resident Well-Being." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. The public space regeneration projects in public housing neighbourhoods in the North of France were first studied in terms of their effectiveness in addressing the French policy for urban and social development (Politique de la Ville) and are now re-assessed in terms of their impact on the perception of the sustained effect in improving the local quality of place from a combined approach integrating the physical – urban and architectural – and the socio-psychological aspects. This paper presents both the evolution and the long-term effectiveness of these sustainable regeneration projects in terms of the redevelopment of local public spaces in housing neighbourhoods and implications for neighbourhood perceptions and the psychological wellbeing of residents.The methodology required an analysis of a continuous process over two periods occurring 10 years apart. The original study used mainly participant observation in local projects with inhabitants, elected officials, and regional experts, as well as assessments of architectural aspects of the redesign (Michialino, 2006). The current study builds on this with the addition of quantitative psychological wellbeing data (e.g. place identity, overall life satisfaction) and additional interviews with key stakeholders. The interdisciplinary approach provides a balance between the perception of the residents (through the analysis of quantitative data) and views of public servants (through semi-directed interviews and qualitative data) in terms of the evolution of participative regeneration, the perception of the space today, and the role these have on resident well-being.The initial study concluded authentic participation and real co-production were the principal elements for assessing the successfulness of the regeneration projects in relation to the objectives of the Politique de la Ville, that supported the projects. Results of the current study will be used to illustrate in what ways the effective participation and engagement of residents and other stakeholders facilitated the development of a sense of identity, pride and ownership of the place, and therefore the original objectives produced long term effect for social and urban development. They will also be used to as the basis for theoretical discussion regarding the state of authentic co-production in current person-environment studies and recommendations for the future development of the co-productive process to maximize long-term sustainability and resident well-being.
Sanchez, E, E Wiesenfeld, and F Giuliani. "Participatory Public Policy, Public Housing and Community Sustainability: a Venezuelan Experience." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Latin American Environmental Community Psychology (ECP) has among its goals contributing to improve living conditions of residents in precarious settlements. Literature in ECP mostly refers to projects with community and/or professionals. These professionals promote processes and actions for enhancing communities’ empowerment and participation, for its members to improve their residential living conditions. Such endeavor is also expected to influence public policy. Nevertheless, little has been reported on communities' influence in public policies and on joint work with agencies in charge of devising and implementing them. Our presentation focuses precisely on community guidelines for housing and habitat public policy, developed within a government agency. Guidelines were supported by (a) ECP’s principles, (b) critical constructionist paradigm (Wiesenfeld, 2001); (c) an approach for public management based on community and agency’s members participation and co-responsibility; (d) sustainable development model; (e) information gathered in workshops, meetings, interviews and discussion groups, with the institution’s personnel and community members in a Venezuelan State.
Mbathi, M, and P Kellet. "Pathways to Inclusion, Social Cohesion and Communication in Informal Settlement Planning." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Action to build more sustainable and inclusive societies is linked to efforts to involve the public in planning and decision-making processes. Progressive urban planning and management approaches advocate more collaborative planning processes to encourage community voices to be heard and local knowledge to be incorporated. These new opportunities for participation in urban governance include the use of digital technologies such as Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to provide accurate data for planning and service delivery. Information regarding socio-economic and spatial attributes of settlements is useful for both communities and urban managers. This paper is based on empirical work in 3 settlements in Nairobi where different GIS tools were used to support settlement upgrading. The integration of these tools helped to improve communication and empower the communities to engage with local and city level actors in addressing settlement challenges. These new tools enabled communities to participate in the planning and management of change within their settings. However, these approaches also led to the disempowerment of some groups as well as changing community power structures and relations. Existing socio-cultural and political barriers continue to hinder low-income communities from participating fully in settlement upgrading.
Mojtahedi, A, and F Tajik. "Patterns of Place and Community;linking Physical Place and Social Capital in the Campus." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Many studies on the role of environmental design in college campuses have focused on the influence of the properties of the physical place on users' individual and social needs. Factors like the effect of lighting, music, aroma, movable furniture, signs and symbols, artwork or posters, sittable spaces, open spaces, view, safety, connection to nature, ability to territorialize, legibility and wayfinding, and so forth, have often been studied for the purpose of examining good places on the campus. However, a campus community is not merely a good place in a sense that is 'about' something. It supports quality relations across cultural and disciplinary boundaries, and thus all multiple facets of both the physical and social environment are integral to the process of promoting social capital and the sense of community.Following this, the goal of this study is to investigate how people in a culturally and disciplinary diverse campus, use the physical place as a resource and/or are influenced by it in order to contribute to the process of generating and accumulating social capital and the sense of community. In other words, such a community is an ecology in which places, individuals, and groups are resources for one another. Therefore, diversity in this study is viewed as an outcome of creating settings that enable people to value, embrace, and use differences for their collective good (Kelly et al, 1994). Such social ecology represents the opportunity to share and exchange ideas and artifacts through bonding and bridging interactions in order to develop new knowledgeable, cultural, and personal identities. A qualitative study including interviews with a sample of students along with participant observation was conducted in the campus of UW-Madison in the US in order to identify patterns of place and community. Studies on environmental influences on psychophysiological stress-reduction (e.g. Ulrich, 1983; Evans, 1987), restorative environments (e.g. Kaplan, 1995), third places (Oldenburg, 1989), settings that are supportive of cultural diversity (e.g. Townley et al., 2011; Karl et al., 2011), learning communities (Lave & Wenger, 1991), place attachment (e.g. Scannel & Gifford, 2010; Lewicka, 2008), place identity (e.g. Proshansky et al., 1983; Twigger-Ross & Uzzell, 1996), bridging and bonding social capital (Putnam, 2001), and meanings of home (e.g. Moore, 2000; Tognoli, 1987) conducted this research. Finally, a number of themes emerged in relation to various attributes of socio-physical patterns and students’ experiences of those patterns.
Pinheiro, J, RF Bezerra, and RF Diniz. "Peer Assessment and Self-Perception of Adolescents' Pro-Ecological Commitment." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. "The social situation in which a person works, plays or lives is one of the situational determinants of his or her ecologically committed forms of behaviour. At the same time, we assumed that people in constant interaction with a given individual would be able to advance some sort of judgement about the ecological commitment of such person. This assumption would be particularly applicable to human groups whose activities involve paying attention to ecological matters. According to a research design clearly exploratory, with heuristic purposes, we applied a questionnaire to 205 students of an Environmental Control Technical Course (high school level), whose ages varied between 14 and 21 years old, 70% of which were female. Among other questions and scales, we asked them to list the names of five colleagues of the same class who they considered as pro-ecologically committed people. We attributed proportional values to these names in accordance with the order of indication: five points to the first one, four to the next, and so on. Additionally, we asked for a justification of such choices and inquired whether they practiced some sort of environmental care. Thus, from each respondent we obtained his or her own self-evaluation as environmental caregiver/non-caregiver, that could be compared to the ranking (mean punctuation and number of mentions) in the proecological commitment evaluation performed by his or her classmates. Our findings indicate a clear association between the pro-ecological commitment socially perceived and the self-reported practice of environmental care, which was particularly evident for the higher levels of the ranking by the peers. However, the socially perceived proecological commitment index (SPPEC) did not relate so well with scale scores. We could not find correlation with ecocentric and anthropocentric environmentalisms, as indicated by Thompson and Barton's Scale (1994), which raises important questionings about the features present in such social perception among peers. More than just endorsing the attitudebehaviour gap, it is important to consider that the two main reasons given by respondents for the choice of classmates as environmentally committed were "pro-environmental practices" and "participation in environmental movements or projects." The accumulation of ecological information, the environmental movement's success "or lack of " personal attachment to sustainability ideals, the vulnerability to planetary and local climatic changes, and many other aspects of current days scenario may have imposed changes to lay people's positioning about ecological issues, what seems to require a verification of "how they are doing." If not for other reasons, at least in order to address them appropriately in research questionnaires, scales and interviews."
Ilin, CM, A Docea, D Moza, and A Ionescu. Perceived Everyday Sustainable Practices at Work of Employees on Different Levels of Decision-Making Within a Romanian Firm In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Specialists in the organizational field agree on the fact that the activities in organizations and environmental conditions are related and consider that companies are responsible for making changes in their behaviour in order to promote environmental sustainability in their activities. Although behavior at the workplace is a type of behavior highly relevant for the sustainability issues, few studies have addressed it. The 7PF LOCAW is one of the first research studies that explicitly examine sustainable practices and behaviors in the workplace in different EU countries and in several types of large scale organizations. This study was conducted as a part of Work Package 2 within the project LOCAW, in order to make an analysis of the daily practices in the workplace in a company which is the regional operating company of public water and waste-water services for Timis County (in the west of Romania). 119 employees at different levels of decision making within the organization completed a questionnaire which was structured in the analysis of three categories of practices: consumption of materials and energy, generation and management of waste and organization-related mobility. These three categories were measured through three kind of perceptions: the perception of the respondent about the observed practices in the organization, about the importance s/he thinks the organization gives to those categories and, respectively, about the importance s/he thinks the other workers give to those categories. The results showed that the respondents consider that the practices most often observed in the organisation are also the most valued. The prior assumption stays valid for the waste related practices, too. Thus, the most frequently observed practices in the organisation are those considered most important, both by the organization in general and by each employee, individually. In the case of travel related practices, the employees’ answers are much more heterogeneous compared with consumption related practices, on one part, and waste related practices, on the other part. There was a lack of convergence within the three areas - observed practices, importance attributed by the organization and that attributed by the organisation’s employees.
Castrechini, A, S Valera, and A Di Masso. "Perceived Insecurity in the Public Space: Press Analysis Study." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. "This study explores the perception of insecurity in Barcelona’s public space through the analysis of three newspapers. It analyzes the social representation that the press disseminates about the concept of "insecurity". The study is based on three assumptions: (i) the news media communication actively constructs a representation of social insecurity; (ii) this media representation "locates" the insecurity in different micro-environments of public space and (iii) this process significantly influences the social representation of public space (re) produced and expressed by the public. We have carried out an analysis of two national newspapers –El País and La Vanguardia- in their Barcelona edition and one local newspaper –Avui-. As theoretical approaches we use the Agenda-Setting model and framing theory, i.e. the study of the newsworthy frames.The analysis included a thematic categorization of contents in a sample of news published in the selected newspapers from October 1st, 2003 to June 14th, 2010. Sample selection was done with the keyword “insecurity” and the analysis was conducted with the support of ATLAS.ti software.Our findings show that there are significant differences in the coverage carried out by each newspaper, with tendency toward sensationalism in one of them. It was detected a predominant use of the newsworthy frames of attribution of responsibility, human interest and conflict to re-construct the information of insecurity. In addition, it is verified how the mass media present a clear correlation that associates social insecurity to immigration.The study provides guidelines for further analysis of the discourse on the arguments expressed by linking the perception of insecurity, fear of crime and control processes of social order in public space, thus how social behaviour is articulated in our cities.This contribution belongs to a wider research program entitled “Uses, perceptions and conflict in urban public spaces: Identity, interaction, insecurity” (reference PSI2010-21214-C02-02), supported by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation. "
Jiménez, Y, and A Castrechini. "Perceived Severity and Control of Uncivil Behaviour in Urban Public Space." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. The analysis of city from a perspective of safety is a significant characteristic of urban planning culture in contemporary society. Urban safety is becoming a managerial concept that has rooted itself into how private companies and public local governments operate. This communication presents the first results of a pilot study aimed to explore the perceived severity of uncivil behaviours contained in a local ordinance designed and approved in Barcelona in 2006. Hence, social perception about a total of 72 uncivil behaviours in public spaces was explored. Additionally, behavioural intention of control as well as attribution of responsibility about who has to control those behaviours was also explored.The sample comprised 204 people (54.4% female and 44.6% male) aged between 20 and 36 years related to different areas of the judicial system (students of criminology, law enforcement, judicial workers and lawyers). The questionnaire includes the assessment of the 72 behaviours in terms of perceived severity (very serious, serious, slight and irrelevant), the perception of responsibility for control of uncivil behaviour (the security forces, citizenships, or both together), and behavioural intention to control uncivil person (complain to uncivil person, call the police, or never do anything).The results shows that uncivil behaviours considered ‘very serious’ deal on offensive behaviours or aggressive towards vulnerable persons such as children and the elderly. As ‘serious’, are located diversity of behaviours related to the aesthetic deterioration, maintenance of public spaces, activities that impede traffic and road use or urban furniture and behaviours that have clearly been defined as prohibited in leisure spaces (as in parks or beaches). The category of ‘mild’ includes behaviours that are related to money transactions in public urban space. Lastly, activities such as play ball games or use skateboards in public space were considered as ‘irrelevant’.As the severity perception increases, the need for police intervention also increase and as the severity perception decrease, citizen involvement also decreases, except if the uncivil behaviour violates the own goods. Additionally, the results indicate a tendency to control those behaviours that violate the personal property and not to act against the behaviours that the observer considers irrelevant.For future research seems desirable to investigate the degree of knowledge among the population regarding the Municipal Ordinance and the perception about the severity of the behaviours listed there. The aim would be to know how citizenships define ‘uncivil behaviour’ and identify what kind of criteria trigger the need to exercise control.
Fors, H, E Kristensson, M Norlin, A Gunnarsson, and M Jansson. "Perception of Safety in Neighbourhood Green Environments." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Neighbourhood green environments in direct proximity to people's homes are important for many reasons. Mixed, naturalistic vegetation close to where people live or spend time, such as in local neighbourhoods, has particular values for e.g. people's physical activity and wellbeing (Björk et al., 2008), social connections (Coley et al., 1997), children's outdoor play and ecological values such as biodiversity. However, while such woodland vegetation is much appreciated by people, it also commonly has a negative effect on their perception of safety (Jorgensen, 2004). Women and the elderly in particular are limited in their use of public space by their feeling of fear, especially after sunset. Such fear is also negative for people's social lives, health and quality of life (Stafford et al., 2007). Today the many different values of naturalistic vegetation close to residential areas are often lost in the process of creating safer neighbourhood environments, as vegetation is restricted to concepts that have low levels of complexity and density. However, research shows that the perception of safety related to naturalistic vegetation can be controlled by vegetation design and management (Jorgensen et al., 2002), and principles for developing safer green areas have been proposed (Luymes & Tammiga, 1995). The perceived visual control connected to vegetation has been given particular attention (Herzog & Kutzli, 2002). However, there is a lack of knowledge on precisely how existing naturalistic vegetation close to residential areas can be modified to create a higher perception of safety. This study sought to develop new concepts for vegetation design and management based on people's perception of safety, but without risking the social and ecological values of neighbourhood green areas. It also sought to develop qualitative on-site methods for studying vegetation as part of people's complex physical and social environment, where naturalistic vegetation is seen as part of a larger context affecting individual perception of safety. The methods used included the development of different vegetation concepts and their stability, and a study of their effects on safety experiences through outdoor walking interviews with residents after dusk before and after changes to existing naturalistic vegetation in their neighbourhoods. So far, two such field studies have been conducted in multi-family residential areas in southern Sweden, one small pilot study with four young, female interviewees, and one larger study with twelve interviewees with varying age, gender and ethnicity. The perception of safety was described as complex, associated with visual control in many aspects, but also with other people and closeness to home. Ways in which naturalistic vegetation can be developed to improve visual control were identified. However, the effects are strongly dependent on co-effects, e.g. with lighting.
Rentfrow, PJ, A Noulas, and LT Graham. "Person-Environment Fit: Causes, Mechanisms, and Consequences." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. ndividuals select and manipulate their daily environments to suit their lifestyles, emotions, values, and personalities. This symposium illustrates the diversity of causes, mechanisms, and consequences of selection and manipulation as they are played out across an array of quotidian environmental settings. The first talk will show how individuals decorate their homes to meet their emotional needs but, in doing so, may inadvertently pose risks to their health through the resultant changes in indoor air quality. The second talk will demonstrate how individual differences drive geographic distribution of residents’ personalities across cities , and how that distribution helps shape behaviors characteristic of the cities. The third talk will explain how mobile check-in applications (e.g., Fourscquare) can be used to track users’ mobility patterns as they move about their cities and to model the forces driving those movements.
Krellenberg, K, S Kabisch, A Steinfahrer, and C Kuhlicke. "Perspectives on Urban Vulnerability to Environmental Risks:social Capacities in Growing and Shrinking Cities." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. "In this paper we develop a perspective on urban vulnerability to environmental risks (the case of flood risks) that particularly focuses on social capacities. We include knowledge, motivation, networks, trust, financial and institutional resources). We consider various strands of research such as social vulnerability to the negative impacts of natural hazards, concepts and approaches from the climate change debate as well as research situated within the field of urban studies. We will propose a social-science based conceptual frame of urban vulnerability encompassing the three dimensions exposure, susceptibility, as well as coping and adaptive capacities which are reframed via the concept of "social capacities". More specifically, we propose a conceptual ap-proach that considers the tightly coupled interdependency between various spheres of urban life and the environment and argue that it is too short-sighted to capture the essence of urban areas simply by focusing on the sheer number or density of people or by simply focusing on changing state of nature or the environment. It is rather cities complexity and the various interconnec-tions of their socio-technical and socio-ecological systems that need to be considered as central features of urban vulnerability. Of importance for such systems is that small but destructive dis-asters may result in cascading effects that ultimately will have major and disastrous conse-quences for people, infrastructures and buildings. In this sense we argue that cities complexity might also increase their vulnerability. After having outlined the theoretical background, we will focus on two distinct urban devel-opment paths, namely on growing and shrinking cities: On a global scale, urban growth is the dominant mode of urban development at present. Yet rapid urbanization does not occur homo-geneously across regions. Indeed, it is noteworthy that most of today's megacities are located in the Global South and that many cities in Europe, Northern America and Japan have experienced or currently face a considerable decline in population. In Europe, most of these cities are located in the central and Eastern parts of the continent. The dichotomy of growth and shrinkage not only leads to changes in urban development and land use, but it also impacts on the social capacities available to prepare for, cope with and re-cover from (potential) hazardous events. While in growing cities quantities and complexities of vulnerability seems to increase, the situation in shrinking cities is quite different as they seem to offer the potential to reduce their vulnerability as less people and buildings are exposed but fur-ther factors come into play. We will present empirical insights from both development trajecto-ries and we will draw attention on the exchange between researchers and practitioners to under-line the necessity of mutual exchange of knowledge, respect and willingness to learn from each other. "
Kombe, W, D Mbisso, and M Nyström. "Petty Trading Spatial Processes in Marketplaces in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Petty trading is a prevailing socioeconomic activity serving the multitude of low-income population in the rapidly urbanizing developing countries. Spaces for petty trading activities have, therefore, important role to play in the urban development processes. Marketplaces are the geographically defined sites for the growing petty trading activities. However, there is limited knowledge on the spatial processes that generate and sustain petty trading in the marketplaces, hence inadequate planning and architectural design solutions for the same. The aim of this paper is to present and analyse the spatial processes that surround the petty trading daily operations in marketplaces using Temeke Stereo Marketplace in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania as the empirical case. The paper examines the processes pertaining to generation, use and management of the petty trading spaces. The processes from formal design of the marketplace to traders’ informal appropriations of the spaces are described and critically appraised. The paper argues that petty trading spatial processes reflect the interplay between the entrenched social and institutional frameworks within specific contexts. Integration of defined and legitimate power structures among different actors is a prerequisite for smooth management and operations of petty trading activities. For instance, definition of space boundaries and timely use of spaces are expression of the embedded regulative, normative and cognitive institutional aspects in generation, use and management of the petty trading spaces. In other words, petty trading spaces are produced and reproduced in response to conceptions, actions and reactions within the prevailing social and institutional structures. The paper finally attempts to position the roles of professionals such as architects and planners in guiding the provision of adequate environments for petty trading given these conditions. These should be highly considered if planning and design for the well-functioning marketplaces is desired. A trans-disciplinary approach in studying and designing marketplaces with a special focus for petty traders is proposed.
