Keywords Abstract
Castro, Paula, Carla Mouro, and Leonor Bettencourt. "Imagining ourselves as participating publics  an example from biodiversity governance." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Current laws in many countries around the world, and in EU member-states in particular, have made the consultation of affected publics mandatory for such decisions as the sitting of energy facilities, urban re-habilitation or the designation of protected areas. This has made exercises of public engagement a generalized practice. However, the growing literature that addresses the perspectives of experts (scientists and decision-makers) about this engagement shows how the public is systematically constructed as unresponsive, indifferent, as needing information more than participation, and as appeasable by having certain specific concerns addressed. This ‘imagined public’ works as a rational for experts to opt, most of the times, for weak versions of public engagement, and this, in turn, contributes for reproducing and perpetuating an old image of the public under the new legislation. However, there is one further dimension that is crucial for understanding the dynamics of public engagement: knowing how the publics imagine themselves and whether or not these imaginations reproduce the models of the public with which the experts work. Yet, this is a much less studied topic. In this presentation we will look at how the publics imagine themselves. We present data from 9 focus groups with rural communities subjected to decisions linked to Natura 2000 biodiversity protection laws. The residents describe episodes of local civic engagement and talk about barriers and facilitators to engagement. The analyses show that, in several dimensions, the residents lack new forms of imagination, i.e., they imagine themselves as they are imagined by the experts. Other aspects are, however, contested, and the will to participate never leaves the discourses, thus opening space for agency and for new formats of engagement, even if these are not very specific. The consequences of this for governance and the advancement of environmental goals are discussed.

Pawlikowska-Piechotka, Anna. "OLD TOWN  NEW IMAGE PROJECT AND LOCAL COMMUNITY CONTRIBUTION." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Introduction: In the past Polish towns and cities have functioned as popular tourist destination, but heritage tourism and especially one of its segments – urban tourism – has grown significantly nly in recent years. As a result of socio-economic transformation, more income, higher levels of education, growing awareness of our country, globalisation process (access to EU) and better tourist infrastructure (transport, accommodation) now we could experience much more bigger tourists interest in our historic cities. Today especially Cracow and Warsaw have been visited by millions of tourists per year. Needless to underline that the main attraction for tourists there are the historic centres of these cities, Old Town in Warsaw and Old Town in Cracow. Research question and methods: As tourism develops in historic centres, it brings with it recognisable ecological, cultural, social and economic impacts. Today the tension clearly exists between users of ‘shared space’, between visitors and residents: those who work and live in and around heritage sites. Our research study (conducted by the author in the Institute of Tourism and Recreation AWF University Warsaw, 2010-2013) was about enquiry the phenomenon of heritage tourism and its impact on Old Town in Warsaw local community members. We were interested both in negative and positive consequences, in revealing socio-cultural impacts that cultural tourism have on historic district residents (host community). One of the important parts of our survey was to identify the role of heritage tourism in Old Town regeneration. We intended to shape our research in form of applied one and hoped to find a solution for sustainable heritage tourism development. To measure these issues from different perspectives we used combination of methods as we have aimed to achieve a balance between quantitative and qualitative approaches: academic studies of published resources and spatial plans (quantitative secondary data analysis) as well as the case study - primary data in form of observations, semi-structured and structured interviews conducted between local community and local authority representatives (Dallen 2003; Finn 2000; Page 2003; Phillimore 2004; Smith 2006). Results and Conclusions: Our research showed that the most important aspects of physical damage at historic properties are wear and tear, litter, pollution, noise and vandalism. Mass of tourists (throngs of people filling narrow streets) and anti social behaviour of tourists were the major disruptions listed by local community members of Old Town in Warsaw. Some residents mentioned the lack of shops with food and very high prices at few groceries which are today in minority among numerous restaurants, banks, fancy boutiques and souvenir shops – targeting with their offer to tourists and much less interested in residents of Old Town group. Sadly very active Association of Old Town Residents (founded in 2000) cannot contribute as effectively in shaping the spatial policy as potentially it could, because most of its members have not legal rights to their apartments. Without clear position they are treated only as tenants of communal properties and as a ‘weak’ partner for Warsaw Municipality and Old Town Local Authority.

Miller, James Patrick. "Transnational Community Resilience Developed through Traditional Knowledge Systems." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

The rising frequency of environmentally triggered population displacement is creating more vulnerable communities, especially in underdeveloped nations. The projected rise in sea level will lead to the mass migration and permanent population displacement of millions of individuals around the globe. The unprecedented thresholds created through climate change lessen the adaptive strategies of indigenous populations and will make it more difficult, if not impossible, to rebound from their impacts. Building resilience within these communities to mitigate present climatic impacts and developing strategies to bridge new thresholds created through climate change will lead toward future resilience in displaced populations. The study of indigenous and informal knowledge systems within a coastal community and their migratory population will demonstrate the deep societal structures that allow for continuity and demonstrate the ability of knowledge systems to create risk reduction and climate change adaptation, benefiting local and transnational resilience building. This research focuses on the study of the building culture of an indigenous, coastal community facing the impacts of climate change and their first generation immigrant counterparts to understand the deep structures of their knowledge systems that demonstrate cultural capacity, continuity and resilience building. Climate ethnography, adapted from the work of Susan Crate, will be used to conduct this multi-sited study in order to develop cultural models of resilience and adaptation. Using participatory research methods, the community of Rita of Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands will be studied along with family members who have immigrated to Springdale, Arkansas,USA. It is expected that this study will uncover indigenous knowledge systems within the culture of building that are essential for resilience building, mitigating vulnerability, and allowing for climate adaptation both locally and globally. The knowledge uncovered can be used to inform current disaster risk mitigation practices. I conjecture that a hybridity model of knowledge systems will be necessary to bridge the thresholds of climate change in order to develop more resilient communities.

Diniz, Raquel Farias, Fernanda Fernandes Gurgel, and Tadeu Mattos Farias. "2014 FIFA World Cup: how residents of a host city perceive impacts of the mega-event?" In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Mega-events generate changes with regard to social, urban and economical aspects. In the city of Natal (in Brazilian Northeast) these changes are characterized mainly by the building of Arena das Dunas stadium, by urban mobility interventions, and investment in hostelry/tourism industry. These changes may influence the relationship between people and their surroundings, in existent bonds and memories related to places, justifying studies on psychosocial processes that may be triggered by such changes. Accordingly, this exploratory research aimed to investigate the residents perceptions about changes attributed to World Cup, during and after the mega-event. 214 participants (mean 35 years old, range 15-74, 47% female, 85% with degree of instruction between moderate and high) answered a questionnaire developed for the research. Categories derived from the literature which depicts the main impacted areas were analyzed, namely: public safety, city's overall appearance (aesthetics), health services, transportation services, employment, tourism, leisure facilities, urban cleaning, city image and traffic. A Likert scale of 5 points was used, evaluating changes ranging from very negative (-2) to very positive (+2), and a midpoint representing the neutral perception of change (0). For data analysis it was used univariate and bivariate nonparametric statistics. As results, on the temporal aspect (during and after the World Cup), it was observed a significant difference in impact assessments among different categories (p < 0.001). As expected, the changes were better evaluated on tourism, employment and image of the city, which received higher averages. On the other hand, changes after the World Cup were evaluated more negatively, and basic services (health, safety and traffic) received the lowest means. It is noteworthy that traffic had negative evaluation both during and after the event, which may be related to the fact that it is a point of debate and criticism quite conveyed by the media, also it is one of the biggest current challenges in large urban centers of the country. The positioning in favor or in opposition on the realization of the mega-event in the city was associated with perception of changes, something also expected. Favorable people had more positive opinions about the changes, both during and after the Cup compared with opposite group. Considering the educational level, participants highly educated seems to evaluate impacts of World Cup both during and after the event more negatively than those with low education. Another point was the positive association between liking football and public safety, transportation and recreation evaluations during the Cup and safety, aesthetics and urban cleaning services after the event. We highlight in this study the more critical view on the mega-event and changes by residents with higher education and access to information, besides the positive evaluation of the economically meaningful categories, as employment and tourism during the World cup. These aspects will be explored at a later stage of the research. It is expected from the achievement of objectives to shed light on psychosocial processes present in the person-environment related to changes in the urban landscape due to events of this proportion.

Andrade, Soraya Souza, and Saint-Clair Cordeiro T. Júnior. "Aas gastronomy and place identity in a northern Brazilian capital." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

This work is based on reflections about the process of globalization of açaí berry and its reflections in the Brazilian Amazon. The açaí is a base food of diet for riverside amazon population, which has a strong identity character, and that happened to be consumed outside the Amazon region with intense changes throughout its production chain. Given this scenario, the main objective of this paper is to analyze the changes in the forms of sale and consumption of acai in the Metropolitan Region of Belém (PA/Brazil), and its relation with place identity of açaí's consumers. The Metropolitan Region of Belém covers Belém, capital of Pará, Brazilian state with major production, circulation and consume of açai. This city has the highest rate of consumption of açaí in the state, where it is possible observing traditional and modern patterns in the açaí berry consuption interacting with each other in the daily life.

The research was conducted by the following specific questions: a) what changes have occurred over the past two decades in the dynamics of the consumption of açaí in Belém? b) what elements of tradition and modernity make up the consumption of the açaí berry nowadays? c) what are the implications of changes in the dynamics of the consumption of acai for the formation of place identity in consumers of acai in Belém? Theoretically, research articulates the definition of place identity Abe-Lima (2012) with the elaborations of Henri Lefebvre (1991) about everyday life in the modern world, and with economic circuits's theory (Milton Santos, 2008). Methodologically, a multimethod strategy was used, involving documentary research, a panel of experts, observations based in urban ethnography and semi-open interviews. In addition to the interview scripts were used field diaries and photographs. The data set is being submitted to the technique of thematic content analysis, with possible support from QDA Miner software.

Results related to the globalization of açaí indicates its inception in the mid -1990s as a result of the interaction between the internal scenario diversification of exploitation of Amazonian natural resources and global scenario of expansion of coping with human-environmental problems. The main changes in the dynamics of consumption of açai are referring to the steep rise of the academic and scientific interest in the subject, the volume of production and export, control and regulation of the production and sale conditions. On the elements of tradition and modernity, the data shows that the latter is evident in the prevalence of household consumption, preference for shopping in places near the residence and combinations traditionally established. Modernity elements are expressed in improving the hygiene and cleanliness of production and sale, home delivery service and offer service immediate consumption such as restaurants, as well as the diversification of combinations of açaí with others products.

To date, 32 consumers of açaí over 18 and resident in Metropolitan Region of Belém, recruited through snowball chain type were interviewed. At the end of the collection, it is expected that the data set triggers analyzes and discussions that contribute to the understanding of little-known aspects of everyday life of many consumers acai hitherto and therefore rarely considered in planning actions and determinations that are of their direct interest.

Gray, Grant, Edward Edgerton, and Dr Duncan Sim. "A comparative study of professional and laypersons perceptions of social housing design." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Social housing provision is not merely a case of providing sufficient numbers of dwellings; it involves the understanding of the complex and symbolic interactions of tenants living in social housing throughout their life cycle. The design function has a vital role to play in creating affordances that allow the tenant an element of control and ability to construct their personal version of an environment that reflects their personality. Matching tenants’ needs to the structure is therefore particularly important and requires a multidisciplinary approach. The primary research question that evolves from this notion is: “Does current social housing design in Scotland meet the needs of tenants?”

Environmental Psychology is deeply entwined in trying to understand the mechanics of everyday life, from using the spaces we inhabit to interpreting the objects we observe, handle, sit upon and generally use (Brebner, 1982). Examining how tenants judge the built spaces they inhabit and whether their needs are being met can be based on a number of variables, such as: preferences of room size and shape, affordances that radiator, door and window position provide for personalising rooms, aesthetic judgments of design characteristics, colour and materials, emotional links, identity and place attachment and feelings of control (Vestbro, Hurol, & Wilkinson, 2005).

The Parker Morris Report (1961), ‘Homes for Today and Tomorrow’, suggests the way to design rooms within dwellings is dependent on the architect having some form of knowledge relating to patterns of room use, furniture and activity needs. Darke (1984 a, b, & c) however, found architects expressed difficulty in designing for people living in social housing and suggested the main reference point they had to inform their designs was from their own educational influences, and preferences as the primary guide. This tends to overlook the socioeconomic and cultural influences of tenants who generally have polarised life experiences and influences from professionals.

There has been little research exploring how Housing Associations (HA), as the main provider of social housing in Scotland, determine the design needs of end users. In the current economic climate HA’s increasingly collaborate in an attempt to reduce costs through design initiatives. There is however a danger that social housing becomes homogenised, providing smaller accommodation with little or no opportunity for tenant personalisation that engenders feelings of attachment.

This study uses a phenomenological approach to triangulate grounded data via focus groups and individual interviews to compare tenants, architects, and housing association professional’s perceptions on social housing designs. Preliminary results suggested that architects in general expressed a keenness to interact with tenants but did not show any clear practical application of it. In contrast tenants viewed any interaction they had with architects as superfluous as architects tended, in their view to “do what they wanted anyway”. Housing associations seemed not to engage tenants in design issues and had rigid views on how much design involvement architects should have. This paper discuss common areas and gaps that exist between each of these key stakeholders and the implications for social housing provision, design and use.

Söldner, Sigrid. "A comparative study of the Transition Town movement in Germany and the UK." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

The Transition Town movement is a decentralised and evolving approach to community-led sustainability. It offers a model for a societal shift from oil dependency towards more energy efficient and low carbon lifestyles (Hopkins, 2008). Whilst communities in the UK are the pioneers of this movement, since 2005 transition initiatives have begun to develop in communities of various shapes and sizes worldwide. In Germany, the Transition movement developed alongside the ‘Energiewende’ and is suggested to occur both physically as well as within people’s minds. The fundamental aims of the Transition Town movement are to build local resilience and robust responses towards issues including energy demand and fossil fuel dependency. Communities are encouraged to develop ways in which to overcome such issues using resources specific to their situations as opposed to more top-down driven transitions.

There are twelve guiding steps or ingredients to transition which aim to draw up and implement an energy descent plan involving a wide range of local actors at all levels of the process. These have recently developed into a more flexible and broader set of principles, which resemble certain principles from organisational psychological such as the participatory development of socio-technological systems (Schweizer-Ries, 2008). Psychological knowledge could inform the parallel concepts that may develop at this point and further benefit the Transition movement. A central aim of this research will be to revise the principles and consider rooting them within a Rubicon model of action phases (Achtziger & Gollwitzer, 2007). The rationale behind this is that more reference and higher commitment to conscious decision-making processes may be required for Transition Initiatives to gain momentum.

Methodologically, this work aims to compare the development of the Transition Town movement and related initiatives in the UK with those that have more recently begun to evolve in Germany. This will take the form of a comparative case study of a community in Germany and in the UK, similar in size and demographic backgrounds. The local processes as well as responses towards local Transition Initiatives will be analysed. A mixed-methods approach will be used, where qualitative interviews may have greater value when identifying the important aspects of the Transition movement from local initiators. Quantitative data will be collected from local residents, as it will allow for a wide range of data to be gathered in an efficient manner. It is imaginable that a standardised questionnaire for sustainability and energy consciousness will be used (currently under construction). Furthermore, this study will adopt a transformative research method in the sense that it will aim to contribute to on-going projects as opposed to a more extractive driven research process.

The value of this comparative study is that it is thought to lead to a more thorough understanding of how the Transition movement is implemented and accepted in two related yet very different settings, i.e. countries that are economically and socially comparable but which have taken different stances on energy efficiency and ways to overcome oil dependency. Cultural and political frameworks in Germany and the UK may provide a contextual basis for the analysis of the development of Transition Initiatives and their uptake. Furthermore this research aims to identify the ways in which psychology, or more specifically concepts from environmental psychology, can help shape the Transition process successfully.

Elnokaly, Amira M., and Manvi Vyas. "A Cross Case Investigation of Sustainability Assessment tools of the LEED, BREEAM and GRIHA." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

With spreading of the very notion of sustainable development in the construction industry, the rating system schemes to assess the energy efficiency is becoming more vital than ever. Today, a great deal of effort is placed all over the world in achieving and implementing sustainable strategies and development in the construction industry. The aim of this paper is to provide an objective comparison of the sustainability performance assessment of three tools that are used and applied in sustainability assessment in three different countries. This paper critically examines the sustainability assessment for new buildings within three building environment assessment schemes within the BREEAM-UK, LEED-USA and GRIHA-India. Bose (2011) noted that there are many aspects, which are not been addressed to respond to the Indian context within the used assessment tools in India. The paper reviews this tools aiming at identifying those aspects and putting forward a strategy to address them in the Indian rating tool through a comparative study of this system with two of the most leading systems of the world namely the LEED and BREEAM. The paper through a cross case analysis identifies the nature and contribution, in addition to the shortcomings in the existing sustainable parameters of the three tools identified. This is followed by an evaluation of the three systems based on the similarities of their assessment criteria, credits, benchmarks and energy performance system. Scope of further development of the GRIHA assessment tool is identified particularly the need for expansion of the 3 broader categories it uses for assessment. The paper proposes that in developing countries like India there should be a scope within the sustainability assessment tools to capture the health and well being of the society

Pisano, Ignacio, and Carmen Hildago. "A cross-cultural study among 30 countries: micro and macro influences on pro-environmental behaviors." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Using data from the 2010 ISSP Survey a series of multilevel models of competing theories were built that seek to explain cross-national differences in pro-environmental behaviors (PEB). After controlling for a series of sociodemographic and psychosocial factors, it was predicted that national levels of wealth, postmaterialism, education development and environmental problems are positively related to PEB. The results indicated that significant differences exist between nations in their levels of PEB (ICC: .10 to .37). The contextual-level variance is to a substantial degreed explained by individual-level variables, capturing compositional effects. The remaining variance is explained by the contextual-level variables (R²: 40 to 79%). All of the country level variables are predictors in the expected direction with the exception of environmental degradation, which is negatively related to behaviors and education development, which has no impact on individual behaviors. More importantly, cross-level interactions show that in more developed countries is easier to translate proecological attitudes into actions.

Pisano, Ignacio. "A cross-cultural study among 30 countries: micro and macro influences on pro-environmental behaviors." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Using data from the 2010 ISSP Survey a series of multilevel models of competing theories were built that seek to explain cross-national differences in pro-environmental behavior (PEB). After controlling for a series of sociodemographic and psychosocial factors, it was predicted that national levels of wealth, postmaterialism, education development and environmental problems are positively related to PEB. The results indicated that significant differences exist between nations in their levels of PEB (ICC: .10 to .37). The contextual-level variance is to a substantial degreed explained by individual-level variables, capturing compositional effects. The remaining variance is explained by the contextual-level variables (R²: 40 to 79%). All of the country level variables are predictors in the expected direction with the exception of environmental degradation, which is negatively related to behaviors and education development, which has no impact on individual behaviors. More importantly, cross-level interactions show that in more developed countries is easier to translate proecological attitudes into actions.

Manzi, Sean. "A framework for improving the sustainability of health and social care waste management." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Introduction: The provision of health and social care for a country’s population is a concern for modern society. The economic, social and environmental sustainability of health and social care services are less often considered factors. These are large public services that consume large quantities of raw materials and produce hundreds of thousands of tonnes of waste per year. Improving the management of health and social care waste would contribute towards improving the sustainability of these services. The instigation of a reduce, re-use and recycle philosophy could help by reducing the carbon foot print of these services. For example, recycling is a cheaper disposal method than the incineration of clinical waste. The issue facing health and social care services managers is how to design and institute a sustainable waste management system that works. This study aimed to investigate how the health and social care organisations, the employees and the waste management system influenced the disposal and management of waste.

A mixed methods multi-strategy concurrent triangulation study, that included five sub-studies, was carried at four health and social care sites in the South West of England. The five sub-studies were; 1) A quantitative observation of waste disposal behaviour, 2) A qualitative observation of waste disposal behaviour, 3) A waste audit of the clinical and domestic waste streams, 4) A semi-structured interview study with the member of the management responsible for waste management, and 5) A pilot decision making questionnaire assessing the role of conscious and habitual decision making in waste disposal behaviour. The findings of all five studies were triangulated, then reconciled with the existing literature and used to construct a framework for the improvement of health and social care waste management.

The health and social care waste management behaviour improvement framework (HWMBIF) depicts the factors influencing individual waste management tasks/behaviours. The HWMBIF builds from the behaviour through the decision making processes to the factors impacting on waste management knowledge and memory. These factors include: visual cues, social influences, situational time pressures, a triadic interaction between environmental experiences, environmental attitudes and the salience of environmental issues in the task. Six points in the framework were identified as potential targets for interventions and plausible interventions suggested for them. Methods for measuring each facet of the model and a direct primary measure of waste disposal behaviour were proposed.

The HWMBIF has the potential to aid in the design, re-design and maintenance of health and social care waste management systems. The cost of designing or re-designing systems in this way would be countered by the potential for both financial and carbon savings. If non-clinical waste which is currently disposed of in the clinical waste is transferred to the municipal and recycling waste streams, financial savings can be made that can be reinvested into patient care. Environmental savings could be achieved with the introduction of recycling lowering carbon emissions and the need for raw material extraction. This framework is currently theoretical but has been built from rigorous and detailed empirical evidence. Future research will seek to test and refine the framework in a variety of health and social care settings.

Pinheiro, Jose Q., and Alexandra C. Farias. "A picture is worth a thousand words also in regard to Global Climate Changes?" In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

We investigated the visual and iconic representations of Global Climate Changes (GCC) typically used by communication means and the meaning of GCC in the realm of common sense. Little is known about the indicators that predict people's engagement with environmental questions such as GCC and about the most effective communication strategies to promote such engagement. Our basic question relates to the relationship between images and GCC, considering the intense exploration of the theme by media and, on the other hand, the shallow appropriation of the subject by the population in general, as verified in previous studies.

We asked 117 university students, of the courses of Geography, Ecology, and Social Communication to answer a questionnaire containing (open and closed) questions about environmental care and the visual representations of GCC. The question on environmental care intended to find out whether the participants practiced (currently or in the past) actions of care for the environment; in case of a positive answer, such practice should be briefly described.

In regard to the iconic visual representations of GCC, the respondent had to consider the first image she/he would associate to the theme of GCC. It was up to the participant to respond the question with text, drawing, or both. The content analysis of such answers took into consideration categories established in accordance to the most frequently themes related to GCC, as pointed out in the literature.

The analysis demonstrated that in fact there was no unanimous choice of iconic representation of GCC among the participants. In addition, the majority of respondents mentioned representations in a geographic scale distant from the context of their lives, expressing the phenomenon as a remote problem, at the global level, alien to the local level, in which mitigation actions could be conceived and implemented.

Our findings indicate the need of a perspective different from the that is presently imposed by the media. Images of environmental catastrophes, with fatalistic connotation, have contributed very little to the interest and engagement of people in actions of mitigation, frequently causing an aversion for the theme, because the implied threat does not motivate thoughts of capacity and effectiveness. The reflexion upon the theme should integrate the affective and the informational spheres in an efficient and positive manner, to bring an incentive towards the social engagement so important for a satisfactory way out of the problem of GCC.

Shon, Seungkwang. "A Pilot Project for a Regeneration of Old Residential Areas in Korea (in case of Historic residential area, Keumma Districts)." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Housing types in Korea for a long time was formed a low-rise residential building an apartment housing type appeared in last 40 years, and roughly divided into two. Instead of the old residential area of ​​low-rise residential and many of them appeared as a places of historical properties. However, the low-rise residential areas subject to redevelopment was complete devotion to demolition, the place of residence and people in this respect was not right.

This study is pilot project which is planning and perform of master plan for rehabilitation of the deteriorated low-rise housing, and planning and its planning process was monitored. The proposal to establish a temporary object is king of Baekje era ruled areas, and residential properties play goal is to restore the historic site to honor the lives of the current residents in sustainable housing plan to develop and promote the regeneration of the pilot study that.

The planning issues is contradictory between historic environment and needs for people life in modern, and the pilot project is to adjust the contrary point of views. The master plan and progress for sustainable housing to promote the regeneration of the housing, can be a model process and technique of playing similar context.

Shrestha, Pooja, and Harry Smith. "A pragmatic approach towards characterizing public open spaces in the traditional urban centre and sprawled area of the Kathmandu Valley." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

The pre-eminence of the Kathmandu Valley is greatly portrayed by its public spaces. These spaces not only shape the image of the Valley but also help to maintain the quality of life that is associated with Nepalese society. The urban form of the Valley that prevails today is the result of progressive growth in the traditional settlements over different historical periods: the ancient Lichhavi period (440-750A.D); the medieval Malla period, (1200A.D-1768A.D); and the modern Rana period (1846 A.D-1951A.D). Contextualizing the open spaces, two distinct types of spaces- mono-cultural and multicultural- have been recognized since the Malla period with their own identities. Since the Valley is experiencing an unprecedented urban growth in the recent years with the periphery of the urban area expanding, this growth is introducing new meanings in the open spaces. Hence, this paper aims to analyse the meanings of place given to public spaces in the traditional urban centre (TUC) and sprawled area (SA) with reference to urban settings and their corresponding sensuous perceptions, patterns of activities that characterize the space, and perceptions of users regarding sense of community towards the spaces in the recent years. For this purpose, this paper focuses on two spaces that form part of a wider study. These are the market squares of Ason, an amalgamation of commerce and religious use in TUC; and Bhaisepati chowk, a fusion of commercial, social and recreational use in SA. A pragmatic approach is used that involves mapping of place identity (including physical settings, activities and their corresponding sensuous perceptions-visual, sound, smell, and touch); mapping of patterns of activities with classifications of number of occurrences of activities throughout a day; and interviews with users. The results for mapping of place identity are based on observations conducted in two consecutive years 2012/13 by the professionals (architects, planners, and engineers including researcher), and the mapping of patterns of activities is based on the observations conducted by the researcher alone in 2012. From the results, it can be concluded that the meaning of Ason square is predominantly depicted by places of religious and commercial settings whereas it is by places of social setting in the Bhaisepati chowk. Most of the elements of urban interest provide pleasant sensuous perceptions in both cases. Regarding the activities, the occurrence of the same types of activities in the same location, following the same spatial pattern in two years suggests that they have become the part of the identity of spaces in both cases. The interviews with the users show that ethnic pluralism has a strong role in sense of community in both cases. A stronger community attachment is found in the users of TUC than SA.

PEREIRA, Paula R. P., and Doris C. C. K. Kowaltowski. "A school building design analysis method based on precedents." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

This study presents the results of a survey conducted on analysis methods for the design process of school buildings. Three methods were selected: DQI for Schools (Design Quality Indicator), “Metodologia de Avaliação de Conforto Ambiental de Projetos Escolares – otimização multicritérios” and the method “Comparative Floor plan-Analyses” (CFA). The results of the analysis of these three methods indicated those aspects that should be the basis of a design evaluation method for schools in general and for the Foundation for Educational Development (Fundação para o Desenvolvimento da Educação - FDE), which manages school building design in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. These aspects were: specific requirements for school architecture, the representation of results for isolated attributes and the decomposition of design solutions. The latter supported by the analysis of precedents found in the literature on school architecture. The main goal of this study was to propose a method to support the design process of school buildings beyond quantitative aspects. The hypothesis states that through knowledge acquired on the morphology of evaluation methods and analysis of exemplary designs, presented in the literature, it is possible to develop a method that supports the design process of schools in general and is compatible to the context of FDE. A specific design analysis method was developed. It consists of a structure of concepts to define a sample, a framework for the analysis of designs and procedures that examine the occurrence of relationships between functional requirements and solutions (design proposals). To test the methods, 34 designs, both of FDE and exemplary school projects, were analysed to determine the presence of these concepts in solutions. This analysis showed that the method is an efficient instrument for decision-making during a school design process, increasing reflections on the multidisciplinary aspects of the school environment today. The method also has the potential to be transformed into a computer application to complement DQI for schools and other tools with a goal to inspire school architecture with users and learning in mind.

Baborska-Narozny, Magdalena, and Fionn Stevenson. "A Social Learning Tool  enhancing collective occupant learning for better low carbon home use." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Moving into a new dwelling involves a learning phase of interacting with the fabric and systems provided that determines the emergence of home use habits and patterns. The introduction of increasingly complex mechanical & electrical systems into residential buildings inevitably creates a new set of challenges for home users and governing bodies. To stay in control of the internal environment users need new skills and understanding that go beyond the tacit knowledge built up over a long time of experiences in previous accommodation. Variations between adopted habits and patterns are a major factor behind a 3 times difference in energy performance observed between exactly the same houses. Such differences are matters of concern given the high expectations towards energy use reduction in housing across the EU. Good home use would achieve comfort while minimizing energy consumption. In the longer term it would need to include proper maintenance and capacity building to cope with unexpected circumstances. There is an urgent need to better understand the learning stage of home use. Home use learning is predominantly seen by the industry as an individual linear process with a clear objective: to close the gap between the user’s understanding and the design intention. Pitfalls and inefficiencies of such model are identified as a result of two case-study in-depth post occupancy evaluations of residential developments in Leeds, UK. The authors see collective home use learning as a dynamic group process with a strong potential to avoid the identified pitfalls of the individual linear learning model, and result in better home use and more resilient communities. Building performance evaluation (BPE) currently does not address the type and quality of collective learning processes happening within a community in relation to occupants using their new homes. A Social Learning Tool (SLT) is proposed to extend BPE methodology and provide a framework to help researchers better understand the nature and degree of home user collective learning and community involvement which can in turn enhance the user learning process through feedback. The SL model proposed looks at the actual phase of home use learning (early occupancy and occupancy) but also considers the earlier stage when a group is first established and its ethos, identity and governance are defined. Research questions and methods deployed as a part of SLT are presented. Further development of the SL tool should result in building up guidelines and reference checklist to enhance the collective home use learning process in any community. A first partial application of the tool to six case study dwellings within a low carbon development in Leeds allowed identification of barriers and opportunities of collective learning. The presented scope of analysis covers the role that social media and other web based means of communication play in the collective learning process.

Tzeng, Szu-Yu. "A Study from the Viewpoint of Different Life Body Posture on theLiving Behaviors for the Elderly with Dementia." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Ergonomics is an important factor in Environmental Design. But still no research is trying to focusing on the reacted-relations among user, behavior and space, analyzing the behavior setting for the dementia elderly in the viewpoint of different body postures, to find the characteristics of behavior and differences of spatial needs for the dementia elderly in nursing home.

Based on this background, this research will occur an observation by a survey method of behavior-mapping the elderly with dementia,. There are three main purposes in this study: 1) to tracing the characteristics and needs for the dementia elderly of different body postures when carrying out daily living behaviors (dining, recreation, physiological excretion,) in nursing home; 2) to compare the staying place, time, and behaviors among the dementia elderly of three different body postures; 3) to analyze the moving pattern and characteristic of the dementia elderly among different body postures in Nursing Home.

Remarkable findings are as follows: (1) On average, of ten hours of survey time, the elderly spent 60% to stay in bedroom area, 30% in public multi-purposes area and 10% at corridor; (2) The should be divided into “bed center”, “bedroom area center”, “ multi-purposes area center” and “bedroom and multi-purposes area doubled centers” four types; (3) The moving patterns of the dementia elderly could classified into “actively moving”, “wandering” and “passively moving” three types.

Lee, Yeunsook, Dongjoo Lee, Yunjee Jung, and Jaehyun Park. "A Study on Effects of Residents Participation in the Process of Planning Community Base Facility for Urban Regeneration." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

In the deprived urban area it has been stressed to establish community base facility to regenerate the area and residents’ continuous participation from the planning stage is necessary for autonomous regeneration of the local community. This is an essential factor to develop the local asset that is suitable for the local community. In the past residents’ participation used to be perceived negatively as an obstacle in implementing the project of local administration. However, as the policy of government has been changed, urban development is required to be directed toward regeneration of the existing urban communities especially toward an autonomous recovery. This study describes the effect and outcome of residents’ participation in the process of planning the community base facility for urban regeneration. Participation was expected to support to improve the initial plan that was adopted in open competition. The method of this study used workshops for residents’ group that represent the local community. Workshops were accomplished in three stages according to types of plans that are the subject of debate. The workshops were carried out from March until June, 2013. In order to facilitate the communication with the residents, scaled models, floor planes and perspective images were used. As results, original competition plan was changed reflecting large portion of residents’ opinions. Participating residents enhanced their understanding about the facility spaces, improved their ability to agree with adjustment among the participating residents and reinforced their ability to consider their community and the diverse positions of the residents. The relationship between the residents and the local administration that used to be superficial and unreliable developed to a cooperative relationship that understand each other and adjust each other. In short, residents’ participation in the process of urban regeneration is not an obstacle but can be directed toward facilitation of administration tasks and decreasing the conflicts, thus evolving as an asset suitable for the needs of the local community. In conclusion, this study suggests the followings for urban regeneration: First, if residents’ group is trusted, administration works can be facilitated very much. Therefore, local administration should cooperate in carrying out the roles of residents’ group in order to help them obtain the reliability and representing function of their local community. Second, local administration should make efforts to change the relationship to mutual cooperative relationship with the residents. Earnest effort for this purpose not only facilitates the administrative works but also help the local administration carry out its tasks more faithfully. Third, in order to improve the relationship between the private and local administration it is important to make changes in the ways of thinking and behaviors of local administration and residents’ ability to reasonably communicate with their local community should be improved. For this purpose diverse programs to reinforce the residents’ abilities should be supported to put into practice. Fourth, among the diverse types of residents’ participation, use of residents’ representative group is very effective because it avoids conflictions and decreases energy consumption without the necessity of dealing with many residents.

Tokumoto, Fuyuka, and Daisaku Nishina. "A STUDY ON PSYCHOLOGICAL EVALUATION IN THE SEMI-OUTDOOR SPACE TO GET OUT OF THE RAIN, AMA-YADORI.." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

In Japan, the activity of getting out of the rain and staying under eaves of a building for a short time is called “AMA-YADORI.” The person in the activity of “AMA-YADORI” does something, for example chatting, opening an umbrella, straightening clothes and looking of the sky.As one of the space for “AMA-YADORI”, we took up the Semi-Outdoor space which is introduced in front of entrance and attached to outer wall at a small shop or a house placed in middle and small urban areas.

Although, many Semi-Outdoor spaces have been made, they were generally designed without concern about the preference and comfortableness for the activity of “AMA-YADORI.”. If the Semi-Outdoor spaces will be planned with the consideration, it would lead to improve image and comfortableness of not only the building but also the area. Then we aimed to clarify how Semi-Outdoor spaces were more preferred and which attributes were more important to design.

Therefore we carried out a psychological evaluation experiment. In this experiment, we showed 40 photos of real Semi-Outdoor spaces and asked university students to evaluate them one by one. “Preference” and three impressions to the spaces were chosen as evaluation items. Concretely, “Preference” means whether we want to choose the Semi-Outdoor space for “AMA-YADORI” when we are caught in the rain suddenly. And two situations were set in “Preference.” These were low and high density of entrance and exit. Three impression items were “Others’ impression”, “Easiness” for “AMA-YADORI” and “Disturbance.” “Others’ impression” represents the feeling of being eyed by others. “Disturbance” indicates the level of disturbing others who go in or out of a building by the activity of “AMA-YADORI.” In addition, the attributes of all of spaces were measured. The items of attributes were width, depth, height of a space, width of an entrance door and so on.

In the analyses, two types of the relation were examined.

The first was the relation among the evaluation items. According to the results of correlation and multiple regression analyses, the less conscious in “Others’ impression” and “Disturbance” and the easier in “Easiness”, the more preferred in “Preference.” Additionally, in the situation of low density of entrance and exit, “Others’ impression” was the most important factor. On the other hand, in the situation of high density of entrance and exit, “Disturbance” was the most important.

Secondly, we identified some attributes which were important to be preferred as a space for “AMA-YADORI” by relationships between the attributes and psychological evaluation. At first, we revealed that Semi-Outdoor space with large floor area was more preferred. However, we also found that some other attributes were also important factor. The ratio of depth to width and the layout of an entrance and a frontal road were related to “Others’ impression.” The latter and the ratio of entrance width to space width were related to “Disturbance.”

Kang, Hyeyon, Yeunsook Lee, Sunkuk Kim, and Sungho Lee. "A sustainability assessment model of remodeling projects for public welfare facilities." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

The number of abandoned buildings is on the rise following the collapse of the economic system.Diverse reutilization projects of these empty buildings have been propelled by local government for regional development. Especially, alteration of local government-owned empty buildings for public welfare facilities come first corresponding to community demands.But how to reach an agreement on project plan for remodeling public welfare facilities is still in dispute by various stakeholders due to lack of integrated procedure and performance standards.And the research to define the extent of building impact in regional context and develop assess factors for the project goal, sustainability is a challenge of building science that should be empirically proved.

This study was conducted on the remodeling project of public welfare facilities related to Self-Rehabilitation in pursuit of sustainable development of the region.Self-Rehabilitation is specialized strategy for urban regeneration in Korea,similar to Community Development in UK and Neighborhood Renewal in USA. A mixed-method approach was proposed to define sustainability, select impact factors and develop assessment model focused on the optimized implementation.Qualitative research by conducting field work for finding factors and Quantitative research by conducting Delphi survey for factor weights from May 2012 to December 2013 were combined for this assessment model. And for implementation, this model designated local government officials as final decision makers according to institutional practice. All information of this model modified for them based on the appropriated information technology.

This study introduced specialized efforts for sustainability in Korea and its possible implementation to specific building type and scope.In detail, this model tried to address the integrated remodeling procedure and performance standard within institutional context.And this model emphasized the importance of the local government official and assisted them to take the responsibility of sustainable Building Delivery for the local community. Furthermore this assessment model may contribute to the communication among various stakeholders for building remodeling procedure and performance extended to sustainable regional development.

Nishimura, Shin-ya, Satoshi Boda, and Noriko Sakurai. "A Sustainable Project through Transplanting the Trees to the City Pocket Park from Satoyama by Inhabitants Collaboration." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Nishimura laboratory (Department of Architecture, Niigata University) have developed the collaborative project to construct the small pocket parks voluntarily since 2007. Through the collaboration with the students, inhabitants and the local professionals, the pocket parts have been designed and built every year as volunteers.

Every new pocket park is transplanted with the trees and grasses from country side forest Satoyama. The inhabitants recognize the scenery of Satoyama at this pocket park in the center of the city, such as the flower blossoms and leaves changing colors. Satoyama is the Japanese words meaning the small hills where the local people have preserved. In Japan each city has a lot of Satoyama located around and these are owned by city hall or private. They are the traditional symbols for sustainable environment from the ancient time in Japan. People planted trees as the materials of housing and picked up the wild grasses as their foods or medicines in this forests. At the edge of Sanjo City there are a lot of Satoyama. But now these relationships between the local people and Satoyama are getting to dilute and they do not have visited to utilize Satoyama nor maintain them.

Also this project is conducted through the multi-industry collaboration. A lot of companies working as volunteers in our project are the construction companies, landscaping companies, plastering companies, and formwork companies. Also over eight hundred inhabitants have participated in our project every year in total. It is necessary to share our concept and decision-making with the various participants. And we have made up the innovative frameworks and at the same time we have faced to the new problems at this collaborative process.

In this project the inhabitants, local professions and graduate students have collaborated as the volunteers and the budget is very small used only for the materials such as concrete or metals. The total construction cost is almost one twentieth of that usual. They walk around the city, examine the characteristics of the environment, discuss the design of the new pocket park, organize the problems, check the trees at Satoyama, decide the basic design, make a model, collect the trees at Satoyama, decide the construction costs, discuss with the city hall, construct the pocket park and transplant the trees at the pocket park.

The collaboration has made this unique and sustainable town planning activity in Japan. Through transplanting the trees and plants from Satoyama, we have begun to walk one step to maintain the Satoyama by re-building the relationship with the inhabitants and Satoyama. This project has the aim of re-building the community and preserving the local environment by sustainable method which is lasting for years. As we successfully carried out our project, we were awarded prizes by the government of Japan and the professional institute. I present the characteristic framework of this sustainable project including a lot of problems that we could not have solved.

Park, Yubin, Hwasil Kim, Yeji Kim, and Jinkyung Paik. "Activating the New Address System in South Korea: Visual Elements of Road Name Address Local Signposts." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Improving the address system is an important factor that can transform a city by solving difficulties related to finding roads. Solving traffic problems and reducing logistics costs, which can also positively influence urban safety issues, can save time and energy, and thus a green city can be created. For example, a study related to the implementation of the road name address system reduced costs by KRW 3.4 trillion a year. The parcel number address system that is currently in use was developed in 1918. However, the large number of developments means that the sequential order of parcel numbers is no longer effective or helpful in finding roads. The road name address system to be introduced in the near future and implemented in 2014, is based on the road name and building numbers used in most advanced countries. To allow for the new system to take root, this study investigated the current visual elements of local signposts, which influence legibility and effective information delivery, by focusing on the road name address local signposts installed in Jongno-gu (Gangbuk) and Seocho-gu (Gangnam), with the Hangang River as reference point.

The results indicated that the road name address local signposts currently installed in Seoul serve two purposes, namely advertising and public announcements, and have a standardized layout. However, the elements in these signposts are displayed slightly differently in each region. Common features include the use of white lettering on a greenish-black (black tinged with green) background to improve legibility, and the use of orange-yellow to emphasize numbers and English letters. Letters are displayed in four languages¾Korean, English, Chinese, and Japanese¾in the regulated font “Hangil” (a neat font with good legibility in Gothic type developed as a public design development project) and partially in “Seoul Namsan” (font developed as a Design Seoul project). The use of multiple languages, despite functional necessity, may cause visual disturbances due to repetition of the same content. Public information is displayed in three sections. First, the road name, which forms the basis of the address, is indicated at the top. In addition, representative places located on both sides of the present position are described using pictograms and letters. Second, in the center, the geography within a 1.5 km radius is shown on a planimetric map marked by the road name address. The map on the Jongno-gu direction board highlights in yellow major government offices and tourist attractions in 3D. Third, information on nearby tourist attractions nearby for tourists or advertising space is provided at the bottom.

This study found that the function of the road name address local signposts in Seoul is to provide necessary information. However, the problem is the creation of visual chaos as a result of a large volume of information and the expression of elements that lack unity. It is necessary to establish production guidelines so that road name address local signposts deliver information effectively, for example by improving the location, height, font size, and other elements of the signposts in relevant areas.

Sposato, Robert Gennaro, Nick Pidgeon, Lorraine Whitmarsh, and Rhoda Ballinger. "Adaptation and Mitigation  Psychological Predictors of Behaviour Intention and Policy Support." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Climate Change has long become an eminent global problem, with potentially disastrous, manifold and widespread impacts. Two major strategies in response to this issue have been proposed: mitigation and adaptation. While traditionally the focus has been on the former, recent years have seen a substantial shift towards more balanced attention to both. This transition arises from the realisation that we will continue to experience the effects of climate change, even if the global community enacted the greatest possible mitigation efforts. In this light scholars will have to address the essential question of what drives people to engage in and support both adaptation and mitigation measures. This question is central to the present study as it pushes for an integrative approach by looking at both climate change response strategies conjointly.

An online survey was conducted sampling 288 participants living along the coast of the Severn Estuary and the Inner Bristol Channel area. Building on Value Belief Norm theory and including a range of cognitive, value, affective, socio-demographic and contextual measures, the present study investigated predictor patterns for adaptation and mitigation intentions and policy support. The first result relates to the outcome measures themselves. The expected division into support for adaptation and mitigation policies was not confirmed in an exploratory factor analysis, suggesting that three policy support dimensions, namely support for adaptation policies, non-stringent policies and stringent policies, represent a substantially better fit. Correlational analysis indicated that all outcome measures, with the exception of stringent policy support and adaptation intention, were significantly and positively related. Consequently five multiple regression models were calculated. Results indicated that the applied theoretical framework seemed to work equally well for all outcome measures, except for support for stringent policies; with percentages of explained variance ranging from 24% to 34%.Patterns of predictors varied between behaviour intentions and policy support but also between adaptation and mitigation measures. Particularly surprising was that climate change scepticism was the strongest significant and positive predictor of adaptation intentions, while it did not yield any effect for mitigation intentions. Other noteworthy results include the relative importance of emotional engagement and personal efficacy, in particular for the intention measures; the fact that support for adaptation policies increased with perceived distance from the coastline; and the finding that out of various concern measures (sea level rise and climate change concern, for the self, society and world) sea level rise concern for the self was the strongest predictor of adaptation intentions.

The discussion first addresses the idea of trade-off effects between adaptation and mitigation for both support and intention. Based on the finding of significant and positive correlations for almost all combinations of outcome measures we dismiss this line of thought and argue for an integrative approach to both strategies. We do however acknowledge and reiterate the differences in predictor patterns overall.These differences and the somewhat surprising results for individual predictors are consequently discussed with regards to alternative theoretical explanations. This feeds into an overall revision of the applied theoretical framework and the proposal of a more refined research model.

Lim, Hyunjin, Yeunsook Lee, and Jihye Lee. "Adequacy and Improvement Need of Existing Housing to be Lifetime Housing in Consideration of Physical Aging." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Aging is most rapidly progressing in Korea and aging friendly housing development is urgently needed for the increasing number old population. Nowadays aging is not solely a problem restricted in farm village but is raising an issue to prepare and overcome. Apartment, as accounting for a considerable proportion of type of housing, has a meaningful significance for even old. In aging society, a study on apartments designed for aged seems is in great need. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the adequacy and need for improvement of the current houses as a lifetime housing where they can live continuously as long as possible in the later age. This is to present in rapidly progressing aging society a way of developing an universally designed residential space that can relieve old experiencing a physical aging of moving to another place and spend its old age.In order to understand the suitability of and need for improvement of existing apartment as a concept of lifetime housing and a questionnairesurvey was launched on 120 elderly residents living in apartment.

Throughout the progress of the study, the suitability of the apartment as a lifetime housing and their need were figured out. Low demand on wheel chair and plan can be interpreted as people currently tend to depend on hospital or care facilities than housing and as the number of elderly care facilities or hospital are expected to be short in upcoming future where the population of will increase, the existing housing should be able to replace them as a common means of old age. This study extracted planning factors of lifetime housing by comparing evaluation results and needs for improvement of existing apartment under the circumstance of physical aging also representing a point of view of an existing housing as a lifetime housing. Thus it is meaningful in that it suggests way of apartments, a type of housing in which most of aged live, to be an independent housing environment for aged. In this aging society, the elderly doomed to suffer physical discomfort should prepare aging during their old age and apartments, and a common type of housing should be planned from lifetime housing perspective.

Bomfim, Zulmira Aurea Cruz, and Ana Kristia Si Martins. "Affectivity and accessibility: an ethical-political path of emancipation in the city." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

The phenomenon of globalization has made the metropolis increasingly similar. The need to provide goods and services generates attractive patterns to be followed constantly in order to remain on the list of most visited places. The aging of the world population and the high number of people with disabilities has provoked numerous discussions about the specific needs of these people and highlighted how the environments are not prepared to receive them. Thus the concepts of accessibility and universal design are gaining ground in the political, academic and civil setting. Any sensory or motor limitations, as other factors involved in the personal development of the individual directly influence on how the city is perceived. This perception of the environment is cognitive but also affective, because you can not separate thought and emotion. So it is possible to investigate the adequacy and accessibility of a site by comparing their structures and models established as affordable and ideal for a certain group, but also through the feelings and emotions experienced by people in their relationships with the spaces. This research aimed to explore the city of Fortaleza/Ceará/Brazil through the affections of its inhabitants. It was chosen as sample people with visual disabilities that due to a sensory deprivation have a distinct understanding of the metropolis, which is often considered inappropriate or inadequate. For this methodology it was used as the instrument to generate affective maps, developed by Bomfim (2010). Participants were asked to develop a free representation in clay of the city, after which they answered some questions concerning the meaning of what they represented and the feelings aroused by the image created. The responses showed that Fortaleza is not prepared to meet the specific sensory needs of these people, who are consequently disregarded their rights. Although survey participants recognize positive qualities in their city, they gasp with greater allocation of funds for works aimed at attracting foreign investment and tourists, than for the generation of better accessibility for all. The environment can generate as many barriers as possible to the full development of people and meet their needs or not for security, mobility, comfort and autonomy. To meet these purposes it is essential to carry out a plan that considers the peculiarities of the various groups that make its population so that everyone feels included and respected. Thus Fortaleza has generated feelings of not belonging in their residents with visual impairment, since they can not enjoy quality of its positive aspects.

Landeros-Mugica, Karina, and Patricia Ortega-Andeane. "Air pollution in Mexico City: Psychosocial dimentions and human behavior." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

The relevance of studying air pollution comes from its origins and its possible effects in the inhabitants of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MCMA). That is, first, because the pollutants are generated by various anthropogenic activities and, second, because they produce severe impacts on human health. This research identified cultural and personal dimensions that shape the perception, personal norm, attributional model and behavioral intention associated with air pollution. Several instruments have been developed and psychometrically validated to evaluate these dimensions. Perception refers to the perception of air pollution (past, present and future), the perception of causes and effects, and the perception of control (personal or within others). The personal norm was conformed by moral judgment, perceived need of law and others approval. Three types of attribution (personal, behavioral and circumstantial) were evaluated in relation with four behaviors: transportation mode (use of car or public transport), household energy saving and car maintenance.

The scales were applied to 515 residents who live in one of the five areas of the Mexico City Metropolitan area (downtown, northeast, northwest, southeast and southwest): 30 % teens (15 to 18 years), 39 % young adults (25 to 44 years) and 31 % adults (45 to 65 years old). Air pollution is perceived with a pessimistic view to the future and there is awareness of its causes and effects. The perception of control is assigned to others;in consistency personal control and lack of control are perceived in a middle level. Inhabitants feel moral obligation to perform certain behaviors, perceive the need of laws that regulate them and close people's approval on personal behavior is relevant for decision-making. The use of car and public transport is attributed to the benefits of each mode of transport (safety or cost), energy saving is attributed to personal factors and maintenance of the car is attributed to the circumstances (regulations). There is willingness to realize more often some behaviors that contribute to a better air quality, like save energy at home, use more frequently public transport and give maintenance to the car. A model has been created to show that perception of the effects, causes and personal control influences the attribution model and it promotes behavior. The good fit of the model allows providing a theoretical and empirical contribution; on the other hand, the information it provides is needed to improve communication campaigns and strengthen government programs, make them more effective.

Ozanözgü, Emine Nur, and Bilge Sayıl Onaran. "An Approach of Social Sustainability: Rehabilitated Museum Buildings." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

The term “museum” was first used in the Renaissance, in reference to private collections. The past decade has seen changes in museum architecture. Not only are there more museums than ever before, but also more functions to accommodate, more range in the kind of art they contain and more sustainable criteria in their design. By the early 20th century, new museums were replacing their architectural attitudes with open space organizations, often illuminated only by artificial light. Also, architectural transformation has taken place with the introduction of sustainable design understanding.

In this manner, we can define sustainable museum as a museum that provides more ecological solutions in spatial organization, materials and presentation of collections. Understandably, to create a sustainable future for museums, designers are assumed to use several eco-tech objectives which are likely to include; reducing the capital or embodied energy of the building materials and reducing fossil fuel energy use for heating, cooling, lighting, hot water, etc.

Today, due to the accelerated increase in technological innovations, most of buildings become enable to adapt the altering conditions of urban life. This situation can be mentioned as the structural life of building is usually longer than its functional life. In order to achieve the socio-cultural sustainability by the means of design criteria and protect the cultural heritage, to create a new function for the existing buildings in their existing structural envelope can be accepted as a solution approach for the issue. Especially, the industrial buildings that were built at the end of 19th century are now being rehabilitated as museum buildings or other cultural complexes.

Obviously, an adaptation function to re-use and re-functioning of existing buildings has social, economical, ecological and cultural benefits for the society. The aim of this study is to examine the reasons of re-functioning an existing industrial building regarding social, cultural and sustainable design criteria and analyze the process of this functional transformation into museums with chosen samples.

Manzi, Sean, Rumbi Mukonoweshuro, and Andrew Nichols. "An evidence based computational program for the simulation, estimation and reduction of health and social care waste." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Introduction: Over the last decade there has been a shift in global thinking around sustainability with increasingly strong evidence of anthropogenic climate change. As a result governments have started to make the monitoring and reporting of greenhouse gas emissions (CO2e) mandatory.

The United Kingdom (UK) National Health Service (NHS) is estimated to have an annual carbon footprint of 21 million tonnes of CO2e, part of which results from waste production and disposal. Over £82 million is spent on the disposal of waste by the UK NHS annually. By reducing the amount of waste produced, reusing items where appropriate and recycling waste where possible both financial and environmental savings can be achieved.

This project utilised an empirical data set describing the composition of health and social care clinical and domestic waste streams to produce a program modelling the financial cost and CO2e emissions associated with current waste management practices. Furthermore, scenarios of waste reduction and recycling could be produced based on this model describing the savings that could be made to aid the facilitation of behaviour change.

Data was collected from four health and social care sites in the South West of England. Forty six bags of waste (83.55kg) from municipal waste streams and 69 bags of waste (196.60kg) from clinical waste streams were catalogued.

The program generates a set of bag parameters based on the empirical data set. It then satisfies these parameters by selecting items from the known item list using their probability of occurrence also based on the empirical data. Once the simulated bag has been populated the CO2e and cost of disposal for each item and the bag overall are calculated. This process can be carried out to simulate a given number of waste bags in a particular waste stream.

A regression model is then produced describing the financial cost and CO2e for the simulated data. Based on the resulting regression equation the annual waste costs and CO2e for a given amount of waste can be estimated and reduction scenarios produced (e.g. 5% to15% reductions).

The final program will incorporate a forward facing graphical user interface to allow easy user interaction.

The program in its current form provides health or social care sites with an estimation of their waste disposal cost and CO2e emissions for one year based on either the known waste amount or the number of bed places on-site. Furthermore the program provides a set of waste reduction scenarios complete with financial and environmental savings.

This program can be used to encourage health and social care organisations to adopt a reduce, re-use, recycle philosophy. Being able to visualise the real benefits of such a system will provide useful information to inform change. Program users will be able to track their progress and deviation from ideal targets set by the model over time as they implement a new or revised waste management system.

The program will be subject to on-going development and will provide increasingly accurate estimates as more data is included.

Soto, Joel Martinez, Leopoldo Gonzales Santos, and Fernando Barrios. "AN EXAMINATION OF THE NEURAL CORRELATES OF HIGH VS. LOW RESTORATIVE ENVIRONMENT EXPOSURE." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

From the perspective of neuroscience, the research in restorative environments exposure will enhance our understanding of the neural systems that subserve the human response to the physical world. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a tool used by a growing number of scientists who seek to investigate the brain mechanisms underlying psychological phenomena (Cacioppo and Decety 2009). Considerable advances in the fMRI technique during the last decade have made fMRI data more precise and reliable. Compared to the traditional questionnaire methods of psychological evaluation, fMRI is far more objective. This technique allows for more objective measures of psychological processes because it can be used to investigate psychological tasks to which people has little or no verbal access (Aue et al. 2009). Up until now the neural mechanisms associated with psychological restoration process related to brain activity haven´t been identified. We explored the neural correlates of restorative environment exposure with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while participants viewed photographs with low or high restorative potential (LRP and HRP respectively). Twenty-eigth healthy, right-handed, voluntary male participants were recruited after all responded to an informed written consent. All were mid-to-high socioeconomic level with age averaging 36.18 years (SD 12.46) and scholarity mean of 16.55 years. All procedures were institutional review board approved. Four were eliminated due to: clinical problems (2), claustrophobia (1) and problems with data transfer (1). None had significant neurological or psychiatric history and all answered the SCL 90 symptoms list and the Edinburgh Inventory computerized versions (Gonzalez-Santos et al. 2007; Oldfield, 1971). Twelve participants were assigned to the HRP (36.83 ± 11.52 y.o.a.) and 12 to the LRP group (36.00 ± 13.23 y.o.a.). All MR imaging was performed in a G.E. 3.0T Discovery MR750 with a 32-channel head coil. Activation of the middle frontal gyrus, middle and inferior temporal gyrus, insula, inferior parietal lobe and cuneus was dominant during the view of HRP environments, whereas activation of the superior frontal gyrus, precuneus, parahippocampal gyrus and posterior cingulate was dominant during LRP viewing (p<0.05). Brain areas activations related to involuntary attention were found during the view of HRP environments and brain areas related to directed attention were more active during the view of LRP environments. The results are consistent with the attention restoration theory (Kaplan, 1995). The neuroscience research in restorative environments means a better understanding of the neural basis of environmental transactions that promote the human wellbeing. This understanding contribute to evidence-based design to look the biological bases of human needs, relevant to all built settings and all people (Edelstein 2008).

Nistor, Laura. "An indirect approach of sustainable food consumption in Romania. The relevance of Bourdieu's taste." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

The presentation investigates the issue of food quality and price as criteria of food choice in the case of Romania. Given the country’s less advantageous economic status, Romania seems an ideal candidate for researching the potential conflicts between such criteria of food choice. As the analysis is built on the data of the Special Eurobarometer 389, some comparative findings are also presented between Romania and the rest of the EU, particularly, the EU 15 and the EU 11 (EU 12 minus Romania) country group. The results show that in Romania the manifest variables of food choice criteria are split into two latent constructs: quality related aspects on the one hand and price on the other, while in the case of the majority of other countries from of the sample price enters the same dimension as quality. Thus, on the macro-level we can conclude that Romanians’ food preferences are double rooted and fit a quality vs. price model. Once the socio-demographic determinants of these two preferences have been thoroughly investigated we are able to confirm the role of Bourdieu’s distinction regarding the influence of social class on these preferences. In Romania, similarly to Europe, price-preferences are entrenched in the respondents’ precarious socio-economic status, while the preference for quality seems to be a habitus specific for higher social status. The most salient difference between Romania and the two country groups is the fact that in Romania, neither age, nor gender, but solely socio-economic background and place of residence have an influence on the researched preferences.