M Felippe, Longhinotti. Physical Attributes of Hospital Rooms Facilitating Restorativeness: a Method of Investigation In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. The increasing urbanization coincides with bigger concern for how the environment influences health by changing stress levels. Complementary to the study of the stress through environmental influence, research about environmental capacity for health restoration _ the recovery of resources affected by the daily demands _ has grown rapidly in recent years (Hartig, 2011). The so-called restorativeness process is especially important in hospitals, areas in which patients often experience stress caused by traumatic situations. Considering the assertion of Velarde, Fry and Tveit (2007), for which identifying specific qualities of a restorative environment _ in order to apply them to an architectural project _ is one of the main challenges for the future, we present a method of investigation for a doctoral research aiming identifying physical characteristics of patient rooms that promote restoration. The study will adopt a mixed-method design, a quantitative and qualitative research strategy, assuming an explicative profile. It will take place in patient rooms of hospitals in Italy. It will investigate patients in hospitalization for the same disease. The research will be held in three phases: 1. Survey with the Perceived Restorativeness Scale (Hartig, Korpela, Evans and Gärling, 1996), to assess the restorativeness level in the patient rooms; and record of the physical characteristics of the patient rooms through direct observation and analysis of architectural plans. From the relation between the variables of the physical environment and the perceived restorativeness, it is intended to construct preliminary considerations about the specific characteristics of the physical environment that promote restoration. The data of this phase will not allow causal inferences, for this reason, it will be conducted a second experimental phase; 2. Conduction of an experiment to evaluate restorativeness from the presentation of groups of slides with computational images of patient rooms. Each slide group will be composed of images that differ only in one aspect of the physical environment, in order to evaluate the effect of the change of this variable on the restorativeness level. For each slide, the patient will fill out a questionnaire with the reduced version of the Perceived Restorativeness Scale, as used in Berto (2005), and his/her stress physiological measures will be carried out (electromyogram and skin conductance measurement). The results of the first phase will delimit the number of physical variables examined; 3. Conduction of semi-structured interviews to generate qualitative information about the environmental restorative effect. The processing data will involve relational and descriptive statistical analysis in Phases 1 and 2, and thematic categorical content analysis in Phase 3. The practical objective of this research is the development of a manual with recommendations for planning hospital space.
Deforche, B, L De Donder, J Van Cauwenberg, D Verte, and P Clarys. "Physical Environmental Factors Related to Walking and Cycling in Older Adults: the Belgian Aging Studies." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Background: Socio-ecological models emphasize the relationship between the physical environment and physical activity (PA). However, knowledge about this relationship in older adults is limited. Therefore, current study aims to investigate the relationship between area of residence (urban vs. rural) and older adults walking and cycling for transportation and recreation. Additionally, the relationship between the physical environment and walking and cycling was studied in eight subgroups (2 x 2 x 2: urban vs. rural, 65-74 year olds vs. _ 75 year olds and males vs. females).Methods: Data from 30,597 Flemish older adults collected in 2004-2010 through peer research were analyzed. Walking, cycling and environmental perceptions were assessed using self-administered questionnaires. The Study Service of the Flemish Government provided objective data on municipal characteristics. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were applied.Results: Urban participants were more likely to walk (OR= 1.40; 95% CI= 1.33, 1.48) but less likely to cycle daily for transportation (OR= 0.82; 95% CI= 0.76, 0.89). Area of residence was unrelated to weekly recreational walking/cycling (OR= 1.05; 95% CI= 0.98, 1.12). Perceived short distances to services was significantly positively related to daily walking for transportation (ORs ranging from 1.08 to 1.16) in all subgroups and to cycling for transportation in rural females and the oldest urban females (ORs ranging from 1.10 to 1.18). Satisfaction with public transportation was significantly positively related to the different PA domains in several subgroups (ORs ranging from 1.12 to 1.18).Conclusions: Our findings point to the importance of access to services and public transportation for increasing older adults' active transportation. The importance of other environmental characteristics remains unclear. Few differences between subgroups were observed.
Lindeberg, S, J Karlsson, M Johansson, and A Flykt. "Physiological and Behavioral Responses in Human Fear of Bears and Wolves." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. "Research on human emotions towards large carnivores is often based on self-reported emotions. This study aimed to investigate physiological and behavioral responses to feared animals among people who say that they are fearful or not fearful of brown bear and wolf. Participants were recruited to be bear fearful only (n=8), fearful of both bear and wolves (n=15), or fearful of neither carnivore (n=14). Three experiments were conducted, including recordings of ECG, skin conductance and eye movements. In the first experiment the task was to look at different pictures of bear, wolf, moose and hare. In the second experiment the participants had to screen 3x4 search arrays with moose pictures. The task was to decide if a hare picture was present in the arrays or not. A bear or a wolf picture could also occur in the arrays, but should be ignored. The third experiment was an implicit association test where the task was to pair wolf, bear or hare, with good or bad words.The results suggest that bear pictures are potent stimuli for eliciting sympathetic activity regardless if the individuals are bear fearful or not. Wolf pictures showed more negative associations and attention capturing effects regardless if the participants are fearful of wolves or not. These results might imply that cognitive interpretation of physiological arousal has an important role for bear fear, and that cognitive interpretation of negative association has an important role in wolf fear. Being fearful of only bear, but not wolf, or being fearful of both these carnivores made a difference. The group fearful of only bears did also display an increase in parasympathetic activity to bear pictures. The group fearful of both carnivores did not show this increase, however, they did show more difficulty in associating bear with good words, an effect that was not shown in the group only fearful of bears. These results imply that specific fear of one specific carnivore species have a different etiology than being fearful of carnivores in general.When a picture of a feared animal appeared among the moose the response time increased. Thus, perceiving a feared carnivore is distractive and has an effect on performance. The group fearful of bears, but not wolves, did respond faster when a wolf picture occurred among the moose pictures. This implies that mental resources are allocated to the feared animal when it is potentially present but not perceived, and that these resources can be freed if the individual is "assured" that the feared animal will not appear.This study showed that fear is a central emotion in relation to wildlife, and that experimental methods are needed to get a substantial understanding of fear. An understanding of the etiology of bear and wolf fear and its relation to cognitions and performance is important for wildlife policy decisions. The presentation will be given within the symposium human emotions towards wildlife: Implications for policy and management "
Dias, P, M Charles, and A Lopez. Place Appropriation: Elaboration and Validation of a New Rating Scale for an Old Concept In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Place appropriation, which used to arouse a great interest for environmental psychology researchers, is a concept whose definition did not found an operational consensus (Morval and Corbiere, 2000). It is a process often defined in terms of functions (Moles, 1976) or visible manifestations (Fisher 1980, 1997), but the fact remains that there is no recognized direct methodological access to it, and that its nature and intrinsic dimensions are widely varying from an author to another. Feldman and Stall (1994) describe it as a double process, made of empowerment and resistance to territory invasion. Serfaty (2003), define appropriation as it is interpreted by individuals in terms of attachment and possession (legal but also moral, psychological, and affective possession). This point of view is particularly interesting, first, because it adds cognitive and affective dimensions to this concept often reduced to behaviors (control, marking, personalization), and second because we consider legal possession as a particular case of people-environment relation whereas the place appropriation process would be always present as a possible interpretive lens in the background of people-environment relations. Indeed, any situation could by evaluated and set on the appropriation continuum. Lastly, Morval and Corbieres (2000) proposed a three dimensions place appropriation scale which would be composed of knowledge of the place, environmental stimulation, and free circulation (Sivadon, 1983). This scale is, to our knowledge, the first try to measure place appropriation with a questionnaire, despite the important place of this process in environment psychology theories. This initiative is quite courageous and opens the door for other building scale works to go beyond the limits of this try. The main limit is that the theoretical background of Morval and Corbieres' work (2000) deals more with criteria which can lead to place appropriation than with place appropriation's dimensions. In our study we did not want to add complexity in this widely studied concept but operationalize dimensions described in the literature, and look beyond observable behaviors, including affective and cognitive aspects. Then, we noted that the common denominator in the literature about appropriation was the place and the relation to others. According to this point and analyzing interviews, we built items that we transformed thanks to the results of each stage of the validation process to get our final scale. Two fieldworks and one study with students, followed by exploratory factorial and confirmatory analysis has shown a three dimensions structure with : the rights over the place, others presence tolerance, and the emotional reactions. Furthermore, the internal validity index (Cronbach alpha = .89) and correlations with sense of place (Jorgensen and Stedman, 2001) are acceptable to satisfy scientific validation criteria.
Heijs, W.. "Place Attachment and Identity of Place: Mapping the Role of the Physical Environment." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. The renovation of several neighborhoods in the Netherlands meets with serious resistance from the inhabitants. Consequently, the renovation process has been postponed in a number of cases or reduced to only social measures in others (thus delaying interventions in the physical environment). Yet, a representative group of inhabitants was involved in the planning process leading up to the renovation. They participated in so-called branding sessions as a part of neighborhood branding initiatives and they approved of the measures that were to be taken.Preliminary research has led to the assumption that, beside a possible incorrect translation of the outcomes of the branding sessions into actual measures, another mechanism could be at work. The neighborhood brand and the ensuing plans that were agreed upon should strengthen the specific character (i.e. the identity of place) of these areas. That idea was supported by most inhabitants. The actual interventions communicated at a later stage, however, could have distressed residents because these measures also included activities affecting environmental elements that were related to the inhabitant's attachment to the neighborhood. Thus, the conflict may reflect the fact that the latter elements were insufficiently taken into account during the branding sessions, or that there is potential discrepancy between the physical features related to identity of place and those that are related to place attachment. This assumption constitutes one of the questions in a PhD research project by one of the authors (Havermans).An instrument was needed to establish the environmental elements connected to the concepts of identity of place and place attachment. These sets of elements should be comprehensive (on a meaningful and feasible level of aggregation), they should contain the relevant attributes and perhaps locations of those elements that promote their importance for both concepts and they should offer possibilities for systematic comparison. There are few existing instruments for taking inventory of these physical elements and the available instruments do not entirely fit the demands (see Fornara, Bonaiuto and Bonnes, 2010; Lewicka, 2011). Therefore, a new method has been designed. The paper will focus on this method, the motivation underlying its design and its feasibility for use in fieldwork. The project is not yet finished, but some preliminary results may serve as examples of the possibilities offered by this method.
Berroeta, H, and T Vidal. "Place Attachment, Sense of Community and Local Civic Participation in Participatory Urban Renewal Context." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. "The relation of people to places has been addressed using a wide variety of concepts, well known in people-environment studies. The conceptual definition of, and the relation between, place attachment and place identity is embedded in this debate.From the usual approach, place identity concept stresses how places shape part of people's identities, whilst place attachment focuses on the evaluation of places. We can also consider the social and physical aspects of the evaluation of places. Sense of community and neighbourhood ties are related to social aspects, while place attachment and place identity are associated to physical ones. But from another point of view, we can take into account the fact that place attachment and place identity processes occur at the same time and spatial bonds symbolize social bonds. According to recent trends on place attachment research, we adopt the three dimensional framework (person, place and process) to understand bonds between people and places. In this framework, we are interested in discussion regarding the role of social and spatial bonds to explain local civic participation (activities on behalf of the neighbourhood, involvement in local organizations, membership of neighbourhood groups). There are two main orientations involved. The social path, explained by place attachment and neighbourhood ties, and cultural path, consisting of cultural capital (education, intellectual interest...). These are two different ways to describe civic participation, which is also affected by other factors (age, education, type of residence or activity...).According to the first path, we are interested in exploring links between social bonds (sense of community), spatial bonds (place attachment) and local civic participation, at a neighbourhood level. Specifically, we explore the role of social and spatial bonds in local civic participation in places with an on-going participatory urban regeneration process. This process can be understood as a threat and/or an opportunity by residents and may affect their degree of local civic participation and their place attachment and sense of community. We selected four neighbourhoods in Valparaíso and a neighbourhood in Illapel (Chile) where a project of urban regeneration called "Quiero mi barrio"(I love my neighbourhood) was taking place by Ministerio de Vivienda y Urbanismo (Ministry of housing and urban development) of Chile. We applied scales of place attachment, sense of community and local civic participation in sample of 995 people in two cities. Results show that civic participation is related to social and spatial bonds. "
Bernardo, F, and JM Palma-Oliveira. "Place Identity and Place Scale: the Impact of Place Salience." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Research about place scale and place identity supports the idea that bonds towards places may differ depending on the place scale. Based on the idea that identity is context-dependent, this paper wants to add to this discussion the impact of manipulating the salience of place identity on the intensity of place identity reported. One study was designed in order to study place identity and place attachment in two groups of residents (permanent and temporary) at three different scales (neighbourhood, city and country), in which the salience of place scale was manipulated. The results showed that place salience can have an impact on the intensity of place identity and place attachment in permanent residents and temporary residents, but only at the neighbourhood scale. These results are in consonance with the predictions of social identity theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1079) and self-categorization theory (Turner, 1985) and show the relevance of exploring the concept of place identity within this theoretical approach. But it is not clear in what conditions we can make an identity salient to the individual or the group. This aspect needs to be further explored in future studies. This study also support the idea that identity with the neighbourhood is not as strong as identity with the city or country, as many previous studies have indicated (e.g., Hernandez et al., 2007, Lewicka, 2010).
Paris, M. "Place Making and Artificial Identity: the Example of Superplaces." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. “Place” is a space portions in which binds (“take place”) the human planning action. Many authors like Heiddeger, Bollnow and Merleau-Ponty, Norberg-Schulz and Rossi, distinguish -in their own way- the idea of space, an abstract ambit, from place, a specific field with its specific attributes. The result of this analysis is that places take identity, and become systems designed to accept life and human activities through a set of intentional practices. Place’s identity is a specific attribute which characterises both physical reality and formation process. Identity gives meaning to places, and makes them recognisable. Place’s identity relates with liveability, and marks their capacity to be inhabited and used by humans. Identity is not a static attribute, but a dynamic character, and evolves with the place itself. Also, identity plays an active role in attracting users, and suggesting various ways of inhabiting it. The idea of identity of space is commonly accepted, but its own characteristics are often intangible, and ephemeral. Consequently, in my opinion, even if identity is the result of a series of intentional actions (Castello 2010), it is very difficult to be artificially designed.In order to explain this contradiction, I will use the category of superplaces.Superplaces (Boeri 2005) are complex sites where exchange, mobility and services coexist. These collisive sites (Lyster 2006) are crowed by technical functions: airports, stations, stadiums, theme parks, shopping malls where users move and consume. Not always a superplace is the result of a design strategy. Sometimes different functions, localized in the same area by different developers, generate spatial tensions and dynamics. The distinctive character of this kind of places -their identity- is the adaptive use, or reuse (Berger 2006) of space by users. Adaptation process is only possible on the boundaries of the complex site, in the flexible, un-programmed in-betweens which are neglected by econometric and engineering criteria. Designers and developers should perceive this double reality of place and planning strategy that respects, and promotes interaction between users and the environment. In this way it is possible to develop the potential inter-scalar (Balducci A., Fedeli V. 2008) character of the superplaces: identity affects the project and, sometimes, contributes to shape it.
Abdel-Hadi, Aleya. "Place-Identity Research Issues – Impact on Practice and Policy." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Places maintain identity on different levels and dimensions (Twigger-Ross & Uzzell 1996); they are not only contexts, but also an integral part of identity (Hauge 2007)The spirit of time also stands out as important to the process of identification of a place (Castello 2010)A great number of people living in many cities talk of facing loneliness, alienation and “clone-city” phenomena”The process of inhabiting a house, a street, a neighbourhood, or a district is problematic to realms of psychology, sociology, geography and housing design. The factors involved in “place-design” are numerous, complex and cannot be merely narrowed down to a mix of form and styleFrom the meaning of home to communal memories and nowadays world of place experience, social integration and communicative action in superplaces all are important research issuesThis symposium will focus on the relationship between research issues on place-identity at the micro and macro levels and, their actual and possible impacts on design practice and policy with the intention of achieving social and environmental sustainable developmentPoints that need to be covered:i. Situating local place-identity within a global perspective.ii. Incorporating local identity in urban design and housing policy.iii. Adopting methods that would help integrate place-making and place identity.iv. Addressing issues of identity and place as keystones in the harmonious achievement of social and environmental sustainable development. Results of empirical research studies and reflections on substantial experiences will be discussed in order to identify practice and decision-making relevant results. In other words, the symposium will focus on points that strengthen the integration of research into practice and policy-making at both, the local and the global levels.
Abdel-Hadi, Aleya, H Safieldin, and E El-Nachar. "Place-Identity: an Integrative Dimension in Housing Policy." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Places are not only backdrops for humane activities, but rather an integral part of personal and social identitiesHence, the term Place-Identity refers to the bonds that are built over time from human experiences and are influenced by an individuals’ psychological and emotional outlay in relation to place (Proshansky et al., 1983; Giuliani & Feldman, 1993); and, to the dual impact people and place have on each other (Gifford, 2002)As a dimension of place-attachment, it is concerned with the “symbolic importance of a place as a repository of emotions and relationships that give meaning and purpose to life” (Hauge, 2007)One of the major purposes of residential environments is to create settings that nurture residents’ sense of identity, the process is generated through two main actions: on one hand, residents’ efforts to articulate self and communal identity, perceive spaces as an extension of their own behaviour; on the other hand, designers are challenged to create spaces that invite and facilitate taking possession and personalisationIn Egypt, people shape and reshape their residential environments, from the micro home level to macro district and city levels as a reaction to the inappropriateness of the urban-poor housingProcesses of personalisation of ‘places’ occur to express their preferences and to reflect how they see themselves. Such deeds result in a more chaotic built-environment, consequently leading to more ‘informalisation’ of Egypt’s housing stock with an average of sixty five percent of the total built up areaThus, while economic pressures appear as a core aspect leading to previous situations, a lack of understanding the relation between ‘place and identity’ needs in home environments is obviously revealed This research evokes the question of “how do people identify with the places they live in?”The main purpose is to draw a workable framework that links research with design and decision making when planning for low-cost housing projectsFrom an alternative environment-behaviour approach, the research aims at revisiting the theories of ‘place-identity’ and ‘place-making’ in a sample of low-cost housing environment in CairoInterpretations of the results will create a framework to be incorporated within housing policies, decision-making, regulations, design and implementation
H Waer, Al. "Planning and Design Future Sustainable Community: a New Approach and Methodology for Delivering Better Masterplanning- Subetool." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Although the words place making and master planning are frequently used in government planning guidance, masterplanning has had a strong revival in recent years. The demand for strategic thinking about the process of masterplanning change is growing rapidly, as local authorities and decision makers, urban regeneration companies, private developers and communities alike need to think about physical change at a large scale and moving beyond zero carbon and green buildings agenda. A successful masterplan will therefore set out how to create and sustain excellent places for living, prosper, work and enjoy quality of life now and in the future. Planning for places in a low carbon future is a key issue for planners, developers, designers and citizens. This enables us not just to reduce CO2 emissions but to enhance the overall sustainability (taking into account social, environmental factors ) of the entire development. A sustainability assessment framework to provide feed-forward and feed-back intelligence into the designing, planning and development activities is set out. The strategic management and operational processes through which, by a combination of corporate governance and professional team-working, the play of stakeholders can be directed are outlined.The ultimate aim of this paper is to encourage high standards for the scope and content of sustainable masterplanning and place making. A new approach and methodology for Creating successful masterplans be presented (SuBETool). The SuBETool system (framework) offers an integrated framework, designed to allow countries to design their own locally relevant priority levels and rating systems. The unique strength of SuBETool is that it demonstrates clearly, right from the start of masterplanning, exactly what can be achieved in terms of the actual performance of the proposed development (taking into account social, environmental factors ). It highlights clearly to clients, developers, architects, planners and policy makers, the many different factors that affect the expected performance of the development - and how that performance could be improved. The framework considers how to approach the design and development of sustainable communities as an integrated process of assessment and planning
Hynland, C, R Rogerson, S Sadler, and D Grierson. Playing Games with Sustainability in Glasgow In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Getting out of school and playing games is an ‘easy sell’ to pupils aged 11-14, if less so to their teachers. This case study describes an ESRC Festival of Social Science project undertaken by researchers in the fields of Geography and Architecture which aimed to get participants to see beyond the mere technical fix of erecting new ‘sustainable’ buildings and to see the local built environment as part of a sustainable community.A walking tour encouraged pupils to critically assess the current cityscape and a ‘sustainable communities game’ provided a means to ‘imagine’ a new start. Literature from planning, regeneration and education all emphasise the need for community members to engage in local visioning. This activity, harnessing the momentum of the Decade of Education for Sustainable Development and the new Curriculum for Excellence in Scotland, stimulated thinking about community, energy and waste. With the potential to challenge existing preconceptions of sustainable communities, bring existing knowledge to practical decision making and improve communication skills, this approach is well placed to better prepare pupils (and ourselves) for addressing the grand challenges of sustainability and uncertainty.