Jalayer, Fatemeh, and Nathalie Jean-Baptiste. "An integrated approach towards assessing the vulnerability of informal settlements to flooding: the case of Little Akaki, Addis Ababa." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Vulnerability assessment remains central in global climatic change discourses and takes a more pertinent meaning considering that natural disasters continue to deeply affect human settlements. The challenge for many African nations is to absorb the social, economic and environmental impact caused by natural disasters while reducing poverty, developing infrastructure and providing livelihood opportunities in the continent. In recent years, severe weather-related events affected urban populations and challenged local institutions to adapt and to improve their coping and resilient capacities. Given the polyhedric and context-dependent nature of vulnerability, it is critical to adopt a conceptual framework that embraces different interpretations of vulnerability assessment. With special regard to climate-related vulnerability assessment, two main alternative methods can be distinguished. The two differing interpretations, conceptualized as outcome vulnerability and contextual vulnerability, can be linked to scientific and social sciences frameworks, respectively. It can be expected that each framework is going to prioritize and emphasize different types of climate adaptation strategies and policy response implications. Outcome vulnerability focuses on the end point of sequence of climatic analysis and can be conceptualized as a linear and modular procedure starting from a suitable down-scaling of climate projections, to climate-related hazard assessment, to vulnerability and exposure assessment, and finally to an evaluation of the risk as the prediction of future impact on urban areas. The contextual vulnerability envisions vulnerability as a starting point for developing climate strategies. In this interpretation, vulnerability is seen as a multi-faceted concept that is a product of different realities and causes that include but are not limited to natural hazards. Little Akaki, Addis Ababa, is known to be a flood-prone area based on past flooding experiences. Moreover, it has been characterized as a potential flooding risk hot spot. A joint field survey activity has been conducted on certain households in the Little Akaki zone, taking into account both the indicators of contextual vulnerability and also the buildings' physical and mechanical characteristics required for a quantified vulnerability assessment. Downscaled climate projection scenarios, implemented through a model of the hydrographic basin, have been employed in order to estimate the flooding hazard for the zone of interest. The building-specific field survey results have been used through a mechanical model of the buildings in order to quantify the structural vulnerability. The flooding risk can be finally mapped as a convolution of hazard, vulnerability and exposure. A social vulnerability survey was conducted to investigate the current conditions surrounded those mostly exposed and focus group sessions were undertaken to determine the interest, role and adaptive capacities of different stakeholders operating in the area. A multi-faceted outlook to the vulnerability of Little Akaki, emphasizes the importance of taking into account alternative interpretations in the adopted conceptual framework. Arguably, integrating the above two interpretations may well lead to climate policies that address a comprehensive range of issues and concerns.

Jungbluth, Lena. "Analysing the acceptance of energy balancing technologies: The influence of knowledge, place attachment and group norms." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

As renewable energies are not yet able to deliver a stable baseload energy supply, a crucial part of the German “Energiewende” consists of the use and further development of energy balancing technologies. As “socio-technical systems“ on the one hand these technologies need to be further elaborated from a technical point of view, but on the other hand, as a fundamental precondition to their adoption they need to be accepted and complemented by people dealing with them.

Creating acceptance of various energy balancing technologies is complicated by a number of factors. Among others, these technologies are fairly detached from people’s everyday lives and therefore no profound understanding is existing outside expert circles at current state. Hence, before even being able to address barriers to their acceptance the question of energy balancing technologies needs to become more present in people’s lives. Moreover, people required to accept these technologies do not represent a homogeneous group, but various subgroups of stakeholders. A particularly interesting constellation of subgroups consists in landlords, who need to make investments in order to equip their properties with energy balancing technologies and renters, who need to tolerate their installation or even could ask for it. This interaction bears great potential for conflicts, especially when it comes to increased costs on both or either side.

While this PhD thesis, which is linked to the one of Ann-Katrin Becker, is still at the very beginning and the research design is currently in the process of being elaborated, it is planned to address these above mentioned issues. In a first step, it is the aim, to obtain a more profound understanding of the current state of acceptance of energy balancing technologies, if possible measured using a standardised questionnaire. However, due to the above mentioned lack of knowledge in the broader public, it might not be feasible to assess their acceptance (yet). In the latter case, as a precondition to acceptance, a more detailed analysis of the level of knowledge on energy balancing technologies that exists outside expert circles as well as people’s beliefs will be conducted. The data collection will be based on a standardised questionnaire and potentially can be expanded to qualitative interviews or focus groups to see dynamics within group discussions. Recognising that acceptance or beliefs of these technologies are influenced by other variables, people’s place attachment will be included into the analysis as well as socio-demographic influences such as the economic situation. In a second step, addressing the existence of various sometimes opposing stakeholder groups, it will be assessed how people’s social identity of being part of a certain group (e.g. such as landlords as opposed to renters) and existing group norms regarding energy balancing technologies impact an individual’s judgement of these technologies.

Being aware of the current beliefs regarding these technologies as well as how psychological constructs, such as place attachment and social identity influence their acceptance can help to identify useful trigger points in order to increase an overall acceptance of these technologies crucial for the German “Energiewende”.

Idris, Nasiru Medugu, Mohammed Rafee Majid, and Inyene Akpan Macjoe. "Appraising the Impact of Oil Production Activities on Ogoniland, Niger-Delta, Nigeria." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

This paper aimed at appraising the impact of oil production activities on the environment of Ogoniland, Nigeria and also examines the socioeconomic impact on the people. A stratified random sampling technique method was adopted for precision of the sample and a total number of 120 respondents were selected from the area of study and questionnaires were administered among them. The data collected were analyzed using simple descriptive statistics which include the use of frequencies and percentages. The findings of this paper revealed that the externalities of oil production have resulted in profound adverse impacts on traditional lifestyles and livelihood patterns in the study area where unchecked oil exploration and exploitation had taken place for the past forty years. Therefore, this paper suggests the use of abatement procedures and environmentally sound and cleaner technologies for oil exploration and exploitation in order to mitigate/minimize these negative impacts and enhance the positive impacts to achieve a sustainable healthy environment.

Ayudhya, Thirayu Jumsai Na, Jill Franz, and Evonne Miller. "Architectural Experience of the Everyday Context." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Initial attempts to understand about what architecture means to people as they go about their everyday life through literature revealed that knowledge such as environmental psychology, environmental perception, environmental aesthetics, did not adequately address, either singularly or collectively, a perceived need for a more contextualized and holistic theoretical framework. This paper seeks to address this situation by responding to the question: How do people make sense of buildings in their everyday context?, and aims to identify the various ways in which people make sense of buildings that are part of their everyday context in order to develop a holistic, contextualized theoretical framework that provides a deeper more integrated understanding of the potential role of architecture in people’s everyday lives. With IPA methodology a small pool of participants is considered desirable given the detailed level of analysis required and its potential to produce a meaningful outcome.

Participants were asked to photograph buildings that they encountered and experienced on a regular basis in the Brisbane CBD and to bring these photographs to the interview. The process is to encourage revelation of emotive and existential sense‐making as well as conceptual and perceptual sense‐making.

In all, the study found that people make sense of buildings described in terms of four super‐ordinate themes; (1) building in urban (text), (2) building in (text), (3) building in human (text), (4) and building in time (text). These emergent super‐ordinate themes constitute a holistic theoretical framework for more fully understanding how people make sense of their everyday architectural experience.

Negrisanu, Daniela Luciana. "ARCHITECTURE AND CHILDREN. (IN)BETWEEN METAPHOR AND PRAGMATISM." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Introduction: If a child would have to conceive his space where he is living, playing, loving... would he do it like an adult? Would he do it like an architect? ...As an architect, as a teacher and, not at least, as a mother I’m looking for these answers.

This thesis will be a . First of all, a study about , about sensibilities and metaphors children are expressing when “living” architecture and built spaces. On the other hand, a study about pragmatism, about of identified children’ spatial perceptions and representations.

Focusing in areas regarding built environments, homes, kindergartens and schools, special places designed and imagined by and for children, the research will cross and interfere different theoretical fields, starting with architectural theory, behavioural and child psychology, environmental psychology, reaching even some aspects of educational science.

Being a member of a research team studying the general subject of “Architecture and children”, as a part of research department in Architecture Faculty, “Politehnica University of Timisoara”, I will have the opportunity of composing a general picture upon the above- mentioned subject. My personal research thesis will consist in an analytical part, focused upon state of the art in the area and upon evaluating a large number of children and adults as well (to make possible the comparison) in several issues regarding the space, built environments and the impact it have upon them. The procedures will vary, depending on the evaluated subjects, considering observation, questionnaire, direct analysis, interrogation and, whenever (and hopefully) possible, the spatial experiment. By applying the research methods, it will result a valuable data which should be processed into an analytical and synthetic approach, being assisted in this stage by a qualified sociological member of the research team.

The research is approaching this study through an inductive method, from individual utterances to general ones, and through a deductive method, functioning backwards. This approaching technique is functioning as a double control mechanism, being choose taking account of children subjectivity in providing information.

One of the main objectives of the research is detecting the evaluation principles, the transactions children carry while negotiating with space determinants, and, not at least, detecting the principles they rely on during the process of and .

Investigations regarding children’s way of perceiving spaces are more than relevant. First of all because we can answer to several important questions about the mutual role of spaces in children's life. Secondly, because this investigation can serve as an instrument of measuring and adjusting spaces’ qualities, as they are being seen through children’s lens. Actually we can quantify the contribution of a space to children’s physical, cognitive and behavior development.

The collected data will encompass a comprehensive picture of the subject and the obtained results will be an important instrument of adjusting spaces addressed to children, with possible implications in the and every- day . Also, based on the obtained results, it can also make important contributions in the field of environmental psychology, behavioural and child psychology and educational sciences, whenever these domains interfere with space perceiving.

Avram, Eugen, Ioana Podina, and Cezar Giosan. "Are risk perceptions about the consequences of an earthquake a mediator between optimistic thoughts and experienced anxiety? Putting a spotlight on the next epicenter of Europe: Romania." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Romania is confronted with one of the worst times in its recent history, where the estimated risk of a potential seismic hazard is elevated especially in the capital and nearby cities (Armas & Avram, 2007). This, along with the bad shape of many inhabited buildings, provides real reasons for anxiety with a negative impact on health and wellbeing (e.g., Moser, 2007). Therefore, given that the stressor isn’t controllable, it is important to focus on other pathways to anxiety management. According to the cognitive behavioral theory (CBT; Beck, 1995; Ellis, 1994), beliefs about the stressor are the pathway to altering anxiety symptoms.

However, in connection to natural hazards, anxiety and its interplay with beliefs about natural hazards has been disregarded. Therefore, in the current study we focus on a circumscribed class of beliefs, which are general expectancies about the future (dispositional optimism) and specific expectancies, in the form of risk perceptions about the consequences of an earthquake.

Previous literature has shown that optimism is negatively related to anxiety (Kepka et al., 2013). However, given that optimism is a trait-like variable, we suggest that this relationship is mediated by more specific cognitions, such as risk perceptions about the consequences of an earthquake. As such, we aim to investigate the suggested mediational model via an ongoing study on the inhabitants of Romanian cities located in areas of seismic risk. The design is cross-sectional. In light of CBT theory, we expect that risk perceptions about the consequences of an earthquake will be more proximal to anxiety and therefore mediate the link between optimistic thoughts and experienced anxiety.

These results could inform future anxiety management programs about resilience in the face of natural hazards, as there is a trend of focusing on psychological issues only after a natural hazard has occurred, such as on Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. Furthermore, knowing more about the variables that influence anxiety and how they interact provides pathways to prevention and perhaps ways to recover faster after such an event has occurred.

Rall, Emily Lorance. "Assessing Cultural Ecosystem Services in Urban Areas through Participatory Mapping: a case study in Berlin." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Problem: The concept of ecosystem services (ES) is a novel and potentially powerful framework for integrating greater awareness and valuation of the multifaceted benefits of nature into land use planning, where often only a limited number of benefits are considered, much less valued. Even though cultural ecosystem services (CES) are reputed to be among the most important ES of urban areas (Bolund & Hunhammar, 1999; Gómez-Baggethun & Barton, 2013), they are not broadly considered in planning and their assessment lags behind that of other ES groups in scientific research. One reason for their lack of consideration is that their assessment requires inclusion of socio-cultural approaches, while ES assessments thus far have primarily come from fields such as ecological economics, landscape ecology and natural resource management, where there is a strong bias towards biophysical and economic assessment. Public Participatory GIS (PPGIS) is a new approach to socio-cultural valuation of ES, and has demonstrated much potential for eliciting perceived ES, particularly the elusive and intangible CES (Fagerholm, Käyhkö, Ndumbaro, & Khamis, 2012; Plieninger, Dijks, Oteros-Rozas, & Bieling, 2013; van Riper, Kyle, Sutton, Barnes, & Sherrouse, 2012). PPGIS also has the potential to merge social and biophysical ES valuation and to estimate ES demand among different user groups (Sherrouse, Clement, & Semmens, 2011), which is often acknowledged as a major gap and challenge in ES research. Thus far, the few PPGIS studies assessing CES have taken place in rural areas, leaving its potential for application in urban areas untested. This paper seeks to test softGIS as a means to extract socio-cultural values and uses of urban green spaces for CES assessment in the case study city of Berlin. Research questions relate to how CES are spatially distributed in the city in terms of how they are bundled and related to different land covers, as well as how the softGIS platform used is rated in terms of usability by different groups of participants.

Methods: Data collection incorporates PPGIS methods through the online survey tool softGIS (Rantanen & Kahila, 2009), developed in 2005 by a Finnish research group. The tool combines survey questions with a Google Maps API in a user-friendly way that allows direct geo-referencing of survey data, representing a large advantage compared to time-intensive post-digitization efforts required by paper map-based PPGIS approaches. Questions center on where in the city participants experience each cultural service (n=6-8) and what activities they pursue in these spots. Analysis will make use of or adapt several statistical analyses to determine correlations between pairs of CES (Spearman’s rank correlation), to examine the relationship between socio-demographic characteristics and services (multiple correspondence analysis), to identify CES densities and bundles (kernel density analysis and principle components analysis, respectively), and to determine relationships between land cover classes and CES (chi square tests).

Expected results: Results should highlight where bundles of CES are found within the city and what their nature is in terms of land cover classes where they are situated and activities pursued for different socio-demographic groups.

Implications: The survey will be the first of its kind and should indicate whether PPGIS is an appropriate social valuation tool to assess CES in an urban environment. The tool may be used to underlie land use policy and planning that supports well-being and a higher quality of life.

Wnuk, Anna, and Tomasz Oleksy. "Augmented places - an impact of embodied historical experience on emotional attitude, place-related bias, place memory and social perception of places of neglected cultural heritage." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Objects of cultural heritage are mostly associated with renown and spectacular buildings whose tradition goes back several centuries - typical examples are castles, cathedrals and medieval city centers. These are objects whose historical meaning is clearly visible. However, there also exist places that have a long past but have lost their value due to historical changes of social structure, rapid urbanization processes or lack of preservation rules. Now they exist as spaces with unknown or unfamiliar meaning, with history and tradition hidden deeply beneath the surface of negligence. The paper seeks to examine the impact of the Augmented Reality (AR) technology on understanding, valuation, interpretation and identification of different places of neglected cultural heritage. AR consists in supplementing (augmenting) the reality with the computer-generated virtual elements. Special tools allow to mix in one sensory impression information from different sources, real and virtual. Numerous studies on embodied cognition show that ascription of meaning to objects is mediated not only through their culture recognized value but also throughout sensory and bodily experience. We will explore the possibility of changing people's emotional attitude, place-related bias, place memory and social perception of neglected historical places through the direct, bodily mediated, experience with the history of these places, as offered by AR. Experiments will be conducted in places that have been deprived of tangible and intangible connections with their history (e.g. (1) Muranów, a district located on the ruins of the Warsaw Ghetto, totally demolished during WWII, and rebuilt after the war in a modernistic style of social realism (2) the swimming pool in Poznań, former synagogue - place of cultural heritage that polarize public opinion and stimulate hot discussions as to their meaning and future status).

Văcaru, Alexandra Iulia, and Eugen Iordanescu. "Belief in Free Will in Everyday Life. Is there any Relationship between Free Will and Faith?" In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

The present paper represents an interdisciplinary perspective and is the result of a study on the way in which free will in everyday life is uncork firstly, from a theoretical approach, and than from a practical perspective, expressed by a questionnaire.

This study was designed to examine the construct of free will and it’s relationship with faith and religiosity in everyday life, namely: the impact on one's psychological and spiritual life, at work, in society, in organizations, and from a consumer’s behaviour perspective, as well - theoretically.

For the purpose’s study, it has been used a questionnaire including 9 items with response options converted in percentages from zero percent to one hundred percent.

The data were collected from a sample of 235 participants assigned in three conditions. First condition consisted in a neutral circumstance (e.g. at fast-food, workplace, school), with 115 respondents. The second took place at a protestant church, where 70 respondents participated. And last, but not least, the third condition was represented by 50 participants, from an orthodox church.

Peña, Diana, and Enric Pol. "BELIEFS AND PRO ENVIRONMENTAL BEHAVIORS IN MEXICAN STUDENTS CONSIDERING THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

From the environmental perspective, higher education is considered a key issue towards finding solutions to the environment and sustainability problems.

Students in the Bachelor of Management and Business will be a key element in making businesses decisions in the near future, and that is why it is important that universities know if the activities and actions carried out by them, are helping to train their students (future decision makers) to be part of a society more aware and environmentally friendly, willing to transform the environment with full knowledge of the processes and environmental consequences that are triggered when making a decision.

The mexican government is making efforts in order to make the higher education institutes incorporate sustainability into their systems and at the same time, to get the certificate in Environmental management system (in Mexico is Standardized by the ISO 14001), that is why they have interest to know if the work done by universities to achieve and maintain the certification in environment is extended to its students, promoting beliefs and behaviors compatibles with the preservation of the environment.

The main objective of this research is to evaluate the relation that the degree of implementation of an Environmental Management System (EMS) has with the pro-environmental beliefs and behaviors in students of management and business at Mexican universities. We will also study the relationships between environmental beliefs; expressed attitudes and ecological behaviors; general awareness of environmental consequences of professional administrators; and the perceptions, beliefs and behaviors about the EMS at the universities. Policies and environmental management system of higher education institutions will be described as well.

Tools: The environmental beliefs will be measured by the New Ecological Paradigm (NEP); the ecological behaviors will be measured by the Scale of expressed Ecological Attitudes and Behaviors; the general awareness of environmental consequences of professional administrators will be measured by CCA-LA (for its acronym in Spanish); the perceptions, beliefs and behaviors about the EMS at universities will be measured by PCC-SGA (for its acronym in Spanish); and last, the policy and environmental management system at universities, will be analyzed through an unstructured interview applied to managers responsible for environmental management at institutions under study.

Sample: It will be done with 450 Students in the Bachelor of Management and Business, studying from the fifth semester onwards in six Mexican universities; two of these universities have Environmental Management System Certified, two universities with the Environmental Management System implemented but not certified, and two with its environmental management system not documented. Prior to the application of the instruments in the final sample, the group of instruments, will be applied in a pilot sample composed of 200 bachelor students to assess the psychometric properties of the instruments. It should be noted that the implementation of the pilot phase will be held in February 2014.

Subject Area: Environmental Management Systems and Environmental psychology (environmental attitudes; environmental beliefs; environmental behavior; General awareness of environmental consequences of professional administrators; and perceptions, beliefs and behaviors about the Environmental Management System at universities).

Wang, Meiyan, and John Zacharias. "Bottom-up development versus top-down planning: morphological evolution of Bagualing industrial district,Shenzhen,Guangdong Province,China." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Introduction: Urban morphology can be defined as the study of spatial and physical characteristics of towns and cities as a result of spontaneous and purposeful building practices.Though typological thinking is an available way to study how the area changed over time, it was discussed among Chinese architects as late as the 1980s, since then an interest has developed in relevance to architectural design, urban conservation, and analysis of historical building forms, but it hadn’t been applied in industrial districts. Now “transformation of old industrial area” becomes a heat issue in China. Hitherto studies about it concentrate on transform patterns and problems, little about its whole revolution process. In China,Urban planning is made for ten or more years with certain predictions. However development process of a specific area is dynamic, concerning many aspects, so outcomes may contrast to the government’s intentions. Industrial districts are particularly important in this regard because of weak policy and powerful economic processes–the particular case of Bagualing industrial district in Shenzhen. The original plan proposed Bagualing as an industrial area, but now it is becoming a comprehensive area. This research want to discuss: How this area changed over time?To what extent does the morphology support the transformation? What is the role of the government and leaseholders during this process? What interventions are possible in this bottom-up transformation process? How can the top-down planning by government be adjusted to meet with the reality of spontaneous transformation?

The research methods in this study are documentation and field work. Documents derive from the Government website. Basic map download from Google earth. Seven members divided into 4 groups. And whole area was divided into three parts, one group investigate one part.We interview two kinds of people: 1-work or living in Bagualing(at least ten person was interviewed in each building if the change is obvious);2-people working in the property management company(5 persons was interviewed) . The main questions are: when this building constructed? Who is the owner? When it changed the function (if had)? Where first to change? why it changed ?What‘s the policies for transformation? How much is the present rent?

The government's policies,market needs and urban planning have a big influence on the morphological evolution of this area.It can be divided into three developing stages.During the past 30 years, the street layout has not changed but subway has appeared in 2013 year. Individual streets have their own morphological characteristics, with Baguayijie the special focus of this presentation. Buildings' change by two ways: 1-redecoration and reuse;2-demolition and rebuilding. The first floor of nearly all buildings, especially those along the main street, has redecorated for commerce. The property relationships are complex,which make it hard for the government to change comprehensively with large-scale interventions, so they allow spontaneous change by extending the land use right for twenty years. Now Industry also occupies a large proportion but appearing industrial clusters in spatial distribution.

This research performs a new morphological analysis to study the evolution of industrial area .It exams the use of morphological theory in a specific area and provides an object and rational viewpoint to understand the evolution of industrial area except perceptual description.

Zacharias, John Keith. "Bottom-up urban development around new metro infrastructure in Shenzhen, China." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Although city governments continue to exert effective control over urban planning in most areas of Chinese cities, the regeneration of industrial districts is a market-driven process where government plays a strategic role. The industrial regulatory regime in these districts permitted rapid transformation, propelled by new urban rail infrastructure. Exceptionally high-density development on small industrial leaseholds is encouraged by municipal investments in public transport that render these industrial properties highly accessible and valuable. The complex pattern of land holdings combined with a permissive regulatory regime that allows a mix of land uses without car parking provisions in particular, also promotes the development of a de facto non-motorized zone. This paper documents the pattern of redevelopment and the consequent evolution of the non-motorized environment in the Huaqiangbei industrial zone in Shenzhen between 2007 and 2013. The significant growth of the pedestrian environment in particular, which is driving some of the new real estate activity, is also recasting the municipal role as strategic player, project coordinator and manager of the public environment. Although local government is supporting such bottom-up development through strategic investment, it is not yet formally recognized as part of the urban planning process.

There is growing interest in the evolutionary aspects of urban fabric particularly under conditions of limited extrinsic control. Such bottom-up processes of development describe self-organization according to limited rules at the local level, contributing collectively and by interactions to a global pattern (Batty and Xie, 1999). The social and economic dynamics of cities is also likened to self-organizing and bottom-up processes (Krugman, 1996) that also have impacts on urban form. Such bottom-up urban development is particularly relevant in cities building mass rapid transit.

This case is interesting for China because of the many industrial districts undergoing redevelopment, especially in South China. But the case is also of interest for rail investment and urban development worldwide, especially in the context of the rapid build-up of urban rail transit. We can use cases like these to better understand how such environments can be managed and what to expect as outcomes in the short- and long-term.

Barona, Pablo Cabrera, Paulina Guarderas, and Javier Sarango. "Building spatial capabilities with Indigenous People for a sustainable planning with cultural identity: a study case with Saraguro Kichwa Nationality, Ecuador." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Ecuador is a Pluri-National country, where more than a dozen of Indigenous Nationalities live, and the Sumak Kawsay (“Wellness Life" in Kichwa language) philosophy is an ancestral Andean indigenous perspective that define the welfare of indigenous societies in function of their culture, beliefs and perspectives. Nowadays, Indigenous Nationalities in Ecuador aims for a “spatial planning” on their territories and they have realized the importance of geographic information technologies for this purpose. However, historically they have faced social segregation that has restricted them accessibility to social services of quality, for example, high education. For this reason, is essential a democratization of access to knowledge for Indigenous People, in this particular case, knowledge of geographic information systems (GIS) and spatial planning, to empower them, as principal stakeholders in their own territorial planning. First, we share experiences in GIS and participative mapping training to Indigenous People of Saraguro Kichwa Nationality, in southern Ecuador. Second, we show the results of the training: some maps based in community knowledge and Sumak Kawsay approach proposals for sustainable planning that were totally developed by Saraguro people. Finally, we propose future perspectives of application of this approach in the evaluation of welfare, in economics and in sustainable development.

MGgenburg, Hannah, and Martin Lanzendorf. "Can Life Course Events Change the Mode of Travel? An Intergenerational and Retrospective Analysis." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Behaviour of individuals plays a major role for achieving a more sustainable mobility system. Since travel behaviour is strongly habitual (e.g. Klöckner,

2012), life course events and related context changes provide an opportunity for behavioural change (Franke 2001, Lanzendorf, 2003). Evidence suggests that in the period of these life course events, individuals are more attentive to the provision of information on alternative transport modes, e.g. provided by mobility management initiatives.

For improving basic knowledge to design targeted mobility management, this study investigates the effects of life course events on mobility behaviour in a life-span perspective. The data (N=4652) was gathered with a standardized, retrospective survey of three generations (students, parents, grandparents) in Dortmund. The questionnaire covers data from residential mobility, holiday travel, daily mobility and preferences toward travel modes as well as the availability of a driving license and vehicle ownership during several periods of life.

Until now to our knowledge previous studies mainly focused on single life events and their impacts on travel. With this paper, however, we take a more comprehensive view for our analysis and focus on the following research questions: (1) Which life course events affect travel mode change and how do these life course events interact? (2) What are the differences between generations in respect of the effect of life course events and the change of travel behaviour?

Results indicate that changes in travel modes often occur simultaneously with life events. In relatively stable educational stages (e.g. within school, apprenticeship) travel behaviour changes less frequently than in other phases of life (e.g., the transitions between school and apprenticeship or between apprenticeship and the first job). Furthermore, for the grandparents’ generation a significant change in car ownership, motorcycle ownership and car availability is observed for life events with high readjustment needs (e.g. childbirth; Holmes & Rahe, 1967) compared to those with low readjustment needs (e.g. change in social activities). Logistic regression reveals that personal life events of all three generations, such as the first and second childbirth, a marriage, a separation or a residential relocation consequently to studies, apprenticeship, work and already mentioned personal events affect the car purchase significantly. Overall, the results indicate that the weakening of habits and the corresponding information search might be stronger with some life events than with others. Mobility management initiatives, therefore, should tailor their interventions more to these events than to others, especially to those events related with car purchase.

Yoon, Gayoung, Yeunsook Lee, and Jaewoo Chang. "Changes in Housing Preference, after Considering Possible Social Relations After the Retirement of the Baby-boom Generation." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Rapid aging society has extended the span of aged life of the elderly people in fast speed and the importance of holistic health including the elderly people’s physical, psychological and social health has been emphasized in these years.But considerations for their social health have not been made sufficiently so far.Accordingly, environments need to be made to satisfy the behavioral requirement of the elderly physically, psychologically, socially, and economically.At the point of the time when the demand for quality of housing increases, a variety of approached should be considered to develop an appropriate environment prepared for social relations after retirement. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify changes in the residential preference of the baby boomers, the core group of the future elderly population. The study used the pre-post experimental research design. This design is to compare the changes in the preference responses to the residential type for the elderly before and after new information on possible social relationship change. The target of investigation was the baby boomer working in the public realm job. This study was conducted from 28th September to October 2013. The survey questionnaire was distributed and collected through personal visits. A total of 120 were used the data was analyzed by using SPSS 18.0. The survey tools asked the general and residential characteristics to the targets and investigated residential location, type, size, ownership type, residence-selection factors. As results,in case of couple living together, those surveyed were rarely interested in the residential type taken into consideration for the elderly, hoping to continue to reside in the existing house. But many changed the previous preference being influenced by the given information. In case of living alone in health, the elderly had the tendency in favor of the residential environment to get along with a lot of people, although having a high demand for a private space. The preference patterns were diversely dispersed compared with those in case of couple living together in health. In case of couple living together in poor health, the preference ratio of independent elderly apartment with care service became very high and the ratio of other preference patters was very low. In case of living alone in poor health, it showed the change apparently preference patterns. When the preference changed before and after providing information, the case of living along in poor health showed a greatest impact on the change in the preference showing the tendency to move to the independent elderly apartment with care service. Whether care service exists of was formed the most important factor depending on health status.

Simkins, Ian Malcom, Sandrine Depeau, Janet Loebach, Kate Bishop, Gary Gumpert, and Susan Drucker. "Children in a Digital World: Examining the role and impact of digital communication technologies on the socio-environmental experience of contemporary children and youth." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Co-chairs

Ian Simkins & Sandrine Depeau; Co-convenors of Children, Youth & Environments Network, IAPS

Janet Loebach & Kate Bishop; Co-chairs of Children, Youth & Environments Network, EDRA

Gary Gumpert & Susan Drucker; Co-Chairs of Communications Networks, EDRA & IAPS

This symposium is proposed as a joint session of the Children, Youth and Environments and the Communication Place and Technology Networks of IAPS. We are also proposing this as the second component of a unique two-part series initiated with a full-day Intensive at the 2014 EDRA conference to take place approximately one month prior to IAPS23. It is hoped that this two-part session draws together researchers and designers from two strong network groups with common interest, as well as strengthen the ties between the networks of the sister organizations.

There is little doubt that digital technologies and media are enmeshed in the lives of most children and youth, particularly in developed countries. The availability of digital technologies has also opened up new avenues for research conducted with children and youth. In this two-part series, bridging both conferences, we propose to explore the role of technology, including digital devices as well as associated social media and other applications, in the behaviour, communication, health and environments of contemporary children and youth. Some of the issues to be explored, via presentation and group discussion, include: How have digital technologies and applications altered the behavioural rhythms and geographies of children and youth? What does it change in social networks of children? Can these tools improve children’s awareness and engagement with both local and global environmental issues? What is the impact of issues like cyber bullying on children’s socio-environmental experience? Are some groups (e.g. low-income families, recent immigrants) being marginalized or penalized by the lack of digital technology at their disposal and how does this impact their experience of place? What is the relationship between children, technology and place? How does it vary in relation to children’s socio-economic status, cultural background, geographic locale, age and gender?

Increased availability and affordability of digital technologies has also allowed for more extensive use of portable devices in research. The possibilities and pitfalls of employing digital tools in research with youth will also be explored. How do such devices provide better direct or real-time monitoring of behaviour, experience and perceptions, and improve research or design outcomes? Do outputs from digital devices contravene the rights and privacy of children? Does the use of digital technologies in research or design improve or alter our engagement with children? Can such tools transfer more control into the hands of child participants? Does the use of technology in children’s research support a more child-centred, more user-friendly, more efficient, and/or more reliable research experience, if so, how is this achieved?

Presentations and discussions will commence during the EDRA Intensive in May 2014, and will culminate in a group discussion to summarize thoughts and strategies to guide future research/design priorities and procedures in this area using a facilitated NWAR (Now, Wish, Action, Review) process; a recently developed component of the experiemics participation methodology (Thwaites, Mathers and Simkins, 2013).

We propose that this IAPS symposium would proceed as follows

Part I: Condensed summary of papers delivered at EDRA Intensive. Presenters: Janet Loebach & Susan Drucker

Part II: Presentation of results of facilitated NWAR discussion. Presenters: Ian Simkins & Gary Gumpert

Part III: Facilitated group discussion re: research/design priorities. Presenters: Co-chairs

The results of the final discussion of future research/design priorities and procedures will then be shared back with the participants of the EDRA Intensive with the hope of inspiring all participants and building new collaborations both across networks and sister organizations.

The symposium will also inform the agenda for the two IAPS network meetings which will take place during the conference week.

Manahasa, Odeta. "Children Participation Process as Force to Be Taken In Consideration by All!" In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

The concept of children participation is not very frequent in Albania, but there are great hopes to show a growth in mechanism of enabling this. This article takes an evidence-based approach, suggesting that effective children participation process is grounded in an appropriate process designing which results in achieving desirable outcomes. This study’s goal, based on a 2 weeks workshop with primary school children, is to present and offer evidence-based directions for practice of such kind of initiatives. This article combining subject area, context and methodology seeks to put children back in public view research for the potentials of identifying and publicizing the children’s rights and values.

Sposato, Robert Gennaro. "Climate Change Scepticism and Adaptation  A Cognitive Theory of Stress Approach." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Introduction: The study presented here is concerned with climate change perceptions, focusing specifically on scepticism and attitudes towards adaptation measures. I apply a cognitive theory of stress framework integrating work on identity protective cognitions to propose a refined understanding of climate change scepticism and its origins. The overarching line of thought is that climate change scepticism can be understood as a cognitive defence-mechanism to protect a personal life-style, value set, social status, identity; in summary, anything that is integral to one’s self-definition. In the course of the paper I will consequently discuss the forms of threat that climate change can constitute for individuals, with particular attention to the role of recommended adaptation- and mitigation-measures. Building on relevant work in this field I will then introduce narratives that could potentially reduce sceptical responses and test these in a quasi-experimental setup.

The proposed research paper will be based on a framing study with a 2x2 design sampling the Cardiff University participant pool. Participants will be randomly assigned to one of four texts on the impacts of climate change, which are expected to induce various degrees of threat. The texts will be created by manipulating information concerning outcome (gain vs. loss), as well as personal relevance (local vs. global impacts). Further, pre- and post-scores are going to be recorded for scepticism, concern and emotional engagement. The outcome measures will capture intention to perform and support for mitigation- and adaptation-measures. Various socio-demographic, contextual measures and a short value scale will also be used. Analysis of the data will consist in comparing before- and after-scores and outcome measures across/between participants and conditions. In the course of these analyses special attention will be given to potential interaction effects stemming from scepticism/value orientations and framing manipulations. Statistical procedures used will include multiple regression and various ANOVAs.

I anticipate that the combination of personally relevant and gain information will be the most effective frame across outcome measures and value orientations. This is based on the assumption that this kind of frame is more likely to prompt problem oriented coping (e.g. intention to perform actions) as opposed to maladaptive coping and/or denial. Relevant loss frames on the other hand are expected to create more sceptic responses across participants and to be the least effective for all outcome measures. The individual preference patterns however will depend on value orientations and scepticism. Conservatives/Sceptics, compared to their ideological counterparts, should react more favourably when presented with personally relevant non-threatening information and less favourably for non-personally relevant threatening information. In line with results from a previous study I expect scepticism to be a positive predictor of adaptation intentions with an overall preference for adaptation measures for conservatives/sceptics as opposed to liberals/non-sceptics.

The discussion of this study will offer a refined perspective on the origins of climate change scepticism and elaborate on strategies to more effectively involve sceptic publics in discussions around climate change solutions.

Walker, Benjamin. "Climate or No-Climate: Can focusing upon the co-benefits of climate policy enhance public acceptance?" In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

More stringent policy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions is required by countries across the world. Yet, whilst citizens often perceive that the responsibility of acting on climate change should lie at the state actor level, governments are sensitive to introducing radical change in fear of being punished in elections; Pidgeon (2010) identifies this as a major ‘governance trap’ that is preventing effective action on climate change. Given climate change is often considered a ‘psychologically distant’ concept (Spence et al 2012), focusing instead upon the more immediate and definitive co-benefits (e.g. improving air quality, enhancing energy security) that are often associated with climate policy might offer an effective political strategy for increasing levels of public acceptance. Therefore, this paper uses a series of experimental studies that explore whether (and when) framing policy that reduces greenhouse emissions in terms of its non-climate benefits is likely to lead to greater levels of public acceptance, compared to the use of climate change frames. First, it demonstrates that emphasising the co-benefits that are associated with climate policy (e.g. public health improvements from reduced car use, local economic benefits from renewable energy developments) can significantly enhance levels of policy acceptance. This was particularly true for individuals who were sceptical about the existence of anthropogenic climate change. Second, this paper identifies a number of factors that can influence the effectiveness of co-benefit frames in increasing acceptance of climate policy (compared to climate change frames). As an example, ‘perceived frame relevance’ (e.g. whether a policy to reduce speed limits was perceived as more relevant to climate change or public health) is shown to be an important determinant of a frame’s relationship with public acceptance. Therefore this paper argues that giving greater consideration to co-benefits when designing and communicating policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions can lead to greater levels of public acceptability.

Krien, Nathalie, and Elisabeth Michel-Guillou. "Coastal risks in social representations of environment to coastal areas at risk." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Introduction: During the 20th century, tourism growth in coastal areas has produced growth of population and of town planning. It created new stakes in those places. Moreover in February 2010, the devastation caused by the storm Xynthia, especially in Vendée and Charente-maritime (France), has effected a strengthening of coastal risk management policies. The workload of local managers has evolved consequently. Now they have to integrate risks management into daily operations. This implies an interest in populations. Most especially on social representations of their environment and translation of coastal risks. Populations could indeed be source of both risks and issues.

Method: Our survey fits within the framework of an interdisciplinary research (ethnology, economy, geography, geology, environmental psychology…). It explores management of coastal risks, most especially erosion and flood, in relation to evolutions of the coastline. On our part, we are studying social representations of environment from people who live on coastal areas. Most especially the place of coastal risks in those social representations. For this, we selected two littoral towns defined as “risk areas” - Île-Tudy (Finistère, France) and Pénestin (Morbihan, France). The risk is, for us, a social construction based on interpersonal interactions and on the relations between individual and his environment. That's why we rely on social representations theory (Moscovici, 1976), and on place identity theory (Proshansky, 1974). Our starting point is that the relationship between populations and coastal risks belongs to specific environmental and social factors. With this in mind, we made several assumptions which have been subjected to surveys and a questionnaire. This one was conducted with residents of Île-Tudy and of Pénestin during summer 2012. There were about thirty questions covering several themes: habitation (what sort, motivations for living here...), relation with the town (projects, activities, attachment...), risks on the town (what sort of risks can it have), coastal risks (experience, opinion...), and then, management of coastal risks (managers' legitimacy, relevance of actions...).

Results: For the 23rd IAPS conference we propose to present results. Indeed, those analyses confirmed the validity of our hypothesis. For example, one of them is the importance of relation to the sea. Based on our results, people who recognize the sea as an important part of their environment or people who see themselves as leaving close of the sea, are more likely to consider been exposed to coastal risks. One other is the importance of the relationship with municipalities. Our results indicate that the more people have a positive perception of the municipality and of managers – especially the local mayor and the city council – and the more they are attached to their environment, the less they will consider existence of coastal risk in this area. Presenting our survey, we will demonstrate that relationship between people and coastal risks depend from the way in which they grasp and use their environment.

Medvedovski, Nirce Saffer, Marcus Vinicius P. Saraiva, Rafael Faleiro Schulze, and Allana da Costa Jeske. "Collaborative GIS in the Balsa neighborhood  Pelotas (RS/Brazil)." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

The Federal University of Pelotas (UFPel) belongs to a group of Brazilian universities, which have developed the project Morar.TS, aiming to develop Social Technologies for social interest housing. In this context, Social Technologies are understood as a group of technologies focused on social inclusion, trying to involve the user in all housing production stages.

The research invests on the search of Information Technologies that enable the Social Technologies, increasing the interaction between the academic community and the society. Among the ITs, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) stand out due to their capacity of organization, analysis and visualization of spatially referenced data. Besides this, the use of GIS has become popular through online free solutions, such as the tools developed by Google (Earth, Maps and StreetView). Its use in collaborative environments also stands out, where the users of the mapped space may complete and correct available information.

These characteristics provide a great potential to the use of GIS as a tool of social inclusion. Through the mapping of social interest areas and the distribution of information to the population in a simple and broad way, it is possible to promote the auto recognition of the community, with positive consequences in its social organization.

This work invests on the possibility of integrating the technical knowledge of the University with the empirical knowledge of the local population, through collaborative GIS technology. The purpose is to provide survey information and make them available online, motivating its use among the population as well as providing means to receive the collaboration of users to correct and complete the information.

To begin, surveys were performed in two categories: a) social economical data, obtained from the Census 2010 carried out by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE); b) physical data, obtained from remote sensing and physical survey at the site.

The social-economical data from IBGE were collected in the site institute, elaborated in spreadsheets to derive new statistical information, organized in database and spatialized in GIS. The physical data was collected on site, with differentiated level of detail according to the characteristics of each area and availability of the research staff.

From the initial data collection and its organization in GIS, the next step consists in making this data available via Internet. Several successful cases of online collaborative maps can be found, but the challenge is to transpose this technology for low-income users. The use of the Internet has spread among the communities in the research area, through the presence of small providers in the neighborhood or via low cost smartphones. It is necessary to focus on the convenience and ease to use.

The experience reported in this work is relevant for two reasons: a) reinforcing the sense of community in poorer neighborhoods, engaging people to update their neighborhood information; b) for later researches, which can rely on a complete, reliable and updated set of information.

Herranz-Pascual, Karmele, Laura Gutierrez, Juan Angel Acero, Igone Garca, Alvaro Santander, and Itziar Aspuru. "Comfort Urban Places: Integrated service to support the design of urban places with criteria of environmental comfort." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

The most remarkable findings of the literature review of comfort place are mainly focused on indoor place and only apply one of the environmental dimensions: thermal, acoustical, visual or oudor. Other limitations of this reseach subject are that they have a negative and objective perspective. Although the concept of comfort refers to the wellbeing of people, most of the instruments and studies analize the discomfort, ie, what prevents this. But, it is not clear that the comfort is just the absence of disease. These results indicated a need to avance in the study of urban comfort with a global approach. This is the challenge of Tecnalia Urban Team.

We consider that acomfortable urban place is “a urban space that is able to generate a nice environmental experience in people and communities who use it to develop individual or social activities, among which are those of social interaction”. This is an integral and systemic concept that integrates several environmental dimensions (acoustic, thermal, light and visual, and odour, in future developments) in holistic way, it also includes the objective perspective together with the subjective one, integrating the person and usingits perspective (Socio-Ecological System Services) and from a possitive point of view. In addition to this,the approach is to overcome the existing reductionism to consider comfort just as the absence of discomfort.

The methodology to define a urban place as a Comfort Urban Place is estructurated around six steps: 1) space analysis, 2) environmental comfort diagnostic, 3) comfort evaluation ofthe place, attending at its use, 4) values to optimal comfort and proposal of actions, 5) colaborative design (together to arquitects); and 6) final design"tailored".

A questionnaire was designed to pick up the perception of people who use the urban places in relation to comfort of these places. This tool is based on conceptual model of Environmental Experience (Herranz-Pascual et al., 2010). People are asked about their perception in relation to especific aspects of the thermal (temperature, wind…), acoustic (natural, traffic, social sources…) and light and visual dimensions. Also, questionnaire include global scales of urban comfort for each environmental dimensions and with urban place globaly in terms of pleasant.

One of the first outputs of the work is the development of an integral indicador of light/visual comfort following the approach defined for the acoustic and thermal indexes.The second result is an integrated indicator to evaluate environmental urban comfort. This global index has been validated with the perception of people who use an urban place

As conclusion, proposal of Comfort Urban Places developed by Tecnaliaallowsus to tacklesome of the majorchallengesof our cities. The design of our urban places based on this approach can increase the attractiveness of cities for inversion and tourism, also improving the wellbeing and quality of citizen life. The urban places with comfort label by Tecnalia will be singular places where citizenship will be able to enjoy, relax, talk, walk… They will be special and different from other places (place identity).

Han, Yifan, and John Zacharias. "Commuting in Hangzhou by public bicycle-sharing users." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

The inception of Public Bicycle-Sharing System(PBSS) was in European in 1965. Until now, bicycle-sharing program has spread worldwide with about 553 cities in operation and 193 under construction or in planning. The first PBSS set up in China was Hangzhou in May 1, 2008. Until the end of June 2013, it has operated 2997 fixed docking stations with 69750 bicycles.Existing literature about PBSS mainly focus on the redistribution of bicycles which rests on the limited slots in each stations and the uneven usage in different land-use area (Benchimol et al., 2011; Shu et al., 2010;Daniel Chemla et al., 2011; Leonardo Caggiani et al.,2012),the location of docking stations (or hub) optimization (Juan P. Romero, et al.,2012; Lin & Yang ,2011; Luis M. Martinez et al.,2012; Hamidreza Sayarshad et al.,2012), the barrier and facilitators in bicycle use(Elliot Fishman et al.,2012; Shaheen et al.,2011). Namely most of the literature is tend to make an efficient PBSS, but seldom have done on the activity patterns of the bicycle-sharing users. In this paper, the authors try to understand the commuting mode choice of the bicycle-sharing users, and whether the PBSS has cut the commuting time and decreased the the trips of the car owners.

To understand these questions, we conducted a survey in Hangzhou between late August and early September in 2013. One questionnaire is distributed to bicycle-sharing users, and 1149 surveys were completed in total.The survey examines four associated with the PBSS users: (1) The socio-economic characteristics of the users.(2)Primary usage functions in their daily lives as well as rates of usage. (3) Users' travel mode in commuting and their commuting time.(4) The reasons for the private car or private bike owners' choosing public bikes.

We found that among the interviewees, 44.5% of the male users and 41.5% of the female have a private bike. The main reason for the users not using the private bike is that the PBSS is for a one-way trip and is convenient for circulating, with users bearing no concerns about theft and maintenance (78.8%). Only 5.2% of them use public bicycle barely as a way to support the city’s public transport. Among the interviewees, 34.1% of the male users and 35.6% of the females are private car owners. But among the 398 private car owners, 92.0% of them chose public transportation for their commuting, and 12.1% of them chose public bicycle as their main travel mode. The average commuting time of the interviewees is 51 minutes, which is 25% lower than the average 68 minutes (34 min in a one-way commute) of the Hangzhou citizens’ commuting time in 2012. As PBSS is transport to integrate with other transport modes, 44.2% of users’ commuting trips use public bicycle combine with other transport modes.

We know from the study that people who use bicycle have shorter commuting time. These findings meet the primary goal of the Hangzhou BSS which is to provide the “the last kilometer” services for the citizens which also meant to set up a seamless public transportation between bus and metro. Meanwhile it also responds to Hangzhou government’s promotion of BSS to encourage green and sustainable transportation, decreasing the air pollution and motor vehicle dependence, as a way to improve the quality of the city environment for living. Users’ recommendations for existing Hangzhou PBSS included adding more baby-seat at the back of the bike and 24-hour stations, as well as providing real-time bike and parking availability information by cellphone."

Estrada, Cesáreo, Ignacio Méndez-Ramírez, and Patricia Ortega-Andeane. "Comparative model of noise and psychological effects in scholars." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

In the international educational context, the negative impact of environmental noise in scholar’s achievement has been studied for the past forty years. This is consistent with world concern upon global environmental change where noise pollution is the main factor that most affects quality of life as highlighted by the World Health Organization (2004).

In a compilation, Evans (2006) states that children exposed to noise showed significant lags in reading skills; he also reports that several studies with kids found links between chronic noise exposure and diminished attention. Considering empiric evidence reported in specialized literature, the present comparative study aims to compare three different schools with differential noise exposure. Study design tested the physical independent variable of environmental noise and attributive independent variables of participant’s sex and age. The psychological variables (dependent) were evaluated with two second-order factors: a) the emotional impact conformed by the annoyance, the interference in the communication with their teachers and with their peers and b) the cognitive impact conformed the speech intelligibility (understanding of the spoken words) and the attention. In addition, the educative variable of reading comprehension was assessed.

The sample was not probabilistic and included 521 elementary school students: 49.3% female and 50.7% male, age 8 to 13 years old, with an average of 10 years. Two types of instruments were used, psychometric scales to assess psychological attributes and a standardized sound level meter to measure environmental noise inside the classrooms. The study was conducted in three public elementary schools that because of their geographical location are exposed to different intensities of environmental noise. The noisiest school recorded an average of 63 decibels, the one with middle noise reached an average of 59 and the one with lower noise averaged 54 decibels. In order to know the simultaneous relationship between acoustic and psychological variables the statistical method of structural equation modeling system was applied.

A Multiple Indicators and Multiple Causes (MIMIC) model was used to compare schools. For the observed data, the tested model has an acceptable adjustment, as indicated by the tests of goodness of fit: x2 = 29.34, p = 0.01, CFI = 0.99, RMSEA = 0.05. Since the model have a significance level of 0.01 an additional criteria was required, the rescaled chi-squared (x 2/df) statistic was also reported and it should be near two (29.34/14). The quotient is a small value and therefore the model is considered acceptable. Finally, the importance of this study relies on the facts that the tested second-order model is supported on theoretical assumptions and that this model fully explains how the noise in the classrooms of the evaluated schools impacts differentially and negatively the psychological and educational processes of students.

Nishina, Daisaku, Takahiro Tanaka, Toshiro Yoshihara, and Kota Kawase. "Comparison among the psychological evaluation for the sightseeing scenes by Japanese, Korean and Chinese Subjects." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

1 Introduction

Japan is faced with decline of population, because of low birthrate. Especially, in the many regions without active industries, aging is advancing. Under this condition, tourism is being paid attention, as newer industry, because the demand for travel increases in the countries around Japan. However, the needs of people in these countries have not been clarified. In this study, the similarities and differences in the psychological evaluation for the sightseeing scenes in Hiroshima by Japanese, Korean and Chinese subjects are examined, to find the new attractive points felt by foreigners.

Forty scenes as the stimuli in the psychological experiments were chosen from the photo gallery in the homepages for sightseeing in Hiroshima prefecture. The questionnaire consisted of two parts, a face sheet and a psychological evaluation sheet for each scene. The latter consisted of comprehensive evaluation items, “Hopes to visit”, “Interest”, “Likeness of Japan”, etc. and 13 image evaluation items based on the Semantic Differential technique.

The foreign students in Hiroshima took part in the experiment, as the Chinese and Korean subjects. The students of Hiroshima University were employed as the Japanese subjects.

In the evaluation of “Hopes to visit”, the scenes largely occupied by artificial elements were evaluated lower. On the other hand, the scenes including nature and the scenes of Japanese gardens were evaluated higher. These tendencies were almost similar among the three subjects groups. However, few natural scenes were evaluated higher by the foreign subjects and lower by the Japanese subjects.

In “Likeness of Japan”, the similarities among the three subjects groups were shown in the scenes with historical shrines or temples and the traditional streetscape scenes. However, the Japanese subjects’ evaluation differed from the foreign subjects’ it in the scenes of ravines and the scenes of terraced paddy fields. The foreign subjects evaluated these scenes less Japanese, because they might be used to see the natural scenes like them in their mother countries.

The factor analysis was applied to the data combined the image evaluation by three subjects groups. Based on the pairs of bipolar adjectives with high factor loadings, factor one to four extracted were interpreted as “Inherency”, “Pleasantness”, “Traditionality” and “Openness”.

According to the correlation coefficients between the comprehensive evaluation items and these four factors, “Inherency” had more influence on “Hopes to visit” in the foreign subjects compared with the Japanese subjects. In the results of the Chinese subjects, “Likeness of Japan” was related to “Inherence”. On the other hand, “Pleasantness” affected “Likeness of Japan” in the results of the Japanese subjects.

From the results, the similarities and differences among three subjects groups were grasped. However, the foreign students were living in Japan and they might obtain the knowledge and the experiences concerned with Japan. Therefore, it will be required to compare the results with the evaluation by the people who have lived in their mother countries and have not been in other countries.

Roosta, Maryam. "Compilation of an Urban Design Framework in order to Promote Social Sustainability by Content Analysis Technique." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

When the conceptual framework of sustainable development has been proposed in the mid-19th century, social sustainability as a one of its triplet aspects has been always considered as an emerging area. However, in urban plans and programs improvement of social suitability has not got enough attention in design policies and strategies framework.

The issue of how the social sustainability in urban design and public realms can be improved through the urban design knowledge and profession is a required exploration and compilation of scientific responds.

In our research, the elements which make promotion in social sustainability has been investigated and a conceptual framework based on combination of these elements is proposed. The main question evaluated in this paper is “In the field of urban design which factors could be considered as effective elements in order to improve social sustainability".

In order to answer this question, “qualitative content analysis” method was applied to analyze the data. At the beginning of this research, there were 84 factors referring to social sustainability are extracted and categorized. Then, based on its objective, the research concentrated on local elements. In the next step, these codes were reduced from 28 to 18 codes, and they were separated again in three categories of “form”, “concept” and “function” which are in similarity and compliance to the “Canter” famous model. The ultimate model, encompasses 18 urban design elements could be the answer of the proposed question.

Through this method, in the category of “form”, environmental desired quality, designed urban escape, attractive public realm, environmental arrangement, density and compaction are considered as effective elements to develop social sustainability. In the “concept” category these factors are sense of attachment to place, identity of community, character of neighborhood, vernacular/local specifications and perception. Furthermore, in the category of “function”: safety and security, mixed development, pedestrian-orientation, accessibility, environmental infrastructures, facilities, inclusion and diversity were considered as the most important indicators requiring consideration in the field of urban design to develop social sustainability.

Kashiwagi, Kunihiko, Testuya Akagi, and Shigeyuki Ajisaka. "Conceptualizing the environment of private room based on personhood of elderly with dementia in group care unit." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Introduction

A preparation of environment for based personhood is required for group care unit. Recently, some advanced research has regarded personhood not as personalization but as personhood. A direct approach of planning for a conceptualization and captures the meaning from the utterance of the elderly with dementia.

The purpose of this study is to clarify conceptualizing the environment of private room based on "personhood" of elderly with dementia in group care unit and relations between it and dwelling consciousness. The recognition of the group care unit, first purpose is planning for a conceptualization of environment of group care unit. Second, the difference of recognition as an abode clarifies a factor given to the conceptual and furnished environment.

1) Object of investigation is three group homes and one nursing home. Object of investigation intend the care of individual respect and to practice the unit care. Elderly with dementia of surveyed consistent conversations is possible and lives in private room.

2) First, the personal data of family structure of the person of investigation. Tastes are extracted from the preliminary survey of the facility staff. Second, interviews of conversational form investigate is performed in a private room of each person of investigation. Third, the environment of an article is investigated by visual and photography. The conceptualization of the private room environment for personhood is founded by M-GTA.

1) The conceptual model of the environment of private room based on personhood of the elderly with dementia is structured by eight aspect including personalization.

2) The person of investigation is divided into groups which recognize the final abode or the temporary abode to be the environment of private room.

2)-1 In the elderly with dementia based on the recognition of the final abode, it is contained all aspect of the conceptual model. Especially, they are focused on the article. The article is one that represents the connection with family and friends and shows the personal feelings. The utterance of the group “the final abode” shows installing the thing showing an individual prejudice and relation with family and friends. Thus, the equipment of the private room of the group “the final abode” is considered to feel like the comfort of home. Therefore in the elderly with dementia based on the recognition of the final abode, it is important that it promotes continuity and autonomy while maintaining personalization and secures social relationship and stability.

2)-2 In the elderly with dementia based on the recognition of the temporary abode, it is contained certain aspect of the conceptual model. But they are not relatively focused on the article. The certain aspects are focused on their whereabouts and activities of their tastes. The utterance of the group “the temporary abode” shows installing some articles which can be brought home simply. Therefore, in the elderly with dementia based on the recognition of the temporary abode, the private properties are not suddenly carried, and it is important to change their recognition little by little.

Tung, Chuan-Ming, and Wen-Yen Lin. "Consequences of Enforcing Post-Disaster Permanent Housing Policy in Taiwan - A Case Study of Relocating Residents' Living Patterns in Xinfa Li, Liouguei District, Kaohsiung City after Typhoon Morakot." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Typhoon Morakot struck Taiwan on August, 2009 and caused one of Taiwan's most severe damages in near a century. An unique housing recovery policy never proposed in Taiwan was enforced by building permanent houses after this disaster. To discover the issues of permanent housing policy enforcement, the living status and problems faced by the residents after they moved into the housing environment, and the influence factors from different types of permanent housing developments, this study has investigated the living patterns of relocating victims from Xinfa Li, Liouguei District, Kaohsiung City after they resided in the permanent houses. This paper is expected to provide as a reference for the government in its future recovery actions by discussing policy effectiveness from the observations of relocating residents' living status.

Results from this research indicate that victims relocating to permanent houses tends to return to their original community, or to choose a "migratory" living style. The permanent houses, neither distant from or near to the their original community, were not to become victims' primary residences. After further investigating the reasons behind this phenomena, this study has summarized and concluded with following findings: 1. the process of site selection without considering the residents' livelihood support capability; 2. the failures of measures proposed by government and NGOs resulting in the separating environments of "livelihood" and "living", discouraging relocating victims to stay at their permanent housing sites; 3. ineffectively enforcing of land-use regulations in typhoon-stricken areas becoming the attractiveness and incentives for relocating victims going back to live and farm at their original community, thus ultimately resulting in the failure of permanent housing policy's relocating function.

Neira, Carolina Escobar. "Construccin de acuerdos respecto a la gestin comunitaria del agua, en un contexto de relaciones divergentes." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

El estudio busca responder la pregunta ¿Cómo se construyen los acuerdos con relación a la gestión del agua al interior de la comunidad organizada y entre ésta y los sectores productivos y autoridades gubernamentales en sus diferentes niveles?

El objetivo es identificar y explicitar los procesos y criterios que subyacen a cada actor para la construcción de acuerdos, con relación a la gestión del agua, entre la comunidad organizada, sectores productivos y autoridades gubernamentales.

Lo que se busca con este estudio es indagar acerca del proceso que ha llevado a la construcción de acuerdos y el impacto que esto tiene en la gestión del recurso hídrico, por eso el Estado de Tlaxcala se presenta como un escenario interesante para ello, dado que desde allí se ha impulsado un tipo de gestión y desarrollo endógeno (desde abajo y desde adentro) (Olmedo, 1999), mediante el reconocimiento constitucional de las “presidencias municipales auxiliares” como forma de gobierno con capacidad administrativa, financiera y de inversión, lo cual es una propuesta de gestión diferente que va en vía opuesta al centralismo como tendencia global.

Al analizar el proceso de construcción de acuerdos ligado a la transformación de las formas de gestión y con ello de la toma de decisiones, se busca caracterizar los aspectos (principios, valores, creencias, entre otros) que anteceden cada tipo de gestión y que podrían dar cuenta de los diferentes niveles de efectividad que cada una de ellas tiene.

La hipótesis que se busca confrontar es: en el proceso de construcción de la gestión comunitaria del agua, los acuerdos que se establecen entre, por un lado, la comunidad organizada, y por otro, ésta, los sectores productivos y las autoridades de gobierno, están marcados por criterios diferentes que tienen componentes de valoración y de control social que permean sus decisiones y que determinan sus posiciones al momento de la negociación. Al interior de la comunidad, esta forma de construcción de acuerdos es considerada una forma diferente (tercera vía) a la establecida por el estado o el sector productivo, legítima e institucionalizada, construida con relación a las necesidades comunitarias y que por tanto facilita que se establezcan acuerdos y se fortalezca la comunidad. En cuanto a los acuerdos que se establecen entre la comunidad y los demás actores, por partir de definiciones y valoraciones diferentes, se dificulta su proceso de construcción y al entrar en disputa se imponen visiones a través de las cuales se consolidan acuerdos que aunque legales carecen de legitimidad para la comunidad por no corresponder con sus necesidades cotidianas.

El tema se enmarca en el proceso de construcción de acuerdos respecto a la gestión del agua, a partir del estudio de las relaciones que allí se generan, sus formas, tipos y condiciones a través de las cuales la comunidad, la administración pública y el sector productivo se articulan y establecen formas de gestión específicas.