Kucharczyk-Brus, B. "Polsenior Research Project – Results of Studies Run by Architects-Sociologists Team; Data Correlation and Final Conclusions." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. In the autumn of 2011 PBZ-MEIN-9/2/2006 research project financed by the Polish Ministry of Science was completed. The Project was run for four years by teams of researchers from several Polish universities on a random sample of 5695 respondents representing age sections of Polish seniors (Bledowski et al., 2011). The national survey focused on medical and health condition, socio-economic issues, financial status, the quality of the housing environment.The questions on housing conditions and the social capital were devised by the researchers from the Silesian University of Technology (Bartoszek et al., 2009). The team conducted local case studies on a smaller number of respondents, including experts’ and participative analyses of the housing conditions of different built environments - rural, urban and metropolitan and four social care units. They investigated the elderly people in their housing environment, the level of its adjustment to specific needs and to modern civilization requirements. The criteria of the experts’ assessment included the current requirements of the law regulations and the principles of Universal Design, Built for All, Design Out Crime (Vestbro et al., 2005). The applied investigation techniques were based on surveys and in-depth interviews, the architectural studies utilized the principles of POE. 166 surveys were carried out, 33 personal interviews in flats, 25 interviews with social care facilities inhabitants.The architects-sociologists subproject questions were partly convergent with the ones asked in the national level survey, which makes it possible to draw some comparisons with the replies received at the local level. In the study detailed experts’ analyses were conducted in particular housing environments, advantages emphasized and existing drawbacks and maladjustments to the needs of seniors indicated. The experts’ analyses revealed the incompliance of the flats and buildings with modern quality, technical and legal standards. Despite severe experts’ assessment only 15% of respondents at the national level of the research confirmed the existence of architectural barriers that stop them from leaving their flats. Apart from objective obstacles seniors seem to be able to adjust to the inconveniencies of their living conditions and are not willing to change their place of habitation. Such conclusions may be drawn from both local and national samples of the respondents of who only 8% expressed the readiness to move. The main reason is the lack of finance and motivation to undertake decisions. The national study makes it possible to compare the obtained data with particular age levels and to correlate the responses with the state of health and economic and family condition, as the opinions depend on the presence or absence of support from the relatives. The correlation of the data from the local studies and the national study results enable some general conclusions and recommendations.
Johansson, R. "Post-Occupancy Evaluation. Reflections on Origin, Development and Future." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Evaluation activities have their origin in ideas of social reform in Victorian England and became an important feed-back procedure in support of organizational learning in public Service organizations. They had a holistic responsibility and combined the roles of being clients, providers and administrators of public Service, for example, in sectors of health, education and housing. In the 1960s routines for systematic evaluations of building performances were introduced and in the 1970s users’ assessments were given more attention. Methods for Post-Occupancy Evaluations (POE) of buildings in the phase of usage developed during the 1970s and 1980s.In the 1990s a paradigmatic change took place, again originating from England. During Thatcher’s reign became public Service organizations divided and, to a large extent, transmitted to the private sector. New markets were created and the roles of clients, providers and managers divided between different actors. The building sector was de-regulated and the governance-by-rules model was replaced by a governance-by-goals model. As a consequence the main aim of evaluations changed from “learning from what had been done” to measurement of goal achievement. Holistic evaluations were replaced by goal-achievement analyses.This development was paralleled in Sweden. The welfare state invested in professional knowledge and specialization — a competent bureaucracy was established. In the post-welfare state providers of public Service are to a great extent to be found in the private sector. Quality control has partly been left to the providers themselves and their own quality assurance systems, but there is also a need to follow up on the formulated goals from a governmental perspective. There is still a need for control and this calls for the development of an arsenal of instruments of control.In the Swedish welfare state provision of housing was very much in the hands of the state and municipal housing companies. They were building, owning and managing their housing stock. In the post-welfare state private developers play a more dominant role and they provide dwellings for sale on a market. Their interest has shifted from POE:s to stated preference investigations with the purpose to identify economically strong groups of buyers and provide what they want buy. POE’s does not play the same important role in organizational learning as before, instead we have different tools for verification based on the principles of economical auditing.What architects and planners actually know is embedded in what they do. The environmental design professions could be expected to have an interest in developing the routines of conducting systematic POE’s in order to develop a more evidence based practice. Maybe we will see a revival of POE’s driven from within the professions.
Calderon, C. "Post-Politics, Participation and Public Space: a Case Study of Community Involvement in the Planning and Design of Public Spaces." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Over the last decade participatory approaches to the planning and design of public spaces have become mainstreamed particularly in the renewal of deprived neighbourhoods. Despite the increasing acceptance of public participation as being one of the cornerstones of effective and sustainable public spaces, there is the need for critical analysis of these practices without suggesting that they all represent successful examples of deliberative democracy. Consequently, the paper analyses an urban renewal project in a deprived neighbourhood of Barcelona where the local community was involved in the planning and design of its public spaces.The case study is used to illustrate some of the ideal principles that are considered to be needed for successful participatory processes in the provision of public spaces, as well as to show some of the challenges that come with trying to involve more actors into decision making processes. Among the ideal principles were the implementation of a variety of participation arenas where methods and ways of communication were adaptable to different social groups of the neighbourhood and where issues that are commonly difficult to address in formal participatory settings could be discussed. This allowed the participants of the process to discuss issues concerning the neighbourhood’s public spaces based not only on the physical problems of these spaces but also on the multiple and diverse use, concerns and perceptions that people had of them.Among the challenges was the low capacity that the process had to change decisions that were made in other stages of the project, the impossibility to include all stakeholders in the decision-making process, difficulties of transforming complex and contested issues in to solutions that were agreed by all participants, and the non-implementation of proposals made during the process by the local community. These challenges have resulted in critics from the community and limited the outcomes of the project. The case study serves to illustrate some critical issues regarding participatory processes in the planning and design of public spaces today. On the one hand it shows the gap that often exists between the ideals and reality of participation. On the other hand it shows what some theorist call a post-political stance of participatory process, in which discussions are guided towards topics that have been determined in advanced, where experts’ solutions can seldom be questioned and changed, and where complex and contested issues are rarely addressed. As such, the case study serves to highlight important concerns related to the way in which participatory processes cope with power structures present in planning practice, deal with conflicts present in planning processes and reach consensus. The paper highlights the need of a better understanding these concerns and aims at contributing with knowledge that helps cope with them.
Edwards, PB. "Power, Trust and Participation – Dissecting and Improving European Forest Policy." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Globally, forest are becoming increasingly important for climate change, biodiversity and as a resource for rural development, resulting in a renewed interest in forest policy nationally, regionally and globally. With the development of new forest policies, there are questions being raised around stakeholder participation within these policy and decision-making processes. Research and practice have demonstrated that participation in policy and decision-making at a local (and in some cases national) level can be accomplished in a meaningful way. However, at the regional and international levels meaningful participation for all stakeholders is not always achieved. In order to achieve meaningful participation, stakeholders need access to certain variable resources in order to exercise their power to meaningfully participate. Other stakeholders, however, may mobilize resources and exercise power in order to prevent or limit access to resources by other stakeholders or they may privilege certain stakeholders’ access over others. This selective or biased exercise of power by some stakeholders not only does not fit with the ideals of participation put forward by Habermas or Iris Marion Young, but also strongly determines whether trust is or can be built between stakeholders in the process or the process itself.This paper looks at a selection of stakeholders involved in two European forest policy processes – the European Commission Green Paper on Forest Protection and Information and the Forest Europe Legally Binding Agreement process. An understanding of the discourses influencing stakeholders and their behaviour is presented to help with understanding how their power is exercised, resources are allocated and mobilized by various stakeholders. Using the work of Iris Marion Young, this paper presentation presents an analysis of the participation, inclusion and exclusion of various stakeholders in these policy processes. An analysis of the implications of the outcomes for the stakeholders involved is also included. The paper goes further, drawing on previous work by Edwards (2009), to determine whether trust has been built between stakeholders in these processes and in the processes themselves. The question of whether the building of trust (or not) influenced outcomes of these processes will also be reflected upon. The outcomes, trust and the institutional framework of the processes are deconstructed to provide insight into improving meaningful participation and enablement of stakeholders at the regional and international scales in forest policy. Through improving meaningful participation and the building of trust at all scales of policy-making, the result is more robust and acceptable policies or plans that may be able to achieve the goals they set out to accomplish.
Adam, R. "Practice and Research: Commercial and Practical Applications." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Private-sector urban design and architectural practice is a commercial activity. Most practices are relatively small. In 2010 it was estimated that 98% of architectural practices in Europe have less than 10 architectural staff. 76% of UK practices have less than ten staff. 80% of US practices have less than six staff. Private practice relies on the generation of new business and the profitability of activities, the smaller the practice the more time will be devoted to ensuring a continuous flow of work. Research creates no direct income. Practices depend, therefore, largely on published academic research, professional institutions, commerce and outcomes expressed in regulation. Private architectural practice is generally a passive receptor of intellectual enquiry.Academic research is usually directed to academic objectives and internally relevant source-material referencing, peer-group review and institutional assessment. The language used is difficult to transfer to construction-industry conditions and outcomes are frequently only of peripheral use in practice. Social policy and quantitative survey research requires expert interpretation and analysis to transfer to practical and practice-based applications. Evidence-based information is a powerful instrument in professional promotion and working practice. It would benefit private practitioners to use research projects to establish their industry credentials, create an enhanced position in attracting work and increase the effectiveness of practical outcomes. Sharing such material is not of necessity a surrender of assets but can enhance professional standing and practice. If networks of practice-generated research could be established, advances could be made in the professional knowledge base. If maximum benefit is to be gained, academic institutions would be well-placed to combine and synthesise material to create substantive results. To create such a condition a better academic understanding of practice constraints and a gearing of research outputs would be necessary. Using examples from the research programme of Adam Urbanism, this paper will explore the benefits, costs and issues in practice-generated research. Examples include research into the appearance of housing, the impact of density on the perception of privacy undertaken with charitable foundations. Practice-generated research would include environmental performance of building envelopes, public responses to elevational treatments of commercial buildings, socio-anthropological assessment of public consultation techniques, and a typological analysis of new trends in urban design through. Examples will also include academic-practice partnership projects in a comparative assessment of available public consultation techniques and mathematical analysis of relative urban connectivity and proximity. Particular emphasis will be placed on the practicalities and cost-benefits of research and problems of commercial-academic cross-over.
Carrus, G, F Fornara, and A Meloni. Pro-Environmental Behaviours at the City Level: the Influence of Local Identity, Local Norms, Environmental Stress, and Self-Efficacy In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. The present research concerns the determinants of place-specific pro-environmental behaviour, with particular focus on dimensions such as place identity, injunctive and descriptive local social norms, environmental stress, and self efficacy.The relationship between pro-environmental attitudes (and/or behaviours), identity processes (e.g., see Carrus, Bonaiuto, & Bonnes, 2005), and social cohesion (Uzzell, Pol, & Badenas, 2002) has been addressed by previous empirical studies. Also social norms can play an important role in orienting people’s behavioural decisions in everyday life (Schultz et al, 2007). In particular, we argue that those pro-environmental behaviours which have a place-specific basis could be related to place identity processes and to our perceptions about to what the neighbours do or think about it. Recent empirical findings (see Fornara et al, 2011) suggest indeed that social norms of descriptive nature (both subjective, i.e. what significant others do, and local, i.e. what neighbours do) seem to play a key role for promoting a place-related pro-environmental behaviour (i.e. waste recycling). Studies focusing on the link between local identity and negative environmental conditions, have also shown that those who score high on local identity often do not perceive pollution in their environment (i.e., they deny that their environment is polluted as a way to protect their self esteem). Thus, this condition could lead to a biased assessment of environmental conditions/problems reflecting an attempt to maintain a positive vision of one’s own social identity (see Bonaiuto, Breakwell, & Cano, 1996). Other studies suggest that the perception of a negative environmental condition (environmental stress) can drive individuals toward the performance of pro-environmental behaviours (Homburg & Stolberg, 2006; Homburg, Stolberg, & Wagner, 2007). Environmental ‘stressors’ caused by pollution, when mediated by demand-resource appraisal, can trigger the “focus-on-the-problem” of the environment. In particular, this pattern can positively influence individual pro-environmental behaviour (Homburg & Stolberg, 2006). In this research, we assessed the relative impact of psychosocial dimensions such as local identity, perception of local environmental stress, local norms, and self-efficacy on a set of pro-environmental behaviours at the city level. A correlational field study was carried out with residents of three Italian cities (N=200), using standardized self-report measures. Results show that pro-environmental behaviour scores are positively predicted by perceptions of environmental stress and by self efficacy effects. Concerning local norms, results show a significant weight of descriptive norms. Finally, local identity did not show a direct relation to pro-environmental behaviour. The theoretical and practical implications of these results will be discussed in the light of the research literature.
Kowaltowski, D, PRP Pereira, de Carvalho D Moreira, and MS Deliberador. "Programming for Behaviour in Educational Environments." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. To attain a quality built environment the design process needs structure, rigor and rich, varied data on the relation of human behaviour and architectural design elements. To this end, the architectural program, or brief, is an important instrument, considering the complexities with which an architect is faced when designing a building or urban space. During the 1950´s architects and engineers, aware of scientific theoretical developments, endeavoured to apply new methods to the building design process and the programming phase gained specific methods such as 'problem seeking' by Peña and Parshall, first used in 1973 by the National Council of Architectural Registration Boards of the USA and today in its 4th edition (2001). This paper discusses the architectural program as a part of the building design process, its content and recommended form of presentation. In most programs emphasis is given to primary functions of architectural spaces and their interrelations. There is a need however to introduce discussions on issues that support positive human behaviour in the built environment and prevent or avoid behaviour considered anti-social and non-productive. This paper presents further developments of a continuing study on the public school environment as found in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The local school building design process was characterized and shown to lack a participatory briefing phase. A discussion on the importance of such a programming phase and specific methods to be employed during the design process to improve the local school environment is included here. In addition, the rich literature on human behaviour in relation to architectural elements is organized with results from observations of school environments. Various aspects of schools have been analyzed over a long period especially in Europe and in North America, from learning styles to vandalism and transformed into design criteria. However, this data is rarely structured to produce documents to be efficiently and effectively used in the pre-design phases of the design process. Thus, a study is presented where behavioural issues, relating to specific settings, with emphasis on educational environments are structured according to the 'problem seeking' programming method. This material should enable participatory briefing to be introduced in the local public school building design process with a goal to support increased learning and productivity in schools. Improved educational spaces can then be evaluated according to benchmarks set in the architectural program itself.
Smolders, KCHJ, and YAW de Kort. "Proposal for an Iaps 2012 Symposium:lighting, Mental Well-Being and Performance." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Recent chronobiology research has shown that lighting is important for health and performance. However, most of these studies are performed at night or under unnatural conditions (e.g. after sleep or light deprivation). This symposium discusses the psychological effects of light during daytime. More specifically, this symposium focuses on whether exposure to natural and/or artificial light can improve people's feelings of alertness, vitality and mood, restore their attention and replenish their resources, and enhance cognitive performance during daytime. We start with an overview of current literature investigating lighting effects on performance and mood, and a discussion of the potential benefit of light for attention restoration. Subsequently, an experiment will be presented exploring the effect of the amount and color of white light on ego replenishment and vitality. A preference study investigates whether these alerting and vitalizing effects of light are also reflected in individuals' light preferences. In addition, the potential benefits of exposure to blue light for older people will be discussed in this symposium. Thus, this symposium will present diverse studies investigating the alerting and vitalizing effects of light focusing on psychological mechanisms. Anna Steidle, Alexander Zill, & Lioba Werth. The impact of indoor lighting on human performance and affect: A meta-analysis. Yvonne de Kort, Karin Smolders, & Femke Beute. Lighting and self-regulation: Can light revitalise the depleted ego? Karin Smolders & Yvonne de Kort. How do you like your light in the morning? Preferences for light settings as a function of time, daylight contribution, alertness and mood. Conrad Schmoll, Jenny Roe, Christelle Tendo, Colin Goudie, Peter Aspinall, David McNair & Bal Dhillon. An eye to health: Non-visual effects of blue light for older people.
White, M. "Proposed Symposium: the Blue Gym: Health and Well-Being from Aquatic Environments." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. "Symposium Overview:A growing body of research suggests that exposure to natural environments is good for people's mental and physical health (Maas et al., 2009; Mitchell and Popham, 2008, Berman, Jonides & Kaplan, 2008; Hartig, et al., 2003), especially when combined with physical activity (Bowler et al., 2010; Thompson Coon et al., 2011).To date however most of this research has considered the value of Green space (i.e. parks, woodlands, moors etc). This symposium extends this research by considering the mental and physical health benefits of exposure to, and exercise in and around, Blue Space environments (i.e. coast and inland waterways). Recent experimental evidence suggests that Blue Spaces are associated with more positive emotional responses than Green space and seen as more restorative (White et al., 2010; 2011). Thus the health and well-being benefits of Blue space may be particularly strong. The five presentations all examine this issue in different settings and explore policy implications in terms of supporting health and well-being. The first presentation considers the restorative potential of sub-aquatic environments focusing on the importance of biodiversity in a large tank at the UK's National Marine Aquarium. The second presentation examines the trade-off between the benefits for human well-being from coastal visits and pressures on marine habitats. The third talk presents data on child well-being associated with a 12 week surfing programme with children excluded from, or at risk of exclusion from, mainstream school. The third presentation outlines original analysis of two years of Natural England's, Monitoring Engagement with the Natural Environment Survey (2009-2011) with a focus on comparing the psychological benefits of leisure activities in Blue vs. Green spaces. The final presentation considers data from the 2001 Census of England examining the relationship between self-reported health and how close people live to the coast. Contributors (Presenter = first named): 1. Deborah Cracknell, Mathew White, Sabine Pahl & Michael Depledge: The Health and Well-being Benefits of a Visit to the National Marine Aquarium. 2. Kayleigh Wyles, Sabine Pahl & Richard Thompson: "I do like to be beside the seaside": A field study on the psychological benefits of going to the coast3. Amanda Hignett, Mathew White, Sabine Pahl & Mod Lefroy: Riding the Wave: Health and Well-being from a Surfing Programme for Children Excluded from Mainstream School.4. Katherine Ashbullby, Mathew White, Sabine Pahl & Michael Depledge: Well-being from Leisure Activities in Green and Blue Environments: Results from a National Survey.5. Benedict Wheeler, Mathew White & Michael Depledge: Costal Proximity and Human Well-Being: A Population Level Analysis. "
Wener, R. "Proposing a Program of Post Occupancy Evaluation for Olympic Sites." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. The Olympic Game stake place on a complex multiuse site, rebuilt every 4 years, that has intensive use for 2 weeks of the games followed by a different use afterward. POEs could be extremely valuable in addressing on-going design problems and creating an iterative process that would improve the prototype with every experience.Text: Billions of dollars are invested in significant urban planning and infrastructure efforts for each Olympic Games. The same essential site is built every four years in a different city, providing the potential to learn from previous experience and outcomes through an iterative design and evaluation process that addresses technical and behavioral aspects of design. Olympic sites are also unique because after the games much of the site is converted for other uses. Each site, then has two sets of uses and users. The athletic and temporary residential facilities have to support and house up to 10,000 athletes, plus coaches and support personnel for several highly stressful weeks. Millions of visitors flood the venues and other areas of the city and region. Issues of environment as it relates to stress and performance come to the fore, as do questions of wayfinding and orientation. Security concerns have become a significant factor in design and operation.Cross-cultural issues are also critical in these sites – people from every nation in the world use the same facilities at the same time for the same purpose. The potential for using these evaluations to study cultural differences in use and perception of space is significant.We propose to use this session for an open discussion, engaging the attendees in a dialogue of conceptual and methodological approaches to POE in an applied setting, including consideration of the potential for creating an international team that could approach the International Olympic Committee and various national Olympic Committees with proposals to carry out such a research effort. Such an effort would be best supported by international environment & behavior organizations, such as IAPS, EDRA, PAPER, MERA, EBRA, etc.
Cervinka, R, R Hemmelmeier-Händel, I Hämmerle, and K Röderer. "Psychological Assessment of Hospital Gardens and Options for Redesign." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Green spaces have many positive effects on peoples' well-being and health. This is valid for hospital gardens in particular, as the users of hospital gardens are notedly in need of nature's stress reducing and recreational effects. Hospital gardens are mainly designed by urban planners and architects. Peoples' experiences in such hospital gardens are of vital importance but stay unstudied in most cases. Prior research (Haidl et al., 2010) clearly demonstrated the positive effects of hospital garden redesign on individuals' experiences, independent of the physical appearance of the gardens. We adapted the method and applied it to hospital gardens that currently are under reconstruction. We compared peoples experiences of four hospital gardens in Lower Austria with an ideal hospital garden by using an adapted version of the classical semantic differential. First results show that the four semantic differential (SD) patterns differ among each other and from the ideal garden, according to their natural features. Differences between the settings were attributed to specific structural design properties. In cooperation with a landscape planner, options and recommendations for the redesign of the hospital gardens were developed in a participatory process, together with the hospital staff.So far, findings revealed the influence of structural properties of gardens on the experience of the garden settings. The SD is a simple, economic and reliable measure of evaluating individuals' experiences and impressions and making design features ascertainable and objectifiable. The integration of both psychological methods and methods of landscape planning in pre- and post-occupancy evaluation exceeds the benefits of traditional technical evaluations common in hospital planning.
Martínez-Soto, J, L Gonzales-Santos, and F Barrios. Psychological Environmental Restoration: an Evaluation of Some Neural Correlates In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Psychological environmental restoration (PER) is a process related with a previous deficit condition (i.e. environment stress), by which subjects search for their recovery of cognitive resources and psychophysiological response (Van den Berg, Hartig & Staats, 2007). In recent years the specialized literature cite few articles that consider some physiological variables (i.e. cardiac frequency, galvanic response, among others) and subjective measurements related to the PER. Evidence of the psychophysiological correlates of such restorative effect is well established; nevertheless no neural correlates of this process have been described using functional neuroimaging.In this study we document the neural correlates of one possible PER mechanism, related to the exposition of different imaged scenarios with various restorative capacities and show the different cerebral structures activated during the restorative experience.ObjectivesTo document the neural correlates of the PER mechanism using an event related fMRI paradigm, localizing the cerebral structures activated during restoration process.Estimate the comparison of the different restorative effects (cognitive, emotive and neural) related to three scenario classifications with different restorative potential.MethodsTwenty one healthy volunteers (10 males) participated in this study after signing an informed consent letter, were divided in three groups. All the neuroimaging was done using a G.E. MR750 3.0T scanner and the 32 channel head coil. Once positioned in the scanner and using the MR compatible presentation system (NordicNeuroLab, Bergen, Norway) all subjects answered the 'Stress List-ST' (King, Burrows & Stanley, 1993) to establish their initial state, then they were exposed to a 6 minutes of stress inducting video (Faces of Death No.1; Brand, Versput, & Oving, 1997) and the ST was applied again to determine their state. Then each group was imaged using an EPI-BOLD sequence projecting the restorative valence grouped images followed by other session solving the Stroop paradigm (Stroop, 1935). Once the scanner was silent the subjects answered the ST for last time. All the functional images were the transferred to off line workstations and analyzed using SPM 8 (Statistical Parametric Mapping; Wellcome Trust Center for Neuroimaging, UCL).We will present the analysis of the results form the neurobiological relevance in PER.
Milfont, TL, J McClure, and PKC Diniz. Psychometric Parameters of a Modified Version of the General Ecological Behavioural (Geb) Scale In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. This study is an attempt to adapt a measure to assess environmental behavioural intentions. The original version of the General Ecological Behavioural (GEB) scale is a composite of 50 performances proposed by Kaiser and Wilson (2004) to assess self-reported past conduct. Considering that researchers often assess intention rather than past conduct, we propose a modified version of the GEB scale composed of items that are written as 'intention' items which describe ecological actions that the participants intend to engage in or not, with a 6-point Likert-type scale ranging from 0 (not at all willing) to 5 (extremely willing). A total of 206 undergraduate students from Victoria University of Wellington took part in an exploratory study where they answered the proposed modified version of GEB. The participants were 62% female and 38% male, with mean age of 19 (DP = 3.47). Analyses first examined whether the items could discriminate participants in terms of their scores, with results suggesting that nine items did not. Exploratory factor analysis was then conducted with the remaining 41 items. Nine components emerged, but the first component explained most of the variance (27.5%), and the majority of the items loaded onto the first unrotated factor. Using the criteria of factor loadings > .30 and corrected item-total > .40, a total of 28 items remained which yielded Cronbach’s alpha of .94. To create two equally reliable measures of environmental intentions, the 28 items were split into two halves of 14 items each based on the behavioural difficulty of the items (Kaiser, Byrka, & Hartig, 2010). Both versions were shown to provide similar psychometric parameters, with alphas of .89 and .87, respectively. In sum, the modified version of the GEB scale is a psychometrically sound instrument that can be used for research aiming to measure behavioural intention. Additionally, the two psychometrically equal halves of the measure can be useful on experimental designs using pre-test and post-test. We discuss the several statistical steps taken into consideration to decide on a reliable measure.
Owczarek, D. "Public Consultation in Poland." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Public participation in young Polish democracy is currently one of the crucial issues especially in context of development of new forms of cooperation between citizens and public institutions. Effectiveness of communication between citizens and public institutions influences quality of decisions in all aspects of public goods management i.e.quality of environment and health institutions, urban development, security. Not only legal system and organisational culture but also competencies of both officials and citizens play key role in public decision-making.Thus extensive diagnosis of public consultation mechanisms is fundamental for understanding this aspect of civil society in Poland.In the years 2010-2011 foundation the Unit for Research and Social Innovation ‘Shipyard’ in cooperation with research agency SMG/KRC carried out a research project ‘The Effectiveness of mechanisms for public consultation in Poland’ supported by Ministry of Labour and Social Policy.The research objectives were as follows:-Elaboration of model of public consultation’s effectiveness-Detailed analysis of effectiveness of public consultation of several types of official acts at all levels of public administration i.e. Strategy of development, Master plan, Environmental Strategy, NGO’s Cooperation Programme, Social Policy Strategy, Education Strategy, Employment Strategy, Budget.-Analysis of institutional and organisational context of public consultation in Poland-Formulation of multifaceted set of recommendations for research, promotion and improvement of public consultationMethod and sample: The whole project consisted of number of research modules which gave comprehensive diagnosis of public consultation in Poland:-Six desk researches-Inventory research on full sample of all units of public administration in Poland (n=1819)-Inventory and qualitative research in all Polish ministries (17)-Qualitative research on sample of representatives of public administration units and representatives of NGO’s (n=157)-Case studies of public consultation at all levels of public administration (35)-Research on 13 consultative bodies-Quantitative survey (CAPI) on officers and NGO’s (n=1434)-‘Good practices’ of public consultation (7 Polish, 8 foreign)-Omnibus survey on representative sample of Poles (CAPI, n=1005)-IdeaBlog qualitative research on experts both officials and representatives of NGO’s (n=60)Results: As one of the main outcomes a three-dimensional model of public consultation has been constructed (Process, Practices and Perception)which can be applied for other researches, evaluations and practical purposes (conducting of public consultation). The research provided with massive database (qualitative and quantitative) at all levels (from governmental to local) which can be used in various ways. Selected results will be presented during the conference, especially those related to human-environment studies.
Clausen, C, and W Gunn. "Re Framing What Innovation Could Be: Observation, Juxtaposition, and Challenging Taken for Granted Assumptions." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. "In our paper we focus on understandings of innovation within a participatory innovation research project. We ask do company and university partners learn from being involved in a participatory innovation project? and How do they uptake "users" knowledge within an organization or institution? Despite company and university researchers involved in the development of indoor climate products and systems of control claims that there is limited innovation potential generated from users of indoor products and systems, and that there are only small movements (if any) within existing frameworks of innovation in the building industry resulting from users knowledge - drawing on materials generated through the three-year SPIRE (Sønderborg Participatory Innovation Research Centre) research project, "Indoor Climate and Quality of Life"- offers an alternative approach towards designing indoor climate based upon challenging taken for granted assumptions of innovations. Rather than reproducing existing ways of doing innovation we claim that through being confronted with design materials generated through ethnographic and design anthropological investigations different kinds of imaginings were made of what could be possible. Learning through practices of participatory innovation takes place not through changing "others" practices but through re-framing what innovation could be. Taking up user knowledge presents difficulties for doing innovation in a system where completely different kinds of knowledge(s) exist. By involving knowledge(s) generated through ethnographic and design anthropological investigations configuration of knowledge(s) was challenged, where design takes place was questioned and the notion of the user was reconsidered. Instead of problematizing the uptake of user knowledge(s) of what it means to inhabit indoor climate we present a more positive account. "
Clark, G. Reall Eco-Village In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. The £10m REALL Eco-village is a multi phase development that seeks to become a standard test facility for the study of construction, technology and occupant behaviour. The first phase of the village is 10 eco-homes that are designed to match industry requirements and future building regulations of 2013 and net zero regulated carbon emissions of 2016. The research aims of the frist phase is to understand energy use and behaviour related to homes with varying thermal mass, ventilation strategy and advanced renewable and low carbon technologies. The second and third phases of 50 homes will be developed with an industry development partne r. The homes will be occupied by post graduate students with a population of 20 students for first phase and a total for all phases of 140 students. Students will be screened in collaboration with Social Science department of HWU and Dr Eddie Edgerton of UWS to create a controlled population measured against the Scottish Energy Attitude Survey. The project is therefore considered relevant to all three sub-thems of the conference: geographic scale-Neighbourhood; Design-Eco-homes and place making; Implementation-Objective and Subjective Post Occupancy Evaluation of occupants and eco-homes at 3 year cycles. The eco-village will be designed to standard industry life span of 60 years, and therefore this project is set become Scotlands main test facility for the study of domestic occupant behaviour, construction, technology, energy use and carbon emissions, and low carbon design and construction skills for the 21st Century. Early project supporters/partners include: Scottish Government, Scottish Enterprise, Scottish Buildings Standards, Edinburgh Climate Change centre, UK Green Building Council, Scottish Water, Mitsubishi Electric, IES VE, ISLI, Alba Sciences, and 7 other Scottish Universities outlined below. However, we are targeting a number of other partners across UK house building and construction industry including: Skanska, Wates, Keir, Stewart Milne, Himin Solar, Dakin, Siemens to name a few and including a number of Scottish SMEs. The REALL high level project aims address 1, 2, 3,4 workstreams: • Undertake first class scientific research in a unique demonstration project that incorporates a) building construction; b) technologies and c) behaviours in system optimisation research. • Provide evidence on which investment decisions on building form, construction and technologies combinations can be made for low carbon housing for a wide range of stakeholders including policy and decision makers, architects, developers, house owners and product retailers. • Validate theoretical performance assumptions and models in a living laboratory, providing behavioural bandwidths for building / technology combinations. • Build and model REALL as a climate change adaptation test bed investigating comfort and health implications of different constructions and technologies in extreme current and future climates Research Partners Strathclyde University- Stirling Howieson, Indoor Air QualityUniversity of West of Scotland- Dr Eddie Edgerton, Occupant BehaviourMacintosh School of Architecture- Dr Tim Sharpe, Energy Use and Occupant BehaviourGlasgow Caledonian University- Dr Keith Baker, Energy use and occupant behaviourUniversity of Dundee- Low Carbon Domestic BuildingsAbertay University-Dr David Blackwood, Virtual Modelling of occupant behaviourEdinburgh University- Dr John Lee, Behavioural Modelling, ESALA and School of Infomatics
Suffolk, C. "Rebound and Spillover Effects: Occupant Behaviour After Energy Efficiency Improvements are Carried Out in Low-Income Housing." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. The UK government has set targets to reduce carbon emissions by 80% (from the 1990 baseline) by 2050 (Defra, 2008). Buildings contribute around 50% of the energy used in the world and of the buildings that will be standing in 2050, 87% already exist. Domestic dwellings account for between 25 and 27% of CO2 emissions (Boardman, 2007) and it is suggested that improvements in energy efficiency will reduce CO2 emissions in existing buildings.Although the energy intensity of industrial economies fell before the recession, the absolute energy use attributed to UK households (and associated CO2 emissions) continued to increase (Druckman et al. 2010). One explanation for the failure to reduce energy consumption is that occupants ‘take-back’ some of the potential energy savings. This ‘rebound effect’ for energy efficiency improvements can occur both directly or indirectly and the indirect rebound effects remain largely unexplored (Druckman et al. 2010).Research also suggests that taking part in ‘simple and painless’ behaviours will lead to increases in motivation for the individual to adopt other (possibly, more ambitious) related behaviours; known as 'spill over' (Thøgerson and Crompton, 2009).The main aim of this research is to investigate the spillover and rebound effects of occupant behaviour after energy efficiency improvements have been carried out in their homes.It is proposed that a longitudinal study will be conducted to examine the behaviour of occupants in existing properties in Wales which are due to have energy efficiency improvements carried out by the Welsh Government (Arbed Phase 2).Under the Arbed phase 2 scheme, 1560 homes per annum (for three years) will have energy efficiency improvements carried out. All of the participants will be social housing tenants. The control group will also be eligible for the Arbed phase 2 energy efficiency improvements, but these improvements will be carried out at a later date.The participants will be asked to complete a questionnaire before and after the energy efficiency improvements are made. A selection of participants will also be asked to complete an additional questionnaire one year later. A sub-sample will have physical monitoring (indoor air temperature recorded and gas and electricity meter readings) carried out in the heating season of 2012/2013 and 2013/2014. The first wave of data collection is due to be carried out in February 2012 and the data will be analysed using SPSS.The findings from this research should help to contribute to understanding how people respond to energy efficiency improvements and whether they ‘take-back’ some (or all) of the energy savings made and/or whether their behaviours spill over to other related or non-related behaviours.
Hussain, N, and A Jorgensen. "Recreational Forests: Use, Experience and Motivation, Selected Sites in Selangor, Malaysia." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Forest give many benefits to human beings such as economy, biological and ecological resources such as food, clean water and etc., also as a recreational place. Research suggests that recreational forests have the potential to provide many benefits to urbanites related to health and well being (Konijnendijk, 2008), such as restoration (Kaplan and Kaplan, 1989) and improvement in mood states (Ulrich et al., 1991). Recreational forests were established within the permanent forest estate in Peninsular Malaysia by the Federal Forest Act 1978 to preserve areas for recreation, ecotourism and to raise public awareness regarding forestry. These recreational forests are unique to Malaysia because of their physical characteristic and provide forest amenities such as picnic areas, waterfalls, green ambiance and etc. for the urbanites. Two study sites have been selected which were Ampang Recreational Forest and Kanching Recreational Forest located in Selangor state. Selangor has been chosen because it is the most develop state in Malaysia. The physical characteristic of Ampang Recreational Forest is more flat compare to Kanching Recreational Forest is steep and sloppy. The methods used in this study are self-administered questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. The questionnaire was divided into six sections (Section 1: Visits to the recreational forest; 2: Attitudes towards physical features; 3: Motivation for using forest; 4: Feelings when in the forest; 5: Expectations towards recreational forest and 6: Demographic information). Factor analysis results from a self-administered questionnaire presented here as a partial from a PhD research. It is to answer the first research question which is to explore factors that motivate visitors to engage in activities and use of the recreational forests. Overall, there are seven factors (forest amenities; restorative experience; inter-generational experience; self-actualization; incivilities; perceived danger and fear in the forest; and younger activity preference) explaining motive of forest use and experiences while in the forests. Overall, forest users felt positive about the recreational forests. This study is important to help the management (the forestry department/Selangor Tourism) to understand the forest users' need, motivation and experience while in the recreational forests in terms of planning, design and management. This is to ensure the recreational forests could sustain for the future generation.
Jones, K, GM Huebner, and J Cooper. "Reducing Domestic Energy Consumption - the Effect of Behavioural Interventions and the Role of Comfort, Stock Condition, and Psychological Variables." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. To achieve environmental sustainability, energy usage has to be reduced drastically. Reducing energy consumption in the private realm is of prime importance, considering that 27% of all carbon emission stem from domestic households. In order to successfully reduce energy consumption, it is essential to understand what determines the amount of energy used in a household. Stock condition in terms of energy efficiency of the building and occupants' behavioural patterns are of great impact but are often studied in isolation. We conducted a study in which we assessed the success of two behavioural interventions while taking stock condition and psychological variables into account. Fifty five social housing tenants participated in the study. An initial home visit was conducted in spring and summer 2011 during which tenants were interviewed about their behavioural practices regarding home and energy use, their definition of comfort and their comfort actions. Participants also filled in a questionnaire measuring psychological variables such as awareness of consequences of energy consumption, personal norm, and environmental worldview. Participating landlords provided stock condition information, including the Standard Assessment Procedure-Rating (SAP), building fabric and building services information, and floor area of the each dwelling. Participants were split into three groups. Meter readings were collected from each group on a monthly basis. One group, the local benchmarking group, received monthly feedback on their energy consumption in comparison to that of people in their local area. They also received a poster on a monthly basis with information on ways of saving energy by changing behaviour. Energy consumption was normalized by square meter to take the size of a dwelling into account. A second group served as a control group for the local benchmarking group; they came from a similar area but did not receive information on their energy consumption or the posters. A third group received a user-guide with detailed, specific information on how to save energy by behavioural means. The interventions were in place for six months. A second home visit in February 2012 was completed to assess if changes had occurred to the building fabric, home appliances used, lifestyles, and also in psychological variables, such as a greater awareness of environmental issues. Data from the initial visit showed that warmth is the key aspect of comfort, and that money is a motivator for saving energy even though concern for the environment is also high. The presentation will present results of the effectiveness of the interventions, and will show how stock condition, comfort meanings, and psychological variables contribute to the success or non-success of the interventions. The implications of these results for social housing landlords and policy makers are discussed, with emphasis on how to use this information to reduce energy consumption in housing.
Masoudinejad, S. Relation to the Sky in Built Environment;investigating Restorative Potential of a Window View to the Sky (Wvs) in Dense Cities In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Tehran, capital of Iran, is a dense city where many people are enclosed within built environments and they are unable to access the natural views even to the sky. Studies indicate that these consequences of densification have potential negative implications on people’s health, which designers and planners share responsibilities. Based on Iranian culture, traditional architecture, and behavioral science theories, present research aims to find a design policy for this problem. It assumes that having a Window View to the Sky (WVS) can be a restorative resource and compensate the poor living conditions in Tehran.Iranian culture is evidence that the sky has had a noticeable role in Iranians’ minds, believes, behaviors, and behavior settings. But in modern architecture this matter has been neglected and it seems that there is a great conflict between what people actually need and what behavior settings are offered to them. Moreover, recent architectural studies about windows and sky views are limited to the field of conservation concerning natural light.On the other hand, studies in environmental psychology imply that limitation of view within built elements is not preferable from habitants (Purcell et al, 2001) and can lead to sensory deprivation and so, to sever psychological anomalies (Parr, 1966; Bell et al, 2001).Increasing studies show that the psychophysiological problems of urban living arouse restoration needs (van den Berg et al, 2007: 92). Regarding to the modern life style which keeps people indoors, a restorative resource should be easily accessible during everyday life. Windows can satisfy this demand and provide a micro-restorative experience (Kaplan, 2001). Also, natural elements in views can increase the effectiveness of windows (Kaplan, 1983, 2001; Tennessen & Cimprich, 1995; Ulrich et al., 1991; Talbot & Kaplan, 1991). But, these studies are usually focused on greenery and there are limited studies about human relation to the sky. To find a solution for the research problem and to bridge aforesaid gaps in architecture and behavioral science, the research purposes to examine the importance of a WVS for people living in dense urban circumstances. Therefore, the research questions are: is a WVS significant for urban people; does a WVS have a restorative potential to affect human wellbeing; what are attributes of a beneficial WVS?Research methodology includes a deep interview with Iranian habitants to explore how they experience the sky. Interview results show that this relation is important for most of participants; dominant features for the sky are infinity, depth, color, and changing; and dominant effects of viewing the sky are calming and release. Also to find out the restorative potential of WVS, the research measures fascination and being away factors via PRS (Hartig et al) in a survey. This step of the research is ongoing, which will be followed by a study to find out properties and dimensions of a beneficial WVS.