En este sentido, los conceptos que cobran relevancia y que se articularían en el abordaje del tema son Gestión Comunitaria y sus relaciones en torno al conflicto y al poder, Recursos Comunes, Ecología Política, Gobernanza, Gobernanza del Agua y Acción Colectiva. A continuación cada uno de ellos

Windsor, Ahuva Goren, and Noga Levzion-Nadan. "Corporate responsibility and gold mining: Social-environmental assessment and community participation." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Exploitation of natural resources often yields potentially dire environmental consequences such as air, water and soil pollution. Roads around mines deteriorate fast, due to heavy machinery usage. Social implications on local communities such as broken social codes and structures and economic deterioration of women and the elderly have been widely documented. Lastly, damages to the local ecological system are sometimes irreversible.

Several instances of gold mining that caused social and environmental damages in Europe occurred in recent decades. As a result mining corporations are now required to establish corporate responsibility strategy aiming at the establishment of sustainable mining practices that benefit the corporation itself, the community and the environment. Financial institutions now require orderly reports of such strategy as pre-requisite for their involvement in mining projects.

Social Impact Assessment (SIA) is central to this strategy. It entails data collection in and about local communities, and its findings integrated into physical and operational plans for the mine.

The work presented here is an SIA conducted for a European gold mining corporation, at the time it planned a mine in an Asian country.

A previous attempt at gold mining by a different corporation in the area resulted in severe pollution of the river that serves as the main water source to all local communities and rising awareness of local population regarding hazards to the environment and the social infrastructure. Thus, the aim of this SIA was to assess community sentiment to the proposed mine and identify sustainable mode for its development.

Main findings of the SIA can be clustered around two main topics:

- Transparency-trust-local democracy: Local residents were interested mainly in information concerning progress of mine development and its implications on local economy and culture. Most respondents preferred the mining corporation as their source of information rather than local media, community leaders or fellow villagers. Respondents also requested participation in decision making regarding operations with impacts on the environment and community.

- Implications of mine-local economy-environmental damages: Most respondents had positive expectations regarding local economy (i.e. employment opportunities and potential investment of the mining corporation in social services). Over half expressed concerns regarding water and air pollution, and harmful impacts on local flora and fauna.

The survey and personal interviews were conducted by a local survey team proficient in local dialect and cultural codes.

The corporation has since built the mine and started its operation. A joint committee of corporate representatives and local leaders was established, to plan and prioritize social and community interventions. So far, public health services were improved through a mobile clinic and refurbishment of the local children's hospital; an educational program in geology and metallurgy sciences was established for local youth, including training and subsidized employment at the mine; and a cooperative of women carpet weavers recently began operation. Also, the main road in the region is currently being rebuilt and a new training program for park rangers at a nearby nature reserve has been launched.

The presentation will detail the SIA and its contribution to local sustainable development.

Franke, Jacqueline. "Criteria of success in German energy saving schools." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Introduction: This study is still in a beginning status. It is based on the fifty-fifty approach for German schools and is embedded in the research project “Energy efficient city”. Here the schools will be provided with fifty percent of the cost savings in energy sector. The takeover of the energy costs are part of the public finances. Therefore it does not have any consequences for students or teachers if they save or waste the provided energy. This is a reason for many municipalities to support their schools with the Fifty-Fifty approach. The determining and communicated factor of success is the amount of cost savings because of the economic interest of the municipalities. The primarily focus on a purely extrinsically based factor has so far not led to any lasting changes in behavior over the project period. My hypothesis is that additionally or replacing intrinsic factors for success which are also relevant for the affected teachers and students leads to more permanence in behavior. It is already known that people show longlasting behavior only based on intrinsic factors. Therefore I assume that the launching of new factors does motivate teachers and students more to show a long lasting behavior in saving energy. I want to find out which success criteria are important and relevant for students and teachers in German energy saving schools.

First of all a literature review will be done. After that a workshop with the teachers and students to get a first impression of further success criteria is planned. The workshop will be evaluate with qualitative methods and is based on the stance that teachers and students are the experts for their behavior and the involved motivation. Based on the literature review and the workshop a questionnaire will be developed. The questionnaire shall be applied in energy saving schools. I want to apply the questionnaire in the beginning and in the end of the project so I want to show a development in the success criteria with the results. The questionnaire shall be evaluated by quantitative methods.

First results of the project point out that it is worthwhile to focus on other success criteria, besides financial gains. In participating observation of several fifty-fifty events it became apparent that further factors have to be accounted such as profit in competence, autonomy and social integration. I assume further relevant success factors.

I assume that with the opening of the cognitive operating range inaugurate a new scope of action. In addition, I expect a more differentiated success measurement with the questionnaire so that the municipalities are able to determine the success of energy saving projects even in stagnant financial savings.

Roehring, Andreas, and Frank Sondershaus. "Cultural landscapes as action arenas for climate mitigation and adaptation  a place-based strategic approach to regional development in the Berlin-Brandenburg Metropolitan region." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Cultural landscapes are increasingly understood not merely as something to be protected, but also as force to promote regional development. This strategic understanding of cultural landscapes is reflected in conventions at the European level and guidelines on the Federal and State level in Germany. The State Development Programme for the Berlin-Brandenburg Metropolitan region recommends the constitution of cultural landscapes as place-based action arenas for cooperative regional development. Berlin and Brandenburg have acquired valuable experiences in the recent past with their regional parks, large-scale reserves, regions of rural development, inter-municipal spaces of cooperation as well as networks and projects to initiate place-based region-building processes.

Current and future challenges connected with the transformation of cultural landscapes include coping with the structural change of energy production and impacts of climate change. Cultural landscapes are not only affected by climate change but also seen as an appropriate level for integrated approaches to climate mitigation and adaptation. To evaluate the potential of cultural landscapes as place-based action arenas in the context of the challenges of climate change, the Joint Spatial Planning Department of Berlin and Brandenburg initiated a (short-term) pilot project in the heterogeneous diverse landscape region of “Barnim”, which reaches from urban areas of Berlin to rural areas in Brandenburg.

The landscape region “Barnim” is constituted by a range of partly overlapping governance structures (Nature park, Regional park and the administrative area Barnim which has an energy corporation) and characterised by a high diversity of stakeholders. Different projects aim to combine the protection or development of specific cultural landscape potentials with positive effects on climate mitigation or adaptation. Within a dialogue process, consisting of interviews and two workshops with relevant regional stakeholders, the challenges and opportunities to open up synergies between climate mitigation and adaptation, and between the subspaces with their different qualities, were explored.

The research, carried out from an institutionalist approach to regional development, revealed multiple synergies between sectors, fields of action and subspaces. Place identity, rooted in the cultural landscape features of the subspaces, leads to different sensitivities to landscape transformation. But the holistic Barnim-identity is underdeveloped because the term Barnim was neglected prior to German reunification. Simultaneously there were obvious structural obstacles to the strategic implementation of lasting processes of regional cooperation within cultural landscapes as action arenas to cope with climate change. The constitution of the action arena “Barnim” as a network of the existing governance structures tapping the possible synergies between the subspaces can contribute to shaping a holistic Barnim identity.

The presentation bases on an expertise on behalf of the Joint Spatial Planning Department of Berlin and Brandenburg.

Kerkman, Dennis D., Brian J. Cowley, Amanda R. Laurenceau, Michele Sa, and Jennifer Krupa. "Cultural Values and Attitudes toward Environmental Sustainability." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

“Culture is the collective programming of the mind distinguishing the members of one group or category of people from others” (Hofstede, 2011, p. 3). Hofstede has identified five fundamental dimensions that distinguish cultures: power-distance, long-term orientation, uncertainty avoidance, collectivism, and masculinity. How do these fundamental cultural values affect students’ attitudes toward environmental sustainability? To address this issue, we surveyed 445 students at a university in the Midwestern United States. There were 195 males and 290 females, ranging in age from 18 to 63 (Mean = 32.36). Sixty-one percent were Caucasian, 11.4% were Hispanic, 14.6% were Black, and the remainder were from a variety of ethnic groups. A standardized test of Hofstede’s dimensions (Yoo, Danthu, & Lenartowicz, 2011) was entered in to an electronic survey together with 7 questions concerning attitudes toward environmental sustainability. These and the sex of participant were entered into a multiple regression analysis with the sum of the pro-environmental attitude questions as the dependent variable. Forward selection revealed that long-term orientation was the strongest predictor, R = .358, F(1, 443) = 64.949, p < .001. Masculinity entered next, and negatively, R = .384, F(1, 442) = 10.188, p < .002. Collectivism entered next, R = .408, F(1, 441) = 9.846, p < .002. The last predictor to enter significantly was uncertainty avoidance, R = .424, F(1, 440) = 7.550, p < .006. Gender of participant and power-distance did not enter significantly. While it is not too surprising that people who value long-term planning are also concerned about environmental sustainability, it was surprising to see that less masculine students were more concerned with the environment than the more masculine ones, especially since sex of participant did not enter the equation. While we had originally hypothesized that collectivism would be the strongest predictor of pro-environmental attitudes, it was actually only the third-best predictor. In retrospect, the relation of uncertainty avoidance to environmental sustainability makes sense, but was not hypothesized in advance. It was the weakest of all the significant predictors. Future research should examine relations between cultural values, environmental attitudes, and pro-environmental behaviors across varying cultures.

BTer, Kathrin, and Gesine Marquardt. "Dementia-Friendly Hospital Environments." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Advancing age is a risk factor of developing dementia. In the World Alzheimer´s Report of 2009, it was estimated that about 35.6 million people worldwide will be living with dementia in 2010. This number is expected to double by the year 2050. Symptoms of dementia affect memory, orientation, language, comprehension, and judgment. As the disease progresses people with dementia are in increased need for assistance with daily tasks. Over the last decades, care concepts, specifically designed for people with dementia, have been well established in many different nursing care settings. The built environment is seen as an important factor in these concepts as a large body of research supports the relationship between the built environment and functionality, well-being and behavior among people with dementia. In this context, a therapeutic environment is characterized by a small group size, homelike appearance, safety and accessibility. These physical features have been empirically linked to more independence and less challenging behavior. Furthermore, the spatial layout is associated with improved wayfinding abilities. However, dementia-friendly care concepts were hardly introduced to acute care hospitals.

Hospitals are also confronted with big challenges caused by the great number of dementia patients. Dementia patients are mostly admitted to hospital because of an acute illness and they display dementia only as a secondary diagnosis. Still, besides medical treatment, they are reliant upon a dementia-friendly caregiving environment. Because of unfamiliar surroundings and the unusual daily structure, the missing of their reference persons and a lack of activities a hospital can become a very stressful and confusing environment for people with dementia. Consequently, a hospital stay can cause further loss of independence and deterioration of their cognitive status. Furthermore, especially those patients with dementia, who display challenging behavior, place a significant strain on staff and other patients.

Therefore, there is a need to develop concepts for dementia-friendly acute care hospital environments. These concepts are supposed to make the hospital stay more pleasant to people with dementia and to promote their independence and functionality. This might contribute to the possibility of discharging them from hospital to their own home instead of a admitting them to a nursing home after the hospital stay. Furthermore, dementia-friendly acute care hospitals might help reduce hospital staffs’ and other patients’ burden.

A systematic literature review of empirical studies on building design for people with dementia was performed to get an overview of the current state of research on this topic. Additionally, a qualitative analysis of the hospital environment was carried out. Together with focus group discussions findings from the literature review were translated into evidence-based design recommendations for dementia-friendly acute care hospitals. They provide information for architects and health- care professionals on how to develop dementia-friendly floor plans as well as patient and common rooms. Furthermore, suggestions on what can be done to communicate information through the hospital environment to support spatial, timely and situational orientation in patients with dementia will be given. Examples from architectural practice will be presented to illustrate the design recommendations.

Elnokaly, Amira, Mohamed Elkaftangui, and Yasser Awad. "Demystifying Tradition: Transition into Sustainable Communities with Reference to Siwa Oasis, Egypt." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Siwa is one of the few Egyptian oasis communities that have managed to retain most of its traditional characteristics and is an environmentally significant area (1). This was partially due to the region’s isolation, which was broken only recently by the construction of asphalt roads connecting Siwa to Marsa Matruh. The Oasis is one of the areas rich with distinguished well-planned and ecologically sensitive facilities or eco-lodges (2), various attractions including monuments, therapeutic tourism, safari tourism and desert tourism. The architecture and the construction of the oasis were developed by its occupants using local raw materials and their buildings fulfilled all their needs (3).

As the people of Siwa confronted the modern world, both their culture and their environment were exposed to the risk of disruption. During the eighties concrete blocks started invading the oasis and had an enormous impact on the local construction techniques and on the oasis. With the invasion of modern techniques of construction and life styles in the oasis, its unique natural architectural style is degrading. The Siwan people started facing problems concerning the weakness of local building materials and hence concrete became their easier choice.

In this paper an environmental approach is adopted in order to revisit and enhance Siwa traditional construction techniques, and hence playing a key role in enhancing a sustainable resilient community in the region. The paper carry out a critical investigation of the problems associated with the traditional construction technique in Siwa oasis due to the weakness of the available building materials. An exploration of the local materials found in the oasis is carried out in order to unearth other raw materials that could be used in the experimental study in order to enhance the traditional construction process in Siwa Oasis.

The empirical study that was developed in order to improve the strength of the currently used Siwan mortar which gave strength of 13.5 Kg/cm2 is presented in this paper. The introduction of new materials which are not experienced before in Siwa Oasis (Badya, and Sommar Ash) increased the strength of the Siwan mortar to 80 Kc/cm2. This achieved increase in strength is considered very promising as the Egyptian Standard Specification accepts bricks having strength exceeding 50 Kg/cm2 to be used as bearing walls in construction industry. On the basis of the results obtained herein, a modification for the current Siwan mortar that is currently used by the builders to bond the ‘Karsheef’ particles together is proposed.

Szewczenko, Anna Maria, and Iwona Benek. "Design for the elderly people as the support of their activity in sustainable society." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

In this paper we present the research that examines the properties of architectural environment that is especially meaningful for the elderly people quality of life – the geriatric hospital and social housing for the elderly people. Recent demographic trends in European society are simultaneously the source of changes in social activities area and source of changes in satisfying the personal and health needs. We assume that together with social policy instruments there are number of spatial conditions supporting activity of elderly people and preventing social exclusion. The space in geriatric centers could enhance where possible the functional abilities of older patients or residents, according to the rules of universal design. There are some physical design elements of a built environment that have been shown to meet the needs of this population. The research is an exploratory case study and comparative analysis of both objects category - of geriatric hospitals and social housing for the elderly people in Poland and in Western Europe. It is revealed that there are significant distinctions between Polish and West European examples in main spatial structure categories:

  • in scale of the immediate surroundings of the building,
  • in scale of the building – functional features,
  • in scale of patient’s /resident’s area.

The state of Polish geriatric hospitals and nursing facilities is a result of functional, technical and procedural negligence. However demographic trends increase the demand for centers of these kind and for readjustment the services quality to present requirements. Therefore – executed researches indicated the main trends in the spatial and functional alteration of geriatric hospitals and social housing for the elderly. From sustainable development point of view the geriatric centers require in broaden range of:

  • growth of treatment process efficiency and bringing back/keep the elderly in their living environment,
  • shaping the better quality of life,
  • implementation or consolidation of institutional support for geriatric centers.

In further explorations we assume the interdisciplinary approach. We assume cooperation in research group consisted of architects, sociologists and geriatric specialists. Planned quality analyses will be conducted on selected currently functioning geriatric hospital in Katowice and on nursing facilities in Upper Silesia. It is expected that the research program also provide building the research methodology useful in the development of optimal model of geriatric hospitals and social housing for the elderly integrated with institutional support for building the sustainable society.

Mayer, Beril Ozmen, and Onur Boyacigil. "Designing for Inhabitants with Inhabitants in the Eğriçam Quarter of Mersin." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Addressing housing issues as a study of relationships between people and their socio-physical surroundings within the course of neo-liberal urban conditions, Turkey has experienced highly restricted centralized administration through political and economic decisions in terms of provision of housing environments especially in the last two decades. Perceived agenda of mass housing as well as so-called social housing appears to the improvements of environmental quality through urban revitalization by governmental institutional structures according to the TOKI (the Housing Development Administration of Turkey) - belong to Prime Ministry- accepted standards. Actually, democratic resolutions in the process of mass housing developments needs to be reminded, if people-side of housing, residential streets and landscape in the urban cores in a homely designed manners to contribute to societal diversities entailing to sustainable ecologies.

Complications ranging to the diverse needs of citizens in terms of vulnerabilities in the society should be solved well oriented innovative strategies, policies, regulations and by-laws, which may not exist in our systems, that can be created as implementing models of dwelling production within more sustainable parameters on the spot by working with the local communities. Promoting multi-disciplinary approaches and critical thinking will bring ideas, experiences and good practices regarding people as social capital in their residential quarters as a challenge for building a sustainable future.

As the specific case of such urban housing problematic, we proposed to explore Mersin as a case, which has received a drastic number of migrated populations since 1980s. This phenomenon caused to open most of the green-land to the housing construction. The development extended along the seashore, which ruined the ecological character and the natural public zone has been shortened.

One of the quarter, Eğriçam in Yenişehir administrative district has shown a more traditional division in plot system in terms of housing typology in compare with the new model of high-rise apartment housing. Urban Planning Department in the Municipality of Yenişehir developed a revision plan to promote this quarter. However, the inhabitants refuse to accept new TOKI Housing Development out-skirts of the City. In fact, this is very interesting example to show a challenge due to the growing concern of social equality and sustainable urbanism. As a proposal, relying on the alternatives of current policies may regard community participation and life quality correspondence. Furthermore, filling the gap between behavior and urban design in sustainable society, Sense of place and resilience to change will be addressed as a research issue due to the transition to sustainable societies. In order to create user and community participation in the renovation process of building, designing policies for transition to a sustainable society and participation for sustainability
may be achieved. Social networking versus physical commons can be investigated by observation, interviews by several actors to have a meaningful approach for an innovative and democratic policy approach.

Astbury, Janice. "Designing for resilient pro-environmental behaviour." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Engaging people in pro-environmental behaviour can be challenging, and sustaining this engagement is often even more difficult. The abandoned garden, the disused recycling bin, the meeting where no one shows up are sources of despair for those who seek positive change in human-environment relations. But what if, rather than trying to make engagement sustainable, we focused on making it more resilient? ‘Resilience’ has become a key concept in discussions about how to meet social, environmental and economic challenges. Resilience thinking recognises that we live in complex and constantly changing social-ecological systems. It sees these systems as moving through an adaptive cycle which, like a forest, must grow to maturity and then ‘creatively destruct’ in order to make way for a new cycle of birth, growth and maturity. Such cycles operate at a variety of scales and influence one another.

Resilience concepts suggest new ways of designing spaces and processes for engagement. Rather than trying to arrive at an ideal and maintain it, we can acknowledge that people and environments will go through cycles and that continual transformations that engage different people in different ways may be more effective than getting it right once and for all. We can rely on processes at other scales to both sustain the parts of a system that are struggling and plant the seeds for future innovation. We can ensure that our efforts take into account resilience characteristics ranging from building social capital to valuing ecosystem services. This potential for supporting resilient pro-environmental behaviour will be explored through a discussion of efforts to transform public green spaces, city neighbourhoods and college/university campuses in Canada, Mexico and the UK.

Overtoom, Marjolein Euwkje. "Designing homes with meanings: Construction of a tool based on human values." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Introduction: Houses were among the first structures that were built, and remain the most common type of building today. The design of housing has been the subject of architecture, while from a psychological point of view the meaning of home has been a major subject of research. These two different viewpoints are combined in this research, in order to give designers a more scientifically based background for designing with meanings. Could human values (Schwartz, 2000) be used to relate activities and spaces in the home to a preference matched with a personal value-profile?

First a quantitative study (app. 30 ptcps) was carried out to match activities and spaces in the home to human values. This resulted in a design-tool that consists of the ten values (hedonism, self-direction, universalism, benevolence, conformity, tradition, power, and achievement) associated activities and spaces, and hierarchical graphs based on space syntax. Lastly opposing spatial features were laid over the two dimensions (openness to change vs. conservation and self-transcendence vs. self-enhancement). Subsequently this tool was used to design seven houses which were used to find out whether the values designed in the houses were also recognized as such, with interviews (12 architecture-students).

When comparing both activities and spaces with values, activities seem to show more distinctiveness than spaces, and some spaces are more value specific than others. Thus depending on the value that is associated to the room, the meaning or use of the room is still different.

Houses designed with specific values using the value-design-tool were mostly preferred by those who adhered to those values. The combinations of two neighboring values however is not always similar to the value-profiles of the persons choosing the house, which leads to less optimal choices. Nonetheless, either strongly adhered to values or strongly opposed to values do give an indication of housing preference based on human values.

The values that lie at the basis of this tool are cross-cultural, but the activities and spaces that relate to them are less universal. For a group with different associations between activities, spaces and values, the value-tool would need to be adjusted for that particular culture. Some activities or spaces might not be specific enough to clearly link to a value, or some values might not be expressed as much in the spatial features but more in the furnishings. If that is the case, then the spatial lay-out should give the residents the opportunity to do so. The tool can be used as an addition to the program of requirements or to shape the program of requirements. Guidelines for minimum spaces already exist, as do guidelines for installations and services. Using the value-design tool as an addition, gives direction for the variance in housing designs without limiting the creativity of the designer. As an advantage, the differences between houses can be based on specific residents, or residents with a certain value profile while at the same the reasons for doing so can be validated.

Lee, Minjae, Jiyoung Oh, and Hyekyung Park. "Developing Color Guideline for Gaya Historic Area." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

1. Introduction

Gimhae-si is ancient capital of Geumgwan ‘Gaya’ (the 5~6th century). As if proving the fact, lots of relics were excavated and the city has historic identity. Various colors have been applied to public facilities, etc. under the name of 'colors of Gaya' during the policy process of Gimhae-si, but they have been just used subjectively and confusion has been caused for applying them with more objective standard of colors. The purposes of this research are to establish historic regional identity of Gimhae-si firmly and develop color guideline of Gimhae-si so as to prevent confusion for using colors of Gaya.

2, Research Methods

For the method of this research, functions and roles of colors, regional identity and environmental colors were theoretically considered and method to establish region's representative colors, essential conditions, etc. were analyzed by analyzing color guideline of other regions. Thus, this researcher intends to examine what color guideline of Gimhae-si must seek and differentiate. In addition, objective and systematic guideline is established by investigating the process to establish Gimhae's representative colors and color guideline.

Ⅰ. Representative colors are selected by applying spectrocolorimetric equipment to Gaya relics excavated in Gimhae-si. But, relics which cannot be directly colorimetric are applied by web-color analysis method.

Ⅱ. By selecting colors which represent each relic, range of color, brightness and chroma is suggested and color guideline for each relic is established by suggesting dominant color and secondary color.

Ⅲ. Color guideline suggested is applied to public facilities and public building and applications are suggested.

3. Result

According to the general plan of urban design of regional community, harmonized design reflected by each characteristic is suggested as preemptive practical strategy through the analysis on cultural, natural, social and historic characteristics of the region. With the minutely colorimetric method of Gaya historic relics excavated in the region, total 36 symbolic colors of 6 groups were drawn. And, rationality and identity of this research can be found as it defines symbolic colors of the region by depending on more realistic grounds.

Akagi, Tetsuya, Chiho Oshima, and Kei Adachi. "Developing the qualitative assessment protocol on caring environment for early childhood." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Introduction: Now, the decreasing birthrate of Japan is serious issue as well as increasing aging rate. Therefore, many measures have been taken to improve on the issues. Recently, improving the qualitative on caring environment is more and more required. However, the very few studies have been conducted about QAP “Qualitative Assessment Protocol” on caring environment for early childhood. The other side, QAP on caring environment for elderly persons with dementia was developed as PEAP “The Professional Environmental Assessment Protocol (Weisman J. , et al. 1996)”. The PEAP deals with not only physical, but also the socio-psychological and operative environment. It is also important to develop QAP on caring environment for early childhood, who learn and develop abilities through various experiences.

The purpose of this study is to develop QAP, and to apply the PEAP idea for the elderly to environment for early childhood.

The study is consists of bibliographical and caring environmental researches.

1) Bibliographical research: The purpose is to get the items and key words of questionnaire for developing QAP. Firstly, about four hundred findings are extracted and classified. Secondly, the items of questionnaire are made through comparing the classified findings with dimensions of PEAP.

2) Caring environmental research: The purpose is to clarify the important items of questionnaire of QAP. Firstly, the staffs answer the degree of necessity and performance on the each item. Secondly, the main elements are taken from pictures with captions.

3) Analysis: Characteristics on the items of questionnaire are founded by Factor Analysis on the degree of necessity and performance, and develop QAP.

1) The potentiality for applying PEAP to QAP

The items of questionnaire are classified into eight dimensions and thirty-five heads as QAP. Eight dimensions are named such as “I. Self-selection of activity”, “II. Smoothly relocation from daily life”, “III. Adjustment of comfortable stimulation”, “IV. Adjustment of contact”, “V. Secure territory”, “VI. Legibility of environment”, “VII. Safety and security” and “VIII. Learning through experiences”. Thus, the items of questionnaire based on the PEAP are classified again as QAP. Therefore, the idea of PEAP is considered to be applicable to develop QAP.

2) The characteristic of each dimension

The necessity and performance are the highest in dimension VII of keeping safety and security. The dimension is considered as precondition for early childhood. Then, the necessity and performance are also relatively higher on dimension I and VIII. These two dimensions support development of functions such as the independence and desire to learn. Moreover, the necessity and performance are lower on dimension II and IV. However, these dimensions are unconsciously performed by some caring staffs. The necessity on the items of questionnaire differs from each group of age.

Weisman J., Lawton M.P., Sloane P. D., Calkins M. & Norris-Baker L., (1996). The Professional Environmental Assessment Protocol, School of Architecture, University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee

Rodríguez, Sergi Méndez. "Diagnosis of public spaces through childrens perception. Case study: Cerdanyola del Valls (Barcelona)." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

The relationship between human behaviour and urban form is a difficult phenomenon to study, as well as interesting. The same is for the relationship between child development and public space.

The aim of this proposal is to begin a wide reflexion about the architectural quality of public spaces and its impact in children and society development. The main goal is to design a methodological strategy that allows the public space diagnosis from a lot of knowledge areas. Through own architectural knowledge, we wish to make a process able to determine the social, physical and symbolic quality of any space.

This diagnosis will be made through perception. It is more interesting to study the complete spatial experience because it includes all senses and all times. It becomes an active cognitive process, where forms, smells, textures and noises become memory, knowledge, thinking, identity, etc.

In this way, this research always shows architecture as an interactive phenomenon between people and the built environment (Lynch 1960, Jacobs 1961). An interaction that takes places almost in three spaces: mental, physical and social spaces. So that, is very important to consider this spaces according to “creative chronotope” (Muntañola 2008). Any built form should be evaluated about three aspects: design, construction and use.

We will analyse the urban reality through the children point of view, because child development and public space are very closely related (Jacobs 1961, Piaget 1976, Moore 1978, Tonucci 2005). Because of this, programs such as “Child Friendly Cities” of UNICEF made the Urban Quality Indicators, which are being used in many places around the world.

Obviously, you can understand that it must necessarily be an interdisciplinary research work, where the architecture is central and essential, but neither the first nor the most important.

Also, there are a lot of things that make this approach research original. In first place, we will use new software tools to measure the human behaviour and interactions in public space, and the spatial syntax (Hillier 2004). In second place, we will use the citizen participation. Indirectly, we will observe the paths and actions of persons in public space, and directly, we will asked to them about the quality of public space. In third place, we try to build a Child Friendly City in the metropolitan area of Barcelona. The city of Cerdanyola will be a good socio-physical context to test this method.

Speaking about methodology for data collection, we will use several techniques through several scales: territorial, urban and architectural. Each scale will have a different approach and it will have different study objects.

Finally, with this work we want to continue a lot of studies about public space as a multi-spatial phenomenon.

Hillier, B. (2004) . Cambridge: Space Syntax.

Jacobs, J. (1961) The Death and Life de Great American Cities; Nova York: Random House.

Lynch, K.; . Cambridge: MIT, 1960.

Moore, R.; Younng, D. (1978) “Childhood outdoors: Toward a Social Ecology of the Landscape” in Altman, I.; Wohlwill, J. F. . Plenum Publ. Corp.

Muntañola, J. (2008) . Barcelona: Edicions UPC. Arquitectonics, 15.

Piaget, J. (1976) . Buenos Aires: Ediciones Nueva Visión.

Tonucci, F. (2005) “Citizen Child: Play as Welfare Parameter for Urban Life” in , 24: 183-195.

Yang, Eunhwa. "Diffusion of sustainable building practices and the role of stakeholders." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

This study aims to develop a way to convince stakeholders to adopt sustainable building practices. The network of numerous stakeholders that are involved in building projects can influence the process of adopting sustainable building practices, and the complexity of building projects requires a more integrated way of collaboration to adopt new practices. The existing excess inertia among stakeholders has resulted in the sluggish adoption of sustainable and energy efficient design and technologies in the building sector. This study includes buildings that both have and have not adopted Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) and retrospectively identifies organizations that are involved in projects in order to understand the trajectory of the adoption process and the diffusion among stakeholders in projects. The study proposes to identify the role of stakeholders as early adopters and opinion leaders in the adoption process and to examine how these stakeholders’ relationships evolve as LEED, a voluntary, market-driven mechanism, becomes to government standards in 2007 in New York, NY. This study investigates; 1) the effect of stakeholders’ previous exposure to sustainable building projects (SPES) on the adoption of sustainable building practices, 2) the interaction between SPES and the role of stakeholders on the adoption of sustainable building practices, 3) the interaction between SPES and type of project delivery systems on the adoption of sustainable building practices, and 4) the difference in three associations above before and after LEED became government standard. A directory of newly constructed or renovated office buildings completed between 1998 and 2013 in New York, NY for both LEED and non-LEED certified buildings is obtained from Emporis database. Then, I search these building projects in U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) database to obtain the levels and credits of LEED achieved. I also invite companies involved in the projects to a web-based questionnaire to acquire detailed information of the projects. Independent variables are the stakeholders’ role in the project, their previous exposure to sustainable building practices, the delivery system used in the project, and timing of completion of project whether it is before or after government green building procurement. Other building characteristics (i.e., type of project, height, total square footage) are statistically controlled in the analysis. A dependent variable is the outcome of LEED certification as building sustainability. Depending on the type of the response variables, three different statistical approaches are used: multiple logistic regressions for a dichotomous response (LEED vs. non-LEED), cumulative logistic models for an ordinal response (levels of LEED: platinum, gold, silver, certified), and multiple regression models for a continuous response (the number of credits achieved, 0-110). The expected outcomes indicate the importance of the SPES in the adoption of sustainable practices and the moderating effects of the role of stakeholders and the type of project delivery methods. The outcomes also imply that there is an effect of government requirements on the association between SPES and the project sustainability outcome. Overall, this study contributes to a greater understanding of which stakeholder/organization tends to become an early adopter or an opinion leader, how these early adopters and opinion leaders change within the certainty of demand when voluntary, market-driven certification turns into a mandated requirement.

Simpson, James, Kevin Thwaites, and Megan Freeth. "Do landscape architects really understand what the public value in urban environments?" In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Against a background of increasing urban regeneration and population growth, the delivery of urban open spaces that fulfill the needs of city inhabitants is of critical significance. Evaluation of whether current and future landscape architects are succeeding in creating effective and engaging spaces for people to occupy and use is therefore essential.

Study 1 - Evaluating the conflict in the visual perception of detail within professionally designed urban landscapes between landscape architects and the general public.

Landscape architects believe they have a strong understanding of what the people they design for experience within the built detail of urban landscapes. Such details include the ground plane, e.g. paving, level changes and drainage, through to street furniture and building facades at eye level. However, recent evidence suggests disparity between what the general public observes, and attach importance to, and what designers assume they do. It is argued that this results from insufficient psychological and sociological awareness in mainstream landscape practice.

Study 2 - Has the design education system created a change in perception of detail within urban landscapes?

This research will examine how the tertiary education system changes the visual perception of detail. The degree to which a designer’s eye for detail is created through the university system can be determined and to what level it has contributed to any imbalance in perception between designers and the public. It is understood that a specialised process is developed which is disconnected with the authenticity of routine urban open space experience. The focus on professional education in this study addresses a lack of research to date focused on the educational implications of this.

Methodology: Taking an inter-disciplinary approach, co-supervised by Dr. Thwaites (Landscape) and Dr. Freeth (Psychology), both quantitative and qualitative methods will be used to analyse the responses of trained landscape architects, landscape students from various academic stages, and members of the general public to UK-based professionally designed urban spaces. Using eye tracking equipment combined with participant led walks and semi–structured interviews, empirical foundations from which to determine the extent and nature of imbalance between the various groups can be found.

Research Impact: It is envisaged that this study will influence the university landscape architecture education process by formulating recommendations on how to develop students’ detailed design skills, so to resolve any conflict in perception found. In doing so, graduate landscape architects should leave university better equipped to create successful urban environments in tune with the needs of the general public.

By determining what the general public value within urban environments, the professional planning, design and construction processes can be adapted to reflect these values, thus improving its efficiency and effectiveness. The findings may also influence the guidelines and policies of design and planning bodies, at regional and national levels, ensuring that future urban environments are designed with the public’s values and perceptions accounted for.

Andrade, Soraya Souza, and Raquel Farias Diniz. "Educational and Environmental Psychology: brazilian contributions for teachers formation in sustainability times." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

This paper aims to discuss teacher formation in face of sustainability emergence, considering the possible dialogues between Educational/School and Environmental Psychology, based in two intervention experiences in some Brazilian Northeast cities. In Brazil, the school/educational context is historically marked by school failure problem, and teaching practice is an element unmanageable and of the most controversial. By consensus, is expected that educational activity, as intentional and systematic intervention in pedagogical processes, transform social and historically knowledge into school learning.

Hence arises the concern with teacher formation on training and qualification of professionals for such task, which has among its components the environmental issue. On the 2001 National Education Plan this theme became part of school curricula aiming to permeate the entire educational practice. Its focus is both on the physical and biological aspects and, importantly, in the modes of interaction between humans and nature through their social relationships, work, science, art and technology. This expansion of focus is characteristic of evolution in the concept of environmental education, which is incorporating previous concepts from humanities such as attitudes, values, participation, conflict, social groups. Going forward, the centrality of human aspects in education in this broad sense encourages approaches with different fields of social knowledge. Here we highlight psychology, for its potential to treat teacher education as well as to discuss issues related to person-environment interactions and sustainability.

Reflecting on these benchmarks, which fostered experiences that guide this work, it was found joints between School/Education Psychology and Environmental Psychology as contributors to critical and reflective teacher formation. The first experience was a curricular traineeship, held in a public school on the outskirts of Natal / RN, as part of the requirements for completion of undergraduate degree in Psychology. The job lasted a year, involving several actions, most geared to cooperate in the continuing education of teachers, with special attention to the preparation and conduct of classes. Evaluating the experience, became evident that many of proposed interventions were intensely mediated by the environmental psychology knowledge: designing the notion of environmental-person, interdisciplinarity, time perspective, and dimensions of sustainability. Such knowledge also served as reference for a course of teacher formation. The course started with an interdisciplinary approach and focused the discussion on human-environment and methods of teaching and learning issues, aimed at raising awareness about the importance of teachers working these themes, in a dynamic and systematic way, with students in the school context. In both cases, the convergence of reference in School Psychology/Educational and Environmental Psychology favoured reconciliation efforts and interests in the formation of teachers promoters of the ideal of sustainability. Thus, we dare say that such convergence deserves more attention from professional psychologists and researchers whose concern is with academic success covering the establishment of sustainable citizens.

Kim, Jaeyeun, Yeunsook Lee, and Jinju Kim. "Effects of Community Garden Related Characteristics on Psychological & Social Responses of Residents." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

The deprived areas in cities have a high portion of unused spaces where have not been managed.One of means for utilizing these unused spaces is the community garden.Although the community garden has various effects, the psychological and social effects are significant for age population who lives in deprived areas.The purpose of this research is to explore the psychological and social effects of community garden related characteristics, which utilized unused areas in deprived areas on local residents more specifically, the participation for community gardens, the physical distance from their houses to community gardens, and the visibility of community gardens from their houses. Considering the high portion of aging population in the study area, this study categorized residents into three residents groups, including groups who live in areas within 1) two minutes, 2) five minutes, and 3) ten minutes, walking distance from the community garden. Data from 90 interviews were analyzed for this study. Factor analysis was utilized for the items of the scale developed to measure the effects. Multiple regression analysis was done to find out the relative degree of the impact among the three variables. The result in this study reveals that the participation in community garden activities is the most significant factors which effect local residents’ psychological and social responses positively. And also, the physical distance have significant effect on the local residents’ social behavior rather than psychological response. Lastly, it appears that the visibility of community garden affects more on the psychological response than the social behavior. Therefore, it is necessary to consider these factors when community gardens are designed and planned in deprived urban areas.Following implications for planning and design of community gardens in deprived areas are addressed from the results of this study. First, it is important to involve local residents, who want to participate, in the planning process of community gardens as much as possible. Also, a variety of contents and programs are needed to facilitate residents’ participation beyond direct participation. Second, there is a need for placing community gardens in the appropriate locations within ten minutes walking distances for the age population with the consideration of physical distance from local residents’ houses. Third, community gardens need to be placed at the visible location from the many residences or at the location where local residents pass plentifully.

Martens, Dörte, Bauer Nicole, Jahrl Ingrid, Home Robert, Mondini Maria, and Frick Vivian. "Effects of urban gardens concerning restoration, environmental education and sustainability  beyond effects of the physical environment." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Urban gardens have had a long history, representing a variety of different structures and functions. In the 19th century, there were “poor peoples’ gardens” and allotments, often serving the alimentation of the public. Starting in the beginning of the end of the 20th century, there is a recurrence of urban gardening, often politically motivated, e.g. to avoid long distances from food production to consumption, to educate urban dwellers in environmental topics, to provide an intercultural exchange and to allow a self-organized political awareness (Rosol, 2010).

While restoration psychology has been focusing on the comparison between effects of natural and urban environments for a long time, it has opened up towards research on the effect of different natural or different urban environments. Urban gardening integrates both, urban and natural aspects present an intense interaction. Physical, psychological and social aspects of environments are represented in the same setting: by activating people and serving their individual needs for restoration, urban gardens can provide an important opportunity to increase social interactions, physical activation and psychological well-being, thus providing a valuable source for public health, especially for deprived communities (Guitart et al., 2009).

In the proposed symposium, work from different countries with different planning policies and different legal structures as well as from different interdisciplinary perspectives will be presented. Research results on the effects of urban gardening on health issues, environmental education and sustainability will be presented. In addition spatial concepts such as place attachment and identity processes will be closely looked at.

At the end of the session we will discuss new planning and management concepts that would meet the needs of urban inhabitants more adequately.

Presentations

Jahrl, Ingrid; Home, Robert

Allotment gardens are important green spaces in Swiss cities, with 640 hectares of urban land under cultivation. The gardens are usually found on areas of land that are owned by cities and managed by associations, with small allotment plots rented to individual tenant gardeners. Cities and associations often have rules for sustainable production as one target to reach defined sustainability goals of cities but the rules are not always followed, and the associations are reluctant to adopt the policing role. The gardens are often under threat from alternative land uses, such as housing development, and demonstration of the sustainability and value of the land use may be an argument for their continued existence. A solution appears to be in finding ways to motivate gardeners to manage their plots in a sustainable way that agrees with the goals of the cities. In this paper, we investigate the attitudes held by Swiss allotment gardeners towards natural gardening, and which motivations can be used to encourage and promote natural garden management. In particular, we focus on how the availability of information, the existing attitudes towards sustainability, and the social environment combine to form a behavioural intention. Once such motivations are identified, strategies can be developed to encourage natural garden management that is both environmentally friendly and can be used to showcase the value of the allotment areas.

Respondent gardeners were sourced from four Swiss target cities: Basel, Lausanne, Lucerne, and St. Gallen. Data were collected by means of semi-structured interviews with gardeners and key informants from city administrations and gardening associations. The interviews were conducted during the summer of 2013 and analysed using a qualitative content analysis approach. The results indicate that the degree of knowledge about natural gardening has an influence on management practices, with synthetic agents more likely to be used when knowledge of alternatives is lacking. Effective provision of education therefore appears to be a promising strategy but education opportunities are few in most areas and the existing offers are rarely coordinated or targeted. Immigrant gardeners, who make up a significant proportion of the gardeners, may not be reached by existing education offers, while many established gardeners are reluctant to change and do not feel the need to access the available information. The existential pressure faced by the garden areas might however inspire the gardeners who would otherwise be reluctant to change to engage with more natural gardening practices. It was found that the social environment has a strong influence on the behaviour of gardeners, and some potential exists for encouraging a culture where environmentally friendly cultivation becomes the norm. Education strategies should therefore be developed in consultation with gardeners as well as with integration and education specialists to enhance their effectiveness by reaching their target groups in a way that encourages the cultural change.

Bauer, Nicole; Mondini, Maria

In Switzerland as in many parts of Europe, life is characterized by an increasingly sedentary lifestyle combined with high levels of mental stress. At the same time the densification and the sprawling of many cities and peri- urban areas leads to a reduced number of accessible natural environments. These developments exacerbate each other and pose risks to health.

Urban green spaces can provide many opportunities to enhance the quality of life of large parts of the society. They contribute to quality of life in a myriad of ways including by providing opportunities for physical exercise, facilitating social contact, giving opportunities for self-regulation and restoration, enabling recovery from stress, enhancing personal development, and facilitating the development of place identity and a sense of meaning.

Urban allotment gardens are under threat in many Swiss cities as they are attractive targets for development.

But at the same time the popularity of allotment gardens as well as the number of gardens – e.g. 6000 allotment gardens in Zurich - suggests that the effect on society could be considerable. However the influence of urban allotment gardens on human health (as defined by the WHO) remains virtually unstudied.

Therefore we initiated a research project to answer the following research questions

1) What is the effect of urban allotment gardens on restoration and on psychological and social well-being?

2) What are the most important characteristics of the urban allotment gardens for these effects?

In order to be able to answer these questions we conducted a quantitative survey with tenants of allotment gardens in Zurich. As there is no database of all the tenants of allotment gardens in Zurich, we contacted the 13 allotment garden associations of Zurich. 600 questionnaires were distributed by the 13 garden associations, either handed out to the gardeners by the officials of the allotment garden association at social events or the annual meeting, or sent out by post to a random sample of allotment gardeners. From the 600 questionnaires 252 were filled in and send back to us (a response rate of about 40%).

Preliminary results of the survey show that most of the gardeners visit their garden more than once a week and feel restored after a visit in the garden. About half of the respondents report to have more exercise than before having a garden and to eat more vegetables than before. In an open-ended question we asked what they considered as special in their garden. About half of the answers referred to the calm and quietness of the garden, and about 30% to the social contact in the allotment garden association. The further analysis of the data will focus on the importance of these and other characteristics of the garden or the gardening experience for psychological and social well-being and on the possibilities to foster these by e.g. planning policy.

Martens, Dörte; Vivian, Frick

Urban community gardens nowadays exist in almost every bigger city in Germany, and recently they have received a lot of public attention. They can provide an important opportunity for restoration, capacity building and sustainability at a local level. Attention Restoration Theory argues that natural environments in particular restore physical, psychological and social resources that have been diminished by daily demands. However, social aspects of community gardens, e.g. facilitating interactions, relationships and an intercultural exchange, have not yet been focused much in restoration research.

The present study addresses the restorative effects of 28 community gardens in Berlin. Structured face-to-face-interviews including scales have been carried out with 28 initiators of community gardens during July and August 2013. Restoration was measured by a German translation of the Perceived Restorativeness Scale including the subscales „being away“, „fascination“, „compatibility und „coherence“ (Kaplan & Kaplan, 1989). The individual background and attitude towards nature was assessed by a German translation of the “Commitment to nature” scale. Additionally, the perception of activities related to the garden and childhood experiences were assessed by 5-point-scales. A list with 19 given items and an open question served to assess the motivations, their strength to be marked on 5-point-scales.

Results show that community gardens are present especially in densely built areas with a low socioeconomic level in the city, indicating a specific need in those areas. The most important motives for the garden initiators to start a community garden were found to be active participation in forming the city, community work, ecological gardening, a healthy diet and protection of environment and climate. Thus, community gardens show, besides activation by practical gardening a high potential in experiencing and educating people in sustainability topics at a very local level.

Restoration is shown to be rather high in all gardens for the initiators. The perceived restorativeness was closely connected with the feeling of responsibility, and with the perception of activity related to the garden as a hobby: the higher the perceived responsibility, the higher the restorative effect of the garden. This indicates new paths in motivational research considering participation, confirming results that show political activation being beneficial for well-being (Klar & Kasser, 2009).

The potential to enhance public health and social equity in community gardening is promising, even though there are some limitations due to the small sample size. Community gardens could be used to address people who are so far rather difficult to reach for changes towards more sustainable lifestyles. By serving peoples’ need for restoration, urban community gardens provide an important opportunity to enhance quality of life. Additional to physical characteristics of the natural environment, social aspects enhance the positive effect on restoration, needing to be considered in urban planning processes.

Munteanu, Anca, and Iuliana Costea. "Emerging into the inner space of the patient." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

The objective of this study is exploring the psychological and spiritual features of a group of patients diagnosed with breast neoplasm, from the desire of suggesting the necessity of a multivalent treatment, which aims in the same time medical, psychological and spiritual dimension. It is actually the idea of a holistic perspective, the only one capable of increasing the chances for remission or even for cure.

The theoretical frame for this research is based upon the assumption that the patients with breast cancer have specific personality features (L. Temoshok; A. Kneier, 1984), and also that before being diagnosed crossed one or several events with major traumatic impact. The chances of being cured are significantly increasing if the subject is part from the category of the “exceptional patients” (B. Siegel, 2004), which is providing the highest amount of survivors.

Field investigation was realized on a sample group of 80 women, with ages between 35-65 years old, where 40 women were already diagnosed with breast cancer, but were in remission, and 40 women clinically healthy.

Used tests in this research were the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (T. H, Halmes and R. H. Ralhe), Inner Strength Questionnaire (K. L. Lewis, 2004), Locus of Control Scale (Rotter) and the Spiritual Assessment Inventory (Hall; Edwards, 1996).

After the statistical process results showed that in the sample group, diagnosed with breast cancer, in comparing with the control group, the stress level of the patients before getting sick was significantly higher. The survivors of breast neoplasm, who are diagnosed and in treatment for over 3 years, are characterized by a higher level of inner strength (Engagement, Connectedness, Anguish and Searching, Physical), also by inner locus of control and a more developed interest for spirituality (awareness of God and quality of the relationship with God).

As a conclusion, the medical approach of breast cancer is a necessary approach, but is not sufficient because need to be competed by a psychological and a spiritual approach in order to increase the chance for surviving of the patient.

Gilchrist, Kathryn. "Employee wellbeing and green workplace settings: Benefits of use and views of greenspace at peri-urban business sites." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

The majority of research investigating the restorative benefits of greenspace and nature in everyday environments has focused on the home and recreational contexts. However, many people spend more of their waking hours at work than at home. Also, at northern latitudes the workplace may be the only context in which 9-to-5 office workers have the opportunity to spend time outdoors in daylight on winter weekdays. Moreover, it is often at work that we face the greatest demands on our directed attention and everyday sources of stress. There is therefore clear potential for wellbeing benefits to be gained from access to restorative greenspaces in the context of knowledge-sector business sites.

Previous research has found evidence of beneficial effects of exposure to workplace greenspace on physical health, stress and wellbeing, cognitive functioning, interpersonal relations, and job satisfaction (e.g. Kaplan, 1993; Leather et al., 1998; Shin, 2007; Lottrup et al., 2013). The research has, however, tended to focus on either the effects of visual access or use of workplace greenspace in isolation, or has used aggregated measures of exposure. This raises questions regarding the differential effects of views and use of workplace greenspace. Which is more beneficial - regular outdoor breaks or green views? At the same time, it is not known whether the composition of natural features in office window views makes a difference – is viewing lawns as beneficial as viewing trees or water bodies, for example? We also know little about individual and group differences in the restorative effects of greenspace in the work context - do all types of employee benefit from exposure to greenspace at their workplace?

These questions were addressed in a study of person-environment relationships in urban-fringe science parks in central Scotland. The study sought to explore the impact of exposure to the greenspace at these knowledge-sector workplaces on employee wellbeing through the application of a mixed method case study design. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected; the former through an online questionnaire and the latter through in-depth semi-structured walking interviews conducted on and around the five study sites.

This paper will present results from the quantitative component of the study, and reflect on these findings with reference to the qualitative data. The findings suggest that both use and views of greenspace have a positive impact on employee wellbeing, with views displaying a stronger relationship with wellbeing than use of the greenspace during the work day. Views of structural vegetation (trees, lawn and shrubs) appeared particularly beneficial. However, further analysis showed that business sector moderated the relationship between views/use of these designed greenspaces and employee wellbeing. Those working in environmental sector organisations displayed evidence of wellbeing benefits from exposure to the greenspace. These findings are discussed in relation to the differences between environmental sector employees and others in their perceptions of the quality of the outdoor environment at these peri-urban workplaces as revealed though in situ walking interviews.

Fechner, Amelie. "Energy consciousness  design of a questionnaire." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Every person has a different level of energy consciousness. To reach every person with an appropriate intervention it is useful to know the level of consciousness. Therefore, according to different environmental consciousness definitions (e.g. De Haan & Kuckartz (1996), Spada (1996)) and scales (e.g. Schahn, Damian, Schurig & Füchsle, 2000), the construct “energy consciousness” will be defined and an appropriate questionnaire will be constructed. The scale will, amongst others, include knowledge about sustainable energy using behavior, knowledge about consequences of behavior, problem perception, social and personal norms, values, self-efficacy, attitudes and self-reported energy using behavior. One central aim of this research is to identify the differences in energy consciousness between various groups, e.g. people working in ecologically focused organizations and members of the general public. Furthermore, research questions will include whether there are any correlations between the energy consciousness and the willingness to invest in renewable energy properties or funds as well as the engagement with citizen’s initiatives or environmental associations.

The questionnaire construction will be based on the classical test theory. Data collection will take place within a research project in Germany, where up to 2000 persons in 4 different regions will be asked to participate. It will be sought to collect data from a heterogeneous sample. Data will be analyzed with factor analyses, correlations and structural equation. The obtained product of the dissertation will be a valid and reliable questionnaire that successfully discriminates between higher and lower energy awareness. Furthermore, the designed energy consciousness questionnaire will be a practical instrument to measure a change and therefore the success of an intervention, not only in e.g. energy savings but also in the increase of personal consciousness.

References

  1. Haan, G. de, Kuckartz, U. (1996): Umweltbewußtsein. Denken und Handeln in Umweltkrisen. Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag.
  2. Schahn, J., Damian, M., Schurig, U. & Fuechsle, C. (2000). Konstruktion und Evaluation der dritten Version des Skalensystems zur Erfassung des Umweltbewusstseins (SEU-3). Diagnostica, 46 (2), 84-92.
  3. Spada, H. (1990). Umweltbewusstsein: Einstellung und Verhalten. In L. Kruse, C.-F. Graumann & E.-D. Lantermann (Hrsg.), Ökologische Psychologie (S. 623-631). München: PVU.
Maleetipwan-Mattsson, Pimkamol, Thorbjörn Laike, and Maria Johansson. "Energy conservation behavior in non-residential buildings: Impacts of lighting controls and user interfaces." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

The reduction of energy use for artificial lighting in buildings, and its environmental impacts is vital in the effort to combat climate change. Users’ perception of the physical characteristics of lighting controls and user interfaces constitute contextual factors which may support energy conservation behavior and therefore reduce energy used for lighting. However, such factors have not systematically been examined in relation to energy use. This study presents a conceptual framework departing from an explanation of user-product interaction (Desment & Hekkert, 2007), the Theory of Affordances (Gibson, 1979), and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) (Ajzen, 1991) that links characteristics of contextual factors, with psychological factors which jointly might influence energy conservation behavior.

The overarching aim was to examine effects of design characteristics of lighting controls and user interfaces on occupants’ perception and energy conservation behavior (i.e. optimal lighting use) in non-residential buildings. Optimal lighting use refers to when electric lighting is either (i) on when it is needed or (ii) off when it is not needed or (iii) adjusted to meet occupant(s)’ preference.

Through a field study in 18 single-occupant offices, first, self-reported behaviors regarding use of general lighting and presence were compared with behaviors captured on electronic record. Second, occupants’ lighting use was examined with consideration of lighting controls used and seasonal daylight contributions. Of each occupant, a difference in mean values of the lighting use between two seasonal periods was tested. A pilot- (N = 40) and a laboratory study (N = 50) examined whether different designs of the interfaces were perceived differently, with the focus on perceived affordances and usability, and ability to conserve energy of the interfaces. The user perceptions were assessed by using Likert- and semantic rating scales. The relationships among user perceptions of the interface and lighting condition, user behavior, and psychological factors were examined through an empirical study, taking place in shared spaces in two Swedish hospitals. The data were collected using a self-report questionnaire with staff members (N = 31). Non-parametric correlations were used to tested the relationships.

The results show that types of lighting control used and seasonal daylight contributions facilitated optimal lighting use; but for some occupants, their lighting use may have been dependent on habit. This pointed to the importance of selecting lighting control solutions together with changing occupants’ lighting use habit. Regarding the methods, self-report was able to measure the occupants’ lighting use, particularly for short-term. There were effects of different physical characteristics of the user interfaces on users’ perceptions of affordances and usability, and context of use.

It is concluded that lighting controls and user interfaces can support optimal lighting use. The behavior and psychological factors (e.g. attitude towards lighting use) captured by this study could facilitate the decision making in choices of lighting control solutions and modifications of design characteristics that may motivate or trigger energy conservation behavior. The results could also provide a basis for designs promoting energy conservation in non-residential buildings by taking human behaviors into account.

Hernandez-Garcia, Jaime. "Environment and Informal Settlements: A Conflictive Relationship." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Informal settlements are today a consistent feature of Latin America. For instance, more than 50% of Bogota has grown from some kind of informal pattern, urban and/or housing development (Rueda Garcia, 2000). Although it is possible to find centrally-based settlements with informal characteristics, informal settlements are normally found in peripheral areas. They are peripheral because land is cheap in there (next or in rural land) or it has flexible controls making it suitable for invasion or for illegal developers to commercialise it. In this sense, informal settlements start in conflict with the environment since their early beginnings, making serious impact on their natural surroundings (Bazant, 2001), “… causing degradation of natural resources and the deterioration of living standards within the urban boundary” (Benitez et al 2012, 163).

However, this is not the only conflictive relationship, green areas and vegetation are seen also controversial in informal settlements: on the one hand they are rarely observed in the barrios, leading to the assumption that they do not matter to settlers. As Monteiro, et al. (2006, 2) found in Brazil: “Vegetation is lacking or only in the form of sparse ground cover”; and when observed such spaces are not always well looked after. On the other hand, when asked about green elements, people tend to demonstrate enthusiasm (Kowaltowski 1998), and express the clear need for green areas and public space (Hordijk, 2013).

With data from six case studies of informal settlements in Bogota collected in 2008 and 2009, this paper aims to explore the relationship between informal settlements, environmental protection and green public spaces. It will discuss the environmental logic of preservation against the social logic of the right to shelter and urban space. Also, it will address the apparent contradiction of the need of green public spaces in these areas and the lack of interest and care for them. Finally, it will be argued that building sustainable societies has to consider the rights of all, including those inhabiting the so called developing countries, and the so called informal settlements.

Profice, Christiana Cabicieri, and Ana Cristina Edington. "Environment attitudes toward solid waste and selective collection - an exploratory study with Brazilian college students." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Human behaviors are directly influenced by attitudes that are composed by information, beliefs and values . Therefore, knowing the environmental attitudes seems an unavoidable step in the development of strategies that promote sustainability (Hidalgo & Hernandez, 1998). This study aims to assess environmental attitudes of college students regarding the garbage, checking if university experience promotes pro-environmental attitudes. We start from the idea that university education positively influences environmental attitudes, in other words that a greater permanence in the academic context create opportunities for awareness and commitment to environmental and sustainability related issues. Our investigation was conducted at the State University of Santa Cruz (UESC) in Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil. A total of 181 students participated, aged 17 to 46 years old, with 56.4 % females and 43.6 % males. The sample population was limited to students who were entering in university or leaving it in 2013. In an exploratory and descriptive approach, we adopt the following strategies: observation and photographic record of how garbage is processed at the campus; a questionnaire about the selective collection of solid waste and the NEP – scale (Dunlap et al 2000). The observations and photographic records of waste management in the university revealed that although there are appropriate recycling containers for selective collection, they are in places of difficult access and remote from the main points of waste generation as canteens, restaurants and living areas. Also no visual materials posted to alert about the selective collection and disposal of solid waste were found. In general campus accumulates a lot of trash on the ground that must be continually swept by the cleaning staff. When asked about where to dispose of garbage would be correct 99.4 % of the subjects stated that the trash was the ideal place. Among the students 47.5 % feel "very uncomfortable" with the garbage all over the floor while 50.8 % reported getting " uncomfortable" and only 1.7 % of the students pointed out that the garbage "do not disturb me ." As for the selective collection, the majority of respondents say they know about it (82.6 %), while only 27.9 % of students use the selective collection bins frequently and 12.3% reported not using the bins. The implementation of the NEP - scale resulted in a mean value of 3.68, and 3.76 among first-year students and 3.70 among last-year students. These results show us that there is no significant difference in environmental attitudes among students who come to UESC and those who are graduating. In our next analysis we will also compare the results with other national and international studies using the NEP - scale among college students. We believe that our research can give subsidies for the development of an environmental education in the participating university and the reformulation of strategies for selective collection on it campus.

Wener, Richard E., Maria Gloria Dom Bello, and Humberto Cavallin. "Environment-Behavior and Microbes: Tracking the Impact of Urbanization on the Microbiome and Human Health." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

This symposium seeks to present work in progress in an important area that is new to environment-behavior research in order to initiate a discussion on the impact of design on human health. In particular, we will focus on the human microbiome and the impact of environmental design, at a large and small scale, on the makeup and diversity of microbes from the environment or commonly found in humans.

The microbiome is important in human physiology. It plays important roles in organ functions, from immunity to angiogenesis, endocrine physiology, food digestion, vitamin production, and colonization resistance to pathogens. It coevolved with the complex life forms that developed after bacteria. Most of the human evolutionary time (~100,000 years) saw the coevolution of the microbiota and Homo sapiens within pre-urban and pre-technological ancestral lifestyles. The changes associated with modern life, including urbanization and technological advances have brought with them changes in our microbiome, and this disruption in has been recently associated with currently increasing diseases.

The cultural creation of built environments with specific uses have consequences that are not fully understood, particularly concerning the extent to which: (1) the environment shapes the respective biomes of the building and the occupants, and (2) the occupants’ behaviors affect microbial transmission between humans and indoor surfaces. Urbanization and modernization of buildings has meant tighter building envelopes and higher control over temperature, humidity and ventilation, which results in greater separation between indoor and outdoor environments. The use of spaces has also changed with modernization, in general, decreasing occupant density, while increasing use of cleaning products. Urban household environments are converging towards habitats that are isolated from outdoor environments and in which human microorganisms, rather than environmental ones, may dominate.