Scopelliti, M, P Semenzato, G Sanesi, F Salbitano, L Portoghesi, R Lafortezza, MG Agrimi, G Carrus, and F Ferrini. "Relations Among Biodiversity, Perceived Restorativeness and Affective Qualities of Urban and Peri-Urban Natural Settings and Residents' Well Being." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Research on restorative environments has frequently compared the restorative potential of natural and built environments, and showed a higher impact of the former on human psychological functioning and well being. In addition to the psychological outcomes of being in contact with restorative environments, the process and mechanisms leading to restoration in nature are a relevant issue for psychological research in this field. The role of biodiversity might also be important in this respect: it is arguable that biodiversity richness is a relevant feature positively related to the restorative potential of natural settings.In a first study, five typologies of urban and peri-urban green spaces in Italy were identified, ranging from a minimum of biodiversity and a maximum of man-made elements to a maximum of biodiversity and a minimum of man-made elements: an urban plaza with green elements, an urban park, a pinewood, a botanic garden, a peri-urban natural protected area.A convenience sample (N = 696) was contacted in four different Italian cities. Self-reported measures of individual’s experience in the environment (length and frequency of visits, activities performed, perceived restorativeness, affective qualities of the place, perceived well being during and after the visits) were taken through a paper and pencil questionnaire. The relationship between individual exposure to green spaces and perceived well being, as well as the mediating role of perceived restorativeness and affective qualities upon this relation was tested. Results showed that perceived restorative properties are the highest in the peri-urban green areas, and significantly increasing as a function of biodiversity levels. Results also confirmed that frequency and duration of visits positively predict self-reported well being, and as expected, this relation is mediated by perceived restorativeness and positive affective qualities of the settings.In a second study, we aimed at replicating these findings through a laboratory experiment. Subjects (N = 178) from the same four cities were presented with pictures taken from the same five settings of study 1. In addition, measures of also other possible psychological correlates were also taken (e.g., pro-environmental values, attitudes, connectedness to nature, place attachment). To check for the role of familiarity, subjects were also asked to assess pictures taken from five similar settings located in a different city. Results confirmed the pattern emerged in the first field study, and showed also the role of the other social psychological factors considered. The theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Doyle, PC, and AMB Day. "Relationships with Nature in Individuals Treated for Cancer: Experiences from the Field Using Constructivist Grounded Theory." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. BACKGROUND: Individuals treated for cancer experience myriad disease– and treatment-related sequelae that contribute to psychological and symptom-related distress (Ahles & Saykin, 2001; Aktas et al., 2010; Carlson et al., 2011; Gilchrist et al., 2009). In the environmental psychology literature, fostering experiences with nature and the natural environment has contributed to directed attention restoration (e.g., Berto, 2005; Cimprich & Ronis, 2003; Hartig et al., 2003), recovery from stress (Heerwagen, 1990; Ulrich et al., 1991), reduced pain (Diette et al., 2003), and various other health-related benefits (Maas et al., 2006; Moore, 1981; Ulrich, 1984; van den Berg et al., 2010). There exists the potential that promoting human-nature relationships in individuals treated for cancer might contribute to lower experiences of distress, as well as promote improved experiences of health, quality of life, and well-being.PURPOSE: The purpose of this presentation is to share with attendees our experience using the constructivist grounded theory methodology (ConGTM; Charmaz, 2006) relative to the study of human-nature-health relationships. The purpose of the study being presented was to explore how individuals treated for cancer relate to nature and the natural environment, and to develop a theoretical framework highlighting the underlying processes that manifest such relationships.METHOD: The ConGTM is located within the interpretivist/constructivist paradigm, and espouses a relativist ontology and subjective-transactional epistemology. In ConGTM, the role of the researcher is explicitly acknowledged throughout data collection, interpretation, and analyses. Individuals diagnosed and treated for cancer were recruited and theoretically sampled from local cancer centres, support groups, and the broader community. Data were collected using in-depth, semi-structured interviews, and interview transcripts were transcribed verbatim. Data were interpreted and analyzed following the constant comparative method, which iteratively compares base units of coded data to developed categories, themes, and the emerging theoretical framework (Charmaz, 1990, 2006, 2009).DISCUSSION: At the time of abstract submission, data collection had just begun and, therefore, it was not then clear what exactly the nature of our experiences would be. In addition to discussing the resultant framework, we will share a candid discussion of this methodology, including our successes and drawbacks, as well as general strengths and weaknesses of ConGTM in human-environment studies. In the environmental psychology field, qualitative methods are not often adopted, and it is unclear if the ConGTM has been previously employed in this area. Thus, we believe this presentation will introduce researchers to novel methods that permit a deeper understanding of human-environment relationships.
Fornara, F, and V Cerina. Relocation Experience and Psychological Well-Being in the Elderly: a Field Study in Sardinia (Italy) In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. The progressive and rapid aging of the world population can be considered today one of the most global and epoch-making processes especially in industrialized countries, and it has profound implications for many facets of human life. According to a recent report by United Nations, today Italy is one of the countries with the highest levels of longevity and, considering European Union countries, with the highest percentage of over-sixty-five, but Italian residential facilities for older adults need to be developed yet, despite their considerable frailty and needs for services and care (Ageing Society-Osservatorio Terza Età, 2007). The present contribution concerns a field study focusing on the topic of residential change in the elderly. The aim of the study is to analyze and compare the effects of different spatial-physical and social-functional features of settings in influencing psycho-social-environmental responses of elderly users. The study participants (N=114) were elderly residents (i.e., above 65 years old without cognitive impairments) of several sheltered houses, which differ for their degree of spatial-physical humanization. A set of measures covering the various aspects of the humanization construct (such as humanization referred to external spaces, to internal spaces and to social-functional aspects of the examined residential setting, see Fornara et al., 2006) and other psycho-environmental and intra-psychological dimensions were inserted in a questionnaire filled in by the participants. Validated tools or ad hoc adaptation of pre-existing scales were used for measuring the investigated dimensions. Significant relationships were found among objective degree of spatial-physical humanization, perceived residential environment qualities, and other individual responses, such as psychological wellbeing, residential satisfaction, perceived control and feeling of broken home attachment. A key finding of this study is the prominent role of psycho-environmental dimensions (such as perceived residential environment qualities, residential satisfaction and feeling of broken home attachment) in positively influencing the experience of elderly people who have faced relocation into a sheltered house, while individual and intra-psychological dimensions seem to have less weight. Perceived residential environment qualities and affective dimension of feelings of broken home attachment seem to influence also resident’s perceived control on the environment, that is, as underlined by literature, one of the most important component for the achievement of a “successful aging”. These outcomes provide empirical support for the importance of design features of health-care environments for fostering health and wellbeing of the users, especially when they are elderly people.
M Szatanek, Jamrozik -. "Research on the Social Space in the Rehabilitation Hospital for Children in Radziszów, Poland." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Hospitals cease to be treated like a “ healing machine” by patients and the medical staff. Treatment facilities should be balanced between strict medicine treatment and the healing space, which has a positive influence on the patient’s mind and body. Attention focusing so far on the medical diagnosis needs to be expanded to encompass sociological, psychological, aesthetical factors. These aspects have not been studied, so it is necessary to initiate new research, draw new conclusions and implement them into the design process.The paper presents the research results on the social space in hospitals, obtained in the rehabilitation hospital for children in Radziszów, Poland. The social space in the present research was defined as a readily available place for patients, their parents or guardians and staff in the time when no treatment procedures are taking place.The hospital under study carries a comprehensive rehabilitation for children and teenagers suffering from orthopedic, neurological rheumatic disorders and osteoporosis. The specificity of the treatment influences the obtained information.Third year students from the Faculty of Architecture at the Silesian University of Technology in Gliwice took part in the project. The main aim of the research was to obtain information about spatial preferences and demonstrate the shortcomings of the social space facilities. The data obtained can be useful in showing new directions in designing social space at health care facilities. The following research methods have been used:- workshop with children 1 – 12 years;- workshop with teenagers under 18 years;- interviews with patients ‘parents and teachers;- surveys with doctors, nurses and medical staff.During research interviews several research tools appropriate for each target group have been used:- art classes;- drawing classes;- projects;- surveys;- interviews;- notes;- photographic analysis etc.The study showed children’s likes, needs and dreams. The awareness of these can help to cure patients faster than without it. The study indicated that there is no leisure rooms for fun, science or recreation.The author also indicates free spaces and room possible to be arranged or rearranged for these purposes.The undertaken analysis has shown that social spaces are required. Studies showed how the variety of social spaces could satisfy users’ needs and indicated the time when the patients could use it.The results have been summarized, interpreted and translated to the “architectural language”, which makes the presented project a source of valuable information helpful in the designing process.
Kammerbauer, M. "Research-Based Planning for Urban Disaster Recovery: Integrated Theoretical and Methodological Perspectives." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. This proposed contribution deals with integrated socio-spatial theoretical and methodological research frameworks for planning for urban disaster recovery and is aimed at conference theme 2. (Planning, Design and Evaluation in Human Environments) and sub-theme 2.4. (Methodological innovations in environment-behaviour studies). Natural disasters that impact cities represent a particularly critical example of human experience in the built environment, and rebuilding cities after disaster comprises complex tasks of policy and planning. However, there is a general lack of long-term research on urban disasters and disaster recovery, and a recent prominent example is Hurricane Katrina's impact on New Orleans in 2005, resulting in an ongoing and uneven recovery process. Yet, integrated socio-spatial approaches may not only facilitate innovative theoretical and methodological frameworks to research such cases, but also contribute to corresponding planning recommendations. The author intends to discuss his long-term research on social, spatial, and institutional aspects of planning for urban disaster recovery in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina, which incorporates case study data of the city's Lower Ninth Ward area and formulates resulting planning recommendations. This research is based on an integrated socio-spatial framework that addresses knowledge gaps in both the urbanist and disaster research literature and employs a mixed-method case study methodology with theory-based triangulation of social, spatial, and institutional aspects of urban disaster recovery. It was conducted from 2007 to 2011 and features empirical data from two field visits in 2007 and 2009, while comprising a novel approach for comparative research of impacted and receptor communities. The research perspective is planning-oriented, and socio-spatial constellations of inequality/vulnerability emerge as significant influences on the effectiveness of applied and ongoing planning strategies. Such integrated approaches may benefit research-based policy and planning for urban disaster recovery in the future.
Isagawa, T, and R Ohno. "Residents' Behavior in a Potential Area for Tsunami Disaster After the Great East Japan Earthquake." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. On March 11, 2011, Japan was hit by the Great East Japan Earthquake that caused massive tsunami along the shore of Tohoku to Kanto region and brought serious damage. More than 15,000 people were killed. Since the delay of evacuation had caused many victims, importance of the behavior studies in field of disaster prevention measurement has been recognized. To understand how coastal residents made decision and how they behaved at urgent situation become important because this knowledge will aid in the reconsideration of effective announcement in case of emergency and disaster education. Right after the earthquake, meteorological agency gave a large-scale tsunami warning including the coast area of Onjuku town, Chiba prefecture where the local government also issued an evacuation counsel to coastal residents. In this study, we distributed to all households in the coastal area of Onjuku town, totally 2,272 questionnaire forms. We asked to respond only who were in the town at the time of the earthquake. The questionnaire asked about their behavior in the form of flowchart and mapping with which we can identify where they were at the time of the earthquake and trace how they behaved after that as well as the reason of their choice such as knowledge and information used. With these, we aim to clarify the influential factors on their decision-making and path choice. From the data, 451 responses (collection rate: 19.8%), we analyzed residents' behavioral patterns. As a result, respondents acquired information from various source, while the degree of influence on decision-making varied with what type of information and how they received. Behavioral patterns are different according to the location and situation at the time of earthquake. At the same time, we found some risky behaviors made by the residents; some people came back to the home near the sea and others went to the seaside to watch tsunami.
Johansson, M, T Laike, and L Kuhn. "Residents' Perception of Outdoor Led-Lighting During the Winter Season." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Light Emitting Diodes (LED) are considered to have large energy saving potential, thereby constituting an ecologically sustainable alternative to conventional lighting. The spectral as well as lighting distribution from LED differs from conventional light sources. Knowledge of how this light source is perceived both initially and over time, and the possible effects on perceived accessibility and safety, is limited and thereby also its impact on social sustainability. The present study will provide insights for policy-making and implementation of LED in the outdoor environment of residential areas.Well-designed artificial lighting can increase the perceived safety and accessibility of out-door environments after dark (Painter, 1996), and subjective quality of light might be a better predictor than objective measures of illuminance regarding individuals´ psychological responses to the environment (Küller et al., 2006). The perceived brightness of the lighting along a footpath has been found important for accessibility, whereas hedonic tone along with brightness predicted perceived danger (Johansson et al., 2011). In an intervention study all conventional light sources in out-door public spaces of two multifamily residential areas were replaced by retrofit of LED´s. Residents above 18 years of age (n = 40) rated the quality of light, perceived danger and accessibility, while being outside on a weekday after dark at three occasions during the winter season. Assessments were made 1 month, five months and six months after installation.Preliminary analyses with ANOVA repeated measures design show that residents initial perceptions one month after installation of the LED is stable over the six month period, and initial differences in subjective lighting perception between the two investigated areas remained throughout the intervention period. The results will be presented in relation to the photometric measures obtained. The study will inform policy-makers on how future out-door lighting projects need to be designed, for example regarding retrofitting in residential areas, with focus on providing safe and secure, and at the same time energy efficient, out-door environments.
Passiatore, Y, S Pirchio, G Carrus, and M Scopelliti. "Restorative Effects of Nature in Child-Care Centres." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. The features of the physical environment can influence children cognitive, affective and social development. This is true also in educational settings, where the physical environment acts as a third teacher, in addition to the educator and the peers. Empirical research in environmental psychology has mainly investigated the role of the physical environment on children behaviour in primary and secondary schools, while less attention has been devoted to the analysis of child-care centres.This study investigates the effects of a specific environmental feature of child-care centres, namely the presence of natural space, on children well-being. A consistent bulk of research has shown that contact with nature promotes many beneficial outcomes. Among the others, psychological restoration, namely the recovery of an effective cognitive functioning and the reduction of stress level. In addition, nature can promote positive social interaction. In this study, we tested the hypotheses that contact with nature in child-care centres promotes psychological restoration and increases the quality of children’s social interaction. Children’s performance in structured activities and behaviour in free play after time spent in indoor space vs. outdoor green space were compared, controlling for several confounding variables (e.g. environmental quality of the indoor and outdoor space and classroom density).Results of a pilot study in a child-care centre in Rome, Italy, attended by 16 children (age range 18-36 months) suggest that contact with outdoor green space reduces stress levels and positively influence both children’s performance in a visual-spatial task and social behaviour. The main study involved 39 children (age range 18-36 months) attending three different child-care centres. Observations of children behaviours, with specific reference to attention in the activity performed, stress levels and quality of social interaction, were made in a longitudinal design during daily activities in the day-care centres.Results showed the positive effects of contact with nature on children’s cognitive functioning, stress reduction, and quality of social interaction: no significant difference in the dependent variables emerged in the activities before free play; conversely, after free play in the outdoor green vs. indoor space children showed more focused attention in the performed activity, reduced stress levels, and more positive social interaction. A further study in another child-care centre, in which more structured measures of the dependent variables were included (e.g., a cognitive test of attention) confirmed the positive effect of contact with nature for children in child-care centres.
Hata, T. Restorative Environments and Subjective Well-Being of Daycare Teachers In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Many restorative environment studies have examined restoration in daily lives. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between places people choose to restore and their subjective well-being. For participants, daycare teachers were selected. Due to national policy changes, duties of the daycare teachers in Japan are increasing. The stresses of the daycare teachers are known to influence the quality of childcare children receive. Therefore, the need to restore from stressed conditions is important not only for daycare teachers themselves but also for children and parents attending that daycare.This study was conducted as a pilot study and the participants were all teachers (n=27, 19 valid responses) in one certain authorized daycare in Kanagawa prefecture, Japan. The participants were asked to indicate their stressors, their place of restoration, and their psychological well-being using a questionnaire. The stressors were measured by asking participants to indicate how much of their stressors are of 'physical capacity', 'time constraint', 'interpersonal relationship' and 'others' in percentage (total of 100%). The average percentages indicated were 39%, 32%, 21% and 8%, respectively. Places participants usually go when they feel stressed out (restorative environments) were asked using open-ended questions. The places mentioned included their residences, neighborhoods, and teachers' lounge. In sum, 10 teachers' restorative environments were inside their residences and 9 teachers' restorative environments were out of their residences. Logistic regression analyses were adopted where location of the restorative environment (1 as 'in the residence' and 0 as 'out of the residence') was a dependent variable and stressors were an independent variables. The result showed that only 'time constraint' was statistically significant, and when 'time constraint' stressor exceeds 30%, the probability of restorative environment being inside of the residence exceeds 50% (i.e. the chance level). Subjective well-being was measured by Psychological Lively Scale - Revised (Tanaka et al., 2006) that has four subscales :'life satisfaction' 'negative mood' 'spirit of challenge' and 'emotional refreshment'. T-tests were conducted to test differences in subjective well-being between those whose restorative environment is inside of their residences and those whose restorative environment is out of their residences. The average for 'negative mood' was significantly higher for those whose restorative environment is inside of their residences. The average for 'emotional refreshment' was significantly higher for those whose restorative environment is out of their residences. An importance of improving nearby environments (e.g. teachers' lounge and residences) as restorative environments for daycare teachers was discussed.
Hignett, A, M White, S Pahl, and M Lefroy. "Riding the Wave: Health and Well-Being from a Surfing Programme for Children Excluded from Mainstream School." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Young people excluded from mainstream school in the UK are at particular risk of not participating in education, work, or training when they reach 16. This results in detrimental outcomes for both the young people concerned and society in general. Interventions that motivate and engage young people are one way of addressing this problem. There is increasing evidence that natural environments have a beneficial effect on people’s mental and physical health but most of this research has focused on green spaces such as parklands and woodlands. Our research, however, points to a special benefit of aquatic environments (blue space). We evaluated an established surfing intervention programme that by its very nature utilises the aquatic environment. Global Boarders Surf to Success intervention programme was designed for young people either already or at risk of social exclusion and includes aims to promote personal and social development and environment awareness.Two studies were conducted in order to quantify the anecdotal benefits that have been noticed for students following participation in the surf programme. Pupils from 2 Cornish Short Stay Schools and 3 Community Schools between the ages of 12 and 16 took part. Pupils from short stay schools have typically been excluded from mainstream education and many have social, emotional, and behavioural difficulties. Pupils from the community schools were considered to have similar difficulties by teachers of their respective schools. The pilot study compared the well-being of 25 children before and after 12 weeks on the surf programme with several measures, including self-report well-being questionnaires (the youth section of the British Household survey) and videoed interviews with the experimenter coded for positive and negative affect. The follow-up study comprised 67 participants and ran the following year from Easter to July. This study also measured heart rate, blood pressure, teacher reports on pupil behaviour (SEAL questionnaires), and how connected students felt to different areas of their life.Results from the pilot study showed that overall wellbeing had improved and participants had higher positive affect and lower negative affect following the surf programme. Study 2 replicated these findings and also found significantly lower heart rate and blood pressure following the surfing programme. Significant improvements in motivation and social skills were also reported by teachers. Beneficial effects were irrespective of school type. The most noticeable changes related to physical self-worth and appearance, a key predictor of global well-being at this age.These studies provide initial evidence of improved physiological and psychological well-being for those students that participated in the surf programme. The next step is to develop an adequate programme of control activities in order to compare the benefits of specific Blue Gym interventions with other activities.
Fyhri, A. "Risk Perception and Travel Behaviour in Norway and France." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. It has been assumed that risk perception can be an important factor for the explanation of travel behaviour. However, the results to support this are few, outdated and from an American car dependent travel culture. It has been suggested in a number of risk perception studies that affective assessments are a stronger predictor of behaviour than cognitions about probability. The current cross national study (N= 2650) aimed to study the influence of risk, either measured as perceived probability or as fear, on behaviour. The context of the study is a range of different modes of transport, hence risk is operationalised both as accident risk and as risk of crime/violations. The results show that perceived risk might influence our decisions about how and where to travel, and that fear is a better predictor of behaviour than perceived probability in both countries. Whether our general mobility is influenced by perceptions about accidents or other threats is still an open question. Differences and similarities between Norway and France are discussed.