The research reported in this symposium shows recently found associations between modernization in buildings and the impact it has on the microbial communities of the buildings and their occupants.

Microbial samples and related environmental data on buildings and their occupants have been collected for four villages in the Amazon Basin of Peru and Brazil, in an increasing gradient of urbanization, from dwellings in an extremely isolated village in the Amazon rain forest to a major metropolitan area along the same latitude. We are interested in environmental and behavioral factors (including urbanism, architectural characteristics, environmental quality, diet, inter-personal contact), that may affect the human microbiome across the urbanization gradient. Parameters that characterize houses and their environmental context were collected in 10 houses from all four communities, including indoor and outdoor temperatures and relative humidity, light intensity, particle concentrations, and several parameters characteristic of buildings, such as air exchange rate, surface temperatures, and moisture content in wood and stucco walls. Parameters that more precisely characterize the occupants, including personal temperature and humidity were used to evaluate the conditions of human skin over the daily activity cycle. Samples of microbes from building occupants, home pets, building materials, and home objects were collected to assess the influence that urbanization level and corresponding environmental conditions have on microbial communities found on people and surfaces (detected by gene sequencing). Preliminary results show that changes in the use of home space and architecture lead to altered environmental parameters, ventilation rates, and building materials. Initial analyses of the human microbiome show differences across the transculturation gradient.

While this work has been presented to and discussed among microbiologists, it has not reached the attention of environment-behavior researchers. Our goal is to use this symposium to begin a discussion about the meaning and impact of this area of research for urban researchers and designers.

Other researchers who have contributed to this project include: Atila Novoselac Jean Frances Ruiz-Calderon, Rafael Rios, Luis Pericchi, Martin Blaser, Oralee Branch, Jean Hernandez, Henrique Pereira, Luciana Campos, Jose Clemente, Rob Knight.

Medugorac, Vanja. "Environmental activism between pro-environmental behaviour and collective action." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Introduction: In my PhD work I will focus on environmental activism as a specific form of pro-environmental behaviour. Stern's (2000) typology distinguishes environmental activism as a specific form of pro-environmental behaviour and defines it as active involvement in environmental organizations and demonstrations. Explanation of environmental activism will be approached from two different but complementary perspectives. First, I will approach this issue from the perspective of moral theories like Schwartz's (1977) Norm activation model (NAM) and Stern's (2000) Value belief norm model (VBN) which both state that personal norms are the direct predictor of pro-environmental behaviour. Lack of explanatory power of environmental activism that was offered by these moral theories encouraged me to look for additional explanation which I found in the theoretical tradition of collective action research. Specifically, I plan to include the motives of group efficacy (individuals’ beliefs that the group is able to achieve group goals through joint effort) and justice (i.e. perceived injustice which derives from the violation of absolute moral principles) in the model of environmental activism that I plan to test.

This part of thesis is still in the preparation phase since I started my PhD studies this year. Most likely, research participants will be recruited through different organisations that are active within my local community on different forms of environmental protection issues. The idea is to recruit participants from organisations that differ in their work strategies and agendas (e.g. whether they advocate radical or more gradual/reformist approach). The study will most likely be conducted via self-report questionnaires involving standardised instruments and analysed using appropriate form of structural equation modelling. There is also a possibility of using a mixed methodology design with additional qualitative strategies being employed in order to enhance research quality.

Besides investigating whether combination of two theoretical approaches leads to a greater model fit, the comparisons of groups that differ in their approach to environmental issues on different psychological variables might also be interesting.

Considering impact of different forms of pro-environmental behaviours, a prevailing focus on private sphere pro-environmental behaviour within environmental and conservation psychology is a shortcoming. I believe that perspectives, theories and models that moral and collective action theories are offering might complement each other in a fruitful way and provide a better basis for understanding of environmental activism as a highly important form of public participation.

Carulla, Magda Saura, Josep Muntañola, Sergi Méndez Rodríguez, and Julia Beltran Borràs. "Environmental attitudes and urban design: The dialogical hope." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

During the last fifty years a giant effort by social scientists have been presented in the international meetings by EDRA, IAPS, PAPERS, etc. The main objective of this effort was to build up a dialogue between designers and social scientist devoted to architecture and urban planning practices and theories, and this has been a failure in general terms. Increasing dialogue between ecology, engineering and environmental physical issues, on the one hand, and designers, on the other hand, has produced, in relation to social sciences, much more confrontation that dialogue. The wall that does not exist between designers and engineers is growing between social scientists and architects and urban planners.

Our papers will argue about the origins, and the bases for a change, of this situation bad for everybody, starting with the users. Our hypothesis will include a political explanation, since both, social scientists and architects are confronted on a power game in this matter. However, we think that, a new dialogical social and physical paradigm could help at this point if, and only if, some developmental environmental attitudes able to destroy the wall and to build a cognitive and political bridge, begin to exist.

We will explain which are these cognitive and political new attitudes regarding architecture and urban planners, in order to uncover a common ground for the dialogue between social scientists and designers, in general, and between psychosocial analysis of the environmental social behavior and designers, in particular.

At this point, it is surprising that a dialogical use of the computer spatial analysis can help to the understanding of the key aspects of the problem, since for both, social scientists and designers, the computer demands abstraction, and this can help to a better common ground for discussion.

The paper will end with some ethical considerations, also linked to the dialogical dimensions of architecture and urban planning. The need for a critical thinking is clearly uncovered, because of the very specific qualities of architecture and urban planning, where the aesthetic content is necessarily related to social and personal environmental behavior.

Muntañola, J.; Saura, M.; Méndez, S.; “The Education of the Architect on the XXI Century: Psychosocial New Findings and Environmental Sustainability Challenges.” In the , La Coruña, 2013.

Muntañola, J.; Saura, M. (2011) “Bakhtin, Architectonics and Architecture”. . Bolonia, July 2011.

Muntañola, J. et al. (2012a) “Architecture on the wild” in , num. 24. Barcelona: Iniciativa Digital Politècnica UPC Barcelona, 2012.

Lema-Blanco, Isabel, Ricardo García Mira, and Adina Dumitru. "ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION, PUBLIC PARTICIPATION AND BOTTOM-UP PROCESSES." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

European environmental strategies focus in addressing the environmental impacts of consumption and production and inform better to consumers about environmental issues (Álvarez, Vega & García-Mira, 2012). Nevertheless, year by year, environmental crisis effects increase and more drastic measures are needed in the face of huge environmental challenges such as climate change and the rapid loss of natural resources and biodiversity. Fundamental changes are required in how natural resources are extracted and the way products are produced, distributed, used and disposed of. Action is needed -from individuals and industry through to central and local government- and citizens need to be well informed, empowered and feel that their actions make a difference.

Environmental education is needed to change values, attitudes and people's behaviour and to promote citizen's action competence to assess and look for solutions to current environmental problems and carry them out in practice (Uzzell, 1999; Losada Otero & García-Mira, 2003). This involves a democratic system of cooperation and, in this sense, public participation has been considered one of the key factors to reverse current unsustainable trends. Many experiences in Europe and worldwide have proved that stakeholders and the general public contribute positively to management processes. Multiple outcomes of participatory process have been described in the literature (Dumitru et al., 2013; Palh-Wholst, 2007; Dalton, 2006). Involving the public in management helps facilitate information sharing, develop innovative management strategies, enhance support of decisions and ensure that decisions reflect the values and interests of a democratic society, such as influence on decisions, exchange of information, access to the process and transparent decision making.

This paper will review the most common experiences and outcomes of public participation in Spain -traditionally top-down policy-driven- comparing with recent more collaborative bottom-up initiatives that aim a transition to sustainable communities and organizations (García-Mira et al., 2013; Dumitru et al., 2013). Specially, we analyse the non-formal environmental education processes that can emerge in those participation experiences, reviewing the different approaches that recent social science literature have propose about the evaluation of social learning .

Iliescu, Dragos, and Coralia Sulea. "Environmental effects on medium-time fluctuations of job satisfaction." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Job satisfaction is considered one of the most important job attitudes, being a good predictor of important individual and organizational outcomes. Its antecedents and results have been well researched, both in the area of work context and of individual characteristics. However, less efforts have been invested into research in the domain of environmental influences on job satisfaction. Job satisfaction has been shown to fluctuate throughout the day as an effect of specific job-related events (Ilies & Judge, 2002). In the context of average but significant correlations between job satisfaction and satisfaction in other areas of life (including life satisfaction), fluctuations of job satisfaction are possible also as an effect of larger environmental factors, such as seasonality and other factors. The current research investigates across a 6-months period with weekly measurements the fluctuations of job satisfaction in a sample of 183 job incumbents. Various subjective (e.g. perception of pollution in city) and objective (e.g. average daily temperature) environmental measurements have been collected and investigated as covariates of the observed fluctuations.

Zara, Hilda. "Environmental risks; another challenge to everyday life in informal settlements? The case of an expanding barrio in Caracas, Venezuela." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Vulnerability of informal settlements to environmental risks such as weather-related events are shaped not only by the socio-economic particularities of the context in which these emerge, but also by the ways in which the inhabitants of these settlements experience, conceive and relate to their local environment. This qualitative case study aims to provide an understanding of people-environment relationships in El Naranjal, an expanding informal settlement within the metropolitan area of Caracas, Venezuela, against a backdrop of increasing episodes of rainfall. People-environment relationships are understood as multiple, complex and contextual, where environment is comprised of the physical, interpersonal, social and cultural aspects of the context people interact with. The study demonstrates that an in depth understanding of people-environment relationships can be gained through exploring residents’ experiences of place and community in El Naranjal. Over a fieldwork period of eight months, data was gathered using in-depth and walking interviews, participant observation and group activities. Environment and environmental risks such as rainfall were understood, experienced and related to differently by individuals with diverse socio-economic backgrounds, needs and agendas. Their diverse experiences and responses were shaped by pre-existing issues of geographical segregation, poor infrastructure, lack of participation and government support within the communities of El Naranjal. This underlines some of the gaps between national policy making on environmental, land tenure, risk management and participation matters and residents’ understandings and experiences of issues of their places and communities. Thus, this study emphasises the need to approach environmental risks as adding to, and amplifying the existing issues that residents of informal settlements deal with on a day to day basis. In doing so, it challenges views of informal settlement communities as homogeneous, illegal and paralyzed by poverty. Instead, it highlights their central role in the making of cities, as well as their heterogeneity and capacity to innovate in the face of mounting risks.

Ortega-Andeane, Patricia, Cláudia Campos Andrade, Ferdinando Fornara, Qing Yi, Marlise A. Bassani, Marco Camilli, Ann Sloan Devlin, Filiberto Toledano, Cesareo Estrada-Rodriguez, Marino Bonaiuto et al. "Environmental transitions at healthcare communities." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Given the importance of quality healthcare scenarios, the present symposium offers a semblance of six different studies within an environmental-transitional perspective. Because of the interaction between people and environment, it is pertinent to explore if the transition to a healthier environment might be favored or hindered by the physical elements that integrate it or by the interpretation that users make about them. These studies consider different environmental levels from a macro to a micro scale; they entail the inclusion of different users and interactions with those environments; and take up the tendency to look at health-related scenarios from the interface of physical design with psychological aspects.

From inside the patient room, a set of amenities and features are included in the design intended to decrease stress and promote environmental control, social support and positive distraction. Moving forward to the waiting room of a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, two different studies aim to reduce stress of the mother or the primary caregiver due to environmental modifications. First, three case studies contribute to understand how to improve quality of life, well-being, public health policies and health attention by humanization in a high complexity hospital, space appropriation of a public children hospital (environment disruption) and space appropriation of post-surgical patients (transitory environment). On the other hand, the positive stimulation of art based in evidence is assessed as a possibility to reduce stress and generate subsequent therapeutic benefits on primary caregivers. For that purpuse, objective and subjective indicators were considered in order to incorporate both aspects of stress.

Outside the hospital, the perceived quality indicators of external spaces, interior common spaces, and private spaces on hospices for terminally ill patients seem to affect the general users’ satisfaction towards the hospice environment. Then, this indicators should be considered in order to promote positive feelings in persons living a stressful phase. At a house environment, the management of health and wellbeing in an ageing population is relevant to support healthcare and social inclusion of elderly people. The development of a system-product concept of assisted living for elderly people through a design framework including “positive technologies” must be around user needs and integrated in the home environment. Finally, physical environment for outdoor activities in residential communities is a key for healthy communities. Thereby, the physical evaluation of the environment and the activities realized within it suggest that at least three characteristics affect outdoor activities: accessibility, affordance and comfort of the environment. More effective designs promote such activities in order to promote a healthy community.

Furthermore, this symposium is characterized by its cultural richness derived from the inclusion of proposals from European, Asian, and Latin-American countries, to ensure healthy and positive environments that provide a better quality of life for patients, families, dwellers and communities.

Hospital rooms and patients’ well-being: Psychological variables.

Cláudia Campos Andrade & Ann Sloan Devlin

The physical environment of hospitals can be a source of stress if unsupportive of patients (Ulrich, 1991). Based on Ulrich’s theory of supported design, this study examined whether the presence of certain design options in inpatient rooms have stress-reducing effects because they foster a) sense of control over physical-social surroundings, b) access to social support, and c) access to positive distractions. More specifically, we investigated whether perceptions of control, social support, and positive distractions are mediators of the effect of the hospital room environment (its features/amenities) on stress. The experiment employed a between-subjects design with participants randomly assigned to one of eight possible conditions. A scenario was presented asking participants to imagine that they had been hospitalized with symptoms of acute appendicitis. Depending on experimental condition, participants were exposed to an illustration of a hospital room accompanied by a different set of amenities and features intended to promote: a) environmental control (EC), b) social support (SS), c) positive distraction (PD), one of the possible combinations (EC+SS, EC+PD, SS+PD, EC+SS+PD), or no amenities. Results showed that the more elements presented in the hospital room (0, 4, 8 or 12), the less the stress expected (r=-.264, p<.001). Other results, including the results of the mediation analyses, will be discussed in terms of how hospital rooms can be purposely designed to improve patients’ experience, well-being, and recovery.

Environmental Psychology and Healthcare for Chronicles Diseases: Contributions from Case Study Researches in São Paulo, Brazil.

Marlise A. Bassani.

Chronicles diseases treatments usually demands severe changes in patients´ routine and environment. Some examples can be listed: a) environmental addition, patient has a new environment as part of his routine; b) environmental disruption, treatment demands total change and new alternatives in the environment; c) adaptation in everyday environmental conditions, with modifications at homecare (Bassani, 2012). High technological healthcare and staff-patients/families relationships have been developed in opposite directions. Environmental Psychology researches on space appropriation, privacy, transitory places, humanization in healthcare institutions have being providing helpful understanding to improve quality of life and suggest changes in public health policies. Three case studies exemplify these contributions in São Paulo (Brazil): humanization in a high complexity hospital from the perspective of intensive therapy pediatricians (Goldenstein & Bassani, 2012); a mother and a child from an agricultural area in Amazonia, and their process of space appropriation of a public children hospital for complexity diseases in São Paulo (the biggest city in Brazil), a complete disruption of environment (Nunes & Bassani, 2011); and space appropriation of post-surgical patients in the infirmary of a public hospital, a short-time transitory environment (Alves & Bassani, 2011).Outcomes are discussed relating health attention and sustainability perspectives for well-being and well-fare.

Positive distraction as therapeutic intervention in primary caregivers

Patricia Ortega-Andeane, Filiberto Toledano Toledano & Cesareo Estrada-Rodriguez

Prior studies (Ulrich, et. al. 2004, Ulrich, 2009; Hathorn & Nanda, 2008) have identified the impact of artistic images in hospitalized patients by offering positive stimulation during their stay, impinging in even a better and faster recovery. However, Ulrich (2009) arguments that patients with a high acute stress level can be more vulnerable to interpret art with abstract images as stressful or even as threatening. Because of the above works art pieces containing images with positive outcomes have been identified for being considered as art based in evidence and with the possibilities of offering a better hospitality stay and even a faster recovery in patients.

Regarding the content of art pieces, Nanda, Ortega-Andeane, Solovyova, Bozonic-Stamenovic & Bajena (in press) investigated the differences in the art preferences of architecture and psychology/sociology students from three universities in Mexico, United States, and Singapore based on their ratings of a set of art images. Top rated and bottom rated images were common across colleges and disciplines, which suggests that there is a certain universal appeal for restorative images of nature (top rated) that go beyond geographical and educational boundaries.

In the context of chronic pediatric diseases, the disease represents a vital event which affects the patient and his or her family, as they suffer high stress levels and in consequence there is required an important amount of time, energy and personal resources to overcome the stressors and exigencies associated to the disease, with effects on the quality of life and family functioning.

For that reason, the visual restorative stimulation is an element to distract positively the primary caregiver, allowing diminish the psychological effects that the hospital care of the patient implicates.

In this study the positive effects of the exposure to the restorative pieces of art (the top rated images from the previous study) on psychological and physiological stress was evaluated in 80 primary caregivers of chronic pediatric patients during their stage in high stress waiting rooms -intensive care units- in a hospital.

The results of this study mark the possibility of include objective indicators such as the exposure to the restorative images of nature through art, and subjective indicators such as perceived stress, in order to create hospital areas with positive stimulation, which can be traduced into a real possibility of transform a negative environment into a positive one with the subsequent therapeutic benefits and into a better quality of life perception of the primary caregivers.

Toward more “humanized” healthcare environments: The perceived quality of the Hospice structures

Ferdinando Fornara, Marino Bonaiuto & Sara Manca

This contribution presents a preliminary study concerning the perceived environmental quality of Hospices, i.e. those structures which are used by terminally ill patients receiving palliative care. Moving from a design perspective which is both “user-centered” and “evidence-based”, the study is focalized on the construct of Spatial-Physical or Design Humanization, which is particularly appropriate for the healthcare environments, since it regards the satisfaction of users’ psychological needs such as spatial and sensorial comfort, orientation, sense of welcome, and privacy.

Data were collected in nine hospices, covering all the Italian territory (i.e., North, Centre, South, and Isles), by means of a questionnaire administered mostly to the main Hospice users (i.e., patients and relatives). The questionnaire included an adapted version of Perceived Hospital Environment Indicators (PHEQIs: Fornara; Bonaiuto, & Bonnes, 2006; Andrade et al., 2012).

Results show significant relationships between most of the perceived quality indicators (regarding three different hospice sub-places, i.e. external spaces, interior common spaces, and private spaces) and the general users’ satisfaction towards the hospice environment. This would suggest to the hospice designers to pay specific attention to such indicators, in order to promote positive feelings in persons who are living a particularly stressful phase of their life.

Design for active ageing: the use of “positive technologies” in assisted living of elderly people

Marco Camilli, Arianna Salvetti, Viktor Malakuczi, Loredana Dilucchio & Antonio Paris

This study lies in two relevant research areas and societal challenges: (1) the ageing population and (2) the management of the levels of health and wellbeing. The research includes a multidisciplinary experimental activity aimed to develop a system-product concept of assisted living for elderly people through “positive technologies”. These letter, indeed, are designed around user needs and integrated in the domestic environment. Results concern with four key factors affecting on older people's lives: (1) remaining as much as possible in one's habitual setting and change as little as possible, (2) continuing being able to do and learn on one's own, (3) good opportunities to continue planning one's own life, and (4) support for memory functions. The final aim of this research project is the definition of a design framework including “positive technologies” oriented to support healthcare and social inclusion of elderly people.

Study on Health-related Outdoor Activities in Newly Developed Residential Communities of China

Qing Yin & Ryuzo Ohno

Until 1998 most urban residents in China lived in housing provided by the government organization that employed them. Because workers from the same organization usually lived together in a community, social interactions were inherently strong. However, residential communities have changed drastically since the Chinese government initiated a commodity housing policy in 1998. Although newly developed communities have improved physical attributes, such as more sophisticated building and open space designs, social interactions have become weaker due to increased diversity and unfamiliarity with neighbors. Hence, a serious issue in China is how to rebuild a strong social network in new communities.

Outdoor activities in residential communities help promote social interactions and mutual support between neighbors. In addition to maintaining residents’ physical and mental health, social interactions eventually prevent crime within a community. To promote outdoor activities, the physical environment has been highlighted as a key for healthy communities. To verify this assertion, herein the relationship between a neighborhood’s physical characteristics and outdoor activities is examined through an intensive field survey in Tianjin, China.

In a preliminary survey, we selected four residential communities, which have been established for more than ten years and built basic social networks while conforming to the commodity housing policy. For each community, we divided the outdoor open spaces into 20–30 subspaces, where each subspace was separated by buildings or wide roads. We obtained a total of 96 subspaces in the 4 communities. Each subspace was classified into 1 of 14 different categories according to its physical characteristics (e.g., size, equipment present, etc.).

For the intensive survey, 33 of these subspaces were selected as targets based on the types of observed human activities and physical characteristics. The survey involved two steps. The first recorded the physical environment of the target subspaces using a checklist and describing data on a map. The second observed and recorded outdoor activities using behavior mapping.

The relationship between the physical environment and outdoor activities suggests that there are at least three important physical characteristics that affect outdoor activities: accessibility, affordance, and comfort. Accessibility refers to the number and position of entrances into a space and their proximity to buildings entrances and the community. Accessibility affects the number of users. Affordance indicates the possibility of an activity, which influences actual activities and number of users in a space. In this case, affordance provides information about function or possible uses of the facilities, physical elements, and size of the space. While accessibility and affordance influence number of users, whether people choose to stay and use a space mainly depends on the comfort of physical environment.

Consequently, a healthy community requires more than a clean and functional environment. It requires places where people can interact with each other to enrich their social life. The present study suggests some effective designs of outdoor spaces to promote such activities.

Nachar, Eman El, and Aleya Abdel-Hadi. "Experiential landscape - an informative framework to the study of place-identity." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Liveability is the main goal of sustainable design in order to create quality of place identity in our cities. Central to this goal is an understanding of the holistic conception of human- environment relationships addressed by the transactional perspective to explain the concept of place (Al­Kodmany et al., 2012).

Nevertheless, some pioneering attempts describe place as an experiential entity that integrates human activities and forms of spaces. Canter (1977) and Norberg-Schulz (2007) observed that place could be perceived as a socio-physical unit of environmental experience from the inter-relation between human actions and the physical attributes. This explains how the daily experience of outdoor spaces in our cities has profound impacts on the collective identity of places.

In this sense landscape architecture has profound capability to respond to human dimensions relevant to place making activities. Nevertheless, the urban design stream of landscape architecture is evidently still far from the holistic human/environment relations addressed as key contributor to the identity of places (Kaymaz, 2013).

Nowadays, serious attempts call for the development of experiential landscape as a way to conceptualize man/space relations in the routinely confronted outdoor spaces.

The concept of experiential landscape is committed to address the spatial dimensions as integrative to the human experiences. Thus, it emphasizes the outdoor spaces as a holistic human experience rather than a spatial composition (Thwaites and Simkins, 2007).

This research highlights features and components of experiential landscape concept as an analytic procedure to study the identity of places in our cities. The study aims to explain how the concept is applicable to examine characteristics of outdoor spaces from social, psychological and cultural perspectives. It adopts a theoretical analytic method to review theories explaining concept of place, and processes relevant to place-identity. Theoretical analysis to research applications of experiential landscape concept led to the development of a conceptual framework in which characteristics of outdoor spaces together with aspects of place-identity are perceived holistically. Accordingly, the study suggested integrative analytic procedures to examine aspects of the outdoor spaces in their relevance to place-identity.

References

  1. Al­Kodmany, Kh. et al. (2012). Skyscrapers And Placemaking: Supporting Local Culture And Identity, IJAR- International Journal for Architecture and Research
  2. Canter, D (1977 ) The psychology of place. London: Architectural press.
  3. Kaymaz, I ( 2013) Urban Landscape and Identity, http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/55754
  4. Norberg-Schulz, C. ( 2007 ) The Problem of Place In America. In M. Larice & E.
  5. Macdonald (Eds.), The Urban Design Reader, London, U.K.: Routledge, 125­137.
  6. Thwaites, K and Simkins, I (2007). Experiental landscape. An Approach to people, place and space. New York, by Routledge.
Fardous, Israa Salim. "Exploitation of Sustainable energy use through conservation of the Cultural Heritage in the Middle East." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

This research is presenting an iconic project, which will produce a futuristic concept in design, and advanced technology, that will exploit the use of renewable energy sources in a space, and conceal an intellectual solution.

In addition, this will build a unique combination between cultural Heritage and sustainability through observation and evaluation to psychological behaviors, as well to environmental aspects and consideration in the Middle East. Psychological behavior is demonstrated in the three areas of temperature, light and humidity. Thus technology requiring historical geometrical features is represented in a modulation, that could be applied to a space and create an interactive sequence. All will benefit the envelope’s performance and enhance the occupants’ well being.

Arabic Historical features are unique and exceptional resources for the building characteristics. As heritage powers will lead to change and increase of humanization and organization within the civilized societies, this collaboration must consider the environment and the surrounding communities.

Watching the needs of building markets in the Middle East, it has been found that the existed solutions do not enormously meet the society needs of quality, cost, comfort and impact on the sustainable environment.

The study will clarify and simulate the consequences of a wide range of design dimensions, considering the psychological comfort zone, it will also try manipulate the space to reach that comfort, including the consideration of cost, energy use, aesthetics, and behavioral factors; and providing a framework for decision making that will allow a large number of people to participate in the process.

Observation and questionnaire will present the basic elements to reach the study of judgment and choice in the study. The research will accomplish the psychological comfort impact by presenting a number of analytic techniques that any design professionals can apply within their own practices.

The successful completion of the work will result in a contemporary model introducing a distinction between two elements, the experiencing of the modernized heritage and its recall. Eventually, both elements will be combined to form a single component that will satisfy the community and increase the measurement of well-being.

Hence the use of these fundamentals should be considered more, presenting the Identity of the area (context) with regard to the Similarities and differences according to the cultural inheritance and building function.

This must avoid the mechanized cities methods and move from the architecture of threats to the architecture of threads, and change the demeanor of the civilized societies towards the humanization in all aspects.

Weber, Clara. "Exploring Physical Facilitators of Place Attachment and Place Identity While Monitoring the Effect of the Social Dimension of Place." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

The author acts upon the shortcoming of knowledge regarding the unique effect of physical characteristics of place on place attachment and spatial place identity, while controlling for a social dimension of place, identified as social attachment and social place identity. The research builds upon Scannell and Gifford’s (2010) concept of place attachment as a multidimensional model, in which physical and social facilitators are part, and place identity is interrelated. The place identity concept is further informed by Breakwell’s identity process model (1986) and Twigger-Ross and Uzzell’s (1997) framework. The research focuses on residents living in the Barbican Estate, chosen for its distinct spatial and social composition. Place attributes were identified through qualitative walkthrough interviews (N=8) by employing thematic analysis. Subsequently, these were validated through a quantitative questionnaire survey (N=79), employing exploratory factor analysis. Further, multiple regression analysis was used to systematically test their impact on both concepts while controlling for the social dimension of place. Significant predictors of both concepts were and . was found to predict place attachment, and to predict spatial place identity. Although, not quantitatively validated, but of qualitative importance, , , , , , and are postulated to impact directly or indirectly on both concepts. Further, results add to the theory of identity processes, as they provide quantitative and qualitative evidence of a spatially determined place identity (spatial place identity) in contrast to a socially determined place identity (social place identity).

Collado, Silvia, José A. Corraliza, and Gary Evans. "Factors and processes influencing in Spanish children pro-environmental attitudes and behaviours." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

The large, well documented literature on adult environmental attitudes and behaviors contrasts with the relatively few investigations conducted with children. The factors and processes influencing youngsters’ environmental attitudes and behavior are barely known. In this study we analyze children’s ecological worldviews and pro-environmental behaviours using a well-validated, scarcely used tool: the set of games designed by Evans et al. (2007). Given that the affective dimension of environmental attitudes also seems relevant when explaining ecological behaviours, a measurement of children’s emotional connection to nature was also included.

108 children from 6 to 12 participated in the study. At the same time, 108 parents filled a questionnaire registering their ecological worldviews and pro-environmental behaviours, as well as the importance they give to their child spending time in nature.

Our results showed that this tool is adequate to register Spanish children's ecological worldviews, pro-environmental behaviours and emotional connection to nature. Children's emotional connection to nature and pro-environmental behaviours were significantly different according to age, but no gender differences were found. Younger children (6 to 9 years old) showed higher emotional connection to nature than older ones (10 to 12 years old), and they also reported carrying out ecological behaviors more frequently. No differences were found regarding children’s ecological worldviews. Furthermore, contrary to previous studies using this tool, a positive and significant relationship was found between children’s ecological worldviews and pro-environmental behaviours. Similarly to previous studies, parents’ ecological worldviews and pro-environmental behaviours were not related to those of their children. However, a positive and significant relation was found between the importance parents give to their children spending time in nature and children’s emotional connection to nature as well as children’s ecological worldviews. Finally, a structural equation model was proposed to explain children’s pro-environmental behaviours through their ecological worldviews, emotional connection to nature, age, and the importance parents give to children spending time in natural settings.

Ohno, Ryuzo, and Mayuko Yoshida. "Factors in the appeal of narrow drinking alleys in the heart of Tokyo." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

In the heart of large Japanese cities we often find nomiya yokocho, narrow alleys lined with many small bars and restaurants each with only about 2 meters of frontage. Most of these neighborhoods arose in the post-World War II recovery period and still retain much of the rowdier atmosphere of those days. Although redevelopment, aging wooden buildings, and issues of sanitation have contributed to the disappearance of many sites, some still do brisk business and even attract foreign tourists.

The present paper seeks to clarify the factors in the appeal of nomiya yokocho. This question might be approached in terms of three aspects: environmental, behavioral, and sociocultural. Environmental features include the physical design of the buildings and other elements, as well as the sounds and smells to be found inside the alley. The behavioral category has to do with activities such as walking about the alley or striking up conversations with strangers at a drinking establishment. Finally, the sociocultural aspect covers such considerations as the image attached to drinking alleys and the tacit rules governing patron behavior. While all three aspects are closely integrated, our study focuses mainly on the second (behavioral) and its relationship to the others.

Our survey site was Omoide Yokocho (“memory alley”) near Shinjuku station in Tokyo, which we chose because the interiors of most of its drinking establishments could be viewed from the alley, albeit to differing degrees. We interviewed people and observed their activities in three surveys at three different locations: 1) the streets around the alley, 2) in the alley, and 3) inside drinking establishments. To begin we compared pedestrian traffic density in the alley and the surrounding streets. Pedestrian traffic was relatively high in the alley, despite its narrow 2-meter width. Interviews at the alley exit revealed that more than half the people who walk through have no particular purpose except to take in the atmosphere of the old days. For the second survey, we observed pedestrian behavior in the alley by extracting footage from three video cameras for the first 10 minutes of every hour from 5 pm to 12 am, resulting in a total of 3 x 80 minutes’ worth of data. We focused on one specific behavior, namely the action of looking around while walking; analysis showed that facade design, in particular the degree of visibility from the alley, influenced pedestrians’ eye direction. In the third survey, we observed customer activity inside drinking venues. One interesting characteristic that emerged was the frequency of conversation among customers who did not know each other, something that is rare in other bars and restaurants in Japan. Further investigation suggested this interaction among strangers to be a consequence of the limited space: for instance, one often needs to ask fellow customers to give way while weaving through to one’s own seat. Besides this physical factor, sociocultural considerations such as the attitudes of shop managers and the presence of local rules were found to affect levels of customer interaction.

Hadi, Abdul Samad, Shaharudin Idrus, Abdul Hadi Harma Shah, and Mohd Raffi Othman. "FROM THE SLEEPY HOLLOWS TO THE RISE OF MEGA URBAN REGIONS: URBANIZATION TRANSITION IN MALAYSIA." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Malaysian urban areas are relatively young with the majority are less than 250 years old. These established towns, municipal areas and cities were founded by British colonial administration of the country about 200 years ago. Right up to the 1970-s these towns including port towns were described as mere sleepy hollows by urban observers. Colonial capital was the mainstay for the rich tin exploitation and later rubber plantations. Towns and port towns along the coast of the Peninsula became the centres of administrative command and control for safety, security, basic services and commercial ventures to serve mainly the colonial interest and the migrant population from China and India.. Although becoming islands of modernity with some market openings for modern jobs these towns were separated from the rural areas, where the majority of the local people live. The Independence in 1957 for Peninsular Malaysia and the formation of Malaysia in 1963, adding Sarawak and Sabah state to the Federation of Malaysia, started the transition in urban development in the country. The development policy with the state taking an active role in development, known as the developmental state paradigm, broadens the colonial capital base to attract capitals from other economic regions in the globalization process of production. Using data mainly from the government agencies such as the Population Census, we can trace the transformation of towns to become what they are today. Beginning with import substitution industries established urban areas grew and expanded along new roads and new highways to merge with other small towns, engulfing rural areas in the fringes in the process. With increasing attractions to rural migrants and urban fertility population of towns expanded. Soon social infrastructures grew-schools, universities, hospitals so on along with new housing neighbourhoods, commercial centres, extending the urban area further outwards. Some of these conurbations have grown so large to merit the name mega urban regions. The largest among them is the Kuala Lumpur mega urban region, being the commercial high end and services to its administrative core in Putrajaya. Being the centre of the national administration, the Kuala Lumpur mega urban region has become the home for educational, health, high end shopping area, Islamic finance and services in the region. Overlapping drivers have in the last decade transformed most of the towns founded by the colonial capital. Some, notably Kuala Lumpur has achieved the vibrancy of a mega urban region for the country and the region. Thus, in the path towards a developed country in 2020 the Malaysian urban centres continue to be the centres of growth and home to about 72 % of Malaysians in 2010. If we relax the authority defined ‘urban’ to include the huge development schemes with all the modern trappings the total Malaysians in urban areas are best described as almost fully urban.

Strzyżewska, Karolina Alicja, and Łukasz Jochemczyk. "From NIMBY to PIMBY - how the acceptance for the new investment depends on the type of compensation received." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Our presentation refers to NIMBY syndrome ( not in my backyard ) as an example of the social conflict that can be mitigated by a proper compansation delivered to the local communities. For some investments such as wind turbines, hydropower plants or wastewater treatment plants almost no location seems to be proper. They are being perceived as potentially burdensome and are being rejected from the start.

The aim of our study was to determine what type of compensation makes the respondents more likely to agree to the construction of the new, potentially burdensome, investment near their place of residence.We have conducted an online survey regarding the responder's attitude towards the new investment being constructed near their place of residence. The investigated respondents ( N = 804) were randomly divided into four experimental groups (differences in type of compensations), and a control group, in which the respondents did not receive any compensation at all. The four experimental groups differed in two dimensions: group vs individual compensations and distributive vs procedural compensations. We controlled other variables, like: place attachment, social jauntiness and eagerness to process important information, eagerness to participate in the decision making process concerning the unwilling investment, and the overall acceptance for the the investment.

The results revealed that the most effective was a distributive compensation. Promised this kind of compensation, the respondents were the most likely to accept the investment and recognized it as the least onerous . The control group differed significantly from all other groups at virtually all scales. Respondents in this group recognized the investment as clearly less desirable and more onerous than all other groups. Thus any compensation proves to be better than nothing.

We will present the results by making various interpretations of the obtained data. As a conclusion we will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this kind of NIMBY study.

Teder, Maria Eggertsen. "From outsideness to empathetic insideness; Public places moulded by place attachment." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Architects are by tradition used to create places others rather than them, merely consulting their clients when needed. Place attachment theory however shows that involvement influences the experience of place in a positive way. By involving future users in the entire creation process a stronger “sense of place” can arise. Using geographer E. Relph’s concepts of outsideness and insideness as a starting point this article explores how place attachment can be stimulated when developing public space. It further reviews involvement-based work in practice by Atelier d'architecture autogérée (AAA) and the Rebar group. Still, the literature review leaves an essential question unanswered; In what ways more precisely does involvement-based placemaking create a “sense of place”?

The main object of study is a so called “urban laboratory”; an urban development project involving citizens in iterative design loops. The research methods include a multiple case study in San Francisco on the “Pavement to Parks” project and action research in a residential area in Malmö. Through semi-structured interviews with initiators and participants the study explores which parts of the placemaking process that are perceived as particularly decisive by the people involved.

Being able to physically adjust a place in order to create “one’s own nook” appears to be significant for place attachment to grow. Involving future users means leaving some parameters open or undefined. From an urban planning point of view, when balancing between which parameters to predefine, it seems that a predefined concept facilitates lasting involvement. A that “finds its place” in the city more easily engages enthusiasts to maintain it, than a looking for the right concept to fill it. The predefined place looking for the right concept, however, facilitates stepwise development and design decisions to be informed by earlier phases.

Theory wise the article contributes to bridge the gap between architecture and the social sciences in terms of the understanding of place. In practice the results are useful for developing more inclusive and emancipatory working methods when creating public spaces. The work addresses architects and urban planners as well as other related professions.

Owczarek, Dominik. "Fuel poverty in Poland - scale of the phenomenon and counteracting public policies." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

In Poland, buildings consume roughly 40% of energy produced, and residential buildings consume approximately 70% of energy consumed by the total building stock. Hence, there is a high potential for energy savings in this sector. The largest energy demand from residential buildings arises from heating needs.

In order to encourage greater energy savings (and reduce greenhouse gas emissions) from the buildings sector - both residential and commercial, Polish Government has initiated several programs including a building certificates program and the Thermo-Modernization Fund. The building certificates program is designed to improve consumers’ knowledge about the energy expenditures of their home when purchasing or renting. This system is expected to provide incentives for owners to invest in energy efficiency improvements as a way to reduce their own energy costs as well as raise the value of their property. In addition, the Government plans to upgrade building standards for energy efficiency for newly-constructed buildings.

The existing programs operate relatively well showing promising indicators of termomodernization and improvement of energy efficiency. Unfortunately, they merely reach poor households that – paradoxically – are in the greatest demand of termomodernization.

The purpose of the study on energy poverty phenomenon in Poland was to elaborate policy options supporting termomodernization processes addressed to the poor households in Poland. The study consists of several elements: definition of target group of such programs, aproximation of scale of the phenomenon, assessment of existing instruments esp. in context of engagement of poor households, qualitative research and case study to understand specificity of the target group, recomendations of policy options counteracting energy poverty, and expert assessment of elaborated policy options.

The project was carried out by the Foundation Institute of Public Affairs, Poland for the World Bank purposes in the period of March-November 2013.

Kothencz, Gyula, and Thomas Blaschke. "GIS-based mapping of quality of life in the city of Szeged, Hungary." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Urban environments are typically complex structures of interdependent social, ecological, infrastructural and economic systems providing space and place for their citizens. “Urban environments” may include also transition areas along urban/sub-urban-rural fringes whereas the term “city” comprises a geographical area characterized by a dense accumulation of people or buildings. Cities are also believed to be a multi-layered construct containing multiple dimensions of social, technological and physical interconnections and services (Blaschke et al. 2011). Liveable urban areas have many facets, which revolve around quality of life functions such as living space, elementary infrastructure, traffic, and land utilization. While several aspects of the quality of life can be mapped in ‘space’ using classic cartography, GIS, or remote sensing, ‘place’ is still very difficult to approach beyond a purely qualitative approach. Ultimately, resulting maps shall support governing bodies in their attempts to improve the quality of life of urban dwellers through sensible decisions mainly in key service areas. Such practices will require a spatial differentiation of factors which contribute to the quality of life. In our research we employ a “Quality of Life” (QoL) approach as originally developed for the city of Detroit and developed further for other cities. We partially build on the Salzburg Quality of Urban Life Study (Keul & Prinz 2011). We develop GIS and remote sensing methods to better understand the relation of human to urban place and investigated the south-eastern Hungarian city of Szeged with its 170,000 inhabitants. Time series of land cover maps for 2000-2014 were derived from high resolution remotely sensed data. Cadastral information, geocoded census data and transportation networks were overlaid with the urban land cover series. Interviews were carried out asking inhabitants for their perceptions of green spaces, new transport infrastructural developments and improvements of public spaces while using a range from 1 for totally unsatisfied to 5 for fully satisfied. Results from the interviews were statistically analysed and allocated to spatial units (polygons) for spatial analysis in order to quantify the QoL constitution of the respective places. Geo-statistical analyses revealed spatial hot spots of community satisfaction and dissatisfaction. The preliminary results show that “spatialization” of QoL information significantly enhances the understanding of intangible and hardly mappable human perception of urban places. The geographic methods used effectively complement qualitative urban studies. Furthermore, this methodology has the potential to be applied to different urban areas and even to be scaled to rural areas, regions and countries. The geographic approach of quality of life may also be able to enhance consciousness of decision makers when attempting to expand city planning beyond infrastructural improvements.

Lidskog, Rolf, and Daniel Sjödin. "Governing uncertainty in forest management. Forest counselors handling of risk and uncertainty with regard to extreme events." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

How do forest counselors provide advice when faced with a situation associated with great uncertainties? What role do knowledge and values have in their advisory practices, and how are they balanced? These kinds of questions are of growing importance, partly because of the increased complexity of a globalised world and partly because of greater awareness of climate change and its consequences. This paper takes this as its point of departure when analyzing how forest counselors provide guidance in extreme cases.

Two empirical cases are analyzed, both associated with a hurricane that hit south Sweden, resulting in damage to 270,000 hectares of forest and 75 million m3 of windthrown trees. The first case concerns how forest counselors handled uncertainties in their advice on how to handle the windthrown forest, which faced a great risk of a major insect outbreak (bark beetle). The second case concerns how forest counselors handled uncertainties concerning the reforestation of the area, where spruce where the most productive species but also the most vulnerable for storms. In conclusion, the implications of the way the forest counselors managed uncertainties are discussed, not least in relation to the general issue of sustainable forestry and climate change.

Sudkamp, Jennifer, Laura Pirgie, Jan Höltge, Markus Schwab, and Renate Cervinka. "Green Care Forest: Searching for empirical evidence." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Green Care describes scientific and practical activities applying elements of nature, animals or plants with respect to physical, psychological, educational and social issues. A growing body of scientific and practical efforts focus on Green Care as a promising approach fostering rural development, environmental education and health promotion. While Green Care in agriculture is already established, the application in forestry is in its early stages. The present study was aimed at investigating scientific evidence for Green Care in forests.

We performed a systematic review using PRISMA guidelines. Searched databases were PsycINFO, PSYNDEXPlus, Scopus and Web of Science. We used three different search terms, namely forest*, tree*, and wood* and combined them with the following keywords: activit*, adverse effect*, “green care”, healing*, health*, intervention*, negative aspect*, recreat*, relax*, restorat*, therapy, “therapeutic landscapes”, well-being, wellbeing, “well being”, “quality of life”, mood, social*, risk*, inclusion, pedagogic*. If provided by the databases, search results were limited to research areas relevant for Green Care. Studies published between 1993 and October 2013 were included.

A 108 studies together with 32 additional records identified through other sources met the inclusion criteria. Results showed a significant increase of research papers during the observed period. A considerable number of studies were conducted in Southeast Asia following the concept of Shinrin-Yoku. The majority of studies concentrated on the impact of forest landscapes on physical and mental stress indicators. The reduction of physiological stress indicators such as pulse rate, salivary cortisol levels, heart rate variability and blood pressure represented significant findings. Mental measurements focused mainly on the contribution of forest landscapes for recreation, improvement of mood and the prevention of mental health. Duration of stay and physical activity correlated with the positive effects. A small number of laboratory studies focused on single factors such as noise, materials or visual impressions. However, the majority of studies examined the holistic effects of forest landscapes on individual factors. Studies on the impact of forests in a social context turned out to be rare. The possibility to participate in landscape planning processes turned out to be an important factor for social benefits in evaluation studies.

The growing body of research reflects a dynamic development in the field of Green Care in forests. Forest landscapes should gain importance for interventions in the domain of Public Health and therapy. Benefits could be found on the physiological, mental and social level. However, most of the studies originate from research in Asia. This could limitate the applicability of findings in other contexts. A main point of methodological limitation, especially in field studies, are small sample sizes and unstandardized testing conditions. Further research should concentrate on examining single mechanisms in order to design interventions based on evidence based factors. Both basic and applied research would profit from using a comparable inventory in research (i.e. POMS and SF-36 on an individual level and the PRS at the level of setting). Further, adverse effects and cost-benefit calculations is recommended to be considered in future studies.

Loureiro, Ana Luisa, and Susana Veloso. "Green exercise: is there a way to promote wellbeing?" In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

The value for health added by outdoor activity, namely physical activity as green exercise, is gaining relevance in the literature. This study combines two areas: research on how contact with nature impacts positively on human wellbeing and research on how physical activity acts as promoter of physical and psychological benefits. Contact with natural environments, contemplative or in a more active way, is an important mean for people to gain psychological wellbeing. Also, outdoor physical exercise, particularly the activity in natural environments, promotes several physical and emotional benefits. Present study aims to analyse differences regarding to motivators and benefits of indoor and green exercise. Participants are practitioners of outdoor and indoor exercise, who answered a questionnaire with measures on type and intensity of physical activity, psychological motivators for exercise, connectedness to nature, wellbeing and vitality. Outdoor physical activity is associated to more psychological benefits, and the relation to natural environments captured by connectedness with nature scale plays an important role on this association, highlighting the benefits of outdoor exercise practicing, namely in natural environments, for individual wellbeing. Psychological and physical well-being can thus be promoted by the adoption of more healthy lifestyles associated to the combination of indoor with green exercise.

Surati, Paresh, and Vikas Desai. "Gujarat coordinator of SHARP NGO." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Community based Research on Malnutrition in Children of urban slum of Surat (Gujarat)

Title: Assessment of Malnutrition in Urban Slam.

Background: The WHO Global Database on Child Growth and Malnutrition seeks to contribute to the transformation of this cycle of poverty, malnutrition and disease into a virtuous one of wealth, growth and health.

Objective

1) To assess magnitude of Malnutrition in Urban Slum.

2) To study magnitude of malnutrition in different age groups and among boys and girls of urban slums

3) To compare different anthropometric indices.

Method: Study area: Anganwadi center in urban slum area which is attached to Surat based Anganwadi Training center was selected for study.

Sample Size

91 children (0-6 years) of urban slum registered in an anganwadi Centre in Udhna.

Study design

Cross sectional study

Expected outcome

Magnitude of childhood malnutrition assessed.

Result

Out of 91 children, 41(45%) children were normal. 32% were moderately underweight and 23% children were severely under weight. Malnutrition as well as severe malnutrition is high among children who most irregularly participating at AWC activities. In this study indices used are Wt/Age to detect underweight children, Wt/Ht and MUAC to detect wasting. Comparative analysis of these indices indicates that under weight children are more that wasted children. 75% of SAM children are in SUW.

Conclusions

The SMC health dept. with its unique infrastructure, AWC network and initiatives like Urban IMNCI, with quality screening for malnutrition and supportive supervision can reduce malnutrition rate as well as rate of SAM responsible for child mortality.

Porsius, Jarry T., Liesbeth Claassen, Fred Woudenberg, Tjabe Smid, and Daniëlle R. M. Timmermans. "Health effects of a new overhead power line: the role of perceived proximity and negative health expectations." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Because of increasing demand for reliable and renewable energy supplies, new high-voltage power lines are introduced into the environment. Some residents associate non-specific health complaints such as tiredness, headaches and neurological problems, with exposure to electromagnetic fields from nearby power lines (Cox et al., 2005). A recent study indicates that not actual proximity, but the perception of living near a power line is associated with reporting non-specific health complaints (Baliatsas et al., 2011). We study if these findings can be extended to a newly introduced power line which has not been put into operation yet. We hypothesize that the introduction of a new power line leads to more health complaints through perceptions of power line proximity, particularly in residents who expect to get health complaints from living near a power line. During the construction of a new power line route in the Netherlands residents living near (<500m, n = 710) and farther away (500-2000m, n = 515) completed an environmental health questionnaire. In agreement with earlier research no direct effects of actual proximity on the number and intensity of reported somatic and cognitive health complaints were found. As hypothesized, the relationship between actual proximity and non-specific health complaints was mediated by the perception of living near a power line. This effect was only present for residents who expected to get health complaints from living near a power line. These findings suggest that symptom reporting after the introduction of an environmental risk object is mediated by perceptions of proximity and moderated by perceived health risks of the object. The practical and conceptual implications of our results will be discussed.

Pagels, Peter, Anders Raustorp, Margareta Söderström, and Cecilia Boldemann. "Healthy School Playgrounds  The influence of outdoor environment on physical activity and sun exposure in Swedish elementary schools." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Do the school's outdoor environments impact children's health behavior? Students are confined to and exposed to outdoor environment which happens to be at their disposal during compulsory school time. The cross-cutting health-promoting potential of outdoor environment, and the use of it, is therefore important. We have studied the combined impact of school outdoor environment in terms of playground features, space, surface, terrain and vegetation upon physical activity (PA) and sun exposure across ages and seasons. From an early age physical activity promotes physical capacity, quality of life and self-esteem, as well as it reduces the risk of common diseases. There is evidence that outdoor stay is a strong predictor of physical activity at preschool and primary school outdoor play time. One backlash of outdoor stay may be hazardous exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Sunburn at an early age increases the risk of skin cancer in late spring and summer. Too little sun exposure for the body production of vitamin D during the rest of the year could also be a health problem for children especially at higher latitudes.

A quasi-experimental, longitudinal cohort study design was used. Four schools in the Middle and Southern part of Sweden, with outdoor environments differing in playground features, vegetation, topography and space, were analyzed during one school year in September, March and May 2012-13. A sample of 196 children was drawn from the eligible children in the grades 2, 5 and 8, aged 7-14 years. The students’ PA was monitored with Actigraph accelerometers GT3X+, showing the time spent at different intensity levels during the use of the school playground during outdoor time. UV radiation was monitored with UVR sensible polysulphone badges (PS-dosimeters) attached to each child’s shoulder during school outdoor time. Maps were used to mark places where the children stayed and what they did during outdoor time.

The mean amount of PA spent at a moderate to vigorous intensity level (MVPA) was 47% of outdoor time compared with 13% of indoor time. The amount of MVPA during outdoor stay (mean=39 minutes) was high throughout all seasons in three of the four schools. Mean MVPA during outdoor stay declined with increasing age, and boys accumulated more MVPA than girls at all ages (p <0.001). The amount of used outdoor play area was positively correlated to MVPA (p<0.001). Large planned ball areas correlated with increased physical activity levels in 5th graders in September and May (p<0.001) . Ball play (football, floor ball and basketball) dominate in high active areas. Second graders were exposed to more UV radiation than 5th and 8th graders but did not exceed the recommended threshold level of 200 joule/m2. Exposure to UVR increased with increasing MVPA during outdoor stay, (p<0.001). Green areas with shrubs and trees were popular playgrounds and stimulated creativity play and protected against excessive UVR in May but did not increase MVPA during the year.

Outdoor environment and outdoor play time have a high impact on both physical activity and UV radiation and are important health promoting factors during school time.

Ilin, Corina, and Mirilia Bonnes. "History and evolutions, trends and future perspectives in Environmental Psychology." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

The organizing committee of the 23rd IAPS International Conference “Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policy for changing lifestyles and communities”, which will take place in Timisoara, Romania, 23 – 27 June 2014, is organizing the symposium “History and evolutions, trends and future perspectives in Environmental Psychology”.

In organizing this symposium, we aim to bring together leading experts from Environmental Psychology from different parts of the word to analyze and discuss with the research community, the history, evolutions and future perspectives of our discipline.

We believe that some important issues should be addressed

  • the History of Environmental Psychology in different parts of the world (Europe, USA, Canada, Latin-America countries, India, Japan, etc.)
  • the evolution on main domains in EP, like as: Psychology of Urban Environments, Housing and Quality of Life, Public perception in Environmental Policy, Environmental Risk and Vulnerability
  • the evolution of Sustainability related with psychological concepts and constructions .
  • current trends and future directions of EP

We will invite professor Christopher Spencer, professor David Uzzell, professor Roderick Lawrence, professor Eric Pol, professor Robert Gifford, but also other colleagues who shown during the time interest to this approach.

Jean-Baptiste, Nathalie, Roderick John Lawrence, Rolf Johansson, Emma Porio, Mark Kammerbauer, Fatemeh Jalayer, Daniel Mbisso, Michael Rostalski, and Hilda Mariana Zara. "Housing in a Changing Environment - Assessing vulnerability and promoting resilience." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Cities across the globe are facing the reality of climate variability. Climatic threats such as floods, storm surges, sea level rise are predicted to have negative effects on human, economic and environmental assets. Urban areas in low- and middle-income nations are particularly at risk. They account for already more than a third of the world’s total population and they are likely to house most of the world’s demographic and economic growth in the next 10–20 years. Such growth does not come without consequences in a global and climatic changing environment. Extreme events have disastrous consequences across the globe resulting in financial, social and environmental losses. Since Hurricane Katrina’s destruction in 2005, the world has seen heavy flooding across Africa in 2009, 2011 and 2013; the effect of a Tsunami in Japan in 2011; the damages caused by Hurricane Sandy in North America and the Caribbean islands in 2012 as well as the most recent destructions from Super Typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines. The world has experienced tremendous challenges to anticipate, cope with and to recover from these extreme events. Global environment changes (including extreme weather events, unregulated processes of urbanization as well as economic and conflict related migration) will make the whole issue of housing even more relevant in the future. The question of housing in connection with growing demands and pre-conditions for adaptation to climate change needs to be considered in the framing of sustainable housing development. This symposium highlights the specific impacts and innovative responses towards climate adaptation in housing particularly at the intersections of formal and informal systems. It discusses how extreme events have transformed the localization, construction and maintenance of housing and particularly what are the drivers and impact of climate-related events and how have they shaped the vulnerability and responses from planning, design and policies in the housing sector. The symposium will couple social and ecological research perspectives. It will provide a characterization of the territorial systems, an analysis of trade-offs and will propose ideas on ongoing processes of internal displacement and relocation, environmental and social vulnerability, resilience and planning recovery.

  • Chair Nathalie Jean-Baptiste, PhD Urban Studies, Research Fellow, Helmholtz Centre for environmental Research - UFZ
  • Housing in a Changing Environment – Assessing vulnerability and promoting resilience
  • Speaker Mark Kammerbauer: PhD Urban Studies, Lecturer, Nürnberg Ohm School of Applied Science at the Faculty of Architecture.
  • Planning urban recovery in Europe – The case of quality and ownership of housing after flooding
  • Speaker Daniel Mbisso: PhD, Assistant Lecturer, Department of Architecture, School of Architecture and Design, Ardhi University
  • The role of marketplaces in the face of urban transformation
  • Speaker Hilda Mariana Zara: PhD, Sustainability Studies
  • UHI/University of Aberdeen (via SKYPE)
  • Are environmental risks another challenge to everyday life in informal settlements? The case of an expanding barrio in Caracas, Venezuela

ABSTRACTS

Planning urban recovery in Europe - The case of quality and ownership of housing after flooding

In the aftermath of disaster, settlement space may be damaged and destroyed. The recovery and reconstruction of housing can be delayed or even fail. Impacted residents may not return home despite available assistance from state institutions, and they may require temporary accommodation. The rebuilding process can be ad hoc, uneven, or fragmented. Yet, the capacity to return and rebuild is not only influenced by physical destruction, but also by social vulnerability. Are there disconnects between plans and programs for recovery and the vulnerability of impacted residents? What are their particular characteristics, and which problems and opportunities arise?

This contribution deals with the case of the southern German city of Deggendorf, situated close by the confluence of the Isar and Danube rivers and heavily impacted by the 2013 European Floods. Here, flood duration in combination with oil contamination contributed to an unexpected, prolonged, and ongoing recovery and reconstruction phase. Homeowners may even need to completely demolish homes and rebuild them anew. State institutions offer funding for this purpose. Yet, at this point, not all former residents have returned and the rebuilding effort seems uneven.

While actual physical rebuilding can serve as an indicator for the success of housing reconstruction after disaster, it does not explain why impacted populations do not have the capacity to return and rebuild. Resilience as a broad framework can offer the inclusion of interdisciplinary research concepts aimed at these socio-spatial issues. Bohle's (2001) double structure of social vulnerability for instance addresses both vulnerability's "internal" and "external" sides and their dialectic relationship. Thus, it can help to understand the capacity of households to recover on the one hand and institutional plans and programs developed to support the recovery process on the other hand.

A mixed method quantitative and qualitative case study approach serves to research the different spatial rebuilding scenarios and related societal root causes in Deggendorf.

This contribution suggests that an integrated view of this complex is necessary to understand the deeply rooted reasons how and why planning and programs are successful or not successful in supporting the recovery process. In this regard, not only spatial aspects, but also the capacity to recover and the social vulnerability of the impacted populations are highly important.

It seems as if renters and senior citizens are impacted in ways that plans and programs for recovery have difficulty in addressing. Planning needs to be further coordinated and integrated with findings on vulnerability to fully utilize the opportunities for beneficial change that may arise during recovery. The aim of the study is to support the formulation of lessons learned and the development of qualified planning recommendations that can improve the resilience of affected urban communities. It is oriented towards planners and practitioners involved in the rebuilding of cities after disaster. The applicability of the employed approach appears sensible in the case of flood-related disasters in cities, while its application to other hazard types may require further study.

The role of marketplaces in the face of urban transformation

Marketplaces are among important nodes for economic, social and cultural activities in the rapidly urbanizing developing countries. Yet, the role they play in the urban development processes is not often acknowledged. The aim of this paper is to present and discuss the space use dynamics by trading activities in a marketplace and the way they influence the immediate urban environment. The Temeke Stereo Marketplace in a planned neighborhood in Dar as Salaam, Tanzania is taken as an empirical case. The resulting effects in terms of change of physical functions of the immediate neighborhood are analyzed simultaneously with the periodic spatial transformation of the marketplace. The analysis takes into consideration the prevailing formal and informal institutions that are at play in the spaces’ generation, use and management.

It can be argued that conceptions, decisions, actions and reactions of actors in varying institutions influence transformation of both the marketplace and the neighborhood. The marketplaces are fluid and multifaceted; serving as not only places for economic transactions but also as social and political platforms. In this way, the marketplaces seem to contribute significantly in shaping the spatial character of an urban environment. Understanding the dynamic spatial character of marketplaces is therefore of importance in holistically comprehending the urban transformation processes. This may inform planners and architects as well as urban development guardians in providing adequate marketplaces that are functional and responsive to a given context.

Are environmental risks another challenge to everyday life in informal settlements? The case of an expanding barrio in Caracas, Venezuela

Vulnerability of informal settlements to environmental risks such as weather-related events are shaped not only by the socio-economic particularities of the context in which these emerge, but also by the ways in which the inhabitants of these settlements experience, conceive and relate to their local environment. This qualitative case study aims to provide an understanding of people- environment relationships in El Naranjal, an expanding informal settlement within the metropolitan area of Caracas, Venezuela, against a backdrop of increasing episodes of rainfall. People- environment relationships are understood as multiple, complex and contextual, where environment is comprised of the physical, interpersonal, social and cultural aspects of the context people interact with. The study demonstrates that an in depth understanding of people-environment relationships can be gained through exploring residents’ experiences of place and community in El Naranjal. Over a fieldwork period of eight months, data was gathered using in-depth and walking interviews, participant observation and group activities. Environment and environmental risks such as rainfall are understood, experienced and related to differently by individuals with diverse socio economic backgrounds, needs and agendas. Pre-existing issues of geographical segregation, poor infrastructure, lack of participation and government support within the communities of El Naranjal shaped their diverse experiences and responses. This underlines some of the gaps between national policy making on environmental, land tenure, risk management and participation matters and residents’ understandings and experiences of issues of their places and communities. Thus, this study emphasizes the need to approach environmental risks as adding to, and amplifying the existing issues that residents of informal settlements deal with on a day to day basis. In doing so, it challenges views of informal settlement communities as homogeneous, illegal and paralyzed by poverty. Instead, it highlights their central role in the making of cities, as well as their heterogeneity and capacity to innovate in the face of mounting risks.

Jin, Mei Luo, Ting Qi, Jingyu Cui, and Chun Chun Zhang. "Housing Preference of Urban Chinese Elderly in Living Alone in Healthy Condition." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

As China has the largest number of elderly people in the world, the issue of the aged people has been a serious matter of concern in Chinese government and society. Accordingly, substantial research has been done so far in relation to aging topic. However, little research about the residence of the aged people that support their basic life has been carried possibly under the unique oriental culture. Considering the vast number of aging population, its aging speed and rapid social changes due to globalization and information age, it is right time to start research on housing preference. For this reason the purpose of this study is identify preferred characteristics of housing for their later years, especially in the situation of living alone in healthy condition.This study surveyed 152 elderly residents aged 50 including early aged people in China utilizing a developed questionnaire asking about their residential preferences such as types of residence, location of residence, size of residence, types of ownership in case of living alone in healthy condition. Data were collected during September, 2013, and analyzed using SPSS. As results, even in single in healthy condition, they preferred to live in independent residence, in urban area, and to have ownership and small size houses. And the residential preference was different according to gender, age, spouse, the number of children, the residential distance with children, source of income, and monthly income. The results were interpreted under the cultural and social context of China. Implications were given for housing development for the Chinese elderly.

Quintanilha, Inês de Carvalh, and Adriana Portella. "How do we decide which variables should be taking into account in artificial lighting projects to historic garden squares?" In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

This study seeks to analyses the influence of artificial lighting in historic garden squares according to user perception and evaluation of public space. Nowadays some urban revitalization projects have been using artificial lighting to reinventing public square such as in Plaza del Torico in Teruel (Spain), Finsbury Avenue Square, Gordon and Beresford Squares in London (UK). On the other hand, in many undeveloped and developing countries, urban design is a discipline that has not been applied in practice due to the lack of knowledge of the local government, and the great majority of lighting projects in public squares have been done taking into account only economic variables, such as ‘the lower the cost, the better the project’. In this context, this research tests the following hypothesis: ‘implementing artificial lighting in public historic garden squares without taken into account user perception and evaluation damages symbolic meanings and historic identity’.

The objective is to identify which variables should be taken into account in lighting projects of public squares in order to preserve history identity and promote places perceived as positive by the majority of users, and not only for a minor group of people. The case study here is Coronel Pedro Osorio Square, a historic garden square in the centre of the city of Pelotas, in the south of Brazil, coast with Argentina and Uruguay. This square was chosen due to its historic importance to the development of this city as it was the first public space in the city to receive artificial lighting (in the beginning of 18th century), and 2011 it was ‘revitalized’ through a new artificial lighting project. The research methods of data collection were: observations, behavior maps, space syntax maps of the square and surrounding, measure of lluminance levels, interviews and questionnaires. The methods adopted to data analysis were qualitative and quantitative (responses from questionnaires were analyzed through non-parametric tests).

The results indicated that when artificial lighting is displayed in a public square without taking into account users perception and the importance of historic identity, the results can be chaotic. As the main issue considered in the project concluded in 2011 in the case study was low budget, the main final results are: areas completely dark, people perception of unsafety due to the darkness, and a series of vandalism. A place that could kept their image of central square with busy activities in both day and night times, today is considered a place of fear during night time. The choice for lamps and luminaires were wrong, as they are not appropriate to light large areas, and the local users were not consulted during the project renovation. To conclude, the study points out the variables that should be taken into account in the renovation of public squares in order to avoid the problems found in the case study, which reflects common issues present in many Brazilian cities.

Bâldea, Maja. "How to develop better high density housing environments for contemporary lifestyles." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Introduction: the research aims to investigate upon what is the correct housing support in a world in which (urban) population is growing. The global phenomenon of continuous population growth results in the need for expansion and recalibration of the physical support of living, and therefore of existing collective housing. In recent years, the study of collective urban living revealed the need of new directions for high density housing. In this sense, this research investigates the latest trends of high-density collective housing, which have recently shown some important changes.

Currently collective housing has acquired complex social, urban and ecological meanings. Achieving the right balance between everyone's dream of owning a house and the reality of living in urban areas is the new target, and it is clear that traditional design methods are no longer viable. Therefore studying new means of high density architecture is a necessity for developing correct architectures for the future, since design must be conceived to support an ideal lifestyle that we wish for and not forcing us to adapt to a given environment.

In the professional and theoretical current context, the shaping of new patterns of high density residential architecture was spotted by various professional bodies and non-governmental scientific associations such as UIA, ENHR or IFHP. Also, governmental and local policies of many countries promote high density collective housing, as the best option in meeting the needs of residents the city itself.

In the field of architectural theory, recent academic research generated a series of conferences and books combining mostly theory with practice, such as: Collective Housing: A Manual (Lapuerta, 2007); Housing Density (Department of Building Engineering 2, 2012); Dense Cities (Gangoly et al, 2013), etc. In parallel, architectural publications have recently edited a number of books and albums on the subject of contemporary collective living, managing to present only a fragmented view of the phenomenon.

Method: identifying the new patterns that appeared recently in high density collective housing within urban environments, researching mainly European models. The recognizable and viable models of built dense architecture don’t rely exclusively on maximizing density to the allotted surface related to number of inhabitants, but rather on the mix between spatial configuration and the way in which people inhabit it.

The approach follows on one hand the general context out of which those new patterns evolve, by studying from a theoretical perspective the concepts of emerging models, including social, economic and ecological perspectives on the subject, and on the other hand by a comparative typological study of the spatial patterns and configurations of new collective housing models.

Methodology: bibliographic research on the phenomenon of high density and collective housing; drawings, sketches, graphical data, diagrams, 3D and physical models; investigations by questionnaires addressed to professionals and general public; case studies.

Results: Finding out the correct way of conceiving the collective housing environment for the future, in relation to the local conditions of the current context of Romania. The result would be a structure of the identified representative patterns in a coherent collection of principles that can be followed by future designs, and could be applied within the local context.

Discussion: The results are relevant for designers, for housing policies and also for future inhabitants of collective housing.

Hashim, Ahmad Hariza, Asnarulkhadi Abu Samah, and Shaharudin Idrus. "Identifying Liveability Features For Malaysian Urban Low Cost Low Rise Neighbourhood in Selangor, Malaysia." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

The objective of this study is to identify urban neighbourhood liveability features from the perspectives of those who live in the low cost low rise housing in Shah Alam, Selangor. The group based technique, namely the Nominal Group Technique (NGT) was adopted for this study. It is a very structured method of getting information qualitatively from the respondents and it is done in a group. Four groups were formed inclusive of male adults, female adults, male teenagers and female teenagers with a number of 6 to 8 people in one group. The groups were given statements and three questions for them to answer in their group. The questions focussed on the liveable features of the physical, safety and social aspect that the residents feel that they should have or exits in their neighbourhood. The findings of the study find out that the group listed a long list of features or items but later were grouped into several items, 11 physical items, 11 safety items and 6 social items. For these items they were asked to rank them and the findings show that the top five for physical items are the availability of convenience shops and malls, safety features, religious places, clear sign for the direction and health facilities. For social features they wanted a place for them to do activities among ethnic groups living in the neighbourhood, a place for them to do gathers and eat together, social activities and sports activities. While from safety features, they want a close proximity to the police station, a place for neighbourhood watch, close proximity to fire station, a security post and also fire extinguisher for every floor. The study shows accessibility to facilities, proximity to security bodies and place for them to interact with each other are critical to ensure a liveable neighbourhood in a low rise public housing.

Youn, Jisun, Jiyoung Oh, and Hyekyung Park. "Identity and Street Environment of Korean Historic City." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

In accordance with current increase of the Korean government's effort keeping their regional identity, and developing identical street environment resources, lots of bureaucratic projects developing design guidelines have been ordered at once.However, if geographical and humanistic resources and urban design policies of each local government cannot deeply grasped, only results of similar contents without differentiation among the regions can be produced. Therefore, this study was conducted as a study which draws regional identity by image vocabularies so as to secure differentiated street environment of Gimhae-si, a representative historic city of Korea. General environment analysis and city image analysis were conducted for spatial range of the whole administrative districts(463.3㎢) of Gimhae-si. To grasp general city image of Gimhae-si which is the object area, awareness of local residents, sensitive vocabularies of city's representative image, number of external visitors for famous spots, etc. were investigated and examined. Gimhae-si is located in Gyeongsangnam-do southeastern region and natural beauty of the Gimhae plain, Nakdong River, etc. is preserved and there are abundant cultural heritages of Gaya. And, they secure them by developing as urban resources such as cultural facility, festival, etc. Socially, they have international characteristics such as foreign visitors, multicultural families, etc. In addition, sensitive vocabularies of city's own image were evaluated.

As the result, 'graceful', 'traditional', ‘gorgeous', 'gentle', 'leisurely', etc. were finally drawn among the total 310 vocabularies. On the other hand, for Gimhae-si public spots visited often, there are birthplace of president Roh(1,294), Gimhae Arts and Sports Center(846), Jangyu Deacheong Valley(653), Daeseong-dong Tombs(369), Kimhae National Museum(297), King Suro royal tomb(220) in order. So, they are thoroughly individual and show streetscape showing an original plan for the harmony with other landscape factors.

Sarrica, Mauro, Sonia Brondi, and Alice Roseti. "IMAGES OF SUSTAINABLE ENERGY IN ITALY: ENGAGING YOUNG CITIZENS THROUGH PHOTOVOICE." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Transitions toward sustainable energy paths entail significant cultural and societal changes, and new generations actively contribute to such transformation in their own communities.

In this contribution we present a participatory research conducted with preadolescents and adolescents: we examined their views on sustainable energy and we engaged them in public discussion on energy issues. The study - part of the wider project ACCESI (socio-Constructivist Analysis of the Italian Sustainable Energy Communities) - was conducted in Narni, a small town in the centre of Italy, that is an exemplary case in the management of energy issues. The relationship between Narni and energy issues started with the early developments of hydropower, and continues today with the implementations of renewables (especially solar and biomass). Ideally, Narni is close to be a Sustainable Energy Community: communities recognised by the European Union that are characterised by the cooperation of local policy makers, stakeholders and - most of all - energy citizens.

In this context, - even if they are crucial for the development of a proper energy citizenship - psychological and psychosocial factors and processes in new generations remain undervalued.

Environmental and sustainability education programs usually include the active participation of young people as pivotal elements. These programs often assume the paradigm of young people as ‘citizens in the making’: a metaphor that recognises the essential role of educational agencies in promoting the transition towards adulthood and full citizenship. On the contrary, this contribution contends that education programs can be further extended by acknowledging that young people already are ‘actual citizens’. Within this perspective, young people are actively engaged in the community life and are involved in building meanings and actions that are part of the current transition towards sustainability.

From these premises we conducted a participatory research with N=80 pupils (age 11-13), attending the secondary school of Narni. We used photovoice, a visual methodology that promotes collaborative relationships between researchers and participants. The procedure requires three steps, conducted in our study as followed. First, research team invites pupils to take part at the research through individual production of images (one to three photographs and/or drawings with a short written comment for each image) about their own idea/representation of sustainable energy. After a month, pupils discuss their images (N=120) in small groups and with the entire class - supervised by researchers - with the task to identify differences/similarities, presences/absences, consistencies/discrepancies. Last, a public event - in which all the images were collected in an exhibition - is organized in order to present the research to the larger community.

Preliminary results suggest relevant insights on the way new generation look at sustainable energy issues: images show the prevalence of ‘new renewables’ power plants (especially solar and wind) as well as the absence of human beings and everyday devices aimed at energy saving/efficiency; moreover, during the discussions pupils raise concerns about power plants localization and disclose sensitiveness toward the necessity of an energy mix.

Theoretical, applied and policy implications of the results will be discussed.

Bernardo, Fátima. "Impact of neighbourhood entitativity and prestige on the strategies to achieve a positive place identity." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

The main objective of this paper is to understand the relation between neighbourhood entitativity, group value or prestige and place identity.

Another aspect worthy of study is the connection between place identity and entitativity. As known from the Social Identity Approach (SIT), social identity is based on group distinctiveness and the value associated with the different groups to which people feel they belong. Thus, groups that are seen as distinctive entities in connection with a positive value, facilitate the process of identification (e.g., Castano, Yzerbyt, & Bourguignon, 2003; Yzerbyt, Castano, Leyens, & Paladino, 2000). But it is important on one hand to extend this, to gain new insights about this connection to place identity, and on the other hand, to explore the importance of the group value in this connection between place identity and perception of neighbourhood entitativity. In relation to the study of neighbourhoods, we can predict a neighbourhood perceived with high value and high entitativity to facilitate identification with place. And vice-versa, a low value and entitativity hampers identification with place. But the question is in relation to the other two possibilities: neighbourhoods with high value and low entitativity, and especially, neighbourhoods with low value and high entitativity. In this last case, SIT predicts social changes, through individual mobility, social creativity or social competition (Tajfel & Turner, 1979). As pointed out by Abrams (2006), when people live in an undesirable neighbourhood, perceived as having great unity, and the possibility to move is difficult or impossible, the possible reaction can include promotion of antisocial behaviour.

To test this relationship four neighbourhoods of Lisbon which vary in terms of prestige and entitativity were studied. A questionnaire was administered to 180 residents. The results confirm the hypotheses raised and allowed to explore the strategies used by people to achieve a positive identity even in situations of neighbourhoods negatively evaluated. In fact, we observed the use of several strategies as social creativity, social mobility, social competition, or out-group assimilation. The results were explored in terms of the consequences to the intergroup relationships.

Banna-Jeries, Enaya. "Implementation of Procedural Justice in Decision Making Processes for Sustainability." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Designing a Just Decision Making Policy will play an essential role in the transition to a sustainable society with clear and just relations between the citizens and their government. Implementation of a just process or policy requires adopting new comprehensive approaches that offer integrated solutions to critical issues based on the local characteristics of the local community, especially for indigenous and disadvantaged groups. My research focused on the Palestinian Arabs in Israel, who comprise 20% of the State's total population. As indigenous people, they are landowners of most of the land belonging to Arab localities. However, as a minority group, they suffer from a low socio-economic status.

The research objective was to examine whether public participation in planning promotes procedural justice in the Arab sector. This includes examining whether the planning takes into consideration the unique spatial characteristics and the land rights of Arabs as an indigenous and disadvantaged minority.

The research examined the decision making process in the preparation of local master plans in 10 Arab townships in Israel. The research was implemented in two tracks: (1) examination of the public participation procedures in decision making before the discussion of the local Master Plans in the district planning committee; (2) examination of the decision-making procedure within the district planning committee and other relevant planning committees.

The research mainly focused on two levels: (1) the collective property and participation rights in decision making; and (2) the social-cultural characteristics of the Arab society. These two levels, in addition to procedural justice principles, were the basis for the development of the "Integrated Rules” on both the general and the contextual levels. These "Integrated Rules" on both levels are the tools for examining if the decision-making process implemented was just, comprehensive and appropriate to the local needs and critical issues of the local community. This examination allows the evaluation of how much the decision making process promotes a more sustainable society.

The use of the Integrated Rules could serve as a model that could be implemented in other decision making processes with the need to adopt it to the local context of the society.

Henn, Laura. "Indentifying barriers to sufficiency behavior." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Efforts to lower human impact on environmental resources have been mainly concentrated on increasing resource productivity so far, such as the reinforced efficiency strategy. However, achieved gains in technical efficiency are regularly eaten up by rebound effects. The sufficiency strategy tries to overcome this problem by reducing the demand for energy and consumption goods on the consumer side. The question what constitutes such a sufficient lifestyle on the individual level is essential to answer before strategies can be developed to support a transformation towards more sufficiency.

We developed an instrument to measure sufficiency behavior and attitudes on the individual level in everyday life covering the most relevant fields of action such as energy, mobility, nutrition or use of goods and technical devices. Data were collected via an online survey (N = 177) in Germany.

Different latent dimensions were identified in behavior and attitudes. These are saving, sharing, informing, reducing high-impact behavior, and waiving status symbols on the behavior side. In attitudes the dimensions were modesty, self-determination, using not owning, enhancing sustainability and degrowth orientation. Suggestions are made how these dimensions can help to understand sufficiency behavior on the individual level thus offering possibilities to support the transformation of lifestyles.

Additionally, we assessed some important hindrances for sufficient behavior. Ipsative barriers which indicate that behavioral alternatives are not considered (Tanner, 1999) explain 39 % of variance in sufficiency behavior. Lack of knowledge and lack of self-efficacy (Bandura, 1991) are also important barriers and are investigated as promising approaches to promote a transformation of lifestyles towards sufficiency.

Köckler, Heike, Johannes Flacke, Ellen Banzhaf, Francisco de la Barrera, Sonia Reyes-Paecke, Volker Stelzer, Christiane Weber, Wissal Selmi, Lotfi Mehdi, Annegret Kindler et al. "Indicators for decision making towards environmental justice." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

This symposium includes several contributions on indicators representing the spatial and social distribution of environmental and social factors in urban areas. The symposiums aims to develop a discussion on an integrated perspective that supports decision making for environmental justice.

The following contributions will be part of the Symposium (abstracts on each are submitted separately)

Urban Green Indicators as support of public policies making-decision

Wissal Selmi, Christiane Weber, Lotfi Mehdi

Urban greenways are considered as complex urban infrastructures all over Europe. To quest for coherence between protecting urban biodiversity and providing maintenance and social ecosystem services, today’s urban policies have to adapt their choices towards structural and functional constraints. Thus a multidisciplinary approach to identify the multifunctional character of the greenways is then required.

Considering the gap in the body of knowledge dealing with urban greenways some new elements have to be developed such as ecologic valuation modeling, like the urban model I-Trees (USDA) or park lawns biodiversity assessment defined on evidence based theory developments..

The objectives of the presentation are (i) to define the sample design and the data collected, (ii) to explain the choice of the model and the design of biodiversity assessment analyses, (iii) to discuss the results regarding the environmental and geographic context. Finally the resulting data are elicited towards the interest of ecosystemic services indicators extracted from urban trees and forest, and urban parks lawns as elements of urban greenways connected to regional ecological corridors.

The results participate to urban public polities decision, providing quantitative supports that complete more contextual and socially turned arguments. Such indicators could provide, in this case, comparative elements among various contexts and public policies management decisions. One of the last steps of the experiment is to confront the knowledge build up from the ecosystemic services data to the knowledge and knowhow of local authorities agents and representatives to assure the interest of such indicators in urban greenways multifunctional setting.

*The composition of green infrastructure in socio-spatially differentiated urban settings

Ellen Banzhaf, Francisco de la Barrera, Sonia Reyes-Paecke

Environment quality has a strong impact on human quality of life. This study highlights the composition of green infrastructure in urban settings and its contribution to environmental quality and therefore, human quality of life. Three major sets of indicators can be used to estimate the environment quality. These indicators include the urban structure, green infrastructure and socio-spatial information (location, education and thereof derived income). In order to ascertain information for these components high resolution imagery and census data are used. Urban structural features are derived from an object-based classification scheme.

The novelty of this research is that instead of only focusing on the total green infrastructure of a municipality. Green infrastructure is investigated twofold: (1) focusing on vegetation cover, including any kind of vegetated elements: trees, shrub and lawn that are located in public or private spaces. (2) studying green spaces as part of the urban structure where a delimited share is destined to nature conservation and, at the same time, to offer recreational opportunities to citizens.

This study highlights green infrastructure at different scales (vegetation cover in total, amount and distribution of green spaces and vegetation cover on green spaces). Additionally, we investigate if vulnerable groups such as children and elderly people profit from neighboring green spaces.

This research is carried out at the very high statistical block scale. We describe the spatial distribution and amount of green infrastructure per inhabitant. As results are evaluated at such a detailed scale, the contribution of green infrastructure to environmental quality in different socio-spatial urban settings can be shown.

The study is performed in the Metropolitan Area of Santiago de Chile (MAS), a socio-spatially highly differentiated metropolis. By drawing on three socio-spatially differentiated municipalities within the MAS this study is able to gain an understanding of how the distribution of green infrastructure differs and how/whether it is related to the socio-spatial components of the selected municipalities Cerro Navia, La Florida and Vitacura.

The positive correlation between the income level of the population and the abundance and diversity of the vegetation has been demonstrated in other cities. This study shows how a high income level allows keeping an abundant vegetation cover that would not survive unattended in a semi-arid environment like MAS. Thus, the income level of the population allows the municipality to overcome the natural limits set by climate or soil conditions and creates a human-made habitat, very different from the wild ecosystem conditions surrounding the city. These densely vegetated areas present in high income areas (Vitacura and zones of La Florida) in contrast with the large amount of bare soil present in lower income areas.

*Socio-spatial distribution of outdoor airborne exposures as an indicator for environmental justice - the case study of Berlin

Annegret Kindler and Ulrich Franck

Over the last decade a growing number of investigations on environmental justice have shown the increasing scientific and societal relevance of relations between the social situation of population, environmental quality, and health including requirements to policy makers and planners. In our case study we understood environmental justice as the unequal social and spatial distribution of health relevant environmental burdens and resources causing unequal health risks of the affected population.

The spatial distribution of social parameters was used as a predictor of human exposure by outdoor airborne pollutants. It is an indicator of environmental injustice and allows analyzing correlations between environmental quality and social situation of the exposed population.

Particulate matter (PM10 - inhalable, PM2.5 - respirable) and nitrogen oxides (NOx, NO2) are two of the most important types of airborne pollutants in Germany.

Epidemiological studies found that these pollutants significantly increase morbidity and mortality by cardiovascular, respiratory and other diseases. Inner-urban differences of human exposure are often higher than mean differences between cities. Therefore it is necessary to investigate the inner-urban spatial distributions of human exposures. Additionally, the question arises if the social situation of population is also related to airborne outdoor exposures.

On the example of Berlin the spatial distribution of airborne exposures of PM2.5 and NO2 was determined for the 447 planning areas (PLAs) each characterized by about 7500 inhabitants, unique structure of buildings, big roads, and rather homogeneous social structure. In this study we also investigated the combined exposure by PM2.5 and NO2. Traffic densities were included into the assessment because both types of air pollutants are related to traffic.

PM10 and NOx concentrations, additional reference data for selected monitoring stations and for street sections were used to calculate the area weighted annual average values for all PLAs.

PM2.5 and NO2 air concentrations were determined from the PM10 and NOx values. Areas of main streets in the PLAs have been taken into account as additional traffic sources that contributes to pollutant concentrations. In order to investigate socio-spatial distribution of PM2.5 and NO2 at the PLA level the air pollution was statistically and spatially correlated with the development index of the Berlin Social Urban Development Monitoring. In addition, the number of people was determined exposed to different levels of air pollution in relation to PLA and social status.

The assessment of combined exposure by PM2.5 and NO2 shows increased frequencies of highly or very highly affected PLA within the low emission zone and adjoining PLA to the west, southwest and north. Air pollution decreases from the centre towards the outskirts of the city. Assessing the combined exposure, 15% of the PLA are lowly, 59% medium, 12% highly and 14% very highly polluted.

About 10% of Berlin’s population live in PLA with a very low or low development index and with very high or high air pollution levels and thus are discriminated twice. The lower the development index in a PLA, the higher is the share of population with high air pollution.

Strengthning of environmental justice due to national Sustainable Energy Autonomy (SEnA)

Volker Stelzer

The use of fossil and nuclear energy causes a wide range of problems related to the environment, health and quality of life. The use of fossil sources contributes to global warming and is thus responsible for rising sea levels and intensified storms, rainfalls, heat waves, dryness, and bush fires. In addition, it leads to the emission of human toxic substances, such as particles, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, mercury and others, which are responsible for pulmonary and heart diseases. Another problem is the destruction of landscape, nature, agricultural and urban areas due to the extraction of coal, natural gas and oil and accidents like that of “Exxon Valdez” or “Deepwater Horizon”. The use of nuclear material increases the amount of radioactivity released during extraction, energy production and accidents like “Chernobyl” and “Fukushima”. Moreover, the use of fossil and nuclear sources is very expensive when taken into account the damage to lives and the environment due to everyday emissions and accidents and, in the case of nuclear power, especially the public costs resulting from the high security level of nuclear facilities and transport of nuclear material, the development of special legislation, and public subsidies to insurances.

A path towards a more sustainable and environmentally just energy system is the use of sustainable local sources like solar, water, wind, geothermal, biomass and ocean energy. An indicator to measure to what extent a country could produce energy from own sustainable sources is the “Sustainable Energy Autono-my Ratio”, or SEnAR.

In order to determine the SEnAR , the country’s full “potential of energy that can be produced in a sustainable manner” – the SEnPo – must be identified. This includes all potential for generating electricity or heat from solar energy or biomass from waste, electricity from water, wind, deep geothermal or ocean energy, and heat from near-surface geothermal resources. The overall potential cannot be fully exploited due to sustainability restrictions such as the limited use of energy crops because of the negative effects of artificial fertilizers and pesticides in crop production and the competition between energy use and use for nutrition or material use for chemical and technical production. Another constraint is that land can usually only be used for one purpose. So, for example, the potential of generating energy from wind in urban areas is very limited. For the definition of what kind of energy production is sustainable or what not, the widespread system of the “Integrative Concept of Sustainable Development” is used.

To calculate the SEnAR, the final energy of all sectors of a country – private, commercial, industry and mobility – and all kinds of energy – power, heat, cooling, and traction – will be added to the national “energy consumption” – the EnCo. The ratio of the EnPo and the SEnPO are the “Sustainable Energy Autonomy Ratio”, or SEnAR.

First results of the calculation of the national SEnAR of Germany will be presented.

*An indicator concept for cumulative impacts on human health in the urban realm regarding environmental justice

Heike Köckler and Johannes Flacke

Human health in the urban realm is influenced by different pathogenetic and salutogenetic factors. In several studies single agents like NO2 and PM10 as well as noise or the effect of green space are analysed and relevant indicators have been identified. However, the cumulative impact of multiple factors has not been analysed sufficiently yet. Moreover, various studies related to the debate on health inequalities and environmental justice revealed, that both the distribution of pathogenetic and salutogenetic factors and their effects are spatially and socially unequally distributed. Deprived households are more often exposed and suffer often more from severe health impacts resulting from this exposure due to their increased vulnerability.

To address both above mentioned issues we present a conceptual approach for an indicator framework that allows to map spatially factors relevant for cumulative health impacts. The framework is based on the DPSEEA (Driver, Pressure, State, Exposure, Effect, Answer) model (Morris et al 2006). This model, widely used in public-health, is an enhancement of the well-known DPSIR-Framework from sustainability science. It is qualified to support decision making as it based on causal chains including answers, that describe suitable actions to address one of the identified links in the chain, either the driver, the pressure, the state, or the exposure. In line with Morris et al. (2006) we extend the model to multiple cause-effect chains that stand for the different pathogenetic and salutogenetic factors (Köckler and Flacke 2013). By including different spatial scales and GIS-based spatial analyses depending on the impact area of the various indicators considered our framework allows to map spatial health inequalities.

For the city of Dortmund, Germany we put a first approach of a multiple DPSEEA based set of indicators for discussion. In selected maps we show how this framework supports the identification of hot spots of cumulative impacts and health inequalities within urban areas. The paper ends with a discussion on how these kind of analyses can inform spatial decision making between public health and urban planning.

Stryjewska, Dominika Maria. "Influence of formal features and subjective meaning of urbanized spaces as well as personal traits on the variation of cognitive maps." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

In the modern world, due to the constant and rapid growth of the progress of urbanization processes, the city is becoming the natural habitat of humans. The level of wealth in many societies allows people to freely look for a place to live that is suitable to them. We can inhabit environments (speaking in micro as well as macro scale) that not only satisfy basic living conditions, but that also correspond to our preferences (Dębek and Janda-Dębek, 2013). The factors influencing this state may include not only the resources or aesthetic values of a place, but also the characteristics of its spatial makeup, which are connected to the cognitive functioning of humans.

Contemporary researchers in many fields of science more and more often focus on formal features of space that are related to how people give subjective meaning to the space and how they create adequate cognitive representations of the space in cities. Creating a simplified scheme of space, a cognitive map, is a thoroughly parsimonious solution which allows us to freely move about and find solutions to problems that pertain to different areas (Tversky, 2003). To understand the relations between a place and its cognitive representation we must consider, what personal traits of the user and what formal traits of the environment influence the process of creating the representation. Grasping the gist of the relations will allow us to plan and revitalize urban spaces that satisfy not only the material, but also emotional and cognitive needs of people.

The presented research findings are an element of a larger plan, whose goal is to find the personal traits connected to cognitive functioning of men and women which influence the creation of cognitive representations of urbanized spaces. Cognitive maps yielded by participants (n=90) were analyzed with regard for content of elements, personal meanings and appearing mistakes concerning demographical traits, formal traits of the places drawn, their meaning, frequency of visitation, as well as subjective legibility according to K. Lynch’s definition (2011). Based on the findings aspects which significantly differentiate cognitive representations of space in the form of cognitive maps were singled out for further analysis.

Chen, Tong, Wei Lu, and Lianlian Liu. "Influence of Public Facilities Accessibility on Daily Travel Behavior of Urban Fringe Area Women in Dalian,China." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

The rapid development of urbanization in contemporary Chinese urban leading to social problem increasingly complicated and diversified. On the expanding urban edge and setting up "humanist" social background, we carried out research towards women living in urban fringe area. In this study an attempt was made to understand the influence of public facilities accessibility within the city fringe on daily travel behavior by using a sample of 270 households from 3 urban fringe communities in Dalian. In particular, the travel behavior of women as affected by public facilities accessibility was assessed. This paper examines how the public facilities accessibility shapes the travel behavior of women in urban fringe area. We focus on the influence of public facilities accessibility—traditional Chinese food markets, department stores, bus stops, hospitals, banks, post offices, and socioeconomic factors—age, gender, income, occupation and household structure. Models estimated to determine the influence of public facilities accessibility characteristics on women travel behavior indicate that availability of public facilities choices did affect the daily travel behavior of women even after differences in their life-cycle stage are accounted for. And the improvement of public facilities accessibility in urban fringe area can help encourage women travel by sustainable transport approach. Recently, Dalian has been investing heavily in rail transit for public transportation, expanding the accessibility of urban fringe area without estimating current travel demand by residents within the fringe area. To explore the interrelations between public facilities accessibility and resident daily travel behavior are especially necessary in this context.

Hernandez-Garcia, Jaime, and Beau Beza. "Informal Settlements and Placemaking: The Case of Caracoli Barrio in Bogota." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Placemaking in the Anglo world can be understood as a concept where through a social and political process, value and meaning in a particular setting is created. This focus of placemaking revolves around a setting in the urban environment, its role as a unique setting and, importantly, the people that make up this place: all of which is focused on a highly structured and formal participatory planning process.

The role of placemaking in Latin America’s informal settlements, however, is largely untested. With more than 75% of Latin America’s population living in cities since 2001 and over 30% (128 million people) of the urban population estimated to reside in what the United Nations define as slums; these informal settlements can offer alternative ways of thinking about urban space and the transformation of spaces people live in. In essence, informal settlements are, to a large extent, what people make of them through their own initiative and imagination. What they achieve is remarkable considering their limited resources and sometimes nonexistent participation in formal planning.

Through empirical data collected in January 2013 and February 2014, this paper discusses how through a, largely, nonexistent formal participatory planning process (as the west or Anglo world may perceive it) and lack of resources the of Caracoli, in Bogotá has been able to create value and meaning in their place. This has been possible, despite social and economic difficulties –which are not to be forgotten-, through inventiveness and the richness of one’s life. In this sense, it can be argued that informal settlements can offer a different path to understanding the concept of placemaking currently dominating the Anglo world.

Medvedovski, Nirce Saffer, Roberta Taborda Sa Catharina, Heitor Fernando Almeida, Amanda Vicentini Oliveira, and Rafael Oliveira C. Luz. "Information Technologies insertion in Participatory Urban Appraisal: Case Study of Balsa (Pelotas/Brazil)." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Sharing the theoretical background which considers that the Social Technologies (ST) are the ones aimed to social inclusion and understanding the necessity of involving the user in all housing production stages, a research group from eight universities is developing the project Morar.TS. This seeks the ST development for construction, recuperation, maintenance and sustainable use of housing, especially of social interest.

In this context, the Federal University of Pelotas (UFPel) invests on Information Technologies (IT) which enhance the Social Technologies, increasing the interaction between the academic community and the society.

In this project, the work presents a methodology called Participatory Urban Appraisal (PUA). This method consists of a number of techniques for the collection of necessary information to obtain deficiencies diagnostic of a certain place, besides selecting possible solutions and identifying their potential. The case study was held at Balsa, a low income community located in Pelotas, Brazil.

PUA arises from similar works carried out in low income communities in Africa. There the information obtained through interviews with the community was written in small cards, being later grouped and ranked by themes in a panel with the direct intervention of the participants. The method avoids the use of long, expensive researches, excessive data collection and late production of results, besides presenting the characteristics of flexibility and interactivity.

To foster this tool through the introduction of ITs in the PUA application in the community, “mind maps” and “word clouds” were used as a way to organize the key words mentioned by the population to describe the positive and negative aspects of their environment. These tools were introduced through free softwares, reducing the costs and favoring the replicability of the technique.

The use of the interactive screen was also introduced, with the possibility of complementing and reviewing conceptual maps based on feedback provided by the dwellers. Thus, the key words listed can be changed, grouped, highlighted or connected to others, as well as illustrated by images obtained in the field survey. This technique was seen as efficient for the interaction, though the disadvantage is the need of a tool opertator’s training, which prevents the residents to interact with the equipment without the help of a technician.

As a result, the residents set the pavement of the streets as a priority. So a project is being elaborated along with the City Government and a technical catalog is being developed with alternative ideas of qualifying elements of the urban space, including pavement sidewalks, forestation, garbage collecting, walls and fences, demands mentioned by the community.

Finally, the PUA was a fundamental tool in the project, guiding the next stages of studies and actions with the population. Based on it, it was possible to diagnose and visualize the real necessities of the Balsa residents, through the participation of the population. However, difficulties were found in the use of ITs resources due to the precariousness of the communities. In many situations, the traditional use of the PUA, through analogical means, is seen as more adaptable to local characteristics.

Karimnia, Elahe. "Intentions and Responses: Urban Design in framing public life." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Introduction: Public life, as a value of living together, reflects the in different terms and scales. In this study it is defined as in outdoor public spaces due to natural movement, involvement in different activities, and active or passive interactions. Today, the term of public life is a challenge since our societies are changing in different dimensions and it affects people’s presence as a response to urban environment. Study of public life and public spaces corresponds to a approach in planning and designing cities.

Urban design as an interdisciplinary profession is engaged with the of making good urban environment. Therefore this research explores how contemporary urban design studies and how it influences people’s behavior and by making potentials in public spaces. This study examines public life in public spaces through analysis of two perspectives, first contemporary urban design intentions for making places as a behavioral setting for public life, and second people’s responses to the urban environment. The aim is to find out whether design expectations are realized by users or not.

Method: Each urban environment has specific context to contribute to its users, influence their behavior and causes different and responses. So in order to acknowledge urban design intentions in framing public life, the research strategy is to focus on different cases, which have been newly designed and implemented. It should fulfill understanding of this process and the two perspectives, both in design and practice. To find out urban design intentions it suggests reviewing the proposals and design objectives besides the study of condition of design process. Likewise interviewing designers reveals how they define a good urban environment for public life. Simultaneously the project aims to evaluate the from its users’ perspective. Qualitative methods such as and conceptual mapping are proposed for data collection to investigate people’s action and perceptions as their response to the place.

Results: The results of methods provide a broad understanding about the process of creating places for high quality public life, and . In this progression, it points out the criteria used for a good urban environment in contemporary urban design through both designers’ and people’s perspective. Through analysis of the main socio-physical characteristics of urban environment that have a strong influence on people’s presence in public, it identify the role of contemporary urban design and highlights if there is a between people’s responses to design intentions in framing public life.

Discussion: The lack of public life in public spaces refers to the need of further study about interrelation between people and urban environment. The research argues the urban design progression that requires a deeper consideration of intentions related to places for human values and needs. It suggest to rethink about people’s perception and behavior which can be influenced by socio-physical environment, and relate these terms in design process. It discuss that to decrease the risk of creating places that are not being used as it is expected, providing a flexible framework to adapt people's need and behavior in design process is necessary. The research at the end aims to develop tools for urban design in order to create a link between life and physical space in cities.

Debek, Michal, and Bozena Janda-Debek. "Introduction of Fornaras, Bonaiutos and Bonnes Perceived Residential Environment Quality (PREQ) indexes in Poland." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

As we know from the contemporary Robert Marans’ (2002) model of neighborhood satisfaction, the quality of the particular urban space is ‘in the eyes of beholders’ rather than merely in bricks and stones. The quality of urban life as well as quality of urban environments depends not only on the real, objective characteristics of these environments but - equally - on the subjective reflected reality.

One of the most inspiring and complete tool to measure is the PREQ – a multidimensional index developed by Fornara, Bonaiuto and Bonnes (2003, 2010). We are adopting the shortest version of this tool (Fornara et. al., 2010) to Polish language and Polish cultural conditions. First, we made a qualitative pilot study with 90 participants from various Polish towns in order to build up the semantic and conceptual universe appropriate for studying perceived environment quality across Poland. Then we wrote the PREQ questionnaire in Polish but structurally and ideationally parallel to the original one (in English); a sample of 167 Poles was used to verify the hypothetical factorial structure and reliability of the tool. Finally, we did the CFA and reliability tests to validate the tool for use in Poland.

Steentjes, Katharine, Tim Kurz, Manuela Barreto, and Thomas Morton. "Investigating the Social Costs of Confronting Environmental Disregard." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Our research examines how current norms play out within social interactions in an attempt to understand processes involved in changing or maintaining social norms associated with environmental issues. We investigated perceptions of someone who confronts or fails to confront environmental disregard or racism. Across four studies participants were presented with somebody expressing environmental disregard or racism and someone reacting to this position (confrontation vs. no confrontation). The confrontation situation was constructed using a written social scenario (study 1), a bogus focus group transcript (studies 2 & 3), or a real confrontation by a confederate (study 4). Results of all four studies show that, when presented with someone confronting environmental disregard, participants felt less close to this person and perceived them as less warm than someone who did not confront. However, in the case of racism, the perceived closeness and warmth of the confronter was generally boosted by them confronting. We show that this effect was not the result of perceived hypocrisy on behalf of a confronter of environmental disregard (Study 2). Rather, the perceived morality of the issue in question can partially explained the higher social costs of confronting environmental disregard (study 3). However, experimentally increased salience of the morality of the issue was not able to reduce social costs associated with confronting on environmental grounds (Study 4). Our findings are discussed in terms of the ways in which social norms manifest at the level of social interaction and implications for attempts to foster social action on climate change.

Benages-Albert, Marta, and Pere Vall-Casas. "Involving communities in the recovery of metropolitan river corridors: The case of the Bess basin in the Barcelona metropolitan region." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

River corridors have become a key element in the sustainable development of metropolitan regions, not only because of their environmental value but also their social importance. For this reason, in recent decades public administrations have made significant efforts to recover them as genuine public spaces. Specifically, this paper analyses the strategies developed over the past thirty years to recover the Besòs basin, where more than two million people currently live.

This case study shows the growing importance of the social component in an increasingly integrated and complex vision of metropolitan riverscapes. Additionally, it is noticeable that public administration-led initiatives are starting to encourage active participation among citizens. This trend towards joint responsibility in the management of river corridors could lead to significant savings in the public sector, which is particularly appropriate in a context of economic crisis.

At this point, a geo-ethnographic diagnosis of rivers is necessary in order to identify the emotional bonds between local people and the riversides as a first step towards encouraging citizen involvement. From that point, the increasing interaction between community engagement and the sense of place will pave the way for active participation in the regeneration of metropolitan river corridors.

Ferrucci, Martina, Sonia Brondi, Mihaela Gavrila, and Mauro Sarrica. "Italian television to the test of energy. Fruition, languages and practices, between perception and information." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

This contribution explores the matches between fruition and contents of television programs on environmental and energy issues, and the implementation of sustainable behaviors in everyday practices in Italy.

Environmental issues related to energy production and consumption are in fact largely recognized by Italian authorities and have been institutionalized in a set of norms, incentives and goals (e.g. the 2020 package). These policies lead to a steep increase in the use of renewables in Italy, making it a ‘realising community’. Yet, in order to foster a veritable change toward being a ‘sustainable community’, new practices should be developed together with new environmental sensitiveness and consciousness (i.e. environmental concerns, information and values). Communication plays a central role in leading towards one or the other typology of community. The problem related to communication and representation of environmental and energy in Italy issues lies, first of all, in the way these are presented to the audience. In the narratives frames of Italian media, in fact, the energy thema is mainly treated in connection with critical moments such as episodes of maladministration (such as organized crime infiltration in wind farms construction), natural disasters (such as the earthquake in Japan in 2011), or political crises (such as the Referendum on nuclear hold in 2011). Environmental communication thus often assumes complaint, alarmist and catastrophism forms in Italy. This may result in the crystallization of concepts and may generate confusion and bewilderment in citizens who require tools to size up independently and consciously information. Yet, mainstream media could also mediate between discourses provided by different sources, they may reconstruct the meaning of scientific knowledge, institutional choices and individual practices, so playing an educational role to non-experts, stimulating social learning processes and consciousness about environmental issues.

In this scenario, main aim of this research is to outline the relationship existing between information needs on energy issues, public perception of authoritativeness of the media, and implementation of practices in line with a sustainable lifestyle. In particular, we focus on the role played by television because, although this medium partially lost its authority and appeal, television still manages to intercept a substantial part of the Italian public (according to data Censis 2013, in 2012 the total TV users are the 98.3% of the Italian population). A convenience sample of N=150 participants answered an online survey on perceived importance for the self and for the society of environmental and energy issues, practices of media consumption, expectations about the packaging of environmental and energy issue, need for information on the issues at stake, and the adoption of energy sustainable practices. Preliminary results suggest that – although together with online newspapers – TV remains the most important source of information about environmental and energy issues. The language used by the TV programs on energy issues is perceived mainly as alarmist (30.8% of respondents), educational (21.2%), or technical/scientific (15.1%). Catastrophic language is linked with the perception that the issue has been discussed in a poor and uncompleted way, whereas the educational language is perceived more adequate.

Lenartowicz, J.-Krzysztof. "Jawiszowice coalmine. Post-industrial heritage and civil society. A case study from Poland." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

The aim of the study is to find a way to save and revitalise post-industrial buildings of architectural and historical value. The coalmine in Jawiszowice became a pride of the Polish state, which regained its independence in 1918. Built in the interwar period 1918-1939, the mine was one of the technologically most advanced mines in Europe. Its architecture on the surface belongs to the best examples of industrial architecture of the 1930s. The mine was formally closed in 1997, but its shafts are necessary for the entire Brzeszcze mine system (coupled with Jawiszowice), in which they serve as revision, and ventilation shafts.

A contradiction occurs in the fact that on the one hand the Jawiszowice shafts have to be in running order until 2042, while other mine’s objects are redundant, but on the other hand, the architectural and historical values of the whole building complex call for preservation. How can one reconcile the economic rationality with the postulate of preservation, and the nostalgia of the local society? Who should pay the conservation of the otherwise unnecessary elements in the period of thirty years?

Farias, Tadeu Mattos, Fernanda Fernandes Gurgel, and Raquel Farias Diniz. "Knowledge, Media and Attitudes: questioning 2014 FIFA World Cup Brazil." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Formation of attitudes toward environments come from individuals personal experiences, but depends on information access about these places too. Dealing with changes in some spaces, the kind of accessed information participates producing impression, feelings and attitudes, constituting an important aspect to be studied aiming understand relations between people and their surroundings. The city of Natal will be Host City of the 2014 Fifa World Cup and this theme have been deeply showed on media. Hence, this research aimed to investigate participation of media on formation of attitudes toward the changes brought by the event. 214 people answered a questionnaire (mean 35 years old, range 15-74, 47% female, 85% with degree of instruction between moderate and high) in which they evaluated changes in several sectors of the city and were asked about how much they consider themselves informed about the event, in addition to the kind of media from where they obtained those information and if were pro or against the event in their city. General opinion about the World Cup showed a well-distributed polarization, with 54.4% pro and 44.4% against. It was observed that most of participants highly educated are opposite to realization of Cup in contrast with those with moderate and low education (p<0.01). This aspect may be related to the nature of information broadcasted, accessed on different sources. Additionally, answering an open question about the changes that will happen in the city, even those opposing to the event tended to approach the possibility of investments in healthcare and education as better alternatives which is possibly related to a highly exposition on media in relation to a crisis in these sectors, which illustrates the media presence on formation of attitudes. In the group that answered access information about the event on the internet 53% are against it, whilst in the group of those that did not accessed on internet 70% are pro the event (p= 0.020). This aspect illustrates a possible mediation of attitude according to the type of accessed information. Furthermore, the group of those that access information about the World Cup on television, tend to be more trustful about the information, considering themselves well-informed (M=2.25; p = 0.022). This didn’t happen in relation to other media. It’s known that the acquired knowledge implies a positioning toward the event. However, what appears is a critical nature in information and/or person informed starting from de media in which they seek data of the reality. Those which seek for information on the internet may be predispose to distrust or the range of conflicting information leads to this position, which may explain also the majority in this group opposing to the event. More studies about the kind of information on media may be seek to better understand attitudes toward environment, because this implies not just the possibility of pro or anti-environmental behaviors, but also political decisions and participation on the urban management.

Gerstenberg, Tina, and Mathias Hofmann. "Landscape perception and evaluation of urban parks  Do the residents evaluations contribute to the adoption of concrete and applicable measures?" In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Background: Research revealed that a) certain aesthetic characteristics of landscapes lead to a higher preference and b) certain sceneries contribute more strongly to restorativeness. Numerous studies were conducted on the design of urban green spaces in order to enhance people’s well-being and the green spaces’ restoration effects. They usually applied experiments in which people rate photographs representing different types of landscape design. However, those studies seem to hardly find application in planning practice. Possible reasons are: a) the studies are theory-driven and abstract, b) existing parks are difficult to modify, and c) photographs are evaluated based on their content and not on what the presented landscape could possibly mean to people if it was existing in their real living environment. Additionally, d) the often used semantic differential has disadvantages, because people do not use their own evaluation concepts but the ones of the researchers.

Objectives: The aim of our study was to elicit residential evaluations of an urban park regarding its perception, restorativeness and beauty to deduce concrete measures to improve its design. Key questions were: 1) Which impacts has knowing or not knowing an urban green space on its evaluation? 2) Since parks are also represented in the residents’ minds: Do evaluations of an urban park which are elicited from memory reveal different information than in situ evaluations? 3) Does the residential evaluation of an urban park contribute to the adoption of more concrete and applicable measures for landscape planners and architects than theory-based evaluation studies do?

Methods: The park "Großer Garten" in the city of Dresden was evaluated in three different elicitation procedures: residents judged it from memory and in situ and people living outside of Dresden judged it based on photographs. At first, the participants were interviewed, in order to assess how they describe and perceive the park. Secondly, they were asked to rate perceived restorativeness, restorative potential, and aesthetical components (each on 7-point Likert scales), as well as socio-demographic variables. To answer the first question, we conducted a comparative content analysis between interviews from residents of the city of Dresden and residents of other German cities. The relationship between these two groups regarding their ratings of restorativeness and aesthetical components was analysed using correlation analysis. To answer the second question, we examined how interviews of the “from memory” and the “in situ” groups differed in terms of which categories were present. The third question was answered by comparative content analysis of practical impacts of theory-driven studies and our study.

Results: Knowing or not knowing a landscape does have an impact on its evaluation. “In situ-” and “from memory” landscape evaluation interviews differed in the use of categories. Evaluations of an urban park by residents familiar to it and using it lead to more applicable measures than theory-based experiments with photographs.

Discussion: From an application-oriented perspective we argue that research findings on landscape aesthetics and restorativeness need to be evaluated in real environments to improve urban green design. Limitations and applications of this study will be discussed.

Kabisch, Sigrun. "Large housing estates in the long run - from appreciation to rejection and to re-discovery. The East German estate of Leipzig-Grnau." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

In the former state socialist countries large housing estates were welcomed as major improvements of the residential conditions of a large part of the population. Within the German context with the existence of two German states until 1990 and the subsequent reunification, the large eastern German housing estates experienced a dramatic transition. They became stigmatized as symbol of the state-socialist era, not worth to maintain and dedicated to demolish. During the last 25 years the estates experienced a very different development.

Using the example of the estate Leipzig-Grünau, we will investigate what might be a paradox at first glance: massive out-migration, but after a relatively short period of rejection increased housing satisfaction and re-discovering of its potentials.

We introduce results of a long-term sociological study that was carried out from the early stage of the estate’s existence in 1979 until 2009. The next survey is in preparation.

The case study contribution will address the conceptual and methodological approach of the long-term study, in order to mark the strengths and weaknesses of the estate over time. It will stress the advantages and the limits of a long-term study and underline the practical use of the results for urban planning.

Diniz, Raquel Farias, and José Queiroz Pinheiro. "Life experiences and the formation of environmental commitment." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

In the last four decades there has been a growing number of studies on the determinants of environmental concern. Although the literature presents evidence of associations between psychological variables (such as beliefs, attitudes, values) and pro-environmental behaviour, a low adherence to pro-ecological commitment (PEC) has been demonstrated in the general population. In the quest for other elements that may foster an understanding of PEC in a dynamic and contextualized way (closer to common sense), the present research proposes that the formation of this commitment is procedural and interdependent to socio-environmental contexts. My main objective is to research the impact of significant life experiences on PEC, considering such human individual and situational aspects.

Based on interpretive paradigm, the research design being used focuses on creating conceptual schemes through inductive analysis on a qualitative basis. The investigation consists of two concurrent studies that focus on narratives as representatives of experience. In the first, I analysed four biographical reports of internationally recognized environmentalists as well as biographical reports of researchers of people-environment relations area. In the second study, I conducted 29 interviews with people from different Brazilian states socially evaluated as pro-environmentally committed and who manifest lifestyles oriented for sustainability (inclusion criteria). The interviews covered two central questions: the perception about the formation of CPE; and the experiences pointed as important in the formation of their own CPE (biographical talk). Data analysis includes an initial coding and a focused coding, and during the encoding process memos are made which have been enhanced and which give support to define the emerging concepts.

As preliminary results, in the first study, the experiences identified so far corroborate the influences pointed out on the literature, such as the direct contact with nature, educational training, labour, social justice, social networks and loss of beloved place. Some new categories have been identified, like the engagement in environmental interventions, in political activism, in pacifism and yet experiences of leadership and abnegation. After completion of the analysis of biographical reports of researchers of people-environment relationships, the emerging categories will be discussed based on what the literature already proposes. In the second study, preliminary readings point to three analytical axes: definitions of environment, life experiences, and perceptions of PEC. In face of different life stages of participants, two groups have been considered: the first formed by participants aged between 23 and 33 years old, college students, recent graduates or postgraduates, and a second group composed of people aged between 39 and 79 with a consolidated professional career and militancy. I intend to implement a complementary interview, in which I would return information to participants, in order to get additional information from them, improving the discussion of results. Finally, in achieving the proposed goals, I hope to contribute to the advancement of knowledge on the environmental concern determinants, from the approximation with people's own point of view, in order to collaborate in a more direct way with interface areas such as environmental education.

Rocha, Andressa Marina Mat, and Adriana Portella. "Linear parks and urban neighbourhood: how renovation projects can be designed in order to preserve the symbolic importance of the place to local people." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

In general public squares are designed for leisure activities, such as reading, eating, watching and meeting other people, while urban linear parks are destinations that take users to somewhere. These are places known for active recreation and many of them are connected with today’s interest in physical fitness. Examples of this kind of place can be seen in many cities such as in New York City (The High Line), Boston (The Orange Line), London (next to the Thames from London Eye to Millennium Bridge), Curitiba (Parque Linear do Cajuru), and Sao Paulo (Parque Varzeas de Tietê). The idea of a linear park has been developed in some cases as a sustainable measure of use and occupation of the city. However, the problem begins when this kind of approach does not take into account people´s perceptions in terms of the history and symbolism of the area.

This study investigates which variables should be taking into account in projects of urban regeneration of linear parks in order to preserve the symbolism of these places. In Brazil, many places like these are vandalise and abandoned by users as these don´t fit the necessities of people and are design without public participation. Urban design appears as a discipline not applied by the local government, which thinks, many times, that urban design can be replaced by good sits and flower gardens. The case study of this research is Itaimbe Linear Park, which has 1.5 km of extension (0.93 miles) and is located in the city of Santa Maria, in the South of Brazil. This park has been a site of numerous renovation projects. The methods of data collection adopted were: observations, behaviour maps, syntax map of the park with its surrounding, interviews and questionnaires. The data were analysed through qualitative and quantitative methods (non-parametric tests were applied to analyse users responses to questionnaires).

The results indicate that lack of urban planning and urban design strategies with public participation are the most negative issues in the case study, as the renovation projects done along the years created areas perceived as unsafe by the majority of users. There are many sites vandalised in the park and local residents just don´t feel part of that area anymore. At the same time, this place has an important symbolic value for people as it is part of the urban development of the city and characterized by users as a green landmark and focal point in the urban grid. These both contrasting data prove that the process of urban renovation leading by the Council is wrong as it takes into account mainly economic issues to control the budget without a focus in the preservation of the symbolism of the place. To conclude, the study identifies a series of variables that should be taken into account in renovation projects of urban linear parks hoping that these can also help the case study as it is going to be renovated again in 2014.

Graf, Stephanie Elizabeth, Andrew Barnes, Clare Hall, and Tony Craig. "Low Carbon Behaviours within Tourism Businesses in Rural Scotland." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Cutting carbon emissions is a key priority for all public and private sector actors. Therefore in the drive towards a low carbon future, businesses and communities have an important role to play. In order to achieve carbon sustainability there needs to be a good understanding of environmental behaviour. The ongoing study presented here is investigating the antecedents of low carbon behaviour (barriers and motivations) in the context of the rural working environment. Aspects covered include, decision-making and action taken by business owners, managers and non management employees within the tourism sector relating to issues such as energy efficiency, consumption, transport and procurement.

Initial research suggested a number of antecedents to explain low carbon behaviour. Therefore an exploratory behaviour model was developed based on an expanded version of the ‘Theory of Planned Behaviour’ with additional constructs highlighted in the PhD’s pilot study and focus groups which took place earlier in the research. The constructs in the exploratory behavioural model include: business characteristics; individual characteristics; contextual issues, e.g. cost, building infrastructure, environmental management system; environmental attitudes; subjective and social norms; behavioural control and environmental identity. The constructs within the model were then operationalised in the design of a questionnaire survey which was disseminated throughout rural Scotland to tourism related businesses. The data from this questionnaire will be analysed through the use of cluster analysis and structural equation modelling (SEM).

This presentation will focus on the initial findings from the questionnaire study, highlighting those low carbon behaviours that tourism businesses are currently undertaking; whether differences occur between business sectors, organisational structures, work and home environments; the barriers individuals face in choosing low carbon practices, their motivations and willingness to uptake sustainable technologies, such as renewable energy. Conclusions will be drawn regarding the potential processes and initiatives which may facilitate greater adoption of low carbon behaviours in the workplace throughout rural Scotland. Theoretical reflections and methodological challenges will also be discussed.

Ršgele, Stefan, Stefanie Hobrack-Zscheich, Jan Hildebrand, and Petra Schweizer-Ries. "Measuring Energy Consciousness of University Members and Initiating a Change Process Towards an Energy Efficient University." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

A 5-year project focuses on the energy culture of a whole university with a combination of technical, psychological and economical instruments and measures applied through an interdisciplinary research team. Based on the transactional and systemic model of Schweizer-Ries (2011), the goal is to initiate a change process at the university towards more sustainable energy culture. In order to achieve this goal, the first step is to assess a baseline of the energy consciousness on different stakeholder levels (students, academic staff and non-academic staff, administration) at the university. With the systemic understanding of the change process, this assessment is already the first step of the change process (Wilke, 1996).

During the project different measures will be applied to raise the awareness of the university members regarding sustainable energy consumption, and in the long run to establish a new energy culture at the university. The energy consciousness of the university members should manifest itself both in the energy relevant thinking and in behaviour-patterns concerning the energy consumption. This study presents the first results of the different baseline surveys (qualitative and quantitative) which are conducted at the moment of this writing: Already over 1000 members of the university participated in the online questionnaire. For the online questionnaire, different possible variables (e.g. responsibility attributions, perceived behavioural control, social influence) were operationalized in the style of different psychological models (e.g. Theory of Planned Behaviour, Ajzen, 1991; Environmental Conservation Model, Montada & Kals, 1998; Modified Norm Activation Model, e.g. Matthies & Hansmeier, 2010) in order to investigate their influence on energy relevant behaviour. Going along with the online questionnaire, there are conducted interviews with members of the different stakeholder levels as an additional measure.

Based on the results first recommendations will be made for appropriate measures to support the change process at the university, e.g. an ‘university energy day’, energy counselling or individual energy related activities in the respective departments. Therefore, the study results will provide theoretical knowledge about energy consciousness in organisations as well as support real changes within the examined university.

Losonczi, Anna, Zsolt Szendrei, and Andrea Dúll. "Mental mapping and visualizing the urban structure of different types of public places." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

The broad concept of the research is understanding the characteristics of the city that is inspiring and livable either for visitors and locals and understanding how the urban structure of different types of public places contribute to the urban quality which means „good places in a good city” in this case.

In our research, we proposed that the „good distribution” of „meeting points” and „secret places” played an important role. To test it, we needed to clarify first some key conceptions (good places, good distribution, secret place, meeting point, etc) and define them. It was the qualitative phase of our research. Then we developed a methodology how to get answers for our questions with a specific set of mental mapping tasks and how to visualize the urban structure of different types of public places.