Fyhri, A. "Risk Perception and Travel Behaviour in Norway and France." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012.

It has been assumed that risk perception can be an important factor for the explanation of travel behaviour. However, the results to support this are few, outdated and from an American car dependent travel culture. It has been suggested in a number of risk perception studies that affective assessments are a stronger predictor of behaviour than cognitions about probability. The current cross national study (N= 2650) aimed to study the influence of risk, either measured as perceived probability or as fear, on behaviour. The context of the study is a range of different modes of transport, hence risk is operationalised both as accident risk and as risk of crime/violations. The results show that perceived risk might influence our decisions about how and where to travel, and that fear is a better predictor of behaviour than perceived probability in both countries. Whether our general mobility is influenced by perceptions about accidents or other threats is still an open question. Differences and similarities between Norway and France are discussed.

Pedersen, Eja, and M Johansson. "Rural Residents' Perception of Local Environmental Changes." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. The transformation towards a sustainable society brings large scale changes into the rural or semi-rural landscape, such as renewable energy stations and infrastructure for more sustainable travel; novelties where the locals’ response cannot be foreseen. The present study aims at contributing to the on-going efforts to understand perception of environmental change per se (Devine-Wright, 2009) by proposing the Human-Environmental-Interaction model (the HEI-model, Küller, 1991) as a supporting theoretical framework. The HEI-model suggests that the individual’s perception of these changes as beneficial or adverse would be the result of interaction between his/her perception of (i) the physical and (ii) the social environment with regard to activities (here living in the countryside) and (iii) individual resources.Data from three studies about living in rural areas (A: Sweden 2000, n = 351; B: Sweden 2005, n = 750; C: The Netherlands, 2007, n = 725) that all contained the questions “Have there been any changes for the better/worse in your living environment/municipality during the last years?” were reanalysed. Positive changes were reported by 24%, 21% and 23% of the samples; mentioned were improvement of the physical environment (bike lanes, greenery), development of the infrastructure (roads, public transport, broadband) and expansions (housing, shops). Negative changes were reported by 40%, 26% and 35%, covering industrialization/urbanization (wind turbines, industries, biogas plant, housing), deterioration (cutbacks in public service, thefts) and infrastructure (increased traffic).Perceived positive changes were associated with: (i) perception of the physical environment as restorative (Study B and C) and suitable for economic growth (A, B); (ii) perception of the social environment as providing possibilities for participation (A); and (iii) the individual factors young age (A, B) and not using passive coping strategies (B).Perceived negative changes were associated with: (i) perception of the physical environment as providing closeness to nature (A) and suitable for economic growth (C); (ii) perception of the social environment as receptive (A); and (iii) the individual factors sensitivity (A, C), impaired wellbeing (C) and not using passive coping strategies (B).The individual’s perception of changes for the worse and for the better in the local environment was partly governed by different factors. These will be discussed as indicators of how future work to integrate and test the models should proceed. The endpoint will serve as a guide for policymakers on when technologies, not yet experienced by rural residents, are implemented in sensitive environments.
Kastner, I, and E Matthies. "Saving Energy by Changing Daily Routines - a Habit-Focused Approach to Promote Energy-Efficient Behaviours in Organisations." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. In times of global climate change and rising scepticism towards conventional energy production, saving energy has become one of the most pressing societal goals. The task of saving energy is an interdisciplinary one: while engineers are trying to find technological innovations to reduce energy consumption, psychologists should concentrate their efforts on the behavioural side of energy consumption.In Western societies a big deal of energy consumption emerges in public buildings and private households. Here, many curtailment behaviours concerning energy use are shown. It is reasonable to believe that most of these everyday behaviours are determined by habits. Therefore, psychological interventions targeting behavioural changes towards energy saving in everyday live should focus on breaking these habits and establishing new, more energy-efficient ones.In the research project “Change”, a specific energy saving campaign has been developed to promote energy-efficient behaviour of employees in public buildings. Elements particularly to break energy consumption habits were integrated in the intervention package.In winter 2008/09 and 2009/10, the intervention was initially tested in eight universities using three different versions. Short term results were promising, especially when experts’ support was given during the intervention implementation. Long term effects were mixed and depended on the type of energy consumption. While electricity could be saved in the long run, heat energy consumption revealed rebound effects.During the presentation, the results of the interventions will be exemplified in detail. Especially, we would like to discuss possible reasons for the varying results concerning electricity and heat consumption. Beyond that, we would like to present and discuss our latest approaches to improve the intervention.
Ryley, T, S Firth, and C Littleford. "Saving Energy in Shared Offices: the Impact of Individual Attitudes and Behaviour on Lighting and Heating." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Individual employees affect an organisation’s energy demand, by using equipment and building systems and through decisions made in employment roles (Stern, 2000). Previous research into organisational energy use has examined building performance, or energy demand from an organisational level of analysis, but little research has examined energy use by individuals in organisational contexts (Lo et al, in press). Environmental psychology has primarily focused on individual energy use within domestic settings (Steg and Vlek, 2009). The research presented in this paper adds to current knowledge by using environmental psychology approaches to examine influences on lighting and heating use by individuals in shared offices. The study was conducted among a sample of office-based employees in two local government organisations in the East Midlands region of the United Kingdom. Employees were based in a variety of office buildings with differing levels of control over lighting, heating and equipment. Online questionnaire surveys (n=746) explored self-reported behaviours, social and organisational influences, attitudinal/psychological variables, and contextual factors such as levels of individual control over heating and lighting and the numbers of people sharing the office. The surveys utilised the Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1991) to address behavioural control issues, and Values-Beliefs-Norms Theory (Stern et al, 1999) to address moral and normative concerns. Interviews and measurements of actual energy use provided further insights into the potential for energy demand reduction in office buildings through individual behaviour change. The research identified three key areas. Firstly, the effect of actual and perceived control over heating and lighting in shared offices on individual office workers’ attitudes towards and performance of heating, lighting and other energy use behaviours. This included whether influences on energy use in one setting, the office, also influence energy use in the home. Secondly, how individual motivating factors such as values, personal norms, and attitudes towards energy conservation influence heating and lighting use in the cooperative setting of a shared office. Thirdly, the effect of social and organisational factors, such as social norms and organisational expectations, on attitudes and behaviours relating to heating and lighting use in shared offices. Differences found when the behaviour was perceived as affecting the actor alone rather than other people in the shared office will be highlighted. The insights and limitations of the approach, which focuses on individual behaviours and motivations in a shared environment, will be identified. The presentation will also discuss the implications of the findings for the design of behaviour change interventions, and the potential for reducing energy demand in office buildings through changing the behaviour of individual office workers.
Dumitru, A, P Vega, and R García-Mira. "Saving Energy in the Workplace: Transforming Universities in Low-Carbon Organizations." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Universities have a considerable impact on the environment in terms of GHG emissions, due to their patterns of energy and materials consumption, waste generation and organization-related mobility. They also play a key role in the education of citizens in general, and thus have the potential to be an important contributor to a low-carbon Europe. Their direct and indirect impact on society is considerable, as it can form citizens who are knowledgeable of environmental problems and solutions in our society today and who also know how to act in sustainable ways both in their homes and in the workplace – and are motivated to do so.At the University of Corunna (Spain), energy consumption in the university buildings is related, on one hand, to the general needs of heating, lighting and technology use and, on the other hand, to other specific needs of groups of users given the characteristics of certain buildings. 56 % of total emissions are a result of electricity use and the other 44 % to the use of diesel fuel.The study we present here is part of a larger European project studying factors influencing sustainable practices in large scale organizations in six different countries and the barriers and drivers to achieving the reductions in greenhouse gas emissions that the European Union needs in order to mitigate climate change (please, go to www.locaw-fp7.com for further information). This study aimed at diagnosing energy consumption patterns at the University of Corunna and to identify areas of most significant change. Thus, it used a combination of qualitative methodologies such as document analysis and focus groups which yielded interesting results. These showed that there is a big gap between university policy and intended strategies to promote sustainable practices in the workplace both through structural changes such as adaptations of infrastructure and technology and through human changes such as campaigns to change behaviours at work, and the perception workers have about this policy. Possible explanations for these findings will be presented, and implications for policy will also be discussed. .
Vaske, JJ, P Fehres, and M Jacobs. "Self-Report Measures of Emotional Dispositions Toward Wildlife: Reliability and Validity." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Emotions form an important component of human relationships with wildlife, and researchers seem increasingly interested in this phenomenon (Jacobs et al., 2012a). An important methodological question is how emotions can be measured in surveys (Jacobs et al., 2012b). Previous studies have predominantly focused on fear, and have employed single item self-report measures (e.g., Arrindell, 2000; Davey et al., 1998; Kaltenborn et al., 2006; Røskaft et al., 2003). The aim of this paper is to address the reliability and validity of various self-report measures of emotional dispositions toward wildlife. Our survey (n=369) included three different measures of emotional dispositions toward wolf and deer. Valence – the positive-negative dimension of emotions – was measured by four items, as was arousal – the excited-unexcited dimension. The discrete emotions of interest, disgust, surprise, fear, joy, anger, and sadness were measured by one item each. In addition, we assessed acceptability of two management actions (doing nothing or destroying problem wildlife) in problem situations that included either wolf or deer. Internal consistencies of valence measures were high for both wolf (_=.92) and deer (_=.89). Internal consistencies of arousal measures were neither acceptable for wolf (_=.56) nor for deer (_=.57). Internal consistencies of discrete emotions measures (surprise excluded) were acceptable for both wolf (_=.74) and deer (_=.71). Composite indices for valence and discrete emotions were calculated for further analyses. The discrete emotions scale primarily reflected valence, as correlations with valence were .77 for wolf and .58 for deer. Overall, reliability (assessed as internal consistency across items) of valence was superior to reliability of basic emotions for both wolf and deer. Valence toward wolves predicted acceptability of lethal control (r=-.39) and doing nothing (r=.26). Discrete emotions toward wolves predicted acceptability of both management actions as well with similar effect sizes (r=-.39 and r=.24). Fear predicted acceptability of the actions as well, but the effect sizes were different: (r=.13 and r=-.21). Valence toward deer predicted acceptability of lethal control (r=-.34) and doing nothing (r=.12). Discrete emotions toward deer predicted acceptability of lethal control (r=-.32) but did not predict acceptability of doing nothing. Fear toward deer predicted acceptability of doing nothing (r=-.12) but not of the other action. Overall, construct validity (assessed as predictive potential) of valence was at least as good as, and often superior to construct validity of discrete emotions or fear only. Based on these results, we suggest two recommendations for future studies into emotions toward wildlife. First, include a broader domain of emotional dispositions than fear only (e.g., valence or several discrete emotions). Second, include multiple items in order to assess internal consistencies.
Itoh, S, and EK Park. "Sense of Place in Suburbia: Image of Hometown of Junior High School Students in a Newtown and Existing Community." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Residential Newtowns are commonly referred to as settings lacking sense of place, socially homogenous, and isolated from the surrounding existing community. In contrary, we considered suburbia as a place and “hometown” in this study. The question posed was: is sense of place and attachment different between youth brought up in the Newtown and the existing rural community? If so, how are they different?A city in the outskirts of Tokyo was chosen for the context of study. The area was mainly farming villages until a government-developed Newtown project, one of the largest in Japan, begun in the 1970s. 8th grade students of three junior high schools in the city were given a questionnaire on images of their “hometown”. One school district is in the Newtown, one school district is in the existing community, and one school district stretches over a Newtown neighborhood and rural village. Students were asked to rate their attachment to “hometown” on a five-point scale and to name places they like, places they often go to, landmarks of the city, and local festivals they are familiar to. They were also asked to identify the area they feel attachment to, by marking the range they consider “hometown” on a map.Attachment scores to their hometown were generally positive and there was no significant difference between Newtown and existing community students. Places they like, go to, and landmarks were similar in both groups. However, existing community students named natural landscapes more frequently than Newtown students. While existing community students often used place names (village names) in their responses, Newtown students did not use this kind of expression and pointed out single facilities and spots. Some existing community students also named the entire “Newtown” as a single landmark or place.Approximately three fourth of existing community students marked their elementary school district or area bounded by a place name as their “hometown”. Less than half of Newtown students did so and tended to indicate more precise boundaries. There were some extreme cases of existing community students indicating areas excluding the Newtown, and Newtown students indicating only their apartment building, school, and shopping mall as “hometown”.The results suggest that Newtown and existing community students may recognize places in different ways. Newtown students tend to structure their knowledge of places around individual experiences and spots, and by noticeable physical elements. Existing community students tended to identify places more comprehensively as a district. However, Newtown students in the school with existing community students had more knowledge of traditional festivals and natural landscapes than in the Newtown-only school, suggesting that knowledge and sense of places could be affected by students of a different background. Factors which form such differences in sense of place, physical and social, are to be investigated further.
French, MD, and GW Evans. "Sense of Workplace: the Role of Place in the Modern Work Environment." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Over the past decades technological advances have drastically altered the ways in which we work. Because of this the modern workplace is an organic and ever changing environment. As more emphasis is placed on mobility and flexibility, the role of the physical environment in which work is done will change as well. This may prove to have a profound effect on the way in which we experience our places of work. From these ideas the question arises, ‘As work environments become more mobile and dynamic does the physical workplace still hold some significance to workers?’To answer this question, the current study employed a simple non-experimental case study design in which the independent variable of workplace mobility is measured against the dependent variable of workplace attachment to examine if a correlational relationship exists. Workplace mobility is defined as the ability to work from a variety of settings both within and away from what is seen as the conventional workplace. Workplace attachment is defined as an affective bond between an individual and their place of work, the main characteristic of which is the tendency of the individual to maintain closeness to such a place.Each construct was operationalized through the use of an online survey. The workplace mobility scale was created by the authors for the purposes of this research. The workplace attachment scale was created by modifying previously existing scales to fit within the context of work environments. The modified scale includes two sub-constructs of place, identity and dependence, as well as two dimensions of place, physical and social.The hypothesis of this study is that individuals with both high and low levels of mobility will report higher levels of attachment to their workplace. Conversely, those with moderate levels of mobility will have low levels of attachment to their workplace. The reasoning behind these thoughts is that mobility may influence the sub-constructs of place attachment in different ways. High mobility may increase an individual’s place identity while low mobility may increase place dependence. As a result, this research will attempt to discover a main effect of workplace mobility on workplace attachment.Although the study of people-place bonding has received increasing interest over the last decade a limited number of studies are available that specifically tests the relationship between mobility and attachment. In regards to the study of place attachment to working places only one study has been found. Hence, one of the goals of this research is to add to the current knowledge base while possibly stimulating more empirical studies in the topic.
Henshaw, V, and S Payne. "Sensory Interactions in the City: Experiences and Design." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. The growing body of urban sensory literature suggests that current city planning, urban design and architectural practices are failing to fully consider that environments are experienced through a range of different senses. As a result of a preoccupation with visual aspects of design, these professions have overlooked valuable opportunities to retain or create meaningful relationships/connections between the built environment and its inhabitants. In response to this ocular-centricity, researchers from an array of disciplines have studied the different sensory modes by which an urban environment is experienced. Sounds, smell, temperature, and textures are just a few physical features that contribute to our environmental appraisals of an inhabited space, as it may dis/please our ears, nose, dis/satisfy our thermal comfort, and alter our physiological responses. The in/congruencies between the information received from the different senses and the construed meanings of the built environment all contribute to its experience and evaluation. This in turn needs to be reflected in how urban environments are designed.The contributed papers first look at the experience of individual sensory information, such as heat and sound, before taking a broader perspective of places being experienced through multiple senses. Differences may of course arise depending on the individual perceiver of the sensorial experience and this is reflected in the participants used within the studies, ranging from the general user visiting public places, people with learning difficulties or disadvantaged youth, through to the future designers of our environments - architecture students. Variations and similarities also exist across cultures, places (indoors and outdoors) and their purposes (markets and homes). These contributions reflect on the current situation of our environments as well as their futures, considering how they can be designed through participative practices, the development of design tools and encouraging designers to think differently about places and their sensorial compositions.This symposium will provide the forum for an inter-disciplinary discussion and debate regarding connections, comparisons and contrasts between the different sensory information and how they shape experiences of the urban environment. It aims to demonstrate that by considering additional sensory aspects to vision, a fuller understanding of people’s everyday experiences will emerge and the importance of feeding this back into designing environments.
Van Rijswijk, L, and A Haans. "Shedding Light on Pedestrian Attention: Anxiety and Gaze Patterns." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Current day road lighting systems are increasingly associated with energy waste and luminous pollution. They illuminate the streets during most, if not all, of the night even when no street users are present. Luminaries based on Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) will reduce energy consumption, but only to a limited extent.Additional savings become possible when LED technology is combined with sensors to detect the presence and behavior of road users. Such intelligent dynamic road lighting provides light only when and where it is needed most. However, where do people benefit most from road lighting? Haans and colleagues (2011) found that pedestrians feel safer when their immediate surroundings are illuminated even if this means having less light in the more distal parts of the road (see Vita and colleagues in this symposium for a similar finding). Strangely, participants also indicated to have better prospect, or a better overview over the street, despite there being less light in the distance (cf. Fisher & Nasar, 1992). Unfortunately, we still know too little about how lighting affects safety feelings to understand these findings. One explanation might be that a more strongly illuminated action space allows pedestrians to respond more effectively to immediate threats. One possible way of exploring this hypothesis is by means of eye-tracking. Do pedestrians pay more attention to their immediate surroundings, including the road sides, than to the road ahead? Are such gaze patterns dependent on the emotional state of the pedestrian? In other words, do gaze patterns change when people are happy or a bit anxious? To test these hypotheses, we implemented a three condition (anxious, neutral, or happy emotional state) between-subject experiment with participants’ gaze patterns as the dependent variable. We are currently running the experiment and are aiming at total 60 participants, both men and women. Emotional state is induced by having the participants watch one of three short movies (e.g., Schaefer et al., 2010): A scene from the movie “The shining” to induce fear or anxiety, a scene from the animation movie “Jungle book” to induce happiness, and moving geometrical figures accompanied by elevator music for the neutral control condition. While sitting in front of a monitor, alone, and in an otherwise dark room, each participant first watches one of the movies.Subsequently, participants are shown a series of photographs taken at different positions along a street after sundown. These photos are displayed on a computer screen, one after the other, with each photo displayed for three seconds. This creates the suggestion of walking through the street (Wang & Taylor, 2006). A Tobii eye-tracker and the Tobii-studio software is used for collecting gaze patterns and performing the analyses. Results will be discussed in relation to the effect of lighting on safety feelings and user requirements for intelligent dynamic lighting.
Murtagh, N, B Gatersleben, and D Uzzell. "Smart Buildings and Sustainable Behaviour: Psychological Factors in Engagement with Smart Energy Meters." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Technology is becoming increasingly embedded in the built environment, and increasingly important in encouraging or supporting sustainable behaviour. A case in point is smart meters. In order to meet its greenhouse gases emission reduction targets, the UK Government is planning the deployment of smart meters in all homes and small businesses (DECC/Ofgem, 2011). Through real-time monitoring of energy, smart meters will enable householders to view information on their own energy usage. Benefits to emissions reduction are expected to amass, in part, from changes in consumer behaviour. In particular, consumer behaviour change is expected to result from provision of more detailed, accurate and up-to-date information to energy users: the ‘information deficit model’ of behaviour change. However, the literatures of health and consumer psychology present substantial evidence that provision of information alone has limited influence on behaviour change. The current research explores additional psychological factors.Motivation has been shown to relate to pro-environmental behaviours, including recycling, consumption and waste management (GreenDemers et al., 1997; Villacorta et al., 2003). However, most research on motivation to reduce energy use focuses on knowledge and attitudes and has investigated provision of feedback on energy, carbon or financial costs and savings. From the perspective of motivation theory, providing external incentives such as savings may contribute to extrinsic motivation (Deci & Ryan, 1985) but external rewards can undermine intrinsic motivation (Deci et al. 1999). In contrast, intrinsic motivation is a form of self-determined motivation proposed as critical in encouraging engagement in more difficult sustainable behaviours (Crompton & Kasser, 2010). The current research explores the types of motivation which may influence technology use and behaviour change.Pro-environmental behaviour is generally perceived to be motivated by altruistic motives (saving the environment for future generations) or by egoistic motives (saving money) (Schwartz, 1992). However, when it comes to technologies, other motivations may also be pertinent, such as people’s affinity with technology. This has rarely been examined in energy behaviour studies. An interest in modern technology, however, may promote acceptance of new technologies as well as motivate interaction with these technologies, leading to increased behaviour change. A field study in an office environment is now underway, with 90 participants. Having gathered measures of baseline energy use and motivation towards the environment and technology, participants have been given access to up-to-date summary and detailed energy usage data, for themselves and their work groups. Findings will be presented on levels of technology engagement and behaviour change, and their relationship with environmental motivation and self-efficacy. Implications for policy will be discussed.