In our preliminary study conducted with 25 Hungarian and 25 foreign students in a spring university course in Budapest in May 2013, the subjects were asked to do specific tasks (e. g., following given routes and searching for objects) in two neighbourhoods of Budapest city centre in order to get familiar with it. We supposed that the given neighbourhoods were fairly different according to the distribution of the types of public places and fit the categories meeting points and secret places mentioned above.

After the familiarization the students were asked to fulfil a range of mental mapping tasks. For instance to mark „good places” on a given map and evaluate them in scales in two dimensions: familiarity vs. discovery and shared experience vs. individual experience. In processing the data, two experts (architects) visualised the structures of places evaluated different ways: they drew the network of places that generate shared experience (meeting point) or to draw the network of places that evoke a notion of discovery (secret place).

Studying the relations between those variables the definitions of ‘secret places’ and ‘meeting points’ were outlined validly.

The next step of the study examined what was the difference in the experience when subjects find an object in the built environment by instruction or they find the same object coincidentally. These two tasks reflect two types of environmental orientations.

Half of the students were asked to find specific points in one of the neighbourhoods and the other half of the students were asked to discover the area freely. We compared the experience again by the variables outlined above (shared-individual; familiarity-discovery).

We proposed that the coincident findings generated stronger emotional response and a long-lasting affective effect.

Processing the data and visualizing the structure of „good places” it shows strong coherence and the results confirm that different neighbourhoods offer different opportunities represented in mental maps and generate different behavioural patterns. One of the neighbourhoods given in our experiment shows the good places pointwise unlike the other one that shows a „good network of good places”. The topic suggests the opportunity for designing the optimal distribution of types of public places and leads us to many practical design questions.

Matei, Sorin Adam. "Mental Maps as Mediated Geographies: Situating Spatial Knowledge in a Media Context through Alterpodes." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

An alterpode is a geographic space of alterity, a place where things are just like in the native space of the subject, only beyond some sort of geo-political fold. Typically, Europe and North America are seen as spaces of alterity for each other, the middle of the Atlantic Ocean serving as a "folding" point. Travelling east or west from this fold, the alterity points emerge on its other side. Travelling west one can reach New York, while its point of alterity in the opposite direction. Specifically, its alterpode in Europe would be... The suspension point is used to suggest that typically such alterpodes are rarely imagined to be where they really are. Typically, European alterpodes of US locations are identified much further north, while US alterpodes of European locations, further south. Our research stimulates subjects to think about points of alterity without the help of a complete map. They are encouraged to tell us where points of alterity might be, according to their perceptions, information, or imagination. Studies conducted with US and Italian students who live in each other space of alteritty suggests that alterity is defined by cultural and ethnic perceived proximity. Geographic areas are moved around to match the perceived location of a matrix people or culture, rarely reflecting actual geographic knowledge.

Marans, Robert W., and John Callewaert. "Monitoring Sustainability Culture at the University of Michigan: First Year Results and Next Steps." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

The scientific challenges of sustainability on which organizations and cities have focused their efforts represent only part of the necessary social transition to a sustainable society. Universities can play a pivotal role in addressing the more difficult yet critical aspect of the sustainability transition. That role is in creating and maintaining a “culture of sustainability” on university campuses which can serve as a model for what is needed in cities and in the corporate world. Culture of sustainability is defined as a culture in which individuals are aware of major environmental challenges, are behaving in sustainable ways, and are committed to a sustainable lifestyle for both the present and future. Therefore, in order to promote cultural transformation nothing less than a paradigm shift is needed in society generally, and specifically in universities and in organizational and governmental thinking.

This paper reviews efforts to change the culture of sustainability at the University of Michigan (U-M) and discusses an approach to measuring and monitoring that change from 2012-to 2017. The Sustainability Cultural Indicators Program (SCIP) is intended to inform U-M officials and others responsible for day-to-day operations of the University including its academic programs. Furthermore, it is intended to serve as a model demonstrating how behavioral research can be used to address critical environmental issues within universities, in other organizational settings, and in cities.

Following a review of the SCIP process, findings from Year 1 or baseline measures are summarized as cultural indicators. In order to determine change, data collected at the U-M in subsequent years will be examined against these baseline measures. Summary of key indicators for Year 1 reveal that

  1. There is considerable room for improvement with regard to the behaviors, levels of awareness, degrees of engagement and expressed commitment to sustainability among members of the University community.
  2. The behaviors of students are far more in tune with the goal of greenhouse gas reduction than the behaviors of staff and faculty. This is largely due to differences in the ways each group travels to and from campus. Students are also likely to know more about transportation options available to them and are more engaged than either staff or faculty in sustainability activities on campus.
  3. Compared to students and staff, faculty tend to act in a more sustainable manner with respect to conserving energy, preventing waste, purchasing food , and more generally, engaging in pro-environmental activities outside of the University. Faculty members also express a higher level of commitment to sustainability than others on campus.
  4. Students tend to be less knowledgeable than staff or faculty about protecting the natural environment, preventing waste, and sustainable foods. But they are more aware than faculty about what is happening at the U-M with regard to sustainability. Nonetheless, staff is most aware of the scope of U-M’s sustainability initiatives.

Finally, the on-going analysis of data including the use of environmental indicators is discussed along with its contributions to environment-behavior research and policies dealing with community engagement toward a more sustainable society.

Ojala, Maria, and Rolf Lidskog. "Mosquitoes as a threat to humans and the community: The role of place identity, social norms, worry and ecocentric values in public risk perception." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

There is a risk that climate change in Northern Europe will cause an increase of insect populations that are a nuisance to humans. Studies and media reporting indicate that many people in Sweden already today suffer from a perceived increase of mosquitoes in their communities and that demands for large-scale, publicly-funded interventions to fight these mosquitoes are on the rise. In Sweden it is extremely rare to combat insect populations solely on the basis of human nuisance, partly due to a strong national ambition to protect biodiversity. When mosquitoes in some rare cases have been combated a biological insecticide has been used. There is, however, uncertainties related to the insecticide’s long term effects on biodiversity, and these kinds of interventions are also expensive. Hence, this poses a dilemma that policy makers have to handle. Since the main reason for fighting mosquitoes in the Northern part of the world, thus far, is people’s experiences of discomfort, it is important to gain more knowledge on what this discomfort stands for in order to effectively deal with this dilemma. Qualitative studies show that even where the mosquito prevalence is very high, risk perception can vary from one person to another. Thus, as is the case concerning risk perception in general the perceived threat from mosquitoes is probably influenced by many factors in addition to the actual frequency of these insects. Quantitative studies that explore which these factors are, have, however, not yet been performed.

The aim of this study was to explore which factors are associated with risk perception concerning mosquitoes among people living in a Swedish community that recently has experienced an increase in mosquitoes. Theories and studies about place identity, social norms, worry and values and their role in influencing risk perception were used in order to identify relevant factors. A postal questionnaire was distributed to those living in the community and was answered by 317 persons (response rate 70 %). A scale containing items measuring perceived threat of the mosquitoes to oneself, other people, and the community was developed. The items fell out as a unidimensional scale in a principal component analysis and the internal consistency of the scale was good. In bivariate analyses mosquito risk perception was positively related to place identity, descriptive social norms, and self-oriented worry and negatively related to ecocentric values, while it had no significant relation to other-oriented worry. Thereafter, the relative importance of these factors in explaining risk perception was investigated in a multiple regression analysis with gender, education and age as control variables. The most important predictor was descriptive social norms, but place identity, and ecocentric values also contributed uniquely in explaining risk perception. Thus, the more people perceived others to have a high risk perception concerning mosquitoes, the stronger they identified with their community, and the less important they found ecocentric values to be, the higher risk perception they had concerning mosquitoes. These results are discussed in relation to the theory of social amplification of risks and practical implications are elaborated upon.

Medugorac, Vanja, Vedran Lesic, and Geertje Schuitema. "Motivations of proponents and opponents in Croatias referendum on a golf project." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

In April of 2013 citizen and non-governmental organisations initiated a referendum over a golf project planned to be built on the plateau of Srdj above the city of Dubrovnik in Croatia. Public opinion was divided over the issue. Proponents of the project emphasized new working opportunities, extension of the tourist season and decoration of the plateau as the main arguments in favour of the project, while opponents highlighted non-transparent decision-making, privatization of public spaces and negative environmental consequences as main reasons for opposing the project.

In order to get a better insight in psychological determinants of opposition and acceptability of golf project a field research was conducted in a form of exit polls. Due to environmental consequences of a planned project, voting in referendum was defined as a specific type of pro-environmental behaviour (Stern, 2000), namely non-activist behaviour in the public sphere. Data were collected on a 10 different polling locations selected to reflect varieties in socioeconomic status of the city, on a total of 418 participants in age range from 18 to 89. Respondents were approached after they had answered the referendum question whether they supported the construction of a golf course and accommodating facilities, and asked to fill out a pen and paper survey.

Applied survey measured value orientations, specific beliefs, personal norms, trust in municipality, as well as distributive, procedural and environmental justice. Opponents of the proposed golf project had stronger altruistic and biospheric values, and scored lower on egoistic values in comparison to proponents group. They also had more negative specific beliefs regarding golf project, less trust in municipality and stronger personal norms than pro-project group. Further, they assessed the project as less fair on all three fairness principles in comparison to pro-project group. These results indicated that those who voted against the golf project considered the moral considerations strongly. However, given that the election threshold was not met (31% voted, whereas the threshold was 50%), the moral considerations were not strong enough in a majority of the population to motivate them to vote against the golf course. More results and implications will be discussed with special reference to possible interventions, mostly regarding citizens’ participation and the referendum design within the context of Croatia as a society in transition.

Pedersen, Eja. "Multiple environmental stressors intruding into the urban dwelling." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

The dwelling is a private space where one should be allowed to relax without unwanted intrusion from outside. Urban environments include activities such as road and rail traffic, industries, and waste management; activities that generate noise, light, odour and vibration. The effects of noise are fairly well known. Prolonged exposure to high noise levels has adverse health effects, and the highest levels are therefore systematically combated within the EU. Medium levels have so far been left to citizens to manage themselves. The effects of light, odour and vibrations are not so well studied. Overlooked are also synergistic effects when several environmental stressors are present at the same time. This study addresses environmental stressors of medium levels intruding into urban dwellings from outside in terms of (i) the occurrence of annoyance, and (ii) implications for the individual of being annoyed by multiple stressors. Five neighbourhoods in Halmstad, Sweden, with similar physical structure and socio-economic status were classified as quiet, medium exposed from few sources, or medium exposed from many sources. A total of fifteen potential stressors were identified by visiting the areas. Annoyance and possible moderating factors were measured with a postal questionnaire (response rate: 56%; N = 385). Of the respondents, 49% were annoyed by at least one of the 15 potential stressors. The highest frequencies were found for vibrations from buses or trucks (23%), noise from passing cars (22%), noise from mopeds and motorcycles (20%), and from the highway (17%). Annoyance due to local road traffic occurred in all areas, while annoyance caused by rail traffic or industrial was found only in connection to these sources. Inspection of data showed a threshold effect. A series of binary logistic regressions (adjusted for area, i.e. exposure) confirmed that respondents who reported annoyance from four or more proposed environmental stressors (N = 65) differed from those who were annoyed by fewer stressors (N = 320). Multi-annoyed respondents reported poorer health (OR = 1.47) and lower life satisfaction (OR = 0.93), were more sensitive to noise, vibration and odour (OR = 1.59), and had a stronger need of recovery in everyday life (OR = 1.29). Taken together, this suggests a life situation where it is important to feel in control of the indoor environment and be able to allow only desirable stimuli. In accordance with this, multi-annoyed respondents felt more hindered to do what they wanted (OR = 1.65) and experienced that they could not take it easy and relax (OR = 0.54) in their homes. They were also not so satisfied with their dwellings (OR = 0.61) or neighbourhoods (OR = 0.46), and reported lower place attachment (OR = 0.72) than other respondents. It is essential to mitigate environmental stressors also of medium levels in order to meet the needs of urban residents. Spatial planning for future sustainable cities should include planning for residential areas with a minimum of intruding environmental stressors.

Schwab, Markus, Jan Hoeltge, Laura Pirgie, Jennifer Sudkamp, and Renate Cervinka. "My garden as a power plant for health? Private Gardens, perceived restorativeness and self-reported health." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Introduction: Private gardens can foster restoration and self-reported health. They can be designed to meet users’ needs and allow for connecting with nature. Using multiple regression analysis in previous research we identified several predictors for perceived restorativeness of private gardens. Correlational analysis showed a significant correlation between perceived restorativeness of gardens and self-reported health. This study is aimed at exploring the direct and indirect relations between predictors of perceived restorativeness of gardens and self-reported health.

The Sample consisted of (n = 448) respondents from an online survey aged 21 to 82 (M = 49.73, SD = 12.82; female 63.2 %), who indicated their garden as the most restorative place. Participants had to respond to questions concerning several predictors for perceived restorativeness of gardens, and self-reported health (e.g. the connectedness to their garden). Using a structural equation modeling approach, causal relations (between garden characteristics, garden-user relationship, perceived restoration and perceived health) were investigated. In the model, perceived restorativeness (PRS: Hartig et al., 1996, 1997) and self-reported health (three subscales of the SF-36: Bullinger & Kirchberger, 1998) represented endogenous variables. Garden-user relationship, characteristics of the garden, and detachment from work (Blasche, 2011) represented exogenous variables. Our model included both direct effects of the exogenous variables on self-reported health and indirect effects mediated by perceived restorativeness.

The perceived restorativeness of the garden was rated high on the PRS (M = 8.07, SD = 1.39). Self-reportet health was rated (M = 86.58, SD = 12.64). The hypothesized model appears to be a good fit to the data (e.g. RMSEA = 0.031). However, the direct, indirect and total effects will be analyzed in more detail. We expect high total (direct plus indirect) influence of garden-user relationship on self-reported health.

Importing all relevant variables into one model can be seen as an advantage of the applied method. Furthermore, existing relations are displayed in a clear way. Although, our structural equation model is in line with results from prior research, using correlational and multiple regression analysis, some methodological questions arise (e.g. appropriateness of the procedures used to cope with violated assumptions). Practical implications for planers, psychologists, other professionals, and garden-users will be discussed.

Munteanu, Anca, and Gabriel-Mugurel Dragomir. "MY HOME OR ANOTHER MIRROR OF WHO I AM." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

This study belongs to an area called snoopology, if we are to use the term spread by the American university professor Sam Gosling (2008), who is an authority in the field. The explicit objective of the authors is to prove through arguments gathered during a field investigation, that the home we live in can offer a suggestive portrait regarding our psycho-behavioral identity.

As a fundamental theoretical condition we looked at the three categories of indicators that S. Gosling suggests as being defining in such an undertaking: identity claims, feeling regulators and behavioral residues. By the investigation we initiated on a lot of 60 adult intellectuals, we aimed on one hand to establish what the home means for these subjects and on the other hand, to detect how orderly they really are. We analyzed them through two questionnaires put together by Bénédicte Régimont (2007) and the IPIP personality test. After gathering statistics we identified the following: what the home means for the subjects, choosing between the five options suggested by B. Régimont (a mirror, a refuge, a Spanish inn, a ’’ghost’’, a family place); how orderly they are according to the suggested typology by the same author, and also the correlation between the five dimensions of personality (distinguished by the IPIP test) and the type of home and order they opted for.

In conclusion, the home we live in is a special opportunity for an “inside look”, as a business card for the human personality.

Devine-Wright, Patrick, Jennifer Price, Zoe Leviston, and Iain Walker. "Nation versus Planet? Exploring the role of place attachments at different scales in influencing climate change beliefs." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Research on sense of place, specifically concepts of place attachment and place identity, is beginning to make an important contribution to the understanding of human responses to climate change. However, there has been a dearth of research on place attachment at multiple scales, and particularly the global level, despite strong advocacy two decades ago that climate change responses would be enabled by strengthened global and attenuated national attachments (Feitelson, 1991). To address this gap, survey data was collected from a representative sample of Australian citizens (N = 1147), capturing place attachment at neighbourhood, city/town, state/territory, country and global scales, as well as a range of climate change belief and individual difference measures. Findings support Feitelson’s arguments by suggesting that the interplay between national and global place attachments is important in influencing climate change beliefs. Individuals that expressed stronger global than national place attachment were more likely to attribute climate change to anthropogenic than natural causes, to hold higher levels of concern, to perceive climate change both to be personally relevant and as an opportunity rather than a threat, in comparison to individuals indicating stronger national over global place attachment. Further analysis indicated that individuals expressing stronger global than national place attachments were more likely to be female, younger, and self-identify as having no religion, to be characterized by significantly lower levels of right wing authoritarian and social dominance beliefs, higher levels of egalitarianism and to be more likely to vote Green. Implications for future research and the design and evaluation of climate interventions are discussed.

Craig, Tony, Anke Fischer, and Anna Conniff. "Nature, shopping, and pro-environmental behaviour." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

This paper builds on a large body of literature which has shown the positive benefits of experiences with nature, and compares such experiences with another everyday experience – namely shopping. We report here on the results of two questionnaire studies in which people were asked people to describe an ‘experience which involved nature’ [or shopping]. Many studies draw either on predefined concepts of nature, or they treat nature in a rather conceptual or non-experiential way. We were interested in the question "what does it actually mean to experience nature?". What counts (in the minds of people, not necessarily of researchers) as an experience of/in nature? Rather than using preconceived categories, these studies set out to address this question in a grounded way: What do people perceive as ‘experiencing nature’?

In addition to looking at people's perceptions of 'experiencing nature' and 'experiencing shopping', we also asked participants to indicate how people characterized these experiences emotionally. We did this by asking people to write down single emotion words, and also to rate several scales of emotion related to the experience.

In the first study (N=357), participants were also asked about connectedness-with-nature, life satisfaction and current mood. Emotional responses to self-generated descriptions of recent shopping and nature experiences were compared, and it was found that whereas nature experiences tended to be more pleasant, more arousing, and more peaceful than shopping experiences. Furthermore, measures of emotional response to nature or shopping experiences were found to be related to measures of nature-connectedness and pro-environmental behaviour.

In the second study (N=371), we also asked people to describe an ‘experience which involved nature’ [or shopping], and to characterize these experiences in terms of their emotional response. In both studies,we examined the relationship between these responses and the likelihood of undertaking pro-environmental behaviour, but in the second study, we did not find such a relationship. The reasons for this difference include the time of year that the studies were carried out, as the second study was undertaken shortly after a period of snowfall, and in some cases things like 'clearing snow from the car' were included in the broad category of 'nature experience', and such examples were rated as being more negative in terms of the emotional response to the experience. On the other hand, people's experiences of shopping in this study tended to include more examples of 'gift shopping', which were generally regarded as more positive experiences compared to grocery shopping.

Results are discussed in relation to the methodological challenges of understanding 'everyday experiences' in relation to nature and the environment more broadly.

Lestan, Katarina Ana, Mojca Golobi_, and Ivan Er_En. "New appartment, less health? Implications of open space design for healthy life styles in urban neigbourhoods." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Similar to other transition countries, urban development in Slovenia was significantly influenced by the political and economic changes in the beginning of 1990s. The switch to open market economy caused a substantial negligence of common interests and communal values, reflected also in the quality of new residential neighborhoods. Compared to older ones, the developments built in last two decades are typically single-use residential, with open space reduced in size and programme. This research is based on the evidence from the research consistently indicating an association between the built environment, health and well-being, and levels of physical activity. The lack and poor quality of open/green space in urban neighborhoods can be a serious restriction for well-being of the inhabitants as it does not support developing healthy life-styles, including spending time outdoors, walking, playing etc. This is especially important for children and the elderly, who depend on the proximity of well-designed open spaces in their living surroundings. The design of the research methods follows the three-part concept of urban quality: physical characteristics, use, and perception. We aimed to test whether (1) there is a relation between the quality of open space in urban neighborhoods and the level and variety of physical activity; and (2) if there is a relation between quality of open space and quality of life (and physical well-being) as perceived by their inhabitants. The empirical research was performed in selected housing neighborhoods in Ljubljana; three recent ones and one older. The first part involved inventory and mapping of open space in selected neighborhoods, and its evaluation with reference to urban design standards. This step was followed by observation and mapping of the people’s behavior, and interpretation according to type of user and level of activity. Finally a door to door interview at households was applied to obtain subjective data on perception of open space and self-reported behavior and well-being. The results of the first phase empirically confirm differences between the neighbourhoods: in comparison with older neighborhoods newer have less open space of poorer quality and less potential for spending time outside while being home for more children. The results of the second phase reveal relation between outdoor activities and open space: a lack of outdoor space and equipment increases transition activities and shortens the time spent outside. Results of interviewing process show that in all newer residential areas satisfaction with the quality of apartments exceeds the satisfaction with neighborhood area, they wish to have more trees and better designed green areas residents, and they spend less time outdoors. Correlation between results of all three methods allows drawing conclusions regarding the relation between quality of open space and health implications for inhabitants. While the health related lifestyle is affected by several other variables (gender, age, education, social status, etc.) there is convincing indication that open space in home neighborhood is an important factor encouraging more and more active engagement outdoors

Bâldea, Maja, and Cristian Dumitrescu. "New Patterns in Designing High Density Collective Dwellings." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

We live in a more and more densely populated world, and the population trends predict a continuing growth. Population growth attracts an ever increased demand for housing, in relation to which the only logical future support seems to be collective housing of high density, as the only typology capable of containing high numbers of inhabitants. Population growth and recent developments have created a shift in lifestyles that determined a complex change in needs and behavioral patterns of population, that suggest a necessary change in the way housing is currently designed and configured.

The study observes the phenomenon of collective housing from an architectural point of view, being focused on what is the correct configuration of future collective housing in relation to the current context. It has become obvious that the patterns of collective housing containing identical apartment layouts, simply multiplied on a vertical axis represent a surpassed response to the issue of contemporary dense housing, even in Romania. Since the environment, including built environment has a direct influence on people and on the way they perceive wellbeing and social relationships, it is clear that for a newly defined context new housing solutions and layouts should be developed.

The social environment has changed lately, and lifestyles and dynamics have recorded a solid shift, while at the same time the classical family patterns were dissolved into ultra-diversified typologies of families or home-sharing-groups. Future high density collective housing should be configured to satisfy the needs of urban contemporary life as well as individual needs of a wide array of inhabitants, with different social and behavioral patterns, but in the same time it should aim for spatial configurations that enhance the quality of life and of social interactions.

Contemporary urban housing typologies currently depart from conventional block of flats and become diverse structures that include fine gradations between public and private spaces, by integrating intermediate or mixed-use public spaces, while the apartments have a simplified layout and open up outwards. In the current trends, collective housing tends recompose itself from within, by containing diverse apartments and units within the same building, offering a more flexible use.

The paper aims to identify contemporary trends and patterns within the design of collective housing, by studying current collective housing trends, existing contemporary collective housing models as well as social aspects derived from the study of behaviors in high-density environments. Its goal is to determine coherent design principles and spatial arrangements which could be applied locally and which could be used in future design in order to create better built environments.

Ramadier, Thierry, Simon Borja, Sandrine Depeau, Pierre Bussière, and Sebastien Lord. "On geographical mobility and its contemporary meanings." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Nowadays “mobility” is a word that cuts across all social fields. It is often associated with issues pertaining to sustainable development as well. However, this term or notion seems to be such an obvious keyword that only few works illustrate its meaning. In fact, research today addresses its practices more than its values. And yet, how can we apprehend spatial practices without grasping what mobility means to the planners and architects of our sites who evoke it, to their residents, migrants and/or users of informal or formal technical infrastructures which support and frame our daily movements, to the scientists who search how to analyse it, to the politicians that erect it as a future perspective, to the economic actors that consider it indispensable, and so on. What are the other dimensions of mobility associated to its geographical meaning ? What can be the consequences of the observed differences between social groups (as applied to the classical model of differences in significance of a building between its architects and its users), that it be socially related or spatially related? This symposium would fall under theme 4 « Communities resilience and socio-cultural change : transition from traditional to modern cities ».

Thierry Ramadier, Ph.D., Chairman of th symposium

, Ph.D.

Abstract

Mobility is a word that appeared recently in social sciences. Before one could hear about mobility, the terms of movement or transport were preferred and even before that the word flow. Each of them evoke specific conceptions of spatial practices and eventually correspond to research stages of what we now call mobility. The first stage, all the way from the beginning of the 1930s to the middle of the 70s, is concerned with movement so as to facilitate it. It led to the engineering construct of the notion of movement flow. The period that followed runs to the middle of the 1990s and conceives mobility as an individual need: it is a period during which research obeys the injunctions of mobility. The final period, still running, attempts to think the ease with which one moves, rather than thinking such as during the first period, i.e the movement to facilitate it. Henceforth, putting the investigations of mobility in a sociological perspective gets accentuated, thereby making the notions of skill and even capital become central to think it. The description of these three research stages on mobility enables to bring forward the idea according to which, if mobility was originally a term used to evoke a change in one’s social conditions of existence (social mobility), it is nowadays, however, progressively shifting towards meanings articulated around the upholding of social conditions of existence.

Bibliography

Borja, S, Courty, G., Ramadier, T., 2012, « La mobilité serait un capital : doutes et interrogations », In V. Kaufmann (Dir.), Controverse Scientifique sur le capital de mobilité, Forum de la vie Mobile, en ligne

http://www.forumviesmobiles.org/controverse/2012/12/14/mobilite-comme-capital-488-

Cullen, I., Godson, V., 1975, « Urban networks: The structure of activity patterns », Progress in Planning, 4 (1), 1–96.

Eno, W. P., 1939, The Story of Highway Traffic Control, Westport, Eno Foundation for Highway Traffic Control.

Sorokin, P., 1927, Social mobility, New York, Harper and Brothers.

, Ph.D. candidate

Abstract

This communication proposes to explore the uses of the category of « mobility » in urban policies. The hypothesis is that mobility provides a coherent and valid discursive format in the management of cities and their image. Indeed, all the way from cities being subsumed as « a right », portrayed as « accessible », « concerted » or « sustainable » spaces, only a small step remains for this new leitmotiv to bring forward the principles of a « mobile city ». The term of mobility can today be considered as an endoxa, that is a term valid for everyone, used everywhere. Its common use, however, needs to be brought back to its underlying discourse so as to grasp that, on the one hand, it assumes diverse realities, and on the other hand, its adoption conceals certain transformations in urban policies.

To what extent does mobility permeate, and from what do its reference and establishment stem ? Is it just a matter of supports within the frame of a certain urban and political (act of) communication ? Through the summing up of its occurrences, its varied uses in legislative texts, ministerial guidelines, planning and urban documents and interviews with elected representatives, we are going to show what is implied by mobility, what organises its logic and what underpins its beliefs and values. By shedding light on these aspects, one sees how mobility can be envisaged as a formula whose formal properties of uses bring it back to a « set of formulations which, being used at a certain time in a given public space, crystallize political and social stakes that these expressions contribute to construct » (Krieg-Planque Alice, 2009, p.7). Thereby, this formula eventually masks the interests that inherently support it, as well as its specific and differentiated stakes. Consequently, where public action is at crossroads with transport policy and city government (Offner, 1992; Lorrain, 1998; Le Galès, 2003; Pinson, 2009), mobility constitutes a formula that accounts for transformations in political concern of the city ; a space whose designation has deflected to the urban.

Bibliography

Krieg-Planque, A., 2009, La notion de "formule" en analyse du discours. Cadre théorique et méthodologique, Besançon, PUFC (coll. Annales littéraires).

Le Galès, P., 2003, Le retour des villes européennes, Sociétés urbaines, mondialisation, gouvernement et gouvernances, Paris, Science Po., 2003.

Lorrain G., 1998, « Gouverner, administrer, réguler », Les Annales de la recherche urbaine, n°80-81, pp.85-92 ;

Offner J-M., 1992, « Les effets structurants du transport : mythe politique, mystification scientifique », L'Espace géographique, 3, 233-240.

Pinson Gilles, 2009, Gouverner la ville par projet. Urbanisme et gouvernance des villes européennes, Paris, Presses de Science Po.

, Ph.D.

Abstract

Today the place of children in the city and their relationships to space are more and more apprenhended within the notion of « mobility ». This one is more than a key notion, it is also a paradigmatic frame in numerous disciplinaries. In this context, we will focus the presentation on the child’s development and more specically on the notion of autonomy, which is a fundamental process in the children’s development, mainly in their relationship to environment. The place and the challenges of this concept in the understanding of mobility will be observed and discussed through the co-evolution of scientific research and societal problematics. In order to show up and discuss some hidden meanings and challenges related to children’s mobility, we firstly present (from scientific littérature) how scientific problematics on children’s mobility has advanced since those thirty years (i.e. from urban activity, to independant activity and active or healthy behaviors). Thus, we will show how spatial and individual dimensions can be sometimes fostered to the detriment of temporal and social questions.

Secondly, relying on data stemming from our research works, the concept of autonomy will

be revisited by 1/questioning the hidden meanings and values of children’s mobility in parents’ representation (the norms associated to children’s independant travels ; the meaning of time-sharing in parental organisation, etc.) ; 2/showing how children’s travels can acquire some functions (such as the function of shield against the « risk » of social mixity that obliges to include a geographical question which is often neglected or studied independantly, that is to say, the context of the bypass of map of school catchment area) 3/questioning the place and meanings of autonomy in the contempory spatial and social device of walking school bus.

These several lines of discussion should allow to enlarge the problematic of children’s mobility by articulating the various levels of stakes, taking into account as much familiy questions as those of children’s development. Links which are fundamental in the problematic of autonomy.

, Ph.D. candidate

, Ph. D.

Abstract

Mobilities give greater scales to metropolitan residential territories, where “home” can both acquire and keep meanings in a wide place in movements. Globalization pushes and transposes these mobilities beyond borders, where “home”, in the context of migration, is then rebuilt or transposed into socio-spatial environment for short or longer terms. Especially addressed in a local context, how “home” evolves in terms of meanings and how residential experiences are transforming in the context of large spatial and social distances? This communication questions the capacity of replacement for individuals in societies created from nomadic individuals (Radkowsky 2002), where mobility uses contribute to polytopic lifestyles (Stock 2007) and reveal, at the same time, both social and spatial identities that are complex and relative in terms of geographies (Ramadier Depeau 2011).

More specifically, this paper outlines preliminary results of an exploratory research conducted in the Greater Montréal (Québec, Canada). The migration projects of 10 individuals are exposed in order to place both the theoretical and methodological bases of a wider research. This work is based on socio-anthropological interviews with migrants aged between 24 and 45 years and established in Montréal for at least three years. The experience of migration has been analyzed in four stages: 1) Situation before migration; 2) Arrival in Montréal; 3) Residential establishment; 4) Current situation. The methodology combines both objective (mapping successive action spaces) and subjective (narrative of the migration project) dimensions of home and mobility-migration.

With a combined “comprehensive and genealogic” approach (Cailly 2007), we examined the meanings of “home” by questioning the previous residential locations, related mobility uses, and the perceptions of cultural difference and relationship to borders. Continuities and ruptures occurring in the relationship between individual and his environment during the migration process were analyzed to explore the hypothesis of “home plasticity”. This involves the individual ability to mobilize meanings of “home” as resources to adapt to new environments in order to both participate in “home” environment production and to act as support to mobility-migration coherence. These preliminary observations are also feeding two other assumptions in connection with the figure of migrant as “cultural mediator” (Villanova 2007): the mobility-migration as a process of individualization as well as the relationship to oneself; the experiences and the difficulties of socialization (Boissonnade 2007) in the context of urban cosmopolitanism.

Bibliography

Cailly L., 2007, « Capital spatial, stratégies résidentielles et processus d'individualisation », Annales de Géographie, 654.

Boissonade J., 2007/3-4, « Processus d'identification territorialisés, des compétences situationnelles face aux épreuves », L'homme et la société, 165-166.

Martouzet D., 2007, « Le rapport affectif à la ville : premiers résultats », In Thierry Paquot T. et M. Lussault et C. Younès, Habiter, le propre de l'humain, Villes, territoires et philosophie, La Découverte.

Ramadier T. et Depeau S., 2011, Se déplacer pour se situer, PUR.

Radkowsky (de) G-H., 2002, Anthropologie de l'habiter, vers le nomadisme, PUF.

Stock M., 2007, « Théorie de l'habiter, questionnements », In Thierry Paquot T. et M. Lussault et C. Younès, Habiter, le propre de l'humain, Villes, territoires et philosophie, La Découverte.

Villanova (de) R., 2007, « Espace de l'entre-deux ou comment la mobilité des immigrés recrée du territoire », L'homme et la société, 3-4, 165-166.

Rühmland, Silke, Maximilian Reuss, and Petra Schweizer-Ries. "Oppositional Behavior to the German Power Grid Extension: the role of place identity." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

An increasing oppositional behavior of residents is often reported also within the context of the extension of the German power grid (Priestley & Evans, 1996, Zoellner & Rau, 2010). This paper adopts the considerations that the highly criticized concept of NIMBY opposition (Rau, Walter & Zoellner, 2011) is rather seen as reports on place-protective actions, which arise when local developments threaten place-related identity processes (Devine-Wright, 2009). Based on the well known identity process theory of Breakwell (1986) the four processes place-related distinctiveness, place-related continuity, place-related self-efficiency and place-related self-esteem lead to place identity.

In the area of acceptance of new energy technologies Devine-Wright (2005, 2009, Brittan, 2001) assumes that threats to certain identity processes lead to a low self-esteem and may trigger oppositional behavior. More precise: Place related distinctiveness can be threatened by alteration perception of the symbolic meaning of a place. A local character can be weakened by a used technology such as wind turbines. The perception of a place becomes familiar for an individual over time. By adding a new infrastructure the place-related familiarity gets altered and can be perceived as a threat to place-related continuity. The process of self-efficiency can be threatened by the process of decision making that is perceived as unfair and intransparent. In conclusion, threats to these three identity processes can lead to a reduced level of self-esteem and may trigger different forms of coping strategies, such as oppositional behavior.

It is questionable if the connections between the identity processes are similar within the context of grid extension just as in the context of renewable energy infrastructure. The installation of over head lines or underground cables could threaten certain identity processes in the same way as renewable infrastructure does. In order to examine the theoretical framework of Devine- Wright within the context of the extension of the German electricity grid a standardized questionnaire survey was conducted in three regions in Germany (N= 611; response rate 21%).

Results indicate that place-related distinctiveness, place-related continuity and place-related self-efficiency predict self-esteem. A structural equation model will be applied to examine if these three processes influence self-esteem and if self-esteem itself is an important factor to predict oppositional behavior.

Benli, Aysen Cevriye, and Zeliha Şahin Çagli. "Order and Expression in Nature for the Architecture in Mersin." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

The form world of nature is so wealthy in its form language nuances and adaptations. The expression is the ‘essence’ in nature. Expressive language in human art is important as means of communication like the language between human beings. Human, one self, is an organism who spreads his effects to environment like form. This soul, this spiritual energy which spreads from human is aura which makes a symbol of humans’ personality and influence.

In nature, a correlation exists between forms to make a unity while considering all existences together. The principles of correlation and expression work together and organize the growing process in a unified order. When human simply occupies with man-made environment, there has obviously no sensitivity to the correlation with nature. All forms have to be considered with its idea of occurrence, its means of expression and its accordance of form to environment. This means to get along well with all the structural events for the complexity of nature and man-made environment.

The special quality of all human groups depends on the persons who live there and their relations together and the quality of social example within them. Social order and order of form are related to each other. When the living spaces where people is dwelt change according to natural surroundings and vary in measure, the architectural spaces differ, in the same time the atmosphere of this spiritual form will develop and have to develop and will give and have to give the necessity of resonance to people who lives there. And then we will see that a spiritual relation will exist and have to exist between the community and the procedure of form for community. Work is to look according order and expression in nature for the Architecture in some built environments in Mersin, Turkey.

Gao, Yun, and Adrian Pitts. "Overcoming the gap between behavioural change and design of sustainable interior family space in China." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

The majority of newly completed residential dwellings in China need re-design and re-decoration to make them habitable and fit for function and purpose. The re-design processes brings with it substantial waste of materials and workmanship. Unlike the processes of design and construction of new buildings that are regulated by a series of Design Standards for Energy Efficiency, the processes of re-design and decoration have few legal constraints. Sustainable design in this phrase is mostly governed by users’ demands for a healthy and comfortable environment.

This paper examines how the concept of “sustainable building design” is understood and how sustainable design methods are implemented differently in design and re-design processes in Kunming, China. As part of an analysis of case studies of residential projects, an investigation has taken place into how behavioral change can influence sustainable building design in the local social and cultural context. The aim is to show why no single answer is likely to emerge from general debates on a sustainable architecture.

Kunming is the capital of Yunnan province, Southwest China. Within five climate zones divided for correspondent building regulations in China, Kunming is in the Mild Zone with the least constraints for design. Both residential and public projects therefore have a lot of flexibility to meet various demands from users. This project investigates how behaviour changes, different understanding, demands and legal constraints on sustainable buildings affected the design and re-design practices for residential buildings in Kunming. The study is attempts to examine the concept of sustainable design as a process not only interwoven with design and construction, but extended into usage phases.

In today’s property market in Kunming, ninety percent of residential properties are sold with no finishes or facilities. The owners of those properties can re-design internal space, adding and deleting walls, and installing facilities and finishes to make them habitable and comfortable. The concept of “sustainable buildings” is understood by many householders as healthy environment and high-quality products and life styles.

In China, the impact of government policies on the architectural design and construction is far greater compared to practice in the West. The lack of sufficient regulations concerning design and construction means that the methods for achieving sustainable design varies significantly according to behaviour changes, the consumption patterns, cultural taboos, life styles, and local government policies. It is here where the issues around achieving sustainability are most affected as the practice needs to subject to different forces.

Questions considered in the paper include

How can users influence design practice in the direction of sustainability?

What methods might be used to reduce waste of materials and time?

How can the findings contribute to a more general understanding of sustainable design?

As part of this, comparisons of the designed layout in the architectural drawings and transformed spatial arrangements in the usage phrases will take place. The study is to assess the extent of the changes, the ways they were changed according to user demands and the methods for improving sustainable design and construction.

Ferrai, Claudia Patrizia, Shiyang Hu, Katarina Katsma, Emma Powell, and Felstead Aimee. "PARKWOOD SPRINGS: THE FARMING REVOLUTION." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Introduction: Parkwood Springs sits on a large area directly in the heart of Sheffield. The site compromises an existing landfill, wild parkland full of invasives, steep land, a small park and mountain bike path, an abandoned artificial ski slope, an old over grown cemetery and countless factories both used and abandoned. The surrounding community averages lower wages than the rest of Sheffield as well as higher health disparities. On good days the large space may seem like a nice park, but tipping and graffiti make the site increasingly unsafe to venture through.

Method: This project was completed in a MA2 Urban Planning module at the University of Sheffield which aimed to remediate the landfill once it is closed and envision the site as an amenity and asset to the local community. The planning strategy chosen to achieve this was to turn the area into a productive site, ranging from community gardens to wheat and vegetable fields.

Sheep grazing would be introduced throughout the steeper sites to give maintenance to the site and yield wool for local businesses. The small park would be turned into an edible forest so that every plant served a productive purpose and the old ski slope would be turned into a vineyard. Community gardens along the north part of the site near the residents would allow the local community to become involved with Parkwood springs and provide natural surveillance to the site for safety. Instead of capping the landfill with clay or ignoring the space completely, the planting of wheat and barley for bio-mass would be implemented for a period of 10 years in phase 1 to remediate the site before phase 2 would replace these grains with cut flowers, vegetables and orchards.

A main hub would be located where an old neighborhood development once stood and would provide space for education on everything from growing your own vegetables at home to research and how it is conducted. The University of Sheffield would monitor the contamination from this hub throughout the phase 1 period to ensure levels were at a healthy standard before phase 2 was implemented. This station would be located

RESULTS & DISCUSSION

Changing this once derelict land full of waste into a productive site that served all of Sheffield would provide ownership to an ignored no-man's land. Because of this ownership it would also become much safer for the local community whilst also giving visual appeal to what was once an eyesore. The hub would provide education on greener, more sustainable measures as well as training and much needed research to provide for a better, more environmentally sustainable future. With food production in Sheffield, local markets could be established to provide the area with home-grown produce. All of this in turn would create jobs and social enterprise to evolve Sheffield into a healthier, more sustainable community; a model for other modern cities on how to integrate modern city infrastructure with necessary food and commerce production.

Ohara, Kazuoki. "Participating ecomuseum and raising local identity." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

The term "ecomuseum" refers to ecological activities that aim to develop an entire region as a living museum. An ecomuseum embodies three elements: (1) Heritage : the preservation of various kinds of heritage, including nature and cultural and industrial traditions, in a given region, (2) Participation : the management and operation of these with the participation of local residents for the sake of their own futures, and (3) Museum : the function of the preserved nature and traditions as a museum. Ideally, as shown in the diagram, the three elements of "heritage," "participation" and "museum" should be well balanced and constitute a closely integrated whole. In Japan today, there are only a few cases in which the three elements interact on an equal footing. But many regions are now striving to build ecomuseums that achieve this ideal balance.

With the arrival of the lifelong learning era, it has become ever more important to combine regional development with lifelong learning, and to learn something through regional activities (action-oriented learning). To put it the other way around, the process of finding the region’s identity by studying the local environment can also work as regional development by the hands of local people. This is exactly how the value of the ecomuseum as a museum body is verified in that the ultimate aim of the said activities is not regional planning or environment conservation in themselves but to provide the local people with opportunities for learning and passing their learning on to the next generation.

The autonomy of local regions, particularly rural communities, and the creation of dynamism at local level are strongly called for to combat these situations. Furthermore, the recovery of humanity through environment creation is sought after. This is because the ecomuseum works effectively in confirming the temporal and spatial identities of inhabitants. The local people will be able to familiarize themselves with the land on which they are standing. They will also come to appreciate their raison d’être in today’s world by learning about a local history. Note, however, that the notion of territory for the ecomuseum is nothing hazy. Rather, it is a theme for the ecomuseum in a sense that local people with their subjective intentions and viewpoints make choices from a variety of options.

An ecomuseum pertains to cultural social educational activities like other museums. It protects and preserves the physical inheritance of the region, yet it does not make any system or facility but is primarily geared for enlightening the people to inherit and sustain the region through study and learning, paying attention to increasing the number of people willing and prepared to sustain the region, not to the cultural assets or environment as such.

Case studies in Kanagawa prefecture shows that the ecomuseum formed of the community actions by local people bring the sense of place on those residents engaged eagerly in that society or the environment upgrading. Another case study in Achi make the relationship between the social capital, generativity and the participation of ecomuseum.

Armenti, Alessandra, Biddau Fulvio, and Paolo F. Cottone. "PARTICIPATION AND SUSTAINABILITY: THE CASE OF AN ITALIAN TRANSITION TOWN." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

The contribution explores the participation to the sustainability of the first Italian transition town. We are not experiencing only an economic crisis, but also a social and environmental one. The current situation requires major interventions in the way our economic system is organised, as well as strong social and behavioural changes. A new approach is needed that combines infrastructures, nature and people towards a sustainable life. The “Transition Towns” (-TT- Hopkins, 2008) seems to go in this direction bringing hope and practical solutions to many of the global problems, such as peak oil and climate change.

This contribution explores the social participation in Monteveglio TT (Bologna, Italy), focusing particularly on the processes involved in establishing a collective participation in social sustainable activities. This research is part of the ACCESI project (socio-Constructivist Analysis of the Italian Sustainable Energy Communities), which aims to contribute to the empirical analysis of factors and processes that foster or hinder the use of sustainable energies in Italy.

A qualitative, ethnographically-oriented methodology was used in this study for collecting and analysing the data. The corpus of data consisted of semi-structured interviews with key informants (i.e. the Mayor, the councillor, photovoltaic purchasing groups managers, environment experts, transition movement exponents, executive managers of sustainable education, citizens, farmers), municipality's newspaper, web-sites, blogs, and ethnographic notes. Key informants were questioned about their representation of sustainable energy, realistic and hopeful scenarios for the future of energy issues in their own local contexts, and drivers and barriers towards implementation of such scenarios. The role of the respondents was then investigated, stimulating opinion-sharing on their responsibilities and sustainable daily activities. The purpose of these interviews was to understand how motivations can encourage people to act in a pro-environment perspective, but also to inquire the representations of sustainability and responsibilities of citizens and institutions.

Content analysis and critical discourse analysis were conducted to shown the critical aspects highlighted in participants’ discourses, such as the perception of conflict or cooperation between actors and social groups. The focus was on environmental management processes at various levels, on positioning, on attitudes and on agency involved in environmental risks.

According to the literature (McMillan & Chavis, 1986; McMillan, 1996; Mannarini & Fedi, 2008), these results show that several and interdependent factors determine the participation: the perception of situations in terms of needs and problems, the sense of belonging, self and community efficacy. Participatory action is made possible by self-empowerment in a problematic situation, but it also requires an high sense of efficacy, high need for belonging and high recognition by the community. Different typologies of sustainability participation in TT citizen will be discussed.

Becker, Ann-Katrin. "Participation processes in a neighbourhood community: motivation tools towards a sustainable community by implementing energy balancing technologies and by integrating different local stakeholders." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Until 2050 80% of the produced electricity in Germany should be delivered by renewable energies. In ordern to achieve this goal a broad electricity grid expansion is necessary as well as an enormous extension of energy production through renewable energies. As renewable energies are not able to constantly deliver a stable base load energy supply, a crucial part of the German ‚Energiewende’ consists of the use and further development of technical options to compensate fluctuations within the energy supply. Besides the overall grid expansion, there are local and regional options to establish energy balanced local communities through the use of batteries, storage technologies or Combined Heat and Power.

The PhD research study is embedded in an ongoing research project which examines different balancing technologies with regard to their specific acceptance. As socio-technical systems the acceptance by people dealing with these technologies is a precondition to their adoption. Thus supportive factors as well as specific obstacles for acceptance are investigated. In this project different energy balancing technologies shall be installed in a neighbourhood community with a mixed population as well as mixed building structure. Local stakeholders (e.g. city council, house owners and renters) will be participatory involved and thus acceptance for energy storage technologies shall be raised as it is explained e.g. in Arnstein’s ladder of participation.

The aim within this PhD research study is to obtain a profound understanding of local participation initiatives involving different local participants like renters, the city council, the investors and the private house owners. Thereby it has to be taken into consideration that different subgroups of stakeholders have different interests in and different obstacles to energy balancing tools. Investors and private house owners have rather economic obstacles and need to be convinced of the benefit of installing energy balancing technologies whereas renters can’t decide but can demand for energy balancing technologies if they accept these. Therefore, one part of the study is going to examine the fundamental differences within these groups in terms of economic interest, pro environmental values, specific beliefs concerning technologies and other parties concerned, knowledge and especially their motivation. Further, different participative methods will be studied to explore their effects towards the acceptance of implementing energy balancing technologies in order to identify how participation leads to a higher acceptance of energy balancing technologies.

The PhD research study is still in the very beginning and considerations concerning research design and methodology are not yet profound elaborated. In addition it will be linked to the research study by Lena Jungbluth.

Methodologically, the work aims to compare the effects of participation for the different stakeholders concerning their beliefs, knowledge and especially their motivation for engagement for the ‘Energiewende’ in Germany. Multistage qualitative interviews with the different local stakeholders are thought to be of great value when identifying their beliefs and motivations as well as the impact of the participation processes on local acceptance on energy balancing technologies. Furthermore, to complement the generated data from the interviews participant observation will be applied to verify if the examined beliefs, motivations and mental models are conducted in the participation processes.

Alp, Julide, and İbrahim Alp. "Participation, Sustainability, Urban Project, Kartal, Istanbul." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Since the last quarter of the past century, many developed/developing countries have attempted to restructure major cities, leading in terms of industry, history and culture, depending on changing socio-cultural, technological and economic dynamics. İn that restructuring process, laid-depression areas in the city centers usually have been reintegrated into the city in the way of of physical, economic and social sense via urban regeneration projects. Until the 1980s, the physical renovation oriented applications mostly have been made in the context of urban regeneration policy. İn case after 1990s, 'sustainable urban transformation' concept has emerged which based on economic development, social justice and environmental protection objectives. Therefore, in today's urban transformation experience, not only the contents defined in the context of physical-space but also performances depending on the components of sustainability and governance are extremely important for the success of projects. In this context; there are two main questions: “how would a systematic organization between actors in the process of projects?” and “how to interpret the physical dimensions of the conversion as well as social, economic and environmental parameters?” and answers of these questions is really important.

The effects of the above-mentioned processes may be evident in major cities of developing countries and Istanbul is not an exception of this matter. Istanbul, as one of the most vital cities all over the world, has involved “urban race” after 1980s. However, during this period, generally renewal and revitalization projects were realized. As the 2000s, despite a very large-scale urban projects came up in the upper-scale master plan, many of the recommendations set out only predominantly spatial transformation and could not find a chance to practice. Latterly, some of the large urban projects examples, which found a chance to practice, incorporates new participatory organization approaches however it is seen that this association schemes didn’t cover all stakeholders. This matter is regarded as a commencing point of this paper. It investigates the participation’s indisputable role in the process of sustainable urban projects. In this study, it is hypothesized that project implementation process, which can not ensure all the stakeholders participation, exceeds the optimum time and failed. These processes may be seen in Kartal case clearly, situated in one of the depression areas in Istanbul. As for methodology, Kartal transformation project projection and current process are determined and identified whether all stakeholders in the settlement participate the project stages equally or not.

Quist, Jaco, Adina Dumitru, Udo Pesch, and Felix Rauschmayer. "Pathways, Transitions and Backcasting for Sustainable Lifestyles and Sustainable Communities." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Pathways, Transitions and Backcasting for Sustainable Lifestyles and Sustainable Communities

Convenors

Jaco Quist, Delft University of Technology, [email protected]

& Adina Dumitru, University of Corunna & West University of Timisoara, [email protected]

Over the last decade there has been a growing interest in long-term pathways, transitions and visions for sustainable consumption, sustainable lifestyles and sustainable communities. The origin of this interest goes back to the Agenda 21 in Rio in 1993 and the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) in Johannesburg in 2002, but in the last decade these topics have been related to long-term visions, pathways and transitions needed to achieve the bring about these visions, as well as to participatory approaches that are able of generating such visions and pathways, as well as facilitating agenda building and making first steps towards these visions. Well known approaches include backcasting and transition management. Interestingly, in the application of these approaches, a shift towards sustainable lifestyles and sustainable communities can be observed. In addition, the individual level and the potential of so called alternative consumption niches and grass roots innovations for long-term transitions is an emerging topic that has relevance for long-term transitions and visions for sustainable consumption and communities. Recent examples include international, partly FP7 projects, like Individuals in Context (InContexthttp://incontext-fp7.eu), Low Carbon At Work (LOCAWhttp://www.locaw-fp7.com), CRISP(CReating Innovative Sustainability Pathways’http://www.crisp-futures.eu), SPREAD (www.sustainable-lifestyles.eu), RESPONDER (www.scp-responder.eu), and CORPUS (www.scp-knowledge.eu).

The aim of the proposed symposium is to present and discuss these topics, approaches and developments at the IAPS Conference and to provide examples of how these methods have been applied to particular cases and to exchange and compare concepts, methodologies and results on visions, scenarios, transitions and pathways for sustainable lifestyles and communities from a range of projects and cases. An additional aim is to search for similarities, complementarities and further lessons, not only for researchers and practitioners, but also to develop additional recommendations with regard to pathway development and facilitation to the EU and to learn from bottom-up emerging developments like in transition towns and sustainable energy cooperatives. It is also aimed for that the symposium could also shed more light on developments in transition management and backcasting with regard to the involvement of end-users, citizens, employees, consumers and communities.

In order to address all aspects and issues discussed above, the workshop called for the following topics

• Cases and methods on local transitions or consumption transitions, focusing on participation, visioning, and pathway development.

• Conceptualization of the individual consumer-citizen and how this relates to grassroots and alternative consumption practices, as well as to individual needs-opportunities-capabilities approaches.

• Comparison of methodologies addressing individual actors such as citizens or consumers in influencing transitions including lessons learned from other participatory methodologies addressing local communities and consumers, such as participatory backcasting, and Local Agenda 21.

• Cases exploring niches of alternative consumption, grassroots innovation niches, and local communities as sites of social innovation and their relevance for pathways towards low-carbon and sustainable lifestyles.

• Cases in which visions, pathways, and backcasting have been combined with (agent-based) modelling.

Organisers & Practicalities

We invite papers on the topics mentioned above. We also invite papers that compare cases, or relate cases and methods to other theoretical fields. If you are interested to participate in this symposium, please send your abstract (max. 200-250 words, title and keyword + address details) asap [email protected] and [email protected] For more information on the IAPS 23 Conference, see http://iaps2014timisoara.org/ or the CfP at http://iaps2014timisoara.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/CALL-FOR-ABSTRACTS_Timisoara-Romania.pdf

CONTRIBUTION 1 

Jaco Quist, Delft University of Technology, [email protected]

Next to Local Agenda 21 processes, other participatory approaches for initiating and supporting stakeholder action on sustainable development have been developed in the last decades. In the Netherlands, Canada, UK, Sweden and Belgium, significant efforts have been and are being undertaken with two participatory approaches, transition management and participatory backcasting in areas such as energy, building, health care, food, mobility and water management.

Transition management has rapidly emerged over the past decade as a new approach addressing complex societal problems and the governance of these problems towards sustainability. It is a participatory learning and experimenting process aiming at creating societal movement that can put pressure on dominant policy (Loorbach 2007, 2010). Backcasting has been defined as "generating a desirable future, and then looking backwards from that future to the present in order to strategize and to plan how it could be achieved" (Vergragt & Quist 2011: 747); over the last decades a participatory variety has strongly emerged. Both transition management and backcasting have mainly involved professional stakeholders. Recently, transition management was applied on the local level with citizens, while participatory backcasting has also been applied to consumption involving both citizens and consumers since a decade.

This paper will review developments in participatory backcasting and transition management with regard to their application to communities, lifestyles and consumption, and briefly present two cases in which the author has been involved: (1) sustainable household nutrition, and (2) the community arena methodology as developed in the EU funded InContext ‘Individuals in Context: Supportive environments for sustainable living’ project and applied in communities in The Netherlands, Austria and Germany. The evaluation will focus on stakeholder involvement, learning by those involved, the development and role of visions and the methods needed to realise participatory vision development and learning among citizens and stakeholders involved. It will finalise with a discussion on the implications of the cases for applying backcasting in the forthcoming Glamurs project

Keywords: Participatory backcasting; transition management, sustainable communities, sustainable lifestyles 

CONTRIBUTION 2 

Adina Dumitru*

Ricardo García Mira

Pedro Vega Marcote

Miguel Muñoz Cantero

Ildiko Erdei

Corina Ilin

Giuseppe Carrus

Fridanna Maricchiolo

Linda Steg

Angela Ruepert

*Presenter, University of Corunna & West University of Timisoara

In future and sustainability studies, back-casting scenarios are defined as a methodology that allows us to envision and analyze different types of sustainable futures and develop agendas, strategies and pathways to reach them (Vergragt & Quist, 2011). It has a strong normative component, as it starts from desirable future states or set of objectives and then analyzes the steps and policies that are needed to get there, in order to be able to design agendas that can be implemented and that normally require cooperation and communication among different types of actors in complex socio-economic and political environments. It is considered a useful tool in going toward alternative futures in issues of climate change (Giddens, 2009).

The LOCAW project has used participatory back-casting in four case-study organizations (University of A Coruña, Spain; Aquatim, Romania; Enel Green Power, Italy; Municipality of Groningen, The Netherlands) with a two-fold purpose: to create scenarios for the future with the input of workers at different levels of the organization and to design reasonable pathways for sustainable change that could then be tested in a simulated environment. It used a combined approach, using a methodology of focus groups to develop the scenarios, inspired in part by the one used by Svenfelt et al. (2011) in their study on decreasing energy use in buildings but significantly adapted to fit the objectives of LOCAW; and the stepwise approach of Kasper Kok et al. (2011), to orient the process and help stakeholders in getting disengaged with the present, and being able to create truly innovative visions of the future, one of the hardest aspects of back-casting scenarios both with stakeholders and experts (Svenfelt et al., 2011).

The present paper will discuss the results obtained in the four case studies and the pros and cons of different back-casting approaches. It will also discuss the relevance of scenario building for long-term participatory planning in organizations, also looking at the advantages and potential drawbacks of scenario tools for transitions to sustainability.

Keywords: Backcasting, scenario development, sustainability, transitions, participatory planning

Giddens, A. (2009) The Politics of Climate Change, Polity Press, Cambridge UK

K. Kok, M. Van Vliet, A. Dubel, J. Sendzimir, I. Bärlund, Combining participative backcasting and exploratory scenario development: experiences from the SCENES project, Technological Forecasting and Social Change 78 (2011) 835-851

Svenfelt, A., Engström, R., Svane, O. (2011) Decreasing energy use in buildings by 50% by 2050—a backcasting study using stakeholder groups. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, special issue.

Vergragt, P. & Quist, J. (2011) Backcasting for sustainability: Introduction to the special issue, Technol.Forecast. Soc. Change; http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2011.03.010

CONTRIBUTION 3

Udo Pesch, [email protected]

Delft University of Technology

A range of new energy systems, relating to both the consumption and production of energy, are currently in development, which all aim to diminish the environmental and economic pressures that evolve from the current use of fossil fuels. One may think of smart grids, exploration of unconventional fossil fuels, decentralized production of renewable energy, etc.

In these new energy systems, one may recognize different conceptions of the ideological role of individual users, which, in turn, relate to different conceptions of civil society. Or in other words, ideas about new energy systems are based on an assumption to which extent such a system can intervene in the personal life sphere of an individual user. For instance, users can be seen as autonomous customers whose intensity of energy use should not be interfered with, or they can be seen as citizens who get actively involved in new patterns of energy production and consumption in order to create a shared identity. Because of the multitude of conceptions of civil society and the role that individual users can or should have, most new energy systems can only be said to be provide suboptimal results, seen from the perspective of sustainability.

This paper will place the development and advocacy for new energy systems against the backdrop of the different conceptions of civil society and it will explore which options there are for further development of energy systems that are sustainable.

CONTRIBUTION 4

Felix Rauschmayer, Ines Omann, Torsten Masson, Ines Thronicker & Christine Polzin, UFZ – Centre for Environmental Research, Leipzig, [email protected], & Anke Fischer, Social, Economic and Geographical Sciences Group, James Hutton Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen, UK, [email protected]

Within transition theories, individuals are treated as change agents, front runners and the like, but rarely analysed on their own behalf. Here, the discussion on why people engage in or adhere to niches remains underdeveloped. We start our work from findings of previous studies that suggest that the experience of internal conflicts is widespread where individuals are confronted with complex decisions related to sustainable behaviour. We take these internal conflicts as a starting point for the identification of variables that might help to turn unsustainable into sustainable behaviour.