Jimenez-Dominguez, B. "Social Context and Participation in Public Places Regeneration in a Compact City Project." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. The sprawl oriented city ruling model of urban growth is clearly unsustainable due to overuse of natural resources and consequent damage to the environment. This had led to the discussion of urban regeneration projects with participative approaches to propose a compact city model as an alternative to the ruling model of sprawl oriented city. A compact city is defined as a denser, socially diverse city, with people living around neighborhoods and where social and economic activities are overcome. But this compact city perspective could be better defined, considering different problems derived from a contradiction between urban desirability and suburban habitability. As an example, a local study of a compact city based project is described focusing on the regeneration of a central park. I will describe a study that includes several of the aspects mentioned above. The Pan American Games in 2011 led the city of Guadalajara to define a housing project around the Park Morelos for 8 000 people coming to the Games as an opportunity to revitalize the historic center. The urban planning authorities defined it as a sustainable project seeking the re-densification of the center in terms of the compact city model. The City Council already had 70% ownership of the land planned and bought 54 properties located within the space of what was known as the official project for the Sport Village. But the project was defined by the local government, sports authorities and interested investors before the economic crisis.The project was unknown by the neighbors, the citizenship, and even by the professional associations, research centers and universities. The lack of social participation was the basis for the conflict and project failure.The design was resolved through a unilateral definition of assigned buildings to internationally renowned architects, national and at local level there was a contest for 6 buildings of a total of 13. It was also assigned the project to renovate the Morelos Park and commissioned a master plan to a specialist. Unilaterally was believed that the neighbors would agree with the price above the current market that offered the City Council for their homes. Not so, in this place there are people who are neighbors for over three generations and feel satisfied and proud to live there. They are aware of their heritage, urban identity, close relationships with their neighbors and the center of the city. That is, they live their own version of the compact city model in the historic center. At the end the compact city project was abandoned due to the economic crisis and social conflict as well as the already demolished area. The new major just before the beginning of the games made a cleaning and decorative intervention on the park not considering the previous proposals and studies. We made also a follow up study of the post project intervention.
Rae, L. "Social Spaces in Secondary School Environments." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Outside of the home, school is the most important setting in children’s development. Education is more than academic ability; it includes students’ behaviour, self-esteem, integration, motivation, initiation, confidence and social skills, to name but a few. Many ‘environmental’ factors have been shown to have an impact on the educational process. The quality of school experiences are determined by the school environment (Gump, 1991) and there is a direct relationship between students’ perception of their school environment and satisfaction with it (Ozdemir & Yilmaz, 2008. Dudek (2000) claims architects should design school buildings to accommodate and facilitate meaningful social interactions, which are a crucial aspect to the development of children’s social, emotional and cognitive processes. As children enter adolescence their interactions and relationships with peers and friends become increasingly important (Bukatko & Daehler, 2004), particularly in schools, as they “reveal complex webs of meanings, reputations and identities” (Coleman & Hendry, 1999, p.145). The physical environment is an influential aspect in determining how satisfied students are with their education, which includes the interactions they have therein. This paper comes from a PhD research project, which aims to investigate how secondary school students in Scotland (age 11-18), perceive and utilise the social spaces within their learning environment. Social spaces are defined as the internal and external areas within the school buildings and grounds where students go to when they are not in the classroom.This paper is based on responses to an open-ended question which was added to a questionnaire that was part of a much larger study (Edgerton, McKechnie & McEwen 2011). The questionnaire was completed by S1, S3 and S5 students (ages 12-13, 14-15 and 16-17 respectively) at six new build secondary schools in the same demographic area of Central Scotland. The question asked, ‘Within your school buildings/grounds, what are the best and worst features about the places you meet with friends?’. Responses were received from 1843 students.Participants’ responses varied inasmuch as some provided responses to both aspects (i.e. a best & worst feature), while others provided a response to only one feature (i.e. best or worst) and some participants gave more than one response to a feature. Collectively, there were 1,866 responses to the ‘best’ feature and 1,942 responses to the ‘worst’ feature.The results indicated that in general the S1 students from all six schools provided more ‘best’ responses, whilst the S3 and S5 students provided more ‘worst’ responses. The findings show variations between schools and year groups. The latter highlights the dangers of viewing school students as a homogenous group. This paper will discuss these results in more detail by focusing on how students’ perceive the social spaces in their schools and the implications for school design.
Corkery, L, and C Evans. "Social Values, Ecological Understandings and Urban Park Making in Sydney." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. This paper reports on a research project which explores the planning and design process of converting landfills, quarries and other brownfield sites to parklands in the Sydney metropolitan region. This adaptive reuse of perceived wastelands in the Sydney area dates to the late 19th century when the Sydney Common was transformed from an expanse of sand, wetlands and a night soil tip into a large urban park, Centennial Park, with playing fields, garden beds, ornamental ponds and a ‘Grand Drive’. The process of reclaiming wastelands accelerated in the mid 20th century, to such an extent that today many of Sydney’s most popular local and regional parks are situated on former wastelands. Current urban growth patterns and waste management technology and policy indicate that more landfills and quarries will be decommissioned in the near future and more parks will emerge from their remediation. In the absence of a comprehensive study of park-making from wastelands in Sydney, the broader research project is designed to identify both the drivers and outcomes of transforming former landfill sites into valued regional parks. The sequence of state and local government initiatives, policies, and master planning documents are charted alongside changes in urban context, conceptual approaches, and park locations in order to evaluate the key factors influencing the transformation of these landscapes. This paper presents the results of a pilot study from the larger research project, and is focused on how changes in social values and meaning are represented in the design process and outcomes of one of Sydney’s most significant regional parks. Sydney Park, on the southeast edge of the Sydney CBD, formerly a brickwork and landfill site, has been developed as a park since the late 1970s. After three iterations of master-planning and extensive filling, the park now figures as a large ‘patch’ in the Sydney 2030 Strategic Plan as a major recreational and ecological hub. Drawing on evidence gleaned from planning documents and design reports, the paper documents shifts in the conceptualization of the park’s meaning and value, particularly in regard to its program of uses and its perceived natural and cultural heritage. Using visitor surveys and on-site observation, the paper also considers how people using this park experience it, and how their experiences align or not with intended outcomes. The paper concludes with a discussion of the ways in which emergent ecological knowledge and understandings of cultural heritage underpinned the vision and reality of this park from its inception in 1970s to the present. In particular, the evidence base harnessed by the early planners and designers is considered in light of outcomes, and preliminary thoughts are offered on how changes in policy and practice have helped this park become a significant element of Sydney’s urban experience.
Bassani, MA, and M Paranhos. Space Appropriation by Adults with Visual Impairment in the City of São Paulo, Brazil: Case Study In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. This research had the objective to comprehend how space appropriation occurs on the most significant environmental scales selected by adults with visual impairment. We used the concept of space appropriation (Pol 2002) which implies in a circular and dual model composed by the action-transformation dimension and symbolic identification. It consists of a case study (Stake 2001) and its comprehension is of systemic reference.Three people with visual impairment, in both genders, with ages between 28 and 45 years old, participated. We did a partial replication of the methodological proposition (Bassani 2003, 2004) and utilized the methods: thematic interviews (and clinical), observations (direct and photographic registration) and drawings.The data was collected on locations chosen by the participants and the presented results indicate some of the constitutive aspects of the appropriation process of these spaces and will be presented case by case: (1) Participant A, 28 years old, female, married, one son (5 years old), visual impairment: blindness, chosen scales: (a) rehab institution; (b) São Paulo city park; (c) her house. (2) Participant B, 45 years old, female, married, visual impairment: profound low vision. (3) Participant C, 41 years old, male, married, visual impairment: severe low vision. Participants B and C are a couple, so their data was jointly collected and both chose the following scales: (a) their house; (b) a square from the city of São Paulo; (c) their sister/sister in law house.From the results analysis, we identified three styles of space appropriation: 1) by re-signification: it implies in the union of several aspects such as acceptance and re-signification of the visual impairment, rehabilitation process, the activation of other senses and the cognitive processes. Such aspects were essential on the spaces appropriation, at different spatial levels. 2) by familiarity: the interrelations person-environment are significantly marked by social interactions. The appropriation occurs prioritarily in places with which they relate affectively. 3) by property: the action-transformation and symbolical identification are marked by territoriality.The present study suggests that, due to the importance given to public spaces, the appropriate space has played a fundamental role on cognitive, affective and symbolic processes of the visually impaired. Therefore, public policies that aspire to promote life quality to the visually impaired, must firstly make sure they know their needs and longings, so that only then, they can propose and implement alternatives.
Fernandes, FC, and MA Bassani. "Space Appropriation by Drug Addicts: New Possibilities for Public Policies." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. This study is a qualitative research that aimed to describe how the space appropriation by drug addicted and temporarily accommodated men in a Therapeutic Community occurred, in a city of the metropolitan region of São Paulo. We used circular concept of space appropriation (Pol, 2002), composed of the dimensions of action-transformation and symbolic identification, considering behavior, cognitive, emotional and identity aspects in the process of construction of the meaning of space. Data collection was performed with four men, aged between 30 and 40 years old in hospital stay between 03 and 12 months, and used the partial replication of the Bassani’s methodological proposal (2003, 2004): thematic interview and direct observation with photographs. The results indicated the following characteristics of space appropriation for these participants: the importance of the work in the institution, with well-established rules and regulations (e.g. recycling workshop, household chores, food); the transformation in the environment due to the institution rules necessary for the treatment; the choice of the most significant place in the institution by the subjects is given precisely by the possibility of transformation, although limited, of the space and marking of individual identity (rooms); the marking of the space occurs by the insertion of physical elements that portray personal characteristics, demonstrating the possibility of building a new life from the proposed treatment adopted in the institution. The results point to the importance of the work developed by the psychologist in institutions for chemical dependency treatment, as well as the contribution of environmental psychology, in order to understand the importance of space for a most appropriate intervention for this population. These research results, in spite of being descriptive and detailed to a small sample, could complement public policies for the chemical dependency treatment, taking into account that the Therapeutic Communities (host institutions for drug addicts) must be included in the community, in residential areas, enhance the strengthening of community life of people who require hospitalization for treatment, promote preventive actions regarding the use and abuse of alcohol and other drugs as well as actions aimed at sustainable development for both the institution and the community. (Supportedby CAPES, Ministery of Education, Brazil).
Lilli, E. "Spaciousness and Preference: a Study in the Perception of Density in the Suburban Residential Built Environment." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Density, as a concept and metric, is widely used to describe the built environment; however, this complex topic deserves further attention because it is inadequate at describing physical and spatial relationships. In the wake of increased urbanization it will be crucial to merge quantitative and qualitative properties with the discussion of density. Residential suburban communities, in the United States, are often designed to achieve a low dwelling unit/area density with its inhabitants preferring an antidote to the perceived congestion and crowd of the urban core environment. In spite of automobile use and land conversion contributing to increased concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere; car oriented developments, consisting of single family detached homes on individual lots along wide streets, are ubiquitous. The question this study asks is; how do residential built environment spatial characteristics influence the perception of low density? In other words, can we design an environment which is perceived as low density, while utilizing less land area than its actual low density counterparts? A survey with residential street scenes was used to investigate this question. Three housing typologies (single family homes, row houses, and stacked row houses) and three spatial characteristics (street width, set back distance, and tree coverage) were systematically altered and combined in graphically represented images of the residential street scene. The survey was sent to 400 randomly selected inhabitants of Beaverton, Oregon who were asked to choose the scene they felt was the most spacious and most preferred, from sets of stimuli, using discrete choice modeling.
Kindler, A, and E Banzhaf. "Spatial Indicators and Explorative Scenarios as a Tool for Land-Use Management. the Case of Santiago De Chile." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Urban dynamics entails negative social and economic impacts in urban agglomerations calling for adequate land-use management. Indicator-based explorative scenarios are considered as adequate information and decision support tools. An explorative scenario method was developed for 3 scenario types Business As Usual, Market Individualism, and Collective Responsibility exemplified for the Metropolitan Area of Santiago de Chile (MAS). Santiago de Chile tries to implement sustainable urban development. Considering the global variety of urban social, economic, and environmental conditions, it becomes obvi¬ous that sustainable development has to be transferred to these urban conditions. In order to encompass the complex interrelations between processes of urban growth, different indicators have been selected: major driving forces like population density, built-up area and degree of imperviousness. Indicators of urban patterns refer to land use and its management, green spaces provide twofold information on urban environmental quality, i.e. the amount and distribution of green spaces and the social dimension. The selected indicators portray a differentiated picture in place and time to understand the interactions between urban policies with no coordination among several institutions for land-use management, green spaces and housing policies. The status analysis serves to conceptualise alternative development paths in the 3 explorative scenarios depicting possible futures of the MAS. Storylines were developed and discussed with stakeholders in transdisciplinary workshops. The time horizon for the study was from the past, i.e. 1992, to the present, and until the year 2030 for possible futures.The elaborated explorative scenarios show different possible future development strands and options. Designed as a tool they can be used as an added value instrument in scenario- and long-term planning processes on the scale of entire MAS and of subdivisions to support decisions on land-use management. All scenarios show specific trends for the major driving factors (population density, built-up area and impervious areas), and for the two sustainability indicators (amount of green spaces and green spaces per inhabitant). The scenario Collective Responsibility raises more the environmental awareness and has the potential to increase the sustainability in the MAS by approaching or attaining target values and by integrating land-use aspects. The scenario Business As Usual tentatively is biased towards economic gain and less in favour of environmental protection. In the scenario Market Individualism the situation is more severe concerning sustainability than in the last named. The land market rules over environmental awareness and determines the intensity and direction of urban expansion. In most of the cases the target values will not be attained so that only marginal steps towards a sustainable development can be achieved.
Estrada-Rodriguez, C, P Ortega-Andeane, and I Mendez-Ramirez. "Statistical Model of Psychological Effects in School Students Generated by Environmental Noise in Classrooms." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Studies of the effects of environmental noise in educational settings have increased since the 1970´s, Lercher, Evans, and Meis (2003) affirm that the literature indicates a clear pattern of mediocre acquisition of reading skill when there are high noise levels.Over 40 years the negative impact of environmental noise in academic assessment has been an object of study in the international educational context. These studies have been performed with different conceptual and methodological perspectives and have founded that noise has a harmful effect over the cognitive development of elementary students, especially in children going in higher grades (WHO, 2004; Shield and Dockrell, 2008). Likewise, Evans (2006) confirms that children exposed to noise present significant deficits in their reading abilities, long-term memory, attention and speech perception, regardless the sound levels and previous reading deficiency. Evans indicates as principal noise sources: transportation (automobiles, airplanes and trains), music and people. Based on our review of the specialized literature, a brief presentation of the principal findings are: Interference in communication (Changes in teacher conduct; Disruption of educational activities; Annoyance). Academic performance (Reading; Grammar; Mathematics and Science). Cognitive processes (Memory; Attention; Motivation; Problem solving; Speech intelligibility). Summarizing the negative effects on students produced partially by classroom acoustics.The general objective of the study was to prove the congruency of an explanatory model of the multiple relationships that have been observed in classrooms between the physical variables of noise and teacher-pupil distance with certain psychological and educational attributes of pupils. The design of the study tested the independent physical variables of environmental noise and teacher-pupil physical distance. The psychological (dependent) variables evaluated in 521 pupils were: The three that made up the latent variable Emotional impact, which were Discomfort, Interruption of communication with the teacher and with classmates.Simultaneously, the Speech intelligibility and the educational variable of reading comprehension were evaluated. To determine the relationship between acoustical, design, and psychological variables, a system of structural equations was applied. The model explained with optimum fit quality (x2 = 12.59, p = 0.63, CFI = 1.0, RMSEA = 0.0) the set of relationships of dependency of all the variables evaluated. In conclusion, this model explains the global relationships among the classroom acoustics and its psychological effects in elementary school students, identifying the noise and physical design impacts on emotional aspects and reading comprehension. Also, it identified a direct influence of emotional impact on reading comprehension, likewise, a direct influence of student age on speech intelligibility and reading comprehension.
Estrada-Rodriguez, C, P Ortega-Andeane, and A Irepan. Stress and Perception of a Campus as a Restorative Place In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Several research suggests that too much artificial stimulation and little, or no exposure to natural environments can cause loss of vitality and affect health. One of the indicators for the deterioration of people in urban settings is mental fatigue, where the behavioral impact such as stress (Kaplan, 1995).Other studies (Van den Berg, Staats & Hartig 2007) have found that nature can help people to cope to stress and to improve the function in cognitive and emotional areas.These responses come from the psychological restoration, which is understood as the renewal of the physical, psychological and social resources to the adaptive demands coming from the socio-physic stages (Hartig, 2004).Some definitions of what a restorative environment is, suggest that this place, whether it is natural or constructed, is capable of renewing individual attentional resources because it has no harmful environmental characteristics, and it may encourage reflection. This helps to reduce stress and fosters mental fatigue recovery.The aim of this study was to test the relationship between stress and the evaluation of the environmental characteristics that leads to its perception as a restorative place.Based on the Environmental Restoration Scale which comprises: Being away, Fascination, Coherence and Compatibility factors (Korpela and Harting, 1996), it was made through the semantic modified networks technique (Reyes-Lagunes, 1993), an exploration of the concepts that mexicans relate to each one of them. This resulted in a valid and reliable scale formed by 25 reagents with a reliability of .965, and a variance explained of 68%.To measure stress, it was used the Stress and Arousal Adjective Checklist developed by King, Burrows and Stanley in 1983, which was adapted for Mexican population by Ortega et al (2005).The sites evaluated were two green areas of a campus. Participants were 180 people from 16 to 47 years old. Data was collected during the seven days of the week.To test the relationship between the stress and environmental restoration, an analysis of structural equations was applied.The model fits the data satisfactorily in accordance with the indicators of goodness of fit: x2=6.37 P=0.27 CFI=1.00 RMSA=0.04. With the estimated model results, we analyze the overall effects obtained for Restoration in the next estimated equation: Restoration=.319*(arousal)+.282*(days)-.340*(Stress)+3.14error+.760error. This equation indicates that the higher arousal site is perceived as more restorative, weekend is perceived as a more restorative place, and finally, to lower levels of stress better its perception as a restorative place.Therefore, this study proved the relationship between stress and the evaluation of restorative places, as well as the relationship of environmental restoration to the goals of the visitors, this way a space can be evaluated differently according to the day of the week.
Maxwell, LE. "Student Perception of School Building Quality." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. One of the functions of schools is to promote the acquisition of knowledge and skills. But another function of schools is to transmit societal values and ideas (Rivlin & Weinstein, 1984). The physical environment of schools has the potential to communicate messages to students about who is valued in society. Place identity theory and the bio-ecological model of human development form the theoretical basis for this investigation. Place identity theory states that children develop a sense of who they are through interactions with their physical surroundings (Proshansky & Fabian, 1987). It is through interactions with, and understanding of, the places of their daily lives that they learn about who they are. The bio-ecological model (Bronfenbrenner, 1979 & 1998) emphasizes the role of the individual’s day to day experiences particularly in the proximal settings of home, school, and neighborhood. These settings play a critical role in development because they are the places where the individual most closely interacts with the environment and where important social relationships form with family, teachers, other adults, and peers. These relationships (with both the physical and social environment) serve as a context for development and it is through these reciprocal relationships that individuals obtain feedback about themselves.Research indicates that school building quality and student achievement are linked. Earthman and his students (Al-Enezi, 2002; Cash, 1993; Cash et al., 1997; Earthman et al., 1995; Hines, 1996)found that achievement scores in math, science, and reading were correlated with aspects of building quality. Aesthetic building quality attributes such as graffit or locker condition were more strongly correlated with achievement than structural quality (i.e. condition of the roof).Perhaps students read aesthetic quality as messages that somebody cares about them. A study of New York City elementary schools found that structurally poor building quality was linked to poor student attendance and lower standardized reading and math reading scores (Duran-Narucki, 2008).Various components of school building quality are also linked to socio-emotional development (Weinstein, 1987; Sanoff, 1995). Although school building quality seems to be linked to student outcomes, none of the previous research asked students their perception of the school building. This presentation discusses on-going research investigating students' perception of their school’s physical environment and how well the building meets their academic and socio-emotional needs. It includes findings from several studies conducted by the presenter with students in elementary, middle, and high school. The discussion focuses on the implications for school design and educational policy and contributes to our understanding of person-environment congruence in the school setting.
Yan, S. "Study on the Patients Manner of Usage by Ward Classification in Psychiatric Hospital." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. In Japan which has the most number of psychiatric beds among the developed countries, finding out the form for Japanese psychiatric health care which aims to improve the quality of life for patients while maintaining the form of a psychiatric hospital, is an urgent task.With the opinion that matching the diversifying needs of patients, and building Psychiatric hospitals to ensure life with the grade and quality equal to life in the communities, is one way to go forward for Psychiatric health care in our country, this study aims to explore the form for psychiatric hospitals from the perspective of architectural planning.The survey targeted a total of 5 wards in Fukushima Prefecture with a focus on Hospital A Building A 4-bed rooms (Acute period ward, Convalescent ward, Stress care ward). and Building D with all private rooms (Super emergency ward, Stress care ward). Spaces are organized into Private space, Semi-private space, Semi-public space, Public space, by stages , And a spatial feature of the surveyed targets, is that the ward is shaped in a cluster surrounding the S-pri. The summary is showed below.1. Shared space utilization, was high for Multi-bed rooms, and wards with many schizophrenia patients, and lowered with the lessening of symptoms and longer hospital stays.2. Usage characteristics of shared space and behaviors are influenced by the disorder. A tendency was seen for Schizophrenia patients preferring to stay in the S-pub.space, and Stress disorder patients preferring to stay in the S-pri.space.3. Regarding interactions with others, as seen through the manner of stays, the differences in behavioral traits by disorder, maintaining of distance with others, showed the differences in spatial needs. At that time, the element that has decisive influence is the spatial composition. For multi-bed room wards, the percentage of there alone; for all private room wards the percentage of gathering; and in wards with many acute phase schizophrenia patients, the percentage of there with others was large. For all private room wards, there were many patients who used the Chat corner as there with others space.
Salzmann, R, A Lehmden, and AG Keul. "Summer, Passive Housing and User Behavior – a Field Study from Salzburg, Austria." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. The successful implementation of a new housing technology needs social acceptance which has to be tested by post-occupancy evaluations. In discussions about strengths and weaknesses of passive housing, possible overheating in summer is a main critical point. A field project supported by Wienerberger AG asked about user behavior and satisfaction in passive housing under summer conditions.Ten apartments in three passive housing estates of Salzburg City, Austria, were analyzed. Four apartments were part of Paradiesgarten, 5-floor low-energy brick buildings, three in Postareal, a concrete high-rise (8-floor) block, and three in Samer Moesl estate, a 3-floor wood construction. Participants received a diary form and were asked to evaluate three times per day their subjective living room temperature, humidity and air quality, and to record their sun shading and ventilation behavior without behavior briefings. Temperature/humidity loggers were installed in the living and sleeping rooms of every apartment. For every estate, an outside temperature logger profile was obtained. The survey period from August 1 to 18, 2011 included several days with maximum temperatures over 25° centigrade. Debriefings on optimum behavior were given at the end of the project.322 diary records were obtained from the ten apartments together with a parallel 3,812 hourly temperature/humidity logger record series for two rooms each. A correlation analysis of the three estates showed that about 90% of the diary records came from living rooms. Logger living room temperatures correlated significantly with the number of persons present, and with subjective air quality. Logger living room temperatures also correlated significantly with subjective temperature wishes (lower/OK/higher) at Paradiesgarten and Samer Moesl, but not at Postareal. Logger living room humidity did not correlate with subjective humidity wishes.Only at Paradiesgarten, measured living room air temperatures correlated significantly with shading behavior. Effective self-reported ventilation behavior (windows closed at daytime, open in cooler nighttime) correlated with living room air temperatures in all three estates.Problems with high living room temperatures were caused by open bottom-hinged sash windows at Paradiesgarten estate and by open balcony doors at Postareal estate. In 295 self-reported diary episodes, 69% recorded effective and 31% ineffective summer ventilation. As a result of the Salzburg field project, it is recommended to instruct occupants of passive housing how to shade and ventilate their apartments in hot summer periods to optimize performance of this building type and to reduce complaints.
Wiesenfeld, E, and H Zara. "Sustainability and Habitat: Possibility Or Contradiction?" In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Incorporating the social dimension into the sustainable development model led to a qualitative change in the applicability and projection of this model, in all latitudes. Particularly the urgency to attend the precarious human settlements, linked to the poverty of their inhabitants, opened the scope of application of human-environmental disciplines and their contribution to the field of public policy. In this respect, it is clear that without the development and implementation of policies aimed at improving habitat conditions for the high percentage of Latin Americans living in poverty, any attempt to promote sustainability would be unsuccessful, and would rather consolidate the unsustainability of the environmental, economic and social conditions of these sectors.This symposium will provide an opportunity to discuss the meaning of sustainability in contexts of poverty, that is, whether there are conditions for sustainability in precarious human settlements. We will revisit sustainability by reviewing the experiences, reflections and contradictions that emerge from five different projects which analyse the conditions that facilitate the transition from the unsustainability to the sustainability of the economically disadvantaged communities’ habitat. These studies, undertaken in Brazil and Venezuela will illustrate the challenges and opportunities of the experiences in terms of the transformation of residential conditions and the influence of these works for public policy
Spencer, C, M Dobson, K Gee, and S Pitts. "Symphony and the City: Place- and Organizational-Attachment of Concert Audiences and Orchestral Players." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Within environmental psychology, place attachment has been shown to be an important aspect of an individual's sense of identity and well-being.This study demonstrates that such attachments and sense of ownership and belonging can be at a range of scales, from particular buildings to whole cities (and wider)
Further more, attachments can also be to organizations, activities and memberships that are place-linked.
In our research with the audiences and the players of the City of Birmingham Symphony Orchestra, we demonstrate that for many (but not all) members of both groups their loyalty relates to both the City that gives the orchestra its name, and to the dramatic Symphony Hall which is its home. And it is interesting to note that the CBSO's marketing publicity emphasizes both city pride and the membership of the orchestra-hall 'family'

Our study asked what is the concert experience for audience and for musicians alike? What role do place attachments play? We used surveys and interviews to explore audience members’ identities relating to concert going at local, organisational and personal levels, with the aim of examining loyalties to Birmingham as a centre for culture, to the CBS Orchestra and its musical activities, and to the personal musical identities of audience members . 'Ownership' of the organization runs through the publicity and marketing . How far is this reflected in the ways that audience members describe their concert going , compared with other more musical reasons (eg attraction to repertoire)?
Our interviews with orchestral players paralleled these themes, asking them about perceptions of a classical music audience; the position of the CBSO in the musical culture and image of Birmingham; and their own musical and performance history. We also asked for their feelings about the marketing department using images and vignettes of players to build a sense of 'ownership' for the audience

'Symphony Hall is my second home, where I feel comfortable, at ease, excited at the prospect'
'SH is easily the most civilized place in Birmingham'

The idea of the CBSO belonging to and being an icon for Birmingham are important to many of the respondents, especially those who live locally or who have roots locally

Symphony Hall is seen as a venue to be proud of, and some of the facilities, such as being able to regularly book the same seats helps to encourage this sense of familiarity and shared experience. Regular seating enables people to gain a sense of familiarity through seeing the same faces within the wider audience, their closer neighbours, and the orchestra.

Many positive responses focused on a sense of ownership : some viewed musicians as a family, to which they also belonged, others talked of pride in the Hall and the city's culture.

Köckler, H, and I Rau. "Symposium on Procedural Justice." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Procedural Justice is dealing with the meaningful involvement of people in planning and political decision-making processes. It is object of research in different disciplines (like psychology, planning, law and sociology) and of practical relevance in various fields (like siting, transport planning, and environmental politics).In the IAPS symposium on Procedural Justice we would like to bring together research work with different focuses and discuss complementary contributions, limitations of findings as well as need for further research. We encourage contributions that are dealing with at least one of the following questions:Which concepts of procedural justice are under discussion at present? Which aspects/constructs play a role in the context of procedural justice? When is a decision process perceived as just by those who are involved or by those not involved? How is the relationship between procedural justice and the acceptance of the object under discussion? How selective are environmental relevant decision-making processes? What kind of residents is willing and able to initiate decision-making processes to improve their own local environmental situation? The proposed symposium will be composed of the following presentations: Heike Köckler, CESR, Universität Kassel: social inequality regarding environmental procedural justice from a household’s perspective Irina Rau, Jan Hildebrand, Petra Schweizer-Ries; Forschungsgruppe Umweltpsychologie, Universität des Saarlandes mit Außenstelle an der Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg, Germany: The relevance of justice – shaping participative planning processes and acceptable changes of the energy supply system Jan Hildebrand, Irina Rau, Petra Schweizer-Ries; Forschungsgruppe Umweltpsychologie, Universität des Saarlandes mit Außenstelle an der Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg, Germany: Reconditioning of information - Informal and formal communication processes between different planning levels as a key challenge in the context of energy transition Patrick Devine-Wright (already submitted), Geography, Life and Environmental Sciences; University of Exeter: Investigating the role of procedural justice in explaining different forms of protest behaviours: a powerline case study
Elsharkawy, HE, R Wilson, and P Rutherford. "Targeting People's Behaviour for Effective Policy Delivery: Community Energy Saving Programme (Cesp) in Aspley, Nottingham." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. The urge for lower carbon emissions from buildings has seen the development of policies to cater for energy conserving methods in new and existing buildings in UK.,P> As the domestic sector is responsible for over 27% of the total carbon emissions in the UK, hence upgrading existing domestic buildings to higher energy efficiency levels represent a ‘win-win’ opportunity in delivering more carbon reductions faster than the UK’s current carbon budgets. However, in order to meet the carbon emissions reduction target, the government’s approach in confronting household carbon emissions is predominantly policy-based. Policy instruments with standards for limiting energy loss through buildings have succeeded in imposing building codes and standards that take account of energy efficient design and upgrade. However, patterns of consumption and user behaviour have proved to have the effect of negating some of the benefit expected from those policies.Although government can play a pivotal role in changing those behaviours; it needs to engage individuals and the public in supporting the development of new social norms and fostering sustainable behaviour in a long-term approach to behaviour change. Yet in a growing world population and an increasing number of people now living in urban areas, achieving high levels of sustainable behaviour fronts many challenges. Among those is overcoming the barriers that society poses; that of behavioural and social patterns which drive energy consumption and resource use. It is argued that such factors form the basis of choices, habits and values of individuals which in turn dictate an individual’s decision to either adopt environmentally sustainable behaviour or not to. One viable solution to achieve this target is to drive positive environmental behaviour by means of appropriately tailored policy interventions, where the policy could, in effect, drive positive change in people’s energy consumption behaviour.This research reflects on how this specific area of energy policy is being enacted through policy and regulation, particularly in Community Energy Saving Programme (CESP), launched in 2009. A survey questionnaire is undertaken to identify how tenants of energy inefficient homes react to and perceive one of the pilot CESP schemes which is currently under delivery in Aspley area in Nottingham. The aim is to understand residents’ attitudes and behaviour to help develop appropriately tailored approaches that support and maintain effective delivery of current and future policy schemes. Thus, 60 households have been surveyed and data has been collected and analysed to provide significant correlations and findings concerning energy consumption behaviour and the need for suitable means of communication and information dissemination. The outcome is an examination of the likely impacts of the policy on energy consumption behaviour, together with investigating how delivering on the policy may (not)lead to the presumed target.
Robinson, JW, and E Lili. Teaching Architectural Programming in the Design Studio In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Although a number of books were published about architectural programming in the 1970s (e.g. White 1972, Pena 1977 & Sanoff 1977) and then again in the 1990's, (Duerk 1993, Kumlin 1995, Hershberger 1999, & Cherry 1999), in recent years , with the exception of a text by Franck and Howard (2010), the architectural program has been largely ignored in the United States. Nevertheless, the architectural program (or brief as it is known in the UK), plays a significant role in architectural design. This paper discusses how an approach to the instruction of architectural programming developed in the 1980's for a lecture course (Robinson & Weeks, 1984) is being revisited and applied in the design studio today. The paper explores what is similar and what is changed due to contemporary teaching methods, access to the internet and digital representation. Many of the underlying ideas remain relevant although the approach to instruction and modes of exploration of ideas have changed considerably in the intervening years.
Payne, C, R Gupta, D Hopkins, I Smith, C Payne, N Brkljac, M Gregg, K Williams, and J Joynt. "The Barriers and Opportunities of Adapting Suburbs to Climate Change." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Suburban neighbourhoods offer a challenge for climate change adaptation as the land and assets are largely privately owned. Therefore, it is difficult to engage and motivate agents of change, such as resident homeowners, to act in an effective manner to ensure that suburbs are suitable for a future changed climate. It is however important for actions in suburbs to be taken in a way which can achieve a beneficial cumulative effect, and avoid a negative impact on the area as a whole. This paper draws on research findings of the EPSRC funded SNACC project which aims to determine how suburbs can adapt to climate change. The research was undertaken in three separate cities, Oxford, Bristol and Stockport. In each city residents were gathered in workshops to view and comment on potential adaptation and mitigation options that could be applied in their suburb. The adaption options covered changes at the house, garden and neighbourhood scale and were customised to the local built typology and land morphology. The workshops sought to determine the respondents' perceptions of the effectiveness, feasibility and acceptability of the adaptation options and how their perception of climate change as a risk, and their exposure to previous climate related hazards (e.g. floods), had influenced their responses. The paper addresses a gap in knowledge on the barriers and opportunities to adapting for climate change, within the context of suburbs which have complex ownership status
Bishop, K. "The Challenges of Completing Social Research with Children and Young People in a Medical Context and Its Implications for Research, Policy and Design." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. Twenty years after the UNCRC (1989) which enshrined children's right to participate in processes that have the capacity to affect their lives, researching children's and young people's experience of hospital and health care environments is still extremely difficult. Many barriers exist to completing participatory social research with children and young people in a hospital setting. Beginning with the dominant medical culture of these contexts; coupled with a persistent scepticism of qualitative research and its contribution to knowledge in medical circles; restrictive contextual barriers also include methodological and practical challenges such as acquiring ethical approval, acquiring access, negotiating gatekeepers and recruiting participants. Together, the many barriers hamper 'good' research practice and the capacity to maintain quality data; as well as impeding children's participation in research. The layers of challenge experienced by social researchers in this context can equate to many compromises which fundamentally alter research projects and the integrity of the research. Contextual constraints can also severely compromise the capacity of researchers to structure and deliver optimal participatory research practice from children's and young people's perspectives. These constraints form barriers to children's participation, undermine children's interest and ability to participate and the recognition of their competence to do so. This ultimately undermines the quality and quantity of this research and its usefulness to health care design, planning and policy development. The challenges of conducting participatory qualitative research in hospital contexts will be discussed based on the experience of two studies in paediatric settings in Australia. One of these studies was completed in 2008 and one is continuing at present. The aim of the paper is to articulate the issues inhibiting this kind of research and their implications for research practice; children's right to participate; and the quality of the evidence that is ultimately available from children's perspectives to support the design of paediatric settings; and the development of relevant policy. Finally, the paper will make recommendations for change which could strengthen and improve this research experience for children and young people and for researchers. A greater degree of shared understanding is needed across all those involved in the whole research process in a hospital context. Educating and building awareness needs to begin with ethics committees, gatekeepers and researchers working in this context. Strategies for these aims also need to be coupled with increased awareness of the potential value of qualitative research to policy, research and design which means greater attention is also needed on processes of knowledge transfer and information exchange, so as to improve the likelihood that this research can contribute to policy, research and design practice.
Hadjri, K, V Faith, and M McManus. "The Design of Dementia Nursing and Residential Care Home Environments: Best Practice from Belfast, Northern Ireland." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. This paper presents the findings of a study on the design of dementia nursing and residential care homes in Northern Ireland which aimed to establish the extent to which these facilities perceived themselves to be dementia-friendly according to the design guidelines published in the Design for Dementia Audit Tool of the Dementia Services Development Centre (DSDC).There are about 750,000 people in the UK living with dementia, whose care costs the UK economy around £20 billion. Long term institutional care and informal/unpaid make up the majority of this cost. Given the demographic implications of ageing the expected increase in the prevalence of dementia, provision of care environments which meet their needs become critical. As a result of the impairments caused by dementia, people with dementia need an environment which supports them to optimise their abilities.Depending on the needs of the person with dementia, some people require access to nursing home or residential care home. Most guidance on the current Disability Discrimination Act does not include the impairments of dementia.Poor design which is not sensitised to the needs of people with dementia, places the person with dementia at more risk of environment-induced problems - many will present as being more disabled than they truly are as a result. Way-finding, agitation, anxiety, higher rates of incontinence, more incidents of aggression and frustration, and being at higher risk of falls are just some of the consequences of poor design. The person with dementia is often pre-disposed to these symptoms and consequences, but the risks become compounded, perpetuated and exacerbated within a poorly designed space. Therefore consideration and prioritisation to design for the person with dementia as the critical 'end-user' in any facility becomes compelling.This study used postal questionnaires addressed to facility managers in order to collect information on the design of nursing and residential care homes. The DSDC Audit Tool was used to design the questionnaire. This tool was developed by a multi-professional team of architects, a lighting engineer, academics, and clinical and social care professionals such as, nursing, social work and occupational therapy.This paper concludes that the majority of homes perceive themselves to meet over 50 percent of the essential criteria, with just over five percent below the 50 percent mark. Four homes out of 54 perceive themselves to meet all essential criteria. Managers agree that the design of the physical environment is important and can positively support people with dementia and their carers.The paper established a self-assessed level of compliance with current design recommendations for dementia care facilities, and identified which aspects need more attention. Moreover, the paper highlights the need for more care in the design of such facilities, and the importance of practical advice to those designing and managing these environments.
Takahashi, H, and N Oi. "The Development of Image Grid Method: Personal Construct on Health and Comfort." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012. n recent years, most people in Japan or other busy countries seem to feel some stress and distress in daily life. Therefore, the feeling of “being healthy” or “comforting (healing) oneself” in any way is demanded to maintain the psychological and physical balance to be healthy.The aims of this study are to develop a new method of extracting the image construct about healthy or healing environments and to comprehend their image construct. One of the methods of extracting environmental evaluation structure formed through individual experience is the Evaluation Grid Method (EGM). EGM is based on the personal construct theory and Repertory Grid Method (RGM). The difference between EGM and the original RGM is that RGM asks only the similarity and the difference among elements while EGM asks the rank order of the elements and then asks the basis on which such ordering has been made in evaluating environments using word criteria. The object of EGM is to extract elements of preference for living environments from each individual, and make clear his/her construct of evaluation. Though EGM is very useful to extract personal construct related to a specific space such as living rooms, it is quite tricky to find preferable environment for activities or psychological state that could be felt in various places.After several trials of modifications on EGM, we proposed a new method called Image Grid Method (IGM) using the Evaluation Grid Method as a reference to explore Japanese people's personal construct image of health in daily life. This method is the combination of remembering behavior settings and laddering them without presented elements comparing procedures.From the previous research, Image Grid Questionnaire seems to be quite effective for extracting personal construct of feeling healthy in daily life. Following discussions lead to the conclusion that Image Grid Questionnaire is no longer a development of EGM as there is no procedure of comparing elements. In this research, Image Grid Method is applied on the feeling of “comforting (healing) oneself” and compared the result from other method. The result shows IGM extracted some factors that seem to have missed from other methods. This kind of knowledge will be useful for space design meeting the demands of health and comforting people.
Li, D. "The Development of New Design Guidelines for Socially Beneficial Urban Public Squares in a Chinese Metropolis - the Case of Guangzhou." In Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment: Implications for Research, Policy and Practice (IAPS 22 Conference, Abstracts of Presentations). IAPS. Glasgow, UK: University of Strathclyde, 2012.