We build our work on concepts from social psychology and behavioural research that suggest a variety of ways in which individuals experience and process such conflicts. For example, dual process models postulate that information processing preceding behaviour takes place on a spectrum between systemic–analytical and heuristic– holistic decision-making. Conflicts are experienced differently along this spectrum. According to Bamberg’s stage model of self-regulated behavioural change, the efficacy of interventions varies according to the stage in which individuals stand with regard to their behavioural change. Conceptualisations of coping with stress also vary with regard to the determinants of successful coping with internal conflicts. At the same time, coping, even though individually experienced as successful, does not necessarily result in more sustainable behaviour (e.g., emotion focussed coping that leads to denial of existing environmental problems).

Policies that aim to (a) reduce internal conflicts – as a part of increasing wellbeing, and that (b) aim to increase the tendency towards more sustainable behaviour, can address different and complementary levers of change. First, they may reduce potential sources of conflict through rather classical measures based on providing information, economic incentives, or command-and-control. Second, they may increase individuals’ competence of dealing with internal conflicts. For example, mindfulness-based stress reduction programmes and results from social learning processes might generate useful insights for policies. The political coalitions required for initiating and implementing such programmes will probably differ substantially from those governance processes that aim to reduce the potential for internal conflicts before they occur.

In this presentation we analyse and review relevant psychological literature, in particular, with regard to the policy implications for sustainability transitions. In the context of the recently started EU FP7-funded project GLAMURS, we will contrast empirical evidence to be gained through qualitative in-depth interviews in several EU countries with this conceptual knowledge, aiming at a better understanding of the psychological lock-ins with sustainability transitions and at identifying ways how to open up these lock-ins.

Zeng, Zhe, and John Zacharias. "Pedestrians as a Traffic Calming Device in Guiguang Main Street, Guanghzhou City, China." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Introduction: Pedestrians account for the majority of casualties and injuries in traffic accidents. As a result, how to protect vulnerable pedestrians is widely being studied. Studies show that slowing the speed of motor vehicles leads to fewer pedestrian casualties(Anderson, et al., 1997). There are three ways of traffic calming from the literature. The physical or psychological traffic-calming device emphasize the physical environmental effect(Ewing, 2001), but overlook pedestrians are part of the environment. Specially designed streets stress on mixed traffic modes(Hamilton-Baillie, 2008), but no detailed research has been done to determine how the applications work. This research proposes to study the significant role that pedestrians play in traffic-calming in mixed-used streets.

Mixed-used streets were investigated with no special design implemented to calm the traffic. Streets in pedestrian-dominated areas where the land-use is not clearly divided, where mixed traffic occurs, were examined. Guigang Main Street in Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China, was chosen for detailed study. A digital video was set up to tape samples from the street. Video was taken continuously for three days, during which time the number of traffic conflicts were recorded. Movement volumes, pedestrian-motor vehicle interactions, speed, motor vehicle trajectories, special occupancy of the street and yielding behavior were all extracted from the videotape record. Counts, trajectories and timing were all entered in a database using ArcGIS software. In the detailed analysis, I am going to look at 1)the percentage of pedestrians in the street, the fluctuation of the volume and the relation with intersections; 2)the number of pedestrian-motor vehicle interactions, their locations and the causes; 3)how much a motor vehicle slows down when an interaction happen, and from how far it starts to; 4)the relation between motor vehicle’s trajectory and the distribution of pedestrians and its speed; 5)the percentage of motor vehicles yielding to pedestrians in all recorded interactions.

Although trajectories of pedestrians and motor vehicles seemed chaotic, and the number of interactions are large, yet few traffic accidents were observed during the time of field study. X percent pedestrian accounts for the total traffic volume on average, and among the recorded pedestrian-motor vehicle interactions, X percent are motor vehicles yielding to pedestrians. Pedestrians serve as obstacles for motor vehicles. Motorists change their direction and slow down (X%) when they see pedestrian(s) from afar (Xm - Xm), resulting in avoidance trajectories of the motor vehicles. As a result, the speed of motor vehicles is controlled, and road safety is achieved.

Such case proposes a new thinking on traffic calming, making the street pleasant and safe for everyone without changing it a lot. It could be an economical way to calm the traffic in pedestrian-dominant streets. Pedestrians as a traffic calming “device” might be particularly suitable for the regions loaded with large population and server problems of land shortage.

Büter, Kathrin. "People With Dementia in Acute Care Hospitals." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Older age is consistently associated with an increased risk of disabilities and diseases, especially dementia. Dementia is a syndrome due to the disease of the brain, which is characterized by a progressive, global deterioration in the intellect including memory, learning, orientation, language, comprehension, and judgment. Because of their cognitive and age-related bodily impairments people with dementia are in need of assistance with numerous daily tasks. Over the last decades, dementia-friendly care concepts have been well established in many different nursing care settings. In this context, a large body of research supports the relationship between the design of the built environment and well-being, functionality and behavior among people with dementia. However, dementia- friendly care concepts were hardly introduced to acute care hospitals. Acute care hospitals face big challenges, caused by the increasing number of dementia patients. Dementia is rarely the reason for admission to general acute care hospitals, but it is present in a significant number of elderly patients. They are at risk of losing more independence and cognitive status during their hospital stay. Problematic behavior and disorientation among these patients are challenging for hospital staff and other patients. The aim of this paper is to present current state of work and future tasks from a doctoral thesis dealing with the question how to design dementia-friendly acute care hospitals.

An extensive literature review on ´building design for people with dementia´ forms the basis of the thesis. The review aimed at gaining an overview of the current state of research on this topic. Several design factors were identified, which influence people with dementias` outcomes. However most of these findings are related to the nursing home setting. A next crucial step will be the translation of these findings to the hospital setting. A combination of different methods will be used. A qualitative analysis will be implemented to find out in what ways the hospital environment differs from long-term care facilities, to define patient`s and staffs ‘characteristics and to identify physical features in the hospital environment, which hinder and support patient`s with dementia during their hospital stay. Data will be collected through observations and interviews in an acute care hospital in Dresden, Germany. However, there is a need to define this methodology more precisely and to determine which outcomes to use. Results from the literature review and qualitative analysis will be discussed in focus groups to develop evidence-based design recommendations for dementia-friendly acute care hospitals. Though, there is a need to find ways to generalize the results. Furthermore, research gaps will be exposed in the working process. Therefore, further steps could be the testing of different design interventions to fill the identified research gaps.

The findings will be summarized in a guideline to design dementia-friendly hospitals. This guideline will provide information for architects and health-care professionals on how to develop dementia-friendly floor plans as well as patient and common rooms. Furthermore, suggestions on what can be done to communicate information through the hospital environment to support spatial, timely and situational orientation in patients with dementia will be given.

Ilin, Corina, and Zoltan Bogathy. "People-Environment Research in the Countries of Central and Eastern Europe." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

The organizing committee of the 23rd IAPS International Conference “Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policy for changing lifestyles and communities”, which will take place in Timisoara, Romania, 23 – 27 June 2014, is organizing the symposium “People-environment research in Central and Eastern European countries”.

In organizing this symposium, we aim to bring together leading experts and scholars from the East-European countries to analyze and discuss with the research community, the history and the state of the art of the research conducted so far in the field of people-environment in these countries. We believe that some important issues should be addressed

  • The experience of the transition from totalitarian regimes towards democracy and the environmental consequences of political and economic decisions made many years ago in the Eastern European countries;
  • Environmental transition (europeanization) and the efforts in the direction of improving the environment’s quality, by developing institutional structures and environmental policies according to the international norms;
  • Difficulties in implementing the international norms for environmental protection in the Eastern European countries;
  • The environmental issues on the national political agendas and future prospects for environmental strategies and advancements.
  • The contribution of the research community in facilitating the understanding of the importance of the environmental issues and raising the awareness of people and policy makers.

This would entail prospecting the research community in Central and Eastern European countries that has contributions in the field of people-environment studies, whitin a wide rage of disciplines, such as psychology, sociology, geography, design or planning.

We are confident that this event will establish a fruitful future collaboration between us, researchers from this part of Europe, and worldwide.

Maruthaveeran, Sreetheran, Arne Arnberger, and Cecil Konijnendijk. "PERCEIVED PERSONAL SAFETY IN URBAN PARKSTHROUGH THE EYES OF URBAN PARK USERS OF KUALA LUMPUR, MALAYSIA." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Although the many benefits of urban green spaces are usually stressed, these environments also provide some disservices. For example, encounters with natural threats may evoke strong fears or other negative emotions. However, very few studies have examined the negative emotions occurring in urban green spaces, particularly regarding fear of crime. This study attempted to examine the effects of environmental cues and social cues on fear of crime in urban park settings. Manipulation of the environmental and social cues were represented via photographs which were created using Adobe Photoshop 6.0 software. Respondents (N=658) were requested to view a set of 12 manipulated photographs in an urban park setting and rate their perceived personal safety for each photograph by using a seven point Likert scale. The results revealed photo with the present of social disorder (e.g. graffiti, trash, low maintenance), high concealment and without the presence of others were considered the most fearful. While, photo without the presence of physical disorder, low concealment and with the present of others were considered least fearful. Female respondents were significantly more likely to feel fearful than male respondents (p < 0.001). No difference was found between different age and ethnic groups.

Johansson, Maria, and Catharina Sternudd. "Perceived urban design qualities and the affective experience of walking." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

The role of the built urban environment to support sustainable travel as well as residents’ health and well-being by facilitating walking, has received considerable attention. From an urban design perspective, the success of the built environment should however not simply be measured by the number or duration of walking trips but also as the quality of those trips in terms of user experience. Consequently a better understanding of how micro-scale built environment lead to improved user experience and ultimately more walking has been called for (Adkins et al., 2012). Empirical studies show that choice of travel mode may alter the experienced valence and arousal (e.g. Westman et al., 2013). Pedestrians directly interact with the surrounding built environment and urban design qualities along the route may therefore be particularly important to their affective experience of travelling. This study aims to investigate the association between perceived urban design qualities and the affective experience of walking along a specific route, and urban residents’ intention to choose or avoid walking this route in the nearby future.

Theoretically the study departs from the Human-Environment Interaction Model (Küller, 1991). This model describes how human’s basic emotional processes are influenced by the transaction with the physical and social environment. The emotional response to environmental stimuli has been shown to be experienced along two dimensions, valence varying along unpleasantness-pleasantness and arousal and varying along deactivation and activation (Mehrabian & Russell, 1974). In a cross-sectional study 106 participants (51% female, mean age 53 yrs) completed structured walks on-site in three neighbourhoods in the city of Malmö, Sweden. Participants reported their affective experience (valence and arousal) of walking the investigated routes and made place-based assessments of three overarching urban design qualities associated with the pleasurability of urban spaces; complexity and aesthetic quality, general upkeep and order, and presence of manicured greenery. In hierarchical multiple regression analysis with the intention to choose to walk the route as the outcome variable the choice was in Step 1 significantly predicted by the habit to walk the route and the perceived urban design qualities. In Step 2 the choice was predicted by walking habit and valence (R2 = .27 for Step 1, R2 change = .06 for Step 2, p = .001). The Sobel test showed that the perceived urban qualities were significantly mediated by valence (p < .05). The intention to avoid walking the route was in Step 1 predicted by age and perceived urban design qualities. In Step 2 avoidance was predicted by age and valence R2 = .24 for Step 1, R2 change = .19 for Step 2, p < .001. The Sobel test showed that the perceived urban design qualities were significantly mediated by valence (p < .001).

It is concluded that perceived urban design qualities are associated with the experienced valence of walking in an urban environment, and in turn the intention to choose or avoid a route. The affective experience seems particular important to the intention to avoid a route. An important strategy to promote walking can be found in environmental design especially in bridging gaps of unpleasant sequences on pedestrian routes.

Gheorghe, Mihaela Violeta, Jarry T. Porsius, and Ron van Lammeren. "Perception of powerlines: does visibility influence well-being?" In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Introduction: In our daily living environment the perception of high voltage power lines in landscapes could have a serious impact on well-being. Such impact may range from physical well-being to economical preferences. An example of the latter is the possibility of lower prices of land properties, the impact on physical well-being or personal health. The mechanism of reasoning that leads to such impacts may be hard to tackle, because people may substitute high voltage power lines by their concepts of electromagnetic fields, property value estimates, visual intrusion rate, etc. To study such visual perception impacts may start by doing survey via questionnaires among residents, or do specific types of field measurements.

However since geo-data has become a commodity and offer more and more detailed information in spatial and temporal sense a geo-data modeling approach could help to understand the relation between high voltage power lines and human well-being. This concept is tested by finding appropriate data sets, developing a calculation procedure which takes in account visibility factors and leads to a visual perception impact indicator linked to personal health. The results of this procedure have been validated by field work measurements and questionnaire outcomes.

Literature reveals two types calculation: one method looks at the aesthetics of the surrounding landscape, calculating the degree to which it is likely to be affected by the power lines presence, regardless whether they are visible or not. The other one considers that what is important is the objective visibility of high artifacts, which depends on their perceived size in the eye of the viewer, and the density of these objects.

This study will take into account both described methods in order to find which aspect influences more how people perceive the impact of power line presence on their well-being.

The GIS analysis for computing objective visibility factors will be performed on a digital model describing elevation, buildings and power line positions in a study area. For the calculation of landscape perturbation, a data set describing land-use will be added to the other data sets.

The methods will be tested for a study area in the Netherlands, where high voltage power lines were recently constructed. The existence of the study area makes possible to validate the methods, with photos taken in the study area from several points, and an objective quantification of the perceived size of power lines using computer analysis.

Residents in the study area answered questionnaires regarding personal health related to living near power lines. These answers will be correlated with the values derived from calculations.

The results will consist in scores of visibility and landscape perturbation for residents' addresses, obtained from both methods of calculation. The degree of correlation between calculated factors and perception values will show whether landscape awareness or objective visibility influences perception. We expect higher visibility or landscape perturbation values to correspond to greater concern regarding personal health.

Few GIS studies focus on deriving visibility of power lines, and even fewer look at the impact that visual intrusion might have on residents living near them. An objective visibility and landscape evaluation that can be applied with low costs at large scales represents a powerful tool when picking placement sites for high artifacts in the vicinity of residential areas.

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Chun, Eun Young, Jin Kyung Paik, Ji-Young An, and Yun Jung Sung. "Person-directed Care for Long-term Care Facility Design." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

To understand the elderly based on Humanism, there is a need to conduct an analysis on long-term care facilities (LTC) from the viewpoint of Philosophy. Therefore, this study aimed to discuss supportive environmental factors and philosophical recognition of LTC based on person-directed care (PDC). For this study, the values, principles, and vision of prime examples which caused culture change for LTC- Eden Alternative, Wellspring, Pioneer Network, Green Houses or Neighborhoods Live Oak regenerative Community- were analyzed. According to Dr. Barkan who raised the culture change of LTC, the biological, cognitive, and philosophical definitions of the elderly were reviewed (Brune, 2011; Live Oak Institute, 2013; Pioneer Network, 2013). In the change, the elderly has been defined as a person who is still growing, deserves respect and honor, and is still in pursuit of happiness in his or her life. Culture change, which was launched in 1977, is the term commonly used to describe a national movement to transform PDC based services from institutions to communities where the human spirit and the voices of both elders and those working with the elders are respected. In other words, culture change starts with the needs and life circumstances of them. Core values of PDC have been indicated as choice, dignity, respect, self-determination, and purposeful living (Pioneer Network, 2013). In addition, philosophical underpinnings of the definitions were reviewed. From the literature reviewed, the concept of culture change for PDC was analyzed. Moreover, based on the perspective of PDC, supportive environmental factors- physical, psychological, and social- of LTC were analyzed to provide the guideline of LTC design. Conceptual, aesthetical, and functional characteristics of LTC design were also suggested. Based on the culture change, LTC should help people with chronic or senile diseases or dementia live as independently as possible by providing a supportive environment. Therefore, LTC design considering PDC should respect human emotions on the basis of care for the elderly as well as functional convenience for the daily life of the elderly.

Rathzel, Nora, Ann Phoenix, and David Uzzell. "Perspectives of qualitative research in Psychology and Sociology." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

In this symposium we will present and discuss the theoretical frameworks that inform three current qualitative research methodologies - Discourse analysis, Life-History interviews, Narrative analysis. Drawing on empirical findings from the areas of environmental psychology and sociology and social psychology, the symposium will demonstrate how these methodologies have illuminated our understanding of the environmental policies of trade unions, environmental practices at the work-home interface, and family everyday practices.

Professor Ann Phoenix, University of London: 'Family lives and Environment: Multiple methods for studying everyday family practices'.

This paper addresses ways in which 'big' environmental issues are evident in families' everyday local, habitual practices and how these are often visible when they are disrupted by moves between social contexts and in comparison with other families. It draws on data from a study funded by the Economic and Social research Council that uses secondary analysis of the Young Lives large-scale, longitudinal qualitative data collected in Andhra Pradesh, India, together with new data collection in Andhra Pradesh, Sussex and London, UK. The new data collection comprises interviews, vignettes, visual data and a neighborhood walk with twelve families in each country with the ‘index child’ (aged twelve years) researched in a group at school and with their families and on their own at home. The paper uses case-based narrative methods in conjunction with the other methods to capture the complexities of differences and commonalities between everyday practices in the two countries.

Professor David Uzzell, University of Surrey: ‘How can we know what they know? Interpreting life history accounts across time and space’

C Wright Mills was concerned to link “public issues and insistent human troubles” (1959, 28). In this way individual biographies form part of the weft and weave of the structural dynamics of society; we cannot understand one without the other. Life history interviews are a useful way of understanding the intersection between social structure, historical change, biography and space. This might be said to be the very context to which environmental psychologists often refer. This paper will explore, drawing on life history interviews with those working on North Sea oil rigs, how people connect with societal issues in their everyday lives, especially when these affect their work, environment and social relations.

Professor Nora Räthzel, University of Umeå: ‘Environmental policies of trade unions – what are their discourses and what do we know if we know them?

Discourse analysis is perhaps one of the most often used concepts in qualitative research and as a result it has numerous and contested meanings: is everything a discourse or is there something outside discourse? Is discourse the way people speak or the way people act, or both? Are we all locked into given discourses or are we creating discourses? These questions will be discussed using empirical data from a study on the environmental policies of trade unions, comprising official documents and interviews with trade unions officials in Sweden, the UK, Brazil, South Africa, and India.

Marcheschi, Elizabeth, Maria Johansson, and David Brunt. "Place attachment and quality of life among people with severe mental illness in supported housing facilities." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Introduction: The mental health services of the western world have faced major changes due to the process of deinstitutionalization of these services. This process has led to the creation of supported housing facilities (SHF) for people with severe mental illness (SMI) (Fakhoury & Priebe, 2002). The environment for people with SMI has mostly been investigated in terms of its social characteristics, and little attention has been given to the physical environment.

Although, it is widely acknowledged that physical and social environments are not directly separable, very little is known about their interaction and related impact on the well-being of people with SMI (Baroni, 1998).

Previous findings from this project showed that people with SMI and experts, share similar views with regard to the identification of psychologically supportive aspects of SHF (Marcheschi, Johansson, Brunt, & Laike, submitted). Furthermore, perceived physical environmental quality was found to be a significant predictor of perceived social environmental quality (Marcheschi, Brunt, Hansson, & Johansson, 2013). Findings from similar settings demonstrate that place attachment mediates the effect of the environment on mental health outcomes (Evans, Kantrowitz, & Eshelman, 2002).

This study further explores the interaction between physical and social environments of SHF. It aims to assess the extent to which perceived physical and social environmental quality explains variations in the well-being of people with SMI, which was operationalized in terms of; perceived quality of life.

SHFs that sustain the needs of people with SMI for; social support, perceived control, restoration and a positive social climate, are expected to support the well-being of people with SMI (Evans, 2003). Moreover, the construct of place attachment was investigated and expected to mediate the relationship between the perceived environmental qualities and the well-being of people with SMI. The Human Environment Interaction model (Küller, 1991a), was used as theoretical background. The model describes how people are affected by the transaction with the physical and social environment.

Swedish Supported housing facilities for people with SMI have been investigated. The study adopts a user-centered approach, which entails that subjective appraisal of physical and social environmental qualities of SHF (n = 20), were carried out by people with SMI (N = 72). A post occupancy evaluation scale (Johansson & Brunt, 2012) was adopted for the assessment of the physical environment, and the Community Oriented Program Environmental Scale (COPES, Moos, 1972), for the social environment. Place attachment and quality of life, were respectively investigated with a sense of place scale (Shamai, 1991) and with the Manchester short assessment of quality of life scale (MANSA, Priebe, Huxley, Knight & Evans, 1999).

Multiple regression analysis was used to test the extent to which, perceived physical and social environmental quality predicts people with SMI’s well-being.

Results showed that perceived physical environmental quality (B = .49, SEB = .16, β = .37, p < .01) and social environmental quality (B = 1.25, SEB = .33, β = .49, p < .001) were predictors of people with SMI’s well-being. Together they account for 35% of their quality of life perception. The mediator effects of place attachment will be further tested.

Implication of these findings for future planning of psychologically supportive environments, for this frail group in society will be discussed.

Itoh, Shunsuke. "Place attachment and residential satisfaction in suburban neighborhoods: Case of a post-war newtown." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Place attachment and residential satisfaction in a post-war suburban newtown is explored in this study. Developed as dormitory towns for young office workers’ families commuting to cities, newtowns in Japan typically house a homogenous age group and those built during the post-war economic boom are currently experiencing rapid aging of the population. Sustainability of such suburban settings is an issue under debate and knowledge of residents’ evaluation of and attachment to the environment is needed.

A questionnaire survey was conducted in two neighborhoods in a newtown. The neighborhoods are part of a large scale newtown project developed in the early 1980s and consist of owned detached houses. A total of 930 respondents evaluated their satisfaction of their house and neighborhood on a 5-point scale for a total of 36 items. They were also asked about their reasons for choosing the house/city and future plans.

Length of residence correlated with satisfaction but was not related to the degree of place attachment. However, attachment scores were higher for those who had lived in the same newtown before moving to the present house and had chosen the place because of the residential environment. 27% of the respondents had plans or a desire to relocate. They had lower levels of satisfaction and attachment. It was notable that one-third of the respondents stated passive reasons such as availability or that it was the only option given to them from the housing agency (residents needed to draw a lot due to housing shortage at the time) for living in the present house. This group had a lower level of attachment and a higher percentage of plans to relocate, suggesting the motivation in the beginning has an effect to their later relations with the residential environment.

Qualitative interviews are underway and preliminary findings are to be presented together with the above results.

Manzo, Lynne C., Andrés Di Masso, John Dixon, Kevin Durrheim, Susana Batel, Patick Devine-Wright, Maria Lewicka, Giuseppe Carrus, Masimiliano Scopelliti, Ferdinando Fornara et al. "Place Attachments in Transition." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Symposium Abstract

As noted in the seminal text by Altman and Low (1992), place attachments are the emotional bonds that people have with places in their lives. These connections are a powerful aspect of human life that inform our sense of identity, create meaning, facilitate community and influence action. Since that landmark book, there have been considerable advancements in place attachment theory and research that have expanded our understanding of the phenomenon beyond the more conventional conceptualization of attachments as positive affective ties to residential places. Current research on place attachments demonstrates that they are, in fact, multi-valenced, complex and dynamic relationships that we have with a variety of places at different scales (Manzo & Devine-Wright, 2013). In an era of increasing change and uncertainty, the dynamism and dialectical nature of place attachments become even clearer. Place attachments have bearings on such diverse issues as rootedness and alienation, placemaking and displacement, mobility and migration, intergroup conflict, civic engagement, social/public housing, urban development, natural resource management and global climate change (Manzo and Devine-Wright, 2013). It is not surprising, then, that scholarly understandings of place attachment now reflect a plurality of theoretical frameworks, methods of inquiry and applications. This reveals not only the maturity and vitality of the discourse, but also the political and socially constructed nature of place attachments.

Such a dynamic approach to place attachments is commensurate with the conference theme of designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities for several reasons. First, a flexible and dynamic approach to understanding the way we connect to place is essential for helping people adapt to change. Second, a solid understanding of the complexities of place attachments is crucial for considering the full implication of what it means to transition to a sustainable society. Third, if we are to consider sustainability in all of its facets – environmental, economic and social –then we must take place attachments into account as a fundamental aspect of the social dimension of sustainability because it is those connections to place that will enable us to achieve and sustain communities we care about.

This symposium draws together leading scholars of place attachment to discuss the current research, and application of this important phenomenon. In doing so this symposium seeks to address ways of bringing together research, policy and practice, and promote multi-disciplinary approaches and critical thinking. This symposium consists of five papers that each describe empirical explorations of a key aspects of place attachment, from its impact on politically contested public space, to understanding how it informs conflicts over renewable energy sources, to its potential role in reducing ethnic bias in changing neighborhoods, to how it informs pro-environmental action and how it is complicated by poverty, neighborhood change and displacement.

Key words: place attachment, environmental change, social sustainability, place memory,

Individual Papers for Symposium

Individual Paper Title #1: “Place attachment discourse in politically contested public spaces: A case study in Barcelona”

Urban regeneration programs entailing deep transformations of significant areas of a city (e.g. old neighborhoods with high symbolic value) often meet the opposition of groups of local inhabitants. Social contestation and political resistance to such programs may be grounded on arguments involving unwelcome alterations of community-shared meanings of the urban environment, or a sense of threat or lack of responsiveness to well-established people-place bonds. In this frame, place discourse and talk about human-environment relations becomes an ideologically strategic arena to warrant and undermine conflicting political projects of urban change. In this presentation we draw on a case-study of an urban conflict over the development of a public space in Barcelona to illustrate in particular the rhetorical uses of place attachment talk as a politically-driven practice. Our aim is however theoretical, namely outlining a discursive perspective on human-environment relations. Accordingly, we first introduce some conceptual and methodological principles of discursive psychology, and then exemplify these principles by discussing some recent environmental psychological research that has been influenced by the so-called ‘discursive turn.’ Finally, we underline the more specific implications of discursive psychology for understanding place attachment dynamics, using empirical data from our case study. The central argument is that rather than treating attachment as a deep-seated, internalized, emotional affinity that individuals experience towards particular places, discursive research treats it as a phenomenon that is linguistically constructed as individuals, together, formulate the everyday meanings of person-in-place relationships. By shifting analytic attention away from the internal experiences of the socially isolated individual and towards the practices through which individuals jointly warrant, contest and transform human-environment relationships, we believe that discursive research can significantly enrich people-place studies. Finally, we mention some potential limitations of the discursive approach and directions for further research.

Keywords: urban regeneration, public space, place attachment, discursive approach

Individual Paper Title #2: “Essentialising places: understanding the strategic role of discursive constructions within siting conflict”

Large-scale renewable energy and associated technologies (RET), such as high voltage power lines (HVPL), often meet opposition from the local communities living nearby. Research has suggested that one of the main aspects that might contribute to this is the fact that RET are represented as industrial and urban, and thus, as having a different essence from rural landscapes, where they are usually deployed and which are represented as natural and unspoilt. However, this ‘hypothesis’ of landscape essentialisation shaping people’s responses to RET has not been explicitly examined. By drawing upon research from Social Psychology and Human Geography on essentialisation, we will examine if and how landscape essentialisation plays a role in people’s responses to RET. Namely, by examining it as a rhetorical construction that can be strategically used to negotiate and legitimize given relations with place and associated responses to RET.

Focus groups (N=8) were conducted in the UK with members of local communities to be affected by the construction of HVPLs that will connect to new low carbon energy technologies. Analyses show that participants present British rural landscapes in general – i.e. the British countryside - and HVPL as having two different essences, which justifies opposition to those infrastructures. However, analyses also show that essentialisation of the British countryside is strategically used. Namely, participants also present the countryside in the place where they live as having more of the essence of the British countryside than other areas of the UK. In turn, this allows them to legitimize claims that whereas HVPL are ‘out of place’ in the British countryside in general, they are more so in the place where they live.

The implications of these results for the definition of acceptable locations for RET and for research on people-place relations and responses to place change, will be discussed.

Keywords: essentialisation, place attachment, responses to renewable energy and associated technologies, discursive approach

Individual Paper Title #3: “Place attachment and place memory: On the role of place attachment in reducing ethnic bias in collective memory of places”

Due to territorial changes in the post-war Eastern and Central Europe numerous cities located on these territories changed their state belonging and – consequently – their populations. Most of the previously multicultural cities are now ethnically homogeneous. As a result of the post-war migrations and of the political censorship imposed by the communist regimes on memory of pre-war times, we observe at present a “collective amnesia” – unawareness of the cities’ pre-war history and a strong Historical Ethnic Bias – overestimation of the role of own nation in the history of residence places and neglect of the role of their previous inhabitants.

The studies carried out in several cities and towns revealed a powerful Ethnic Bias and a number of factors contributing to its reduction. In this presentation I will focus on the role played by attachment to residential places. I will show that place attachment through its different forms has a direct and indirect positive impact on the open-minded attitude towards the multicultural character of residence places. I will also discuss the complex relationships that exist between place attachment and two different forms of national identity: attachment to the country and glorification of the country.

Key words: place memory, historical ethnic bias, place attachment, national identity

Individual Paper Title #4: “Relations between place attachment, community identity and pro-environmental actions”

Place attachment has been conceptualized within people-environment studies mainly as an outcome of human’s transactions with their habitats. In this presentation we will review and discuss psychological research focused on the consequences of place attachment, and similar constructs such as place and community identity, for environmental quality and sustainability. We will present studies from the literature and recent empirical findings suggesting either a positive or a negative link between place attachment and pro-environmental behaviour, and the possible moderators of this relationship. The psychological and contextual factors (e.g., direct economic interest, public participation, trust in institutions) that can turn place-attached individuals and groups into either pro- or anti-environmental actors will be discussed and illustrated through examples from recent empirical works. The possible mediating mechanism operating in these two opposite paths will be also illustrated. We will refer to factors such as civic engagement and social cohesion in the pattern linking attachment and identity to pro-environmental outcomes, or to factors such as inter-group bias and NIMBYism (Not in My Backyard) in the pattern linking attachment and identity to anti-environmental outcomes. The theoretical and practical implications of these studies will be discussed.

Keywords: place attachment, pro-environmental behavior, community identity

Individual Paper Title #5: “Place Attachments and Resiliency: Lessons from the Experience of Displacement”

At a time of global financial crisis, urban restructuring programs in Western Europe and the U.S. have radically altered the landscape of affordable housing by demolishing much of its social/public housing stock. But what of the people who occupy this housing? While research has studied some of the impacts of such redevelopment programs on residents, it focuses more on economic impacts and does not adequately address the lived experience of place and the place attachments of displaced residents. This paper brings the literature on place attachment into the discussion of urban restructuring programs and synthesizes the results of several empirical studies conducted in the US by the author and colleagues to provide a more complete picture of the impacts of these programs on poor people. In doing so, this paper demonstrates how place attachments are complicated by poverty and power dynamics, and formed through socio-political processes – i.e. the interplay of policy and rhetoric with the active processes of meaning making among residents who are required to relocate. The paper concludes with a discussion of how place attachments can challenge the normative socio-spatial order put forward by contemporary urban restructuring programs.

While the research summarized in this paper takes place in the context of public housing redevelopment in the US, there are important lessons to be learned that could broaden place attachment theory and enable it to be more reflective of the socio-political realities of people’s lives. This paper underscores the need for a dynamic perspective on place attachments that properly reflects their socially constructed nature. This essential if place attachment research is to reflect the full complement of people’s experiences of place, enable a more socially inclusive research agenda to ensure, and to inform socially just urban change.

Keywords: urban restructuring programs, place attachment, neighborhood change, displacement

Bushman, Bryce W.. "Place Meaning Transaction Models." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Environmental psychologists study the relationships between people and places. These relationships are based on the transactions between individual people and places that occur over time. These transactions produce a variety of changes in both person and place. Place meaning is a fundamental psychological change experienced by the person. The two place meaning transaction models represent how each transaction generates place meaning. The accumulations of place meanings over time contribute to person-place relationships.

Systems science ideas, which are used to understand complex interactions between multiple parts, are useful in examining person-place transactions and the changes they produce. The dynamic relationship between people and places is in constant flux but retains a layered systemic structure, including control and communication processes. The generation of place meaning is a feedback loop and place meaning and person-place relationships are emergent properties of the system.

Each individual person is an agent within the person-place system; they make choices about their transactions with places (decision-making processes are important but outside the scope of these models). These choices are based on their unique collection of personal and social meanings and past experiences. Place transactions occur through their physical body and are mediated by its unique characteristics. Person-place transactions are driven by purposeful action rather than randomness. As time passes, people are in a state of constant change.

Place is more than just physical space or physical objects; it is a combination of both physical and social dimensions. These dimensions are distinct but permanently interconnected because social activity requires physical support and physical places are built by and for human use. The physical features of a place can facilitate or impede physical and/or social activity. People are present in a physical corporeal form. The physical dimension includes countless variables such as color, material, size, shape, age, condition, temperature, light, air flow, etc. As time passes, places are in a state of constant change.

Person-place transactions occur each time a person has an experience with a place and are classified by the level of change they produce. There are two types: 1- Interactions produce a two-way change in which both the person and place are changed by the transaction, represented by the “interaction model.” 2- Actions produce a one-way change in which only the person is changed by the transaction, represented by the “action model.” The variable that differentiates the two is whether or not the person is physically present within the place during the transaction. Physical presence engages more of the person’s biological processes and provides them with more transaction choices.

Place meaning, with its capacity to represent positive, neutral, and negative feelings toward a place and its relevance across varying time scales, enriches the understanding of person-place relationships, which typically focus on long-term positive relationships such as place attachment. The relationship between everyday place meaning transactions and the highly developed environmental psychology constructs needs to be explored. Systems science ideas provide an established framework which can be useful for exploring the relationships between these phenomena.

Lasiewicz-Sych, Angelika. "Places of memory as spaces for social activities: The open form concept in architecture." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

The art concept of „open form” as opposed to „closed” was a form left open for interpretations with only some elements pre-composed or pre-designed.

The starting point for my analysis is the Open Form idea of Polish architect Oskar Hansen. He described the idea as designing a background only for expressive behaviour of users; his designs were purposly unfinished, waiting for people's reactions. The most appealling of his designs was unrealized concept of Monument-Road (1958) for memorizing victims of Auschwitz. The idea was experimental and seemingly non-monumental; instead of building traditional monument the authors decided to treat the whole area of previous camp as a space of memory with only a piece of it preserved and the rest left open to the activity of time and people. This is a good example of architecture that represents life and death; of memory that enables people to experience the past and live their own life.

In my presentation I want to focus on social situations that are created by architectural places of memory recently realized in Poland. By analysing the results of observations I want to describe behavioral patterns inspired by architectural forms and measure how „open” they are.

Bonaiuto, Marino, Fabrizio Scrima, Pascal Paillé, Susana Alves, Stefano De Dominicis, and Wesley P. Schultz. "Positive Psychology and Environmental Psychology." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Symposium Title: Positive Psychology and Environmental Psychology

Symposium Abstract and Individual Paper #1

Chair: Marino Bonaiuto, Sapienza Università di Roma, Italy

This symposium draws together for the first time scholars whom did not collaborate or exchanged directly before. They are all interested in different sides of the interplay among positive psychology and environmental psychology; some of them address more explicitly this issue, some other are just doing some research work which results to be relevant for such an issue. In such a way the symposium aims to contribute to a very brand new strand of creative theoretical elaboration bridging two important branches of psychology, with many implications for both basic and applied research. The five papers of the symposium, though referring to specific topics and aspects, share a general interest on how environmental psychology can improve human being(s) conditions thus positively impacting on their satisfaction, well-being, performance; or on how certain positive psychological features of the human being(s) can positively impact on the environment. These two sides of the overlapping among positive psychology and environmental psychology are both relevant and important. The papers within the symposium try to illustrate both cases. The first paper will introduce the general theme of the symposium and will set some general coordinates in terms of theoretical overlapping and reciprocal relevance of the two psychological approaches or branches of positive psychology and of environmental psychology. The second paper offers an interesting parallelism among classical attachment theory and place attachment theory, thus trying to more explicitly connecting the original attachment theory focusing on the development early age to its environmental psychology counterpart referring to the adulthood workplace as an exemplifying case for the way such a model can be useful in focusing a virtuous positive loop among people and place in reciprocal interaction. The third paper more specifically focuses on adults' workplace in order to show how a positive interaction among adult workers and their organization can promote their positive behaviours toward the organizational environment, contributing to greening it. The fourth paper deals with the importance of the environmental and contextual features which can support and help the persons to realize and fulfill their own aims; thus it focuses on how the environment can positively help the person in her/his accomplishments, especially in a delicate life-stage such as older ages. Finally, The fifth and last paper deals with the issue that not only a positive environment can positively impact on the person, but that also a positively oriented person can benefiting her/his own environment.

Key words: positive psychology, environmental psychology

Individual Paper Title #2

I love my Country, but I avoid it! I hate my Workplace but I am very attached to it. A reflection on the possible qualities of Place attachment

Fabrizio SCRIMA

University of Paris Ouest – Nanterre La Défense; Laboratoire Parisien de Psychologie Social (LAPPS)

Abstract

Based on the theory of Schumaker and Taylor (1983) Place attachment is defined as the emotional component of the relationship between an individual and a given place. Moreover, it is considered as an emotional link between person and place (Hidalgo and Hernandez, 2001) and a very important component of personal identity. Indeed, Place identity is defined as a component of Self-concept and / or personal identity, which is linked to the place to which one belongs (Hernandez, Hidalgo, Salazar-Laplace, and Hess, 2007). However, scholars have focused on the presence-absence dichotomy of the place attachment. We believe that Bowlby's Attachment Theory could be useful for understanding the particular patterns influencing the relationship between individual and place. In particular, mutualizing from Bartholomew and Horowitz approach (1991), positive or negative quality of Self and Place perception could conduct us at the generation of the principal adult attachment patterns: secure, preoccupied, and avoidant. The secure attachment style is characterized by positive images of both self and other. It reflects a positive sense of worthiness and an expectation that other people are supportive, accepting, and available. The preoccupied pattern is characterized by a negative image of self and a positive image of other. This category describes a sense of unworthiness and an expectation that others are rejecting. The avoidant style is typified by a negative image of other and a positive image of self, indicating a sense of self-love combined with an expectation that others are negatively disposed (Bartholomew and Horowitz, 1991). In particular important role is played by the meta-cognitive ability characteristic of a secure attachment style, conceived as a resource that allows people to effectively manage some functional and dysfunctional aspects of life. An example in the workplace context is reported.

Keywords: Place attachment, secure, avoidant, preoccupied, workplace

References

Bartholomew, K., & Horowitz, L. (1991). Attachment styles among young adults: A test of a four-category model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 226-244.

Hernández, B., Carmen Hidalgo, M., Salazar-Laplace, M. E., & Hess, S. (2007). Place attachment and place identity in natives and non-natives. Journal of environmental psychology, 27(4), 310-319.

Hidalgo, M. C., & Hernandez, B. (2001). Place attachment: Conceptual and empirical questions. Journal of environmental psychology, 21(3), 273-281.

Shumaker, S. A., & Taylor, R. B. (1983). Toward a clarification of people-place relationships: A model of attachment to place. Environmental psychology: Directions and perspectives, 219-251.

Individual Paper Title #2

Pro-environmental behaviors in the workplace: theoretical underpinnings and empirical research.

Pascal Paillé

Université Laval, Quebec, Canada

Pro-environmental behaviors (PEBs) refer to behaviors that harm the natural environment as less as possible, or even benefit the environment (Steg & Vlek, 2009). Typically, for environmental psychologists environmentally friendly behaviors fall in the three main category of reduce, reuse, and recycle (Ones & Dilchert, 2012). Since several decades, a great deal of research has been undertaken for explaining individual motivations for adopting reduce, reuse or recycle behaviors in public, or private settings. Whereas current research focuses mostly on factors in private or public settings (for recent meta-analyses see Steg & Vlek, 2009; Osbaldiston & Schott, 2012), until now, little empirical work has been undertaken that specifically explores the determinants of PEBs at work. PEBs may be direct or indirect (Homburg & Solberg, 2006). Direct PEBs refer to carrying out concrete gestures toward the environment (e.g., recycling). Indirect PEBs refer to motivation about providing advice or encouragement to others individuals to adopt direct PEBs. Scant research has investigated how individuals contribute to protect the natural environment by encouraging others to adopt friendly environmental behaviors when they are at job. Current findings indicate that the theories (e.g., values-beliefs-norms) that provide good results in private settings, tend to generate mixed results in organizational settings. An emerging trend within the environmental literature is the assumption that social exchange relationships can help explain employees’ propensity to perform green behaviors on behalf of their organization (Paillé & Boiral, 2013). Social exchange refers “the voluntary actions of individuals that are motivated by the returns they are expected to bring and typically do in fact bring from others” (Blau, 1964, p. 91). From the employee standpoint, this means that they are prone to engage in pro-environmental behaviors if they perceive that their organization demonstrates at some level its engagement for initiating, developing, and maintaining favorable work conditions. Our purpose is to give some conceptual benchmarks, and to report some findings highlighting how social exchange processes contribute to the greening of organizations when employers encourage employees to engage in indirect PEBs.

Key words: pro-environmental behaviors, social exchange, work settings.

References

Blau, P. (1964). Exchange and Power in Social Life. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

Homburg, A. & Stolberg, A. (2006). Explaining pro-environmental behavior with a cognitive theory of stress. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 26, 1, 1–14.

Osbaldiston, R. & Schott, J. (2012). Environmental Sustainability and Behavioral Science: Meta-Analysis of Proenvironmental Behavior Experiments. Environment and Behavior, 44(2): 257–299.

Ones, D. & Dilchert, S. (2012a). Employee green behaviors. In S. E. Jackson, D.S. Ones, & S., Dilchert (Éds.), Managing Human Resource for environmental sustainability (pp. 85-116). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Paillé P. & Boiral O. (2013). Pro-environmental behavior at work: construct validity and determinants. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 36, 118-128.

Steg, L. & Vlek, C. (2009). Encouraging pro-environmental behaviour: An integrative review and research agenda. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 29, 309–317.

Individual Paper Title #3

Personal Projects Analysis of Older Residents in Turkey

Susana Alves, Department of Architecture, Okan University, Istanbul, Turkey

e-mail: [email protected]

Human flourishing and well-being are transactional processes influenced by features of persons and places. One way to study the conjoint effects of persons and places is to report to “personal projects”. Personal Projects refer to self- and goal-oriented everyday activities individuals are doing or planning to do. This study examines how the everyday environment of older residents (people aged 60 and older) and their affordances affect the realisation of personal projects; and how self-reported health is related to the realisation and evaluation of personal projects. The Personal Projects Analysis (Little, 1983) is used with a sample of 100 older residents in Turkey. Residents were interviewed about their personal projects and asked to evaluate the role of the local environment in supporting or hindering their everyday activities (i.e., environmental supportiveness). Personal projects were also evaluated in terms of sense of control, feelings, place of realisation, and type of companionship. Preliminary analyses show that the home environment is commonly used for recreational and utilitarian pursuits and that pathways; noise and car parks represent environmental barriers that make it difficult to undertake outdoor personal projects. The supportive elements of everyday places and their association with health will be presented and further discussed.

Keywords: Personal Projects; older people; environmental support; health; everyday environment

Individual Paper Title #5

When Helping the Environment Benefits Me: Testing the Inclusion Model of Environmental Concern (IMEC)

Stefano De Dominicis 1, P. Wesley Schultz 2, Marino Bonaiuto 1

1 Dipartimento di Psicologia dei Processi di Sviluppo e Socializzazione, and CIRPA - Centro Interuniversitario di Ricerca in Psicologia Ambientale, Sapienza Università di Roma, Rome, Italy.

2 Department of Psychology, California State University, San Marcos, CA, USA.

Environmental concerns (one’s attitude toward the environment and related issues) have been conceptualized in the literature as egoistic, altruistic or biospheric general personal orientations. Research has shown that these concerns are predictive of pro-environemntal behavior, with egoistic concerns negatively predictive and biospheric concerns positively. However, given the need for widespread pro-environmental action, such an approach does not address this issue, since there is no consensus on how to positively motivate people holding different values and related concerns to behave pro-environmentally (excluding the extreme and hard option of changing the value system of a large part of the world population). In fact, according to an environmental concern perspective, people engage in pro-environmental behaviors because of their biospheric concern. But what about self-enhancement oriented persons who hold egoistic concerns? The current research tests our Inclusion Model of Environmental Concerns (IMEC), which states that environmental concerns are hierarchically organized: egoistic concerns are embedded in social-altruistic concerns, which are themselves embedded in biospheric concerns. Therefore, each concern can be a positive attitude toward environmental issues. Three studies test the hypothesis that individuals will be more willing to behave green when a self-enhancing motivation (but not a self-transcendent one) will match their egoistic dispositional concern, while both the self-enhancing and self-transcendent motivations will increase green behaviors when their dispositional concern is biospheric. Results are discussed according to Schwartz’s model of values and the Inclusion Model. Future developments are proposed according to social norms theory, costly signaling theory, and to evolutionary psychology applied to sustainable behaviors.

Hoeltge, Jan, Laura Pirgie, Jennifer Sudkamp, and Renate Cervinka. "Predictors of Perceived Restorativeness in Private Gardens." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Introduction: While research on the restorative potential of public green space is increasing, studies on private gardens are rare. Domestic gardens provide immediate access for users, can be designed according to users’ needs, and allow to connect with nature. Accordingly, we hypothesesed gardens as a valuable resource for restoration. This study is aimed at exploring predictors of perceived restorativeness of private gardens. Our research model consist of four blocks of variables predicting perceived restorativeness scale (PRS, Hartig et al., 1996, 1997) as dependent variable.

Method: In an online survey, 811 respondents (mean age = 48.64 SD = 13.49, 66 % female) rated the restorative potential of their preferred private green space. We applied the 26-item version of the PRS. As predictors characteristics of the garden, sociodemographic data, personal characteristics, and relationship with the garden were surveyed.

Results: Respondents rated their garden high on the PRS (M = 8.07, SD = 1.39). Predictors explained 53.1 % of the variance of the PRS in a blockwise multiple regression analysis. The user’s relationship with the garden appeared as the most important of predictor explaining 21.3% of variance, followed by personal characteristics (14.8 %), characteristics of the garden (12.4 %), and sociodemographic data (4.6 %). Enjoyment of the garden, satisfaction with the garden, connectedness with the garden, natural elements, detachment from work, size of the garden, and sex appeared as significant single predictors.

Discussion: Findings suggest, that the restorative potential of private gardens is influenced by characteristics of the garden, personal characteristics, sex and the relationship between garden and user as the most important predictor of restorativeness. We discuss application of findings in related contexts such as design of public and therapeutic green spaces. Therefore findings could be used by several groups of experts such as designers, consultants, environmental psychologists, therapists and urban planners.

Shimogaki, Hikaru, and Chiho Oshima. "Problem about the SOS network business for demented elderly persons wandering." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

1. Purpose: Demented elderly's wandering serves as a big burden for family caregiver person. The total of typical wandering is left and it becomes impossible to return from a house. In that case, family caregiver person searches for many hours. And they contact the police and request demented elderly's protection. In order that family caregiver person  may supervise them as a result, activity is restrained in many cases.

Based on these, demented elderly person watched and the business was promoted by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. This business has begun from public nursing care insurance or before. When demented elderly person goes missing, in order that family caregiver person may connect this business to a local self-governing body or the police and may search for it, it is network construction. This business can be called thing required for the regional environment about which demented elderly person can feel easy. Aging 2012, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare charged The SOS network business for wandering . In the investigation in 2011, The SOS network business for wandering , the business of 245 had started . The purpose of this research decided The SOS network business for wandering to clarify the present condition. If business is effective, environment for, as a result, demented elderly person to continue living safely is maintained

2. Method: It was considered as the object of research of the " The SOS network business for wandering " currently exhibited on the Internet. In the contents of the business currently exhibited, the registration method, the connection method of a family's business, etc. were checked.

3. Result: On March 15, 2013, the business currently checked on the Internet were 70 business.

The city (46), the town (10), and the division (5) of the business were local government.

Social welfare councils are four business and, in 5 business, there were others. The business contents are shown below. The cases where family caregiver person needed to register in advance were 51 business. They were 33 business although the method of the registration was shown. "Protection" was shown in the 33 business from "Discovery" of demented elderly person by a figure

4. Consideration: The local government was undertaking many of " The SOS network business for wandering " currently exhibited on the Internet. The business currently most undertaken from before was the service which makes demented elderly person carry the finder by GPS. However, this business had the heavy burden for family caregiver person. The feature of this business is in construction of the network for searching for demented elderly person. The business in a certain case has many contacts of family caregiver person's beginning in the police. In a case at night, it is not few to an actual cognitively impaired elderly person's wandering. It is clear that the role of the police is large. Therefore, it is considered to be a natural thing that it is directed as correspondence. Therefore, cooperation of local government and the police serves as a subject.

Negrulescu, Ileana Codruta. "Professionals and non-professionals ways of perception on built residential environment." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Introduction: Perceptions of both professionals and non-professionals regarding high-quality architecture are utmost divergent in the Romanian working environment. These divergencies, as well as the lack of basic definitions and common ground in the assessment of the built environment of high-quality often leave the architect isolated from the actors controlling the architectural product. The consequence is an empirically built environment, desolate, without direct involvement of professionals, in which the high-quality architectural object appears as a strange exception, paradoxically out of context.

There are major differences in the perceptions of those involved in the making of architecture, and harmonizing and directing them towards a set of generally recognized values is a key factor in increasing the quality of the Romanian built environment.

This paper aims to focus on housing design and construction, the type of architecture to which investors are mostly emotionally attached. Also, housing is the architectural program with the most notable representation within the built environment of the last two decades, maintaining the upward trend even today, despite the economic downturn.

In the field of architectural practice there are systems to measure and certify quality that were developed by institutions in economically developed societies. The purpose of these systems is to stimulate the creation of high-quality architecture, but they seemingly have a reduced influence on the quality architecture.

The majority of theoretical studies that address the topic of quality in architecture have a humanistic approach. However, the last decade shows a growing interest in the theoretical approach of architecture from the perspective of neuroscience. The first academic institution with the scope of understanding the ways in which architecture influences directly through the brain, our way of living (Academy of Neuroscience for Architecture, San Diego, USA) has been founded in 2003.

Method: the study focuses on research from an environmental psychology and neuroscience perspective, of the ways in which housing demands are generated and in which we imagine and demand our personal house to be designed.

Methodology: bibliographic research in the fields of habitation, neuroscience and environmental psychology; case studies.

Results: Substantiating a methodology for interdisciplinary approach to housing projects with the scope to improve quality of residential built environment and to establish an open dialogue between architect and client, by discovering the way in which each of us imagines the ideal dwelling.

Discussion: Addressing the issue of client-architect dialogue form sociological and psychological perspective.

Topics of concern: selecting the appropriate study structure, appropriate research methods of related fields: environmental psychology, neuroscience, sociology.

Kim, Hwasil, Yubin Park, Eunyoung Chun, and Jinkyung Paik. "Proposal for a Seed Package Design Process that uses Environmentally Friendly Materials." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Resources necessary for people to survive are limited, but consumption is continuously increasing. Pollution is a by-product of goods production and consumption. Thus, interest in environmentally friendly ideas has increased and companies are scrambling to produce goods using environmentally friendly materials. This study, taking an eco-design viewpoint, proposes a seed packaging that uses recycled paper egg cartons made from environmentally friendly materials.

Seed packages currently sold in Korea are sold in simple paper bags. This research proposes seed packages made from reused paper egg cartons that are produced from biodegradable materials that intend educational value . The biodegradable material mentioned here refers to plastic that ultimately decomposes into water and carbon dioxide by microorganisms in the soil or water. Because products made from this material decompose naturally, it is suitable in making this environmentally friendly package. First, lettuce, tomato and other plant seeds that can sprout easily even in a space used to store eggs are selected. Each space is filled with soil used for organic farming and the selected seeds are planted. When the seeds grow to a certain size, the user can cut out each space and move it to his/her vegetable garden or yard, and plant them there. Here, organic farming means not using pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers, animal feed, and other synthetic chemicals but using natural organic matter and minerals, and microorganisms to farm. Vegetables grown in this sort of environment are categorized as environmentally friendly agricultural products. Selected and inspected by specialized certification agencies, these vegetables are certified by the government and their safety is guaranteed. Moreover, as a method to increase consumers’ interests, researchers designed the seed package brand themselves. The name on the seed package was derived from a researcher’s name (Chinese character meaning “fruit grows”), and the brand identity (BI) was a symbol expressing sunlight, water, and soil, which are necessary for seeds to grow. To highlight the environmentally friendly element of the design value and reduce reckless ink use, only bluish-green degree-1 color—symbolizing nature—was used in making the product.

This research aims to share the ideas of saving resources and preserving the environment with users through the reuse of the environmentally friendly packaging. It is significant in that it derives an environmentally friendly design model that has an educational purpose using the process of seeds sprouting from organic soil.

Kim, Ye Ji, Jinkuung Paik, Hwasil Kim, and Yubin Park. "Proposal for an Empty Container Return Application as a Sustainable Environment Measure." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Pollution caused by excess garbage is a cause of global warming. This study proposes an empty container return application that allows for active use of the empty bottle return deposit system that is implemented in Korea in order to reduce waste and promote reuse of resources.

Content materialization through kiosks has highlighted the interaction between people and equipment, and allows for a rich user experience while enabling people to have awareness of a sustainable environment.

On the first screen, empty bottle return and empty bottle collecting points all over the country are displayed. After the user selects the return option and inserts the collected empty bottles into the kiosk, the bottles are automatically sorted according to size. Then, using a roulette game, the amount of money that can be returned to the user may be exchanged into a certain amount of points or a product. The reason for using a roulette game application is to draw users’ interests. The method of simply inserting empty bottles into the kiosk and receiving points is dull and cannot induce motivation to return empty bottles. However, for users who may find this roulette game difficult to use, another selection screen for accumulating points on their card is provided. The colors used on the interface are colors currently being used at the Korean Vessel Recirculation Association. The seven colors of the rainbow, which signify “natural colors, diversity, and a hopeful and bright future,” were used. Using colors already familiar to users is akin to educating them about the expansion of recycling businesses. Graphic factors that suit these colors were designed to make users approach the application more easily. This allowed for intuitive information awareness. The font used in the application was the Godic font (which has high readability); the Nanoompen font (Huellim font) that is produced and distributed free of charge by Naver was also used, in order to add a sense of familiarity.

The purpose of this study is to reduce waste and create a pleasant city by devising a plan that allows people to easily approach a system they were insufficiently aware of through the empty bottle return application. Going forward, methods that allow seamless implementation of the application will be suggested, and continuous maintenance and development of the system will be attempted.

Nioi, Amanda, Jenny Roe, Peter Aspinall, David McNair, and Alan Gow. "Proposition paper: Assessment of existing blue light exposure and the relationship to sleep and cognition in elderly care home residents with and without dementia." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Introduction: We know that blue light can improve health and well-being, but can we recommend an optimum exposure, either from daylight or by artificial intervention, if we do not know to what extent exiting environmental blue light impacts on humans? Specifically, the research question is to assess the exiting blue light component, in an elderly person care home, and the possible impacts on sleep and cognition for both those with and without dementia.

Background: The aim of the project is to explore the most effective time and duration of blue light exposure (BLE) to help promote good sleep, health and well-being in older people and those with dementia or Alzheimer’s The impact of light and its abilities to be used as a non-pharmaceutical method of regulating sleep and reducing some of the symptoms associated with Alzheimer’s and dementia is an established field (Shochat et al 2000, McCurry et al 2005). In particular, it has been found to be the shorter wavelengths (i.e. the blue light) which help to synchronize our body clock, regulate hormones, maintain alertness during the day and influence patterns of sleep at night (Holzman 2010). However, what is not known is what degree of exposure to blue light (in terms of both its intensity and time of day) is most effective in promoting good sleep in older people and those with dementia or Alzheimer’s.

Subjects: An estimated cohort of 30-40 older people in care homes will have their rest-activity patterns and BLE monitored continuously for a 4-day period. Severity of dementia impairment (also type i.e. Alzheimer’s disease, vascular dementia etc.) will be assessed using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory for Nursing Homes and Clinical Dementia Rating and a short reaction time test will be conducted.

Apparatus: Each participant will wear an actigraph watch, Phillips Respironics Actiwatch Spectrum, continuously. This records rest-activity patterns and incorporates a light sensor to monitor red, green, blue and white light exposure. Light and activity levels will be sampled at 15-second epochs.

Procedure: The participants will be met with individually to explain the study and carry out appropriate assessments and cognitive test. The actiwatch will be secured to the participant’s wrist and shall be calibrated to begin recording at 12noon on day 1 and then removed at 12noon on day 4. This study will be carried out in winter 2013-2014 and again in summer 2014.

Data analysis: Actiwatch software will be used to define various epochs of times and durations of exposure. In SPSS a one-sample t-test, non-parametric correlations and simple regression model will look for statistical significances.

Preliminary findings from a pilot study: We have carried out a pilot study, in which we applied this protocol to 6 older people in a care home, 4 with and 2 without dementia. Early indications are for non-dementia participants – improved sleep efficiency and more consolidated nocturnal sleep, exposure to higher lux levels and increased activity levels during the day, whilst for dementia participants – experienced fragmented and poor sleep efficiency, with frequent periods of light turned on and lower daytime activity levels.

Discussion: The rationale behind the study is to begin to quantify daytime BLE of dementia patients and give a better understanding to the most effective time and duration of exposure. This will highlight possible deficits in BLE and provide the opportunity to assess associations with sleep, cognition and to better appraise an intervention study.

Holman, Andrei, Corneliu Havarneanu, and Stefan Boncu. "Psycho-social predictors of the social perception of Rosia Montana mining project." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

The gold and silver mining project initiated by a foreign company in the Romanian village of Rosia Montana has sparked a lot of controversies, including a nationwide protesting campaign which has accused the high environmental costs for the area.

The aim of our study was to reveal the psychosocial underpinnings of the social positions towards this issue. Our questionnaire – based research on 378 participants with various ages and educational backgrounds investigates the social perception of the Rosia Montana mining project in terms of its perceived environmental (both biosphere - related and social) and economical consequences, as well as of its perceived environmental justice. These specific dimensions were hypothesized to be affected by a set of psychological characteristics pertaining to three distinct layers, since this mining project can be framed in several ways. First, it represents an environmental issue; second, it can be evaluated in terms of its potential nationalistic connotations (involving the exploitation of Romania’s natural resources by a foreign company); third, it involves an inter-temporal choice between the immediate economic and social gains and the potential long-term effects. The environmental layer was approached through several measures investigating one’s awareness and concern for the consequences of environmental issues (on oneself, others and the biosphere), one’s style of coping with global environmental problems, and one’s endorsement of the New Ecological Paradigm. The nationalistic issue was investigated through the National Identity Scale, while the Consideration of Future Consequences scale was employed in order to approach the third layer. Results reveal significant influences of and interactions between these multi-layered predictors and the dimensions of social perception of the Rosia Montana mining project.

Pattitoni, Piermario, and Ferdinando Fornara. "Psychosocial antecedents of sustainable transport choices." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Official reports show that in most European countries the car journeys cover the 74% of all the internal passenger transport demand, and in Italy this percentage is also higher (82.7%), as reflected by the number of circulating cars (i.e., 606 per 1000 inhabitants), one of the highest in Europe (EEA, 2012).

The objective of the study is to verify the relationships between different psychosocial dimensions (such as values, motives, social and personal norms, specific and general attitudes) and specific proenvironmental behaviour, i.e. the choice of transport mode for moving at the urban level.

As reported in the literature, proenvironmental behaviours are influenced by an array of psychosocial factors, which are included in theoretical models such as the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB: Ajzen, 1991) and the “Value-Belief-Norm” Theory (VBN: Stern et al., 1999). Both of these theories can be useful in predicting the individual transport choices in urban places. The antecedents of the target proenvironmental behaviour include respectively the attitude toward the specific behaviour, the subjective norm, and the perceived control over the behaviour as regards the TPB, whereas the VBN in based on the general beliefs about the environment, the awareness of consequences, the ascription of responsibility, and the personal norms.

A further dimension which should be taken into account for explaining proenvironmental behaviours is represented by social norms, both descriptive and injunctive, which showed an important weight for this kind of behaviours (Cialdini et al., 1991; Schultz et al., 2007).

The present study concerns a survey which was carried out with a sample of about 200 residents of the urban area of Cagliari (Italy). Participants filled in a questionnaire measuring TPB and VBN variables, social norms, and behavioural habits, with particular reference to the target behaviour (i.e., mode of transport for urban moves).

Data were elaborated throughout SEM (Structural Equation Model) analysis, in order to verify the multi-level relationships among the considered variables.

Results will be discussed in the light of both the theoretical framework and the practical implications for the policy side.

Fraga, Amelia. "PSYCHOSOCIAL EVALUATION IN ORGANIZATIONAL ENVIRONMENTS." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Introduction: Environmental psychology has long been interested in the effect of different environments on the health of users (Lawrence, 2001). The work environment has also started to be studied as a promoter or hinderer of health. Moreover, it is important to study the Quality of Life (QoL) of employees inside organizations to promote healthy workers. In relation to schedules, there is a particularly type of work schedule that is important to take into consideration: Shift work. Shift work has been studied as one of the work contexts in which several health problems occur.

This study aims to explore the perception of shift-workers about characteristics of work environment that affect their quality of life, in order to formulate recommendations that would contribute to diminish the negative effects.

Method: This research is a part of a larger study, we used a multimethod approach consisting of both qualitative and quantitative analysis. Firstly, data was collected from three focus groups developed in A Coruña (Galicia-Spain) with 19 participants shared out in three locations. The range of age was from 25 to 61years ( 43.2), and the range of time that they had been working as shift workers was from 5 to 30 years ( 15.5). The distribution by sex was well-balanced including11 men and 8 women. Atlas.ti was used to analyze this qualitative data.

At present, we are starting the second part of the study and developing a specific questionnaire from focus group data collected and analyzed. The SPSS will be used.

Results: Results obtained through the qualitative data analysis show relevant dimensions to take into account because could characterize a healthy organization promoting healthy workers. As we have pointed out previously (Fraga, 2012), 15 dimensions were derived from our analysis with three focus groups; considering the shift workers´ point of view. Seven of these dimensions are directly related to the work environment, and the rest of dimensions were related with different spheres related with work.

The second part of the study is in progress.

Discussion: This structure of dimensions was never found before. A reason could be due to the fact that the topic is too much specific. Other alternative structures were found by Royuela, López-Tamayo & Suriñach (2009) or by Gimeno et al. (2008), although both of them were focused on inner work dimensions, without an interest focused on the outer dimensions. And the outer dimensions affect the workers´ perception of quality of work as much as the others. A future way to improve this research would be to explore in more detail the ponderation between those two kinds of dimensions, inner and outer, in order to know how it affects the workers´quality of life within the workplace.

In general, we can conclude that a hypothetical bad psychological environment of work is caused by the lack of participation to improve the enterprise and its processes. The study shows that employees want to be more involved in the decision making process. This is related to previous investigations that demonstrate that participation in work tasks’ organization is linked to the dimensions that characterized a Healthy Organization (Gimeno et al., 2008).

The preliminary results entail a guide for future research on the evaluation of intensity of psychosocial risks in organizational environments to promote an adaptation, and optimal and healthy fit between employee and organization.

Fraga, Amelia, and Ricardo García-Mira. "PSYCHOSOCIAL EVALUATION IN ORGANIZATIONAL ENVIRONMENTS." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Introduction: Environmental psychology has long been interested in the effect of different environments on the health of users (Lawrence, 2001). The work environment has also started to be studied as a promoter or hinderer of health.

Moreover, it is important to study the Quality of Life (QoL) of employees inside organizations to promote healthy workers. In relation to schedules, there is a particularly type of work schedule that is important to take into consideration: Shift work. Shift work has been studied as one of the work contexts in which several health problems occur.

Aims: This study aims to explore workers´ perception of characteristics on the work environment that most affect their Quality of Life (QoL) within the context of shift work. We answered the questions “How shift-workers perceive their labour environment?” and “What can we do to improve the work environment, with especial focus in labour health and safety from shift-workers perspective?”

Method: This research is a part of a larger study, we used a multimethod approach consisting of both qualitative and quantitative analysis. Firstly collected data is the result of 3 different focus groups we arranged with the participation of shift workers in the most important cities of the province of A Coruña (Galicia-Spain). The sample included 19 participants shared out in three locations. Atlas.ti was used to analyze this qualitative data. This software was used to simplify the group´s analysis of discourse and get more objective information.

At present, we are starting the second part of the study and developing a specific questionnaire from focus group data collected and analyzed. The SPSS will be used.

Results: Results obtained through the qualitative data analysis show relevant dimensions to take into account because could characterize a healthy organization promoting healthy workers. As we have pointed out previously (Fraga, 2012), 15 dimensions were derived from our analysis with three focus groups; considering the shift workers´ point of view.

The second part of the study is in progress.

Discussion: In light of the results, we can answer the previously established research questions. Firstly, how shift-workers perceive their work environment? Workers perceive their work environment as a strange environment, unconnected with their necessities and preferences. This point of view is probably under the influence of some dimensions that we obtained, focused in a two different ways, the circumstances that occur inside the work environment and the circumstances that occur outside. And under the participant´s perspective these two environments engaged are disconnected, so they are in conflict. According to previous research about work to familiy conflict (Gee, Polzer-Debruyne, Chen & Fernandes, 2007), our results clearly support the notion that family, shift worker and work place constitute an interdependent unit. Secondly, what can we do to improve the work environment, with especial focus in labour health and safety from the shift-workers perspective? Listening to the shift-workers and considering their perspective is a way to construct an integrative approach in the general work planning and in the healthy workplace design.

Mouro, Carla, Paula Castro, and Leonor Bettencourt. "Psychosocial processes in community resistance to law-regulated practices: testing a stage model for predicting biodiversity conservation behaviours." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Communities are routinely compelled to change through new laws and policies. Some laws – like those promoting local biodiversity conservation – are often resisted, but the community-level processes involved in resistance are not always explicitly examined. Moreover, integration of new laws into community routines often takes (a long) time, yet most people-place studies still neglect considering that change happens in stages. In the health domain, behavioural change as a discontinuous process across time has been extensively studied, namely with the Trans-Theoretical Model (TTM). This model focuses on individual-level processes necessary to engage in action people at different stages of change. We adopt the TTM model to study legally-framed conservation behaviours, and add to it a set of predictors, like social norms, that extend it to community-level processes. Different stages of behavioral change are examined through a survey to a representative sample of residents living in Natura 2000 sites. The questionnaire included measures of ambivalence, social norms, and place attachment. The criteria variables were the TTM stages of change, determined by levels of awareness, intention and engagement in specific biodiversity conservation actions. The results show the distribution of residents by the five TTM stages and provide evidence of the stages where ambivalence is more accentuated. It also allows examining the impact of normative conflicts – between social norms, and between those and the law - on ambivalence, by comparing levels of ambivalence of residents perceiving high vs. low conflicting norms and the impact of ambivalence on action. We expected higher ambivalence for those who perceive high conflict, and expected this pattern to be more accentuated for residents with stronger place attachment. The discussion focus the interplay between new laws, community social norms and place attachment for advancing environmental conservation and how a temporal perspective also may contribute to improve the design and implementation of conservation laws at local sites.

Sinirlioglu, Hale, and Hülya Turgut. "PUBLIC SPACE, AUTHORITY AND MEMORY: TAKSIM SQUARE AS A STAGE FOR THE REPRESENTATION OF POWER." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

“Why does power hate a city square? A square fields no army, commands no votes, has nowhere to go. It is just a space. Yet it is a space that invites occupation, an occupation hostile to power”1.

In his article, written right after the Gezi Park demonstrations, Jenkins describes the public square as a place for direct democracy and search of the citizens for their rights to the city. Though the public space is seen as a “space for anarchy”2, showing various forms of exercise of democracy, the city square has a far deeper meaning for citizens and the government. Coming up from the example of Taksim Square, it is a well-known fact that the square is the focus of urban planning, showing numerous forms of representations, in the contexts of sociology, culture and politics.

Gezi Park demonstrations, creating new discussions on urban rights, memory and politics of space, has started as a public protest in June 2013 against the undemocratic planning of the government, which includes the re-creation of the early 19th century Artillery Barracks, demolished in 1940s, due to the urban plan of Henri Prost for the creation of Gezi Park and Ataturk Cultural Center, designed in 1960s, both surrounding the square as symbols of modernization movement of the new republic. Similarly, by deconstructing the republican Taksim, the current government plans to create its own space of its own memory and most important of all, to re-design the public through public space.

It was no accident that both the ambitious plans for the re-planning of the square and the protests were using architectural history and urban memory in their arguments1. The resistance was an artifact of the current government’s neo-ottoman policies for leaving its mark on the urban space. Both government's and citizens' reactions were mostly based on a struggle for power and ownership. Therefore, this paper will briefly discuss public space as a stage for the contest of power over Taksim Square.

Starting with the Ottomans, especially after the foundation of the new republic, Taksim has faced several changes and political show-off scenes, all adding new symbols and layers into the square, making it a space of collective memory. Governmental policies, the symbolic re-construction of Artillery Barracks and deconstruction of Ataturk Cultural Center, shows that every single factor acting within this collective memory of the space, affecting the mental formation of the square, is an allegoric representation, an “icon” itself. Therefore, the paper will discuss the representation of each of these buildings and monuments, over the layers of spatial formation and transformation of the square. These layers of memories in the historical context, which create the spaces of direct democracy today, will be evaluated with a critical approach to the politics of space.

  • 1. Jenkins,S., 2013. “From Trafalgar to Taksim, the Politics of the Square Puts the Wind up Power”, The Guardian, 12 June 2013.
  • 2. Mitchell,D., 2003. The Right to the City: Social Justice and the Fight for Public Space. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Keul, Alexander G., Bernhard Brunner, Wolfgang Spitzer, and Thomas Blaschke. "Quality of life at Salzburg City, Austria  a cooperation of environmental psychology and geoinformatics." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Reginald Golledge (2002) pointed out „the open door of GIS“ for environmental psychology. Geoinformatics, digitally storing and analyzing spatial information, GIScience, and place-based GIS (Goodchild, 2010) have opened up gradually to Social Sciences data. Public health, biology, criminology, and environmental protection already use GIS data on a regular basis. The Detroit Area Study 2001 probed the GIS potential for a Quality of Life (QOL) analysis and stimulated studies in other places (Marans & Stimson, 2011). After a visit of the first author to Michigan in 2006, translated and edited QOL items were used in a local QOL study at Salzburg City with 293 field interviews over 55 hectar. A cooperation was established with geoinformatics at Salzburg University (third and fourth author), which led to a 2007-2012 field survey of 16 Salzburg districts with 802 interviews. The statistical analysis of this dataset was done in 2013 in cooperation with geoinformatics and psychology.

Well-being in the city, the urban interface of environmental and health psychology, has a diversity of possible predictors. A synthesis of objective GIS indicators and subjective geocoded items on urban quality of life (QOL) was considered as useful for a mixed methods approach. 41 US QOL items were validated for Austria by an embedded qualitative survey that gave very similar main subjective QOL dimensions of the Salzburg residents. The QOL items were geocoded, matched with objective GIS data of the Salzburg City planning department, and tested for general predictors and subjective-objective interactions.

The 41 US QOL items, when factor analyzed, gave a reliable 26 item 3-factor solution delivering three dependent variables (environmental/social quality, social roots, subjective infrastructure). Multiple linear regressions used them as DVs, sociodemography and GIS variables as IVs. Relevant predictors were housing density (GIS), residential duration, social relations, a green factor (GIS), and subjective district center perception. The variable social roots showed no GIS predictors. 25.8-47.7% AV-variance was explained by the predictor loadings. District differences for the DVs were tested by MANOVA and found to be highly significant, which underlines the role of city district images, further supported by MANCOVA findings. However, approximately 50% of the total variance is not explained by IVs and will need additional predictors.

At the end of 2013, an official psychology-GIScience cooperation platform was formed and supported by Salzburg University, Z_GIS and iSPACE. First discussions formulated the following topics of interest: 1. Replication of the Salzburg factor analysis and regression results in a city of similar size. 2. Testing whether the US QOL item list validated for Austria is validated for other countries. 3. Further mixed methods evaluation of geocoded QOL items versus GIS data – after housing density and greenery, e.g. infrastructure (shopping, restaurants, public transport). 4. Further study on the QOL effects of city districts, finding more items that explain QOL variance. 5. Introduction of psychological constructs (e.g. stressors) as predictors of QOL dependent variables. A parallel QOL survey in the city of Timisoara is underway and will be reported in a contribution to IAPS23.

Stancu, Alexandra, Daria Lupsa, Alexander G. Keul, Corina M. Ilin, Laura Alexandrescu, Madalina Anghel, Marius Ardelean, Diana Crainic, Sergiu Crisan, Cristian Preoteasa et al. "Quality of life at Timișoara, Romania - a comparative field study." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Following a suggestion of Reginald Golledge (2002) and the concept of Marans and Stimson (2011), quality of life (QOL) in the city is seen as overlap of environmental and health psychology, accessible by a mixed methods approach, and individual records to be geocoded and analyzed with the help of GIS from geoinformatics (Keul et al., 2007). A large urban data set exists at Salzburg City, Austria (N=802, 2007-2012) and was item-based on the Detroit Area Study. At the end of 2013, a Romanian translation of the Austrian questionnaire is being used for fieldwork in the Timișoara districts of Soarelui and Circumvalațiunii. A quota sample of under N=100 will be obtained and statistically analyzed in comparison to the Austrian study.

Timișoara, capital city of Timiș Country, in western Romania, and of the Banat region, is Romania’s third largest city with about 320,000 inhabitants. The Banat region was conquered by Hungary in 1030, Timișoara first mentioned around 1250. After Hungarian military rule, the Ottoman army annexed Timișoara in 1552 and ruled for 160 years. 1716 came Prince Eugene of Savoy and the Austrian rule. In the 20th century, Timișoara saw industrialization, modern infrastructure (first European city with electric street lamps 1884) and grew considerably. Romanians, Germans, Serbs and Hungarians were the main ethnic groups. After World War, it fell to Serbia, then to Romania. Under Soviet rule after World War II, the city population tripled in the next 45 years. 1989, the Romanian Revolution started in Timișoara. Since then, an economic boom occurred, especially in the high-tech sector. 2011, 87% of the population were ethnic Romanians, 5% Hungarians, only 1.4% Germans.

Soarelui is a neighborhood located in the south of Timisoara and belongs to Elisabetin, the 3rd district of Timișoara. It was built around 1985, among the last working class neighborhoods built by the communist regime. Most people were employed in factories on the industrial platform Buziaşului. There are numerous kindergartens, and a school in Soarelui. The dominant buildings in this area are blocks with 4 to 10 floors.

Circumvalațiunii – between the center and the west entrance to the city - belongs to the 5th district of Mehala. Through Circumvalatiunii passes one of the most important transport arteries in Timisoara and bypasses the old center - old city and its fortresses. Soarelui is a newer area; we expect to see younger families living here, also here are more restorative areas, comparing to Circumvalatiunii.

At Salzburg University, a research focus of environmental psychology with geoinformatics has been established and one of the first steps will be replication studies to find out whether general predictors and subjective-objective interactions found in the Salzburg City study (see Keul et al. at IAPS 2014) are culture-bound, local phenomena, or show transcultural stability. Also, the validity of the 41 US QOL items for Romania has to be tested via triangulation with a qualitative list of Romanian QOL attributes.

In the future the Timișoara QOL data will be geocoded and analyzed against local GIS data of the two city districts.

Lord, Sebastien, and Paula Negron-Poblete. "Questioning the walkability of urban environments for older people: the MAPA urban audit tool." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

In Québec, Canada, as other places in North America, the ageing of the population has stimulated the construction of many elderly houses. From private or social sectors, many types of housing offer seniors’ adapted residences, but also many services inside and outside the house, which are organized and managed by the residence authorities. The location of these housing complexes in metropolitan territory is limited by land availability and zoning regulations. Because of their large size, the serviced-housing managers seek both good accessibility and proximity to commercial concentrations. This situation often pushes these housing complexes to the periphery of suburban neighbourhoods, in hostile environments for pedestrians: borders of highways, railways, close to industrial areas, large boulevards, etc. Based on Environmental Gerontology approaches, this paper presents an analysis of the mobility of elderly persons living in four seniors’ residences in the Greater Montréal, Québec, Canada. The mobility analysis was conducted on two levels. The first level focuses on the mobility potential offered by the urban environment around the seniors’ residences. Using our environmental audit (MAPA) that reflects the walking potential for elderly, we evaluated the street segments walkability around seniors' residences and commercial concentrations nearby. A typology of walkability shows that the vast majority of street segments provide the minimum level of security for seniors traveling by foot. On the one hand, even in dense urban areas, walkability is often compromised by the presence of barriers to pedestrian safety. On the other hand, efforts have been put in place by municipalities to improve walkability around certain strategic concentrations. However, the situation remains critical around shopping centers, where walkability is particularly problematic in terms of functional perspectives. The second level of analysis concerns the residents’ mobility experiences. Focus groups and surveys have been conducted in housing complexes in order to appreciate the elder’s mobility uses in the neighbourhood and the importance that elders attribute to get around. In addition to the elements identified by the urban audit, the ability to do activities and meet people was raised as a key factor in elders’ mobility, but also the positive relationships to neighbourhood. Thus, social activities offered in the seniors’ residences often avoid elders to face the urban environment hostility in neighbourhood. The choice of location for elders’ residences forces seniors to adapt to situations that could be avoided according to minimal of urban design interventions. However seniors are forced to use activities and services in the housing complexes. This situation can contribute to spatial exclusion, reduce physical activities, and limit their participation in urban life.

Silvestru, Mihai, Raluca Pauta, Alina Tirtea, and Aurelian Gruin. "RAMMED EARTH HOUSES AS A SUSTAINABLE CONSTRUCTION SYSTEM." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

The paper analyses the rammed earth dwellings based on two fundamental criteria: Sustainability of construction system; Quality of living.

Analysis of earth construction in terms of sustainability and energy balance not only confirm the validity of the choice made, but questions other current construction techniques presented as "energy efficient, eco or low energy".

While in Europe we got to spend over 90% of our time indoors, the health and compatibility of housing environment with their inhabitants becomes an essential criteria. The new "trend" of respiratory diseases, various allergies and weakened immune systems are looking for answers - how we build without allergens, how to create a proper envelope for humans, with all that entails it (including both pragmatic issues like temperature and humidity and sensitive ones, like smell, ambience, resonance etc).

Excellence in architecture can be aesthetic, technical, economical or environmental, etc. All these qualities have any direct or immediate impact on the quality of living.

In the spirit of sustainable construction, the project has several features designed to minimize environmental impact, while being attentive to the quality of living. Energy requirements are provided from alternative sources: photovoltaic panels, vertical axis wind turbine and passive heating using Trombe-wall system.

Hope, Aimie L. B., Christopher R. Jones, Thomas L. Webb, and Matthew T. Watson. "Recycling can compensate for driving a car (but only sometimes): Issues around the measurement of compensatory green beliefs." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

There are concerns that efforts to increase energy efficiency in the domestic sector will be undermined by rebound effects. For example, money saved on fuel because of home insulation could enable an individual to heat their home for longer or to purchase other carbon intensive goods or services. A novel approach to understanding the issue of rebound effects is through the application of “compensatory beliefs” (a concept developed in Health Psychology) to environmentally significant behaviours. In an environmental domain a compensatory belief would be that the negative effects of failing to act pro-environmentally (either by actively choosing to undertake a harmful behaviour or by simply failing to engage in positive actions) can be compensated for by undertaking a pro-environmental behaviour. The concern is that compensatory beliefs could result in a range of counterproductive behavioural patterns which could put people at risk of failing to obtain their pro-environmental goals (e.g. reducing personal carbon emissions) and result in environmental damage.

To date assessing endorsement of compensatory green beliefs (CGBs) using self-report measures has provided limited results. This study therefore tested the reliability and validity of a new measure of CGBs designed by Kaklamanou, Jones, Webb, and Walker (2013) to identify what problems, if any, people encounter when completing the CGB scale. This was deemed important because being aware of potential limitations of measures is central to understanding the results obtained through their use. This study also aimed to build upon and develop the concept of compensation by investigating if, when, why and how such beliefs are held or acted upon. 41 participants completed a think-aloud exercise and follow up semi-structured interview. A variety of issues with the CGB measure were identified including issues common to questionnaire completion as well as issues specific to the CGB scale. Interviews provided insights into the personal and social functions of compensation. These included the reduction of dissonance when people are tempted to act un-environmentally, enabling self-licensing and managing self-image and reputation. This poster will provide an overview of the project to date and outline plans for future research.

Shibata, Yoshie, Naoki Matsubara, and Erina Kitamura. "Relationship between the imagined and actual temperature in residences during summer in Japan." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Introduction: In recent times, instances of heat disorders in elderly people in residential buildings have been increasing in Japan. Heat disorders are serious illnesses that are potentially fatal, and thus, their prevention is urgent and important. Consequently, we have investigated the thermal environment in the residences of elderly people during summer. Instances of heat disorders have been found to occur in bedrooms, living rooms, and kitchens (Shibata et al., 2010). However, details of the thermal environment in these spaces remain unknown. To prevent heat disorders, residents need to be aware of their exact indoor thermal environment.

The purpose of this study is to make residents aware of their actual indoor thermal environment during summer in order for them to adjust their environment appropriately. This study is motivated by the urgent need to prevent heat disorders, particularly among the elderly.

Method: We measured the temperature and relative humidity in five rooms in each of 53 residential buildings. Temperature/humidity loggers were installed in the living rooms, bedrooms, kitchens, toilets, and dressing rooms. We simultaneously surveyed 75 residents of Kyoto about the methods they use to control their thermal environment in summer. We also surveyed the residents to determine whether they were aware of the exact indoor temperature. In order to determine the imagined temperature, we asked the following question: ‘Please imagine the temperature of the living room during day, and of the bedroom during night, during the midsummer.

Result and Discussions: The survey periods were from August 1 to August 14, 2011 and from August 2 to August 15, 2012. Our results show that the average temperature during the survey periods was high and uncomfortable, producing a risk of heat disorders. Both, during the day and during the evening, indoor temperatures reached dangerous levels. The residents might have heat disorders.Therefore, for many respondents, the average temperature became high and uncomfortable, producing heat disorder risk.Room spaces were reported to be unbearably hot in midsummer.n the survey, the ratio of respondents who answered ‘the bedrooms are too hot and unbearable’, ‘the kitchens are too hot and unbearable’, ‘the toilets are too hot and unbearable’, and ‘the living rooms are too hot and unbearable’ were 48.0%, 36.0%, 28.0%, and 25.3%, respectively. The imagined temperatures for living rooms and bedrooms were not accurate. The correlation coefficient of the imagined temperature and the actual measurement value in the living room and the bedroom were R2 = 0.0139 and R2 = 0.0711, respectively. It is important for a resident to imagine the ambient air temperature accurately. On a daily basis, 64% of the respondents reduced their use of air conditioners to save energy, while 74.7% continued to use electric fans. The response rate of respondents who used both air-conditioners and electric fans was 48.0%. In order to improve the thermal environment, residents need to be aware of their exact indoor thermal environment. Moreover residents must have reliable knowledge about the temperature which they can take to protect themselves. This study may be useful in preventing heat disorders.

Koga, Toshie, Yurika Yokoyama, and Kyeong-Lark Lee. "Relationships between the object environment and the impressionistic evaluations by third party viewers - Toward an evaluation based improvement of private rooms of Japanese nursing homes." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

In this research the authors analyze the quality of the residential environment for private rooms in nursing homes in Japan. It aims at offering environmental support that will broaden and enhance the behavior of residents in their rooms, with a view toward improving the QOL of frail elderly persons after they come to live in a residential facility.

In this research we use the word ‘object environment’ to mean the environment that is created by the furniture and goods which are visible to the visitors in a resident’s room. In this paper we consider whether it is possible to evaluate the room environment by means of ‘object environment.’ To make this evaluation, we analyze the connections between the ‘object environment’ and impressionistic evaluations of the room by third parties.

According to Wilson & Mackenzie1, one can judge the sociability of a person from their room’s appearance, and to a certain extent this view has generally been accepted. Even in residential facilities for the elderly, the choice and allocation of ‘objects’ in a private room are likely an important element in showing a person’s sociability.

Koga, Yokoyama et. al. (2002)2 sought to investigate the relations between the physical requirements of residents and the ‘object environment.’ They adopted and analyzed the classification of objects used by Csikszentmihalyi et. al.(1981). This classification divides the possessions in a resident’s room into ‘action-objects,’ that is, objects that are used in daily life, and ‘contemplation-objects,’ that is, objects that are put in the room to see.

We obtained the cooperation of 18 residents of Facility A, a nursing home in Japan. We took photographs of all parts of the rooms, and grasped how objects appeared in the rooms. From the photographs we listed up the content and number of the ‘objects’ visible in each room.

We showed selected photographs of the private rooms to general students. Each photograph is displayed by a one-page sheet to 92 students. The subjects evaluated each photo based on the evaluation axes. It was carried out from October 2010 to January 2011.

Some of main results;

  1. In the room of a person who can prepare the things needed for daily living on their own, bringing together a large number of ‘objects’ did not necessarily give a favorable impression to third parties.
  2. A definite relation exists between the ‘object environment’ and the impressionistic evaluations. First, action-objects are closely related to impressions regarding maintenance and management. On the other hand, they are also related to familiarity. Among the impressions of affinity that observers had, in particular for impressions of familiarity, a relation was suggested with contemplation-objects.
  • 1. Margaret A. Wilson, Nicola E. Mackenzie: Social Attributions Based on Domestic Interiors, Journal of Environment Psycology 20, pp.343-354, 2000
  • 2. Koga, Toshie, Yurika Yokoyama, et.al. : Environment Quality of Private Rooms and Resident’s Assessment of Nursing Homes, The Proceedings of the 5th. International Symposium for Environment-Behavior Studies, pp.621-631, 2002
Diniz, Raquel Farias, Dandara Morais, and José Queiroz Pinheiro. "Religiosity and environmental care: explorations with Brazilians of three religious orientations." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Investigations about the determinants of pro-ecological commitment have pointed out that religiosity differentiates between environmental caregivers and non-caregivers. The main objective of our study was to explore the association of religiosity and environmental care by followers of the three major religious orientations of the city of Natal, capital of a Northeastern Brazilian state. The investigation analysed the responses to a questionnaire by 84 participants: 31 Evangelicals, 25 Catholics, and 28 Spiritualists. The questions were presented either on a printed or online format; women totalled 60% of the participants, 83% of whom had completed at least the high school level of education . Participants were asked to attribute levels of influence (upon environmental care) to the following sources: contact with nature, school, family, friends, media and religion, to express their opinion about the role of religion for environmental care, and to evaluate their own religious engagement. Data from the open questions were treated by thematic content analysis and the frequencies were submitted to non-parametric statistical tests. Environmental caregivers were 57 participants (62%), and reported practices such as garbage management, plants maintenance, and water savings; besides, they attributed greater importance to contact with nature when compared to non-caregivers (p = 0•02). The proportion of caregivers and non-caregivers were similar for the three religious groups, however there were differences between them in regard to the perception of the influence of school, friends, media and religiosity (p < 0•05), while Catholics and Spiritualists presented higher means than Evangelists in all sources of influence. Reasons attributed to the influence of religiosity also varied among the three groups. Evangelists mentioned a strong sense of moral obligation to follow the doctrine, referring strongly to the Bible. Spiritualists alluded to spiritual improvement, which requires a conscious conduct by the individual, holistic vision and future perspective. Catholics focused on concrete actions promoted by religious institutions that may generate impact on the practices of environmental care. In general, results indicate the relevance of considering religiosity among the set of determinants of pro-ecological commitment, suggesting the need of additional investigations on how the diverse manifestations of spirituality may impact on environmental care.

Wakai, Shoichi. "Report of investigation of actual conditions of the indoor playground for children who reside in polluted radioactive area by Fukushima nuclear accident." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

It has been limited to a lot of children who live in the radiation poisoning district of Fukushima to act for a long time in outdoor by the worst Fukushima nuclear accident that occurred soon after the East Japan great earthquake on 11 March 2011. Children who live in Fukushima decrease remarkably the momentum, are pointed out the tendency to the decrease and the obesity of children's moving ability compared with the national average, and are the serious social problems according to the investigation of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. Fukushima Prefecture assumes "Secure of the indoor child playground" to be a prior measure in the background of this situation, and facilities in various indoor playgrounds for children by the public management or the private management are established in the Fukushima prefecture various places. The number of indoor child playgrounds set up Fukushima inside a prefecture has exceeded 50 facilities excluding so-called "Return difficulty region" polluted by a high-level radioactivity in August 2013. There are some conditions such as installing the limitation to deal with going of the child and the guardian for safety, and a lot of users at one use time and making it to the replacement system through the use of facilities concerned is free as a rule. Facilities set up in the city part such as comparatively populous Koriyama City also include facilities where the number of average users during a day exceeds 1,000. The main play equipment prepared in those indoor child playgrounds are various like an air track, a ball pool, a cyber wheel, the tricycle circuit, and the sand pit, etc. that were able to be done by a soft material that put some air for safety. For children who use the indoor child playground, children at the baby and the elementary school are the majority. However, the appearance that they actively move about seems to be indeed glad and dynamic like dispelling the stress that cannot usually play in outdoor. Then, this report is the one that it pays attention to the indoor child playground established in the Fukushima prefecture after the nuclear accident of Fukushima, and the user's realities and how to use the play equipment were investigated. This investigation was the following three contents.

  1. Installation situation and research on actual use condition of the indoor child playground set up by Fukushima nuclear accident
  2. Hearing survey to user and facilities manager in those indoor child playgrounds
  3. Behavioral survey of child who plays with various play equipment in those facilities

Those play behavior of the child in facilities was able to be divided from the result of the main investigation into two characteristics of dynamic and static action that moved about quickly on the air track and the sand pit play. Moreover, there was an answer such as "I wanted to use it regardless of the radiation poisoning" from the hearing investigation to the user, and a potential necessity for the indoor child playground was anticipated.

Hao, Yanni, and Lianlian Liu. "Research on Sustainable Travel of Residents in Urban Fringe." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

As China has constructed rail transit in major cities, the edges of these cities are expanding limitlessly. The urban fringe has become the representative area of high-speed urbanization. An enormous amount of original residents housing are being demolished, small factories are migrating to a more peripheral area every day. Urban roads, rail transportation and high-rise housing are occupying this land gradually. These fringe areas have become the ones in which the speed of urban construction and population gathering is the highest in the city. But this rapid development has also caused lots of urban and social problems. Influenced by the factors of urban rail transit, land price and others, urban fringe has shown us the feature of various space forms, complex population structure, different construction levels of infrastructure and no sharing of nice urban spatial environment. It is becoming one focus of scholars attention that, what kind of residential structural morphology in urban fringe can provide a better way of coordinate development between rail transit and also meet the travel demands of different groups of people.

This article selects five marginal residential areas along the rail transit in ShenYang China, getting data of people travel and spatial form in these areas, classifying and assessing the structures of residential in urban fringe, through the method of environmental behavior and GIS.We found that people living in these urban fringes consist of the original rural residents, commuters working in the city center and the rich guys occupying larger area of land. The demographic structure shows diversity. Environmental design and infrastructure between residential areas and the urban rail transit are not very well. The built environment is not conducive to choose a sustainable travel method for residents. There are no significant differences of settlements form between the urban fringes and usual areas now. The existing plans neglect the concept of sustainable travel.

Through this article, hope I can summarize the characteristics of the spatial form and residents travel along the rail transit in urban fringes, explore the best fringe settlements planning mode making the most effective use of urban railway transit. The results will direct the construction of residential district in urban fringe with applicability.

Duan, Sutong, Wei Lu, and Lianlian Liu. "Research on the travel behavior of the residents to the port under the transformation of the old ports functiontake the example of Port of Dalian." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

In the world wide, under the influence of the ship tonnage’s enhancement, the container transportation’s development, industrial suburbanization and etc,the port is moving away from center city areas.The old port area located in the center of the city along with their surrounding factories, warehouses, railway stations and docks were gradually abandoned, left a large area of broken land. Urban expansion causes the tension of the urban land resources, because most of the old port areas which had been abandoned have a very good location in cities, they have a high redevelopment value, thereby attracting a large number of urban developers. But for China, redevelopment of old ports is lagged behind compared with other countries, this is related to China's economic development level. For now, the redevelopment of the old port area gradually becomes the hot issue within the area of central area renaissance of the port cities in China. Like other countries, The old port areas gradually transform to a functional zone for passenger’s transport, office, commerce, shopping and reside, entertainment, and other functions, the transition of the function have influenced on travel behavior of the citizens to the port.The change of old ports’ function at the same time changes the crowd. which leads to a change in the choice of the mode of transport to the port.

This paper takes Port of Dalian as an example. Through the study of the status quo analysis of the traffic conditions of the port, its surroundings, and on-site interviews, a large number of questionnaire survey on the travel behavior of the residents to the port, we were able to understand the travelling behavior of the port residents. Through the analysis, we made a summary of starting point and destination, route and convenience of port residents’ travelling behavior. We made some meaningful conclusions taking current traffic conditions into consideration. We were hoping that this study could help in improving the connectivity between old ports and cities, along with the accessibility of the old ports on the purpose of making Port of Dalian more vibrant and developing sustainably in the process of urban redevelopment.

Lotfi, Simin. "Residential choice and sustainability: Measuring the gap between environmental and behavioral performance." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

People have positive attitudes toward preserving natural resources, but they may not support policies to limit urban sprawl, which poses significant challenges for sustainable development, as environmental (e.g. increased greenhouse gas emissions), territorial (e.g. spatial segregation) and societal (e.g. accessibility and proximity to services). Suburbanization considered the outcome of macro-level factors (e.g. housing market and housing policy developments). However, the role of micro-level factors at the level of household (e.g. values and lifestyle) is unavoidable.

To limit urban sprawl, policymakers have proposed solutions (e.g. eco-neighborhoods and densification) that may meet the objectives of sustainable development, but not the ones of households’ aspirations (Lotfi, 2012). Many households continue to choose suburbs. Does choosing to live in suburbs necessarily mean an unsustainable behavior?

It is supposed that each type of environment (e.g. suburb) has an ascribed lifestyle, but some studies found that there may be less attachment to concomitant aspects of these built forms, such as use of private vehicles in low-density developments (Myers and Gearin, 2001; Walker and Li, 2007). So, inconsistency between the concomitant and performed lifestyle raises the need for a systematic comparison of lifestyle among those living in different residential settings to establish the link between residential choice and sustainability.

In this context of urban sprawl, this research deals with residential choice and sustainability. The aim is to measure the "degree of fitness" between sustainability of residential location and behavior, by focusing on generated lifestyle by residential choice and its contribution to person-environment (in)congruity. The study area is Québec metropolitan community (CMQ), where suburbanization poses significant challenges to sustainable development. We apply a quantitative approach using the data of the internet survey of "Demain Québec". To date, we have developed an analytical framework for measurement of sustainable environment and sustainable behavior in the context of residential choice.

Lotfi, Simin. "Residential choice and sustainability: Measuring the gap between environmental and behavioral performance." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

People have positive attitudes toward preserving natural resources, but they may not support policies to limit urban sprawl, which poses significant challenges for sustainable development, as environmental (e.g. increased greenhouse gas emissions), territorial (e.g. spatial segregation) and societal (e.g. accessibility and proximity to services). Suburbanization considered the outcome of macro-level factors (e.g. housing market and housing policy developments). However, the role of micro-level factors at the level of household (e.g. values and lifestyle) is unavoidable.

To limit urban sprawl, policymakers have proposed solutions (e.g. eco-neighborhoods and densification) that may meet the objectives of sustainable development, but not the ones of households’ aspirations (Lotfi, 2012). Many households continue to choose suburbs. Does choosing to live in suburbs necessarily mean an unsustainable behavior?

It is supposed that each type of environment (e.g. suburb) has an ascribed lifestyle, but some studies found that there may be less attachment to concomitant aspects of these built forms, such as use of private vehicles in low-density developments (Myers and Gearin, 2001; Walker and Li, 2007). So, inconsistency between the concomitant and performed lifestyle raises the need for a systematic comparison of lifestyle among those living in different residential settings to establish the link between residential choice and sustainability.

In this context of urban sprawl, this research deals with residential choice and sustainability. The aim is to measure the "degree of fitness" between sustainability of residential location and behavior, by focusing on generated lifestyle by residential choice and its contribution to person-environment (in)congruity. The study area is Québec metropolitan community (CMQ), where suburbanization poses significant challenges to sustainable development. We apply a quantitative approach using the data of the internet survey of "Demain Québec". To date, we have developed an analytical framework for measurement of sustainable environment and sustainable behavior in the context of residential choice.

Zhang, Heng, Chan-Hsun Yang, and Ru-Hui Zhang. "Residents disaster prevention attitude and behavior in a high-risk catchment area: Zengwen River catchment in Taiwan's Mt. Ali as an example." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Taiwan is one of the global disaster hotspots because of its unique geographical location, fragile geological structure and frequent occurrence of typhoons and earthquakes. Devastating disasters occur frequently and, directly and indirectly, cause serious injuries and deaths and property losses. To decrease the impact and losses from natural disasters in the face of climate change and over-cultivation, it is imperative and urgent to understand what residents think and do when they are confronted with disasters. With this understanding, helpful strategies can be planned to raise residents' disaster awareness and preparedness, as well as to help residents reduce disaster-induced losses.

In light of this, this study examines residents' attitude and behavior toward disaster prevention in a high-risk catchment area, which in this case is Zengwen River catchment in Taiwan's Mt. Ali. Six communities were selected and 396 effective questionnaires were collected. One-way analysis of variance and regression analysis were used to explore the correlation between the behavior variables.

The results reveal as high as 60.6% of the residents who responded to the questionnaire are unwilling to leave their home community, demonstrating a close tie between residents and where they live. Besides not wanting to leave their hometown, the reluctance to leave familiar neighbors and relatives is another reason residents are unwilling to relocate. Moreover, as high as 35.6% of the residents come from primary industries including agriculture, forestry, fishing and livestock, making it hard for most of them to adapt to a new environment after relocation. Thus, it is hoped that further research on disaster prevention will help reduce the need to relocate residents.

Additionally, factors affecting disaster prevention attitude include gender, age and occupation, while behaviors of prevention is affected by the duration of residence but not the gender. Age is the foremost influential factor on prevention awareness in terms of residents' background: it has a profound influence on risk awareness and prevention awareness, local relationships, recognition of community resources and recognition of the community's future potential. A post hoc test indicates residents between the age of 36 and 50 have keener alertness of disasters and higher place attachment, while those under 20 show better prevention awareness. A regression analysis finds the influence of variables related to residents' disaster prevention behaviors to follow this descending order: risk awareness, prevention awareness, local relationships, recognition of community resources and recognition of the community's future potential.

That is to say, strengthening residents' risk and prevention awareness will positively influence their disaster prevention behaviors. Meanwhile, improving residents' place attachment to their communities and enhancing residents' appreciation of resources and future potential of their communities will also boost their defensive ability against disasters.

Hagbert, Pernilla, and Renström Sara. "Residents' perceptions of housing and resource use: A comfortable home?" In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

The purpose of the here outlined research is to get a sense of the perceptions of housing, home, and resource use (specifically energy) among residents, with the overall aim to inform decision-making processes, enabling pro-environmental residential practices. Of interest to the here presented study is if (and if so, how) residents’ perceptions of home and their dwelling situation relate to an understanding of resource use and environmental attitudes. Self-reported motives and attitudes surrounding home-related practices, particularly regarding energy use, are explored. By working in collaboration with a national housing association, dissemination of the work on a larger scale is made possible, as well as strengthening competency on issues regarding resource and energy use within a specific local resident’s group.

In addition to structural and contextual limitations, there are several cognitive and social barriers to the adoption and expansion of green building practices in general (Hoffman, 2008). These can be found on an individual, organizational or institutional level, involving all actors in the building process. A main indicator of domestic energy use is nonetheless still found in individual residents’ behavior (Sunikka-Blank and Galvin, 2012). In particular norms surrounding spatial and material standards of housing, perceptions of thermal comfort and how residents engage with domestic heating systems (Aune, 2007; Gram-Hanssen, 2010).

Although peoples’ attitudes offer a tendency for general behavior, it has been argued that multiple intra-personal and contextual factors influence specific behavior (Steg and Vlek, 2009). It is also relevant to complement an understanding of personal-level attitudes with recognition of culture-level values (Oreg and Katz, 2006). Stern (2000) further underlines a need to focus on people’s beliefs and motives. Especially relating to contemporary ideals surrounding residential material and thermal comfort, systems of practice need to be understood in a larger context of social conventions (Shove et al., 2008).

A case area was selected via the local chapter of Swedens’ largest Housing Co-operation, HSB, with the intent to represent the average existing housing stock. The area is a typical example of industrialized building from the 1960’s, with a mixed type of inhabitants, ranging from many elderly to families with young children. Respondents were limited to households within a particular tenant-owner association in the area. In the first part of the study, questionnaires were distributed to all households (in total 306) with a preliminary response rate of 50% (preliminary n=152). By recruitment through the questionnaires, a follow-up qualitative study with households is furthermore planned.

Data is presented, discussing the correlation between environmental attitudes, views on energy use and personal heat practices in particular, and perceptions of home and personal values in general. The study provides insights into residents’ unique perspectives, of value to the particular case area and local residents’ association for direct interventions. In addition, it gives the basis for more generalizable results for future work with residents’ perceptions, motivations and residential practices, and the implications this might have for targeting the resource intensity of the spatial, material and thermal comforts of home.

Miller, James Patrick. "Resilience Found through the Identity of Place: The Resilience of a Traditional Knowledge System in Post-Disaster Haiti." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

There is an apparent need for research in urban planning and housing in disaster risk management and disaster recovery, especially as it relates to the inclusion of endogenous knowledge. The post-disaster recovery of Haiti following the 2010 earthquake demonstrates how the current post-disaster reconstruction process for housing is fundamentally flawed as it overlooks the imbedded knowledge of the affected population; emergency settlements remain for years following the disaster and endogenous social and cultural systems are not taken advantage of. There are potential solutions to mitigating vulnerability through traditional knowledge systems in underdeveloped societies. Generative strategies need to be applied for growth that allows for these systems to succeed. A traditional knowledge system of the Haitian Creole Culture, the , provides Haitian’s a sense of place and has proven resilient through the tumultuous history of Haiti.

The is the physical manifestation of human processes that have formed and adapted through generations. Known historically as an autonomous structure, the is a spatial manifestation of the familial social structure and takes the form of a courtyard or compound. The study shows the importance of the through the analysis of post-disaster temporary settlements, showing that through their own devices endogenous inhabitants bring the into post-disaster temporary settlements. The methodology was qualitative through interviews, observations, and site mapping of four separate self-settled post-disaster settlements. Qualitative coding was used to uncover the emergent themes. This study establishes the importance of the in community vibrancy and demonstrates how the adds to the resilience of the survivors living in such settlements. The unprecedented transformation of the from a kinship based settlement pattern to a more inclusive non-familial pattern points to the importance of this spatial and social manifestation in the development of community in a settlement. The study demonstrates not only the resilience of the but also the changing, inclusive nature of the system; knowledge that should be used to influence planning procedures in Haiti. This resiliency factor can potentially be used to turn a post-disaster settlement into a successful permanent settlement. Furthermore, the study can be helpful in understanding how to mitigate conflict between post-disaster settlements and their host community.

Pirgie, Laura, Jan Höltge, Jenny Sudkamp, Markus Schwab, and Renate Cervinka. "Restoration and sustainable development: The case study National Park Thayatal/ Austria." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

The three main tasks of Austrian national parks are: conservation of nature, environmental education and restoration for visitors. Further, national parks could contribute regional development and sustainability. The contribution is aimed at presenting the design and the process of a project at the National Park Thayatal (NPTT) with respect to restoration and sustainable development.

The project was characterized by a participatory, transdisciplinary approach. The main objectives were researching restoration, teaching environmental psychology, and transforming research into practice. Attention Restoration Theory (ART), perceived restorativeness, the concepts of mindfulness and connectedness with nature, as well as research on favourite places built the underlying theoretical basis. Students of environmental psychology at the University of Vienna, staff members of the Medical University of Vienna (further called visitors) and staff members of the NPTT contributed to the project. It took place between March and November 2012. The project design comprised of eight consecutive steps

1) A field visit was aimed at coordinating the project outline with the management of the NPTT, becoming familiar with the location and conducting a photo-documentation for further use. Preparing for the next step, staff members explored and documented their most preferred places for restoration within the NPTT.

2) Workshop 1 was aimed at discussing the characteristics of the staffs’ favourite places, to fix the sites and the procedure for the planned research expedition.

3) A research expedition was aimed at exploring the restorative potential of four preselected sites within the park (outlook on a mixed built and natural scene, wind breakage, beak of rock, river bank). Visitors (n=37) completed measures of perceived restorativeness, connectedness with nature, connectedness with NPTT, and mindfulness. The different locations all scored quite high on perceived restorativeness. A pre-post comparison revealed higher levels of mindfulness and connectedness with the NPTT after the visit.

4) Workshop 2 was aimed at presenting results of the prior steps. Beyond that we considered the findings together with the staff focusing on promoting restoration of visitors during guided tours.

5) Workshop 3 was aimed at practicing in the field. An outdoor training via role-play focusing on restoration was performed by the rangers.

6) A transdisciplinary dialogue was aimed at summarizing the process and the findings of the project together with the management.

7) Public presentation and teaching: The seventh step was aimed at presenting and discussing the outcomes of the project with the public. And, teaching environmental psychology at the University of Vienna.

8) Publication: The eighth step was aimed at disseminating findings via presentation at scientific conferences and publication.

Steps 1) to 7) of the project were successfully completed. Step 8) is still ongoing in different contexts. For example, the project design was adapted in order to focus on restoration as well as sustainable development. Students of the University of Applied Sciences in Bochum took part in a course to create a sustainability path in line with the concept of restorative environments. We discuss the potential of the project with respect to research, education and regional sustainable development.

Diller, Karen R.. "Restorative Library Study Spaces." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

In this new age of networked information, social media, and online courses, how can physical library spaces have the greatest impact on student learning? As we redesign spaces to meet the needs of learning by doing (maker-spaces) and learning by conversation (group spaces), what about providing spaces for learning by reflection? We know that students are coming to higher education with more distractions (i.e. social media), competing responsibilities (i.e. children, full-time jobs), and more learning disabilities. In several recent surveys, students have said that they need quiet study spaces that are designed to encourage them to disconnect, get away from distractions and are distinct from social spaces. These students need study spaces that will assist them in recovering from the mental fatigue that comes with everyday life and that makes it more difficult to direct attention to important tasks, problem-solve, and think reflectively. They need spaces that they perceive of as compatible with successful completion of their study goals. Attention Restoration Theory (ART), from environmental psychology, has shown that exposure to natural environments, even through window views and interior plants, can decrease mental fatigue and restore the ability to direct attention. It has also shown how environments that are perceived as compatible with one’s goals are more likely to be restorative and to encourage one to remain there longer.

This study uses two scales developed in environmental psychology, the Revised Perceived Restorativeness Scale (RPRS) and the Perception and Compatibility Scale (PCS), in an experimental setting to determine if exposure to natural environments in library study spaces is perceived of as restorative and, thus, likely to have a positive impact on students' abilities to direct their attention and to complete their study goals (i.e. reading a textbook or reviewing notes for an exam). Undergraduate students at two very different academic institutions have been asked to complete one of the scales (N of 160 for the RPRS and N of 90 for the PCS) while viewing slides depicting a variety of library spaces. These spaces depict study areas:

  • with views to outdoor green spaces,
  • with views to outdoor built spaces,
  • with interior plants, and
  • with no views or interior plants.

All students have also completed a short demographic survey. Results are currently being analyzed via SPSS to see:

a. which environments, if any, are perceived to be restorative,

b. which environments, if any, are deemed compatible with completing specific study goals, and

c. whether results differ based on a variety of independent variables (i.e. age, preferred study area, institution attended).

Through this study, I want to begin to understand what spaces are conducive to student reflective study and to demonstrate how the use of theory and instruments from environmental psychology can be used within the library science discipline to understand library patrons and their needs. This presentation will report on the results of the above study and suggest avenues for further investigation.

Elabd, Aliaa Ali. "Restoring Connection to Place: Physical and Social Factors in Neighborhood Place Attachment." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Many urban neighborhoods in post-industrial cities are characterized by patterns of loss of people, investments, and most importantly the loss of connections to place. Revitalization efforts usually focus on a mere restoration of the physical aspects of a place. However, restoring the psychological aspects or connections to place can be crucial for robust resilience and stability. This connection to place symbolized in constructs such as place attachment, which has been shown to relate to the resilience, stability, livability, and regeneration of neighborhoods.

Place attachment as a multi-dimensional construct incorporates several aspects of people-place bonding and many inseparable, mutually defining features. It measures the affective ties that occur between individuals and their meaningful places. Place attachment is nourished through the daily encounter with the built environment and its users. Place attachment research has previously emphasized the social and phenomenological perspectives of attachment. However, earlier studies lacked a focus on the relationship between the physical features of a neighborhood and the generation of place attachment. As a result, the role of place attachment in design theory and practice has been neglected.

Working from Fried’s “Grieving for a Lost Home”, this research contends that the physical environment and its features have an effect on place attachment through a complex modeling of indirect symbolic meanings. It hypothesizes that a group of physical, social, and demographic variables are associated with place attachment on a neighborhood level. Through investigating four urban neighborhoods in Durham NC, this case study research utilizes multiple research methods, including questionnaires, interviews, and GIS. The study has discovered that the participants’ positive perception of specific physical and social features is associated with increasing levels of place attachment on a neighborhood level. These features include neighborhood location; street quality, walkability; amenities; parks, communal activities and satisfaction.

Cantürk, Emel, Esra Akbalık, and Hülya Turgut. "RETHINKING THE PUBLIC SPACE AS A NEW MODE OF SOCIAL & SPATIAL REPRODUCTION: THE CASE OF OCCUPY GEZI PARK." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

The term globalization is recently taken as a key concept in numerous disciplines because of its complex structure formed by its economic, political and socio-cultural dimensions. Also in urban studies it is inevitable to undertake it as a key concept which embraces many dialectics such as ‘heterogeneity – homogeneity’, ‘change – stability’, ‘locality – universality’, ‘individuality – community’, ‘identity – difference’. Contemporary cities transformed by the impacts of globalization make apparent and reproduce the dialectics and the conflicts of globalization by structuring and producing both urban lifestyles and urban space. In this context, the concept of city can be defined as a place in perpetual motion and continual transformation with its instable and new meanings. The public space of the city, as an interface of social and spatial reproduction, is characterized by the dialectics of globalization and getting involved in this perpetual motion as a field of struggle beyond conflicts.

Social and spatial organizations produced by urban public spaces define the urban public life. As Habermas states, Although Habermas refers to an intangible ‘public sphere’ rather than a tangible ‘urban space’, the worldwide uprising urban social movements indicate that the physical public space and the public sphere cannot be considered separately and they illustrate that the physical public space is the condition of effective public life. These urban social movements bring into account the political significance and the potential of public space for producing new modes of social and spatial practices. Thus, a re-investigation of public space within its multidimensional faces becomes necessary.

Within the cross section of ‘public space’, the aim of the paper is to reveal the impacts of global dynamics on the urban space; to investigate the possibility and sustainability of the public space as a new mode of social and spatial reproduction; and to discuss the role of architecture within this framework.

The paper provides a theoretical and conceptual underpinning of social and cultural dialectics which are played out in the urban public space and a critical review of its philosophical and political background. Within this framework, the interrelations of the public space, society and architecture that are underlined by occupy movements will be illustrated on the case of ‘Occupy Gezi Park’ movement which was raised on May – June 2013 in Istanbul.

Finally future implications on the relationship between the society, public space and architecture are opened to discussion: What are the new potentials and developments, including spatial and social practices, provided by the experiment of ‘Occupy Gezi Park’? What impact would a new understanding of ‘public space’ and ‘public life’ has on the future of cities? What is the role of architecture in influencing these new tendencies and creating a new spatial experience among the city and the citizen? How can architecture accommodate and represent a new public life? Is another public space possible?

Landeros-Mugica, Karina, Javier Urbina-Soria, and Irasema AlcNtara-Ayala. "Risk perception in areas affected by landslides: the case of Teziutln, Puebla, Mexico." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

In October 1999 the occurrence of torrential rains, derived from the interaction between the tropical depression 11 and the cold front 5 affected 30% of the population of the state of Pueblaand caused hundreds of landslides. Consequences were so bad that this episode was namedthe disaster of the 1990s.The most catastrophic event took place in La Aurora neighborhood, in Teziutlán -situated in the northeasternsector of Puebla - where 109 people were killed as houses were swept away by a complex landslide.

According to the National Civil Protection Programme, strategies for disaster prevention and response should take into account vulnerable populations. The latter ought to beunderstood as the propensity of communities to suffer damage due to social-economical-cultural and political conditioning factors. Risk can be regarded as the combination of hazards and vulnerability. However, the current disaster paradigm on which disasters are pictured as natural events is still impregnated in the actions and vision ofCivil Protection. Ideally, there should be a change from the dominant paradigm to the alternative one so that disasters can be seen as socially constructed processes and risk management as an integrated and transversal approach, which need to be included in governmental planning at all levels.

The work presented here is part of a multidisciplinary research aiming at the establishment of a landslide early warning system. The methodological approachincludes natural and social perspectives. This research is concentrated on theassessment of risk perception in Teziutlán by considering location and real possibilities of risk. Our results suggest that real risks are recognized to a higher extent by those inhabitants living in high risk areas than those living in boroughs less exposed to landslides. Additionally, people who have faced emergencies or disaster, have been able to experience, absorb and understand the consequences of living in risk areas; those who live in “safe” neighborhoods and have not experienced any contingency tend to perceive medium levels of risk.

Most of the research focused on risk perceptionduring the past four decades has been centered in technological hazards, while it isjust recently thatit has been directed to the field of natural hazards.In the case of Mexico, some work has been done in the area of volcanic hazards and flooding, but not in landslides. Therefore, the contribution developed through this research can be considered as a pioneering work for slope stability investigations.

Risk perception studies are indeed an essential requirement for risk reduction strategies since they contribute to the identification and understanding ofvulnerability.Such type of studies involves not only the inclusion of quantitative but also qualitative criteria to develop tools that can be used in the field. Risk perception is one of the core elements that must be addressed to ensure the understanding of risk and to identify appropriate prevention and mitigation measures. Complementary to therisk perception findings, it is also essential to build communication strategies depending on the context and taking into consideration all the relevant actors.

Docea, Alexandra Stancu. "Risk perception, resilience and self-control in the face of environmental threat." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

With globalization and diminishing natural resources societies are facing a new set of challenges and risks that place them under precisely the conditions that make individuals vulnerable to psychological stress. Three major negative outcomes are expected. The first possible and concerning outcome is that communities will fail to adapt to changing circumstances, and as a result they will be unable to sustain themselves. A second outcome is that with depleted capacity for making a living and providing members with food, communities will fragment because younger generations will leave the community to pursue financial success in local or foreign cities. Finally, a major concerning outcome lies in the loss of psychological need satisfaction and well-being of community members who are unable to adapt to new conditions (Legate & Weinstein, 2012).

We can approach extreme and unusual environments, and study people’s abilities to cope with this type of situations, how they respond to challenges, affordance, and shortcomings of their particular extreme environment and see if they cope adaptively or not, if they suffer psychological damage and for how long, and understand outside observers’ perceptions and reactions of those who have been in this type of situation (Suedfeld, 2012).

To have an efficient risk management and resiliency strategy, it is necessary to approach the intrinsic aspects of individuals forming the community at risk. One of these aspects is represented by self-control, which is the effortful capacity of the individual to regulate his or her emotions, thoughts, impulses, or other well-learned or automatic behavioral responses (Vohs, 2006).

We cannot but remark the similarities in defining self-control and resiliency, the latter as the capacity for successful adaptation, positive functioning or competence despite the high-risk status, chronic stress, or following prolonged or severe trauma (Egeland, Pita, & O'Brien, 1993). Self-control Strength Theory states that self-control draws from a common, global resource, which is limited and can become depleted over time. Anyway, some alternative explanations are that self-control is not entirely depleted, and there are some ways for preventing depletion, by conservation, training or recovery. Starting from these hypotheses, we can assume that self-control could be a predictor for the resilience capacity of persons in risk situations from natural hazards.

Previous studies focused more on perceived control, than self-control, and tried to embed this concept in an efficient resilience model, yet we could not find studies from the field of environmental psychology.

In my PhD thesis I will explore the way self-control predicts the resilience capacity of individuals in environmental risk situations, and the way motivational strategies overcome ego-depletion.

Li, Dawei. "Roaming Design - Liberating Land for More Affordance in Compact Megacities - Wisdom in Contemporary Urban Design." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

In the contemporary era, the tension of land use in compact megacities is salient in both the east and the west. This tension is most prominent in the conflict land use between the aims of economic development and environment landscaping and urban recreation in a permanent design in a compact city, particularly in a compact megacity such as Beijing, Hanoi or Brasilia in emerging countries.

In this situation, finding an applicable design to balance the economic, ecological and public social values on one piece of land in a compact megacity is becoming a global challenge. Meanwhile, appropriate temporary urban design for matching up particular events in an international, compact and protected megacity, such as London, Paris or Shanghai is increasingly required. Therefore seeking for an effective design approach to release the tension and conflict of land use in permanent design, and take site protection into account in the positive design performance in temporary design has become a global issue in urban design realm in this era.

In this paper, the author raises and discusses an innovative design method - ‘the roaming design’ approach which demonstrates a possible way to offer the land more resilience and affordance to relieve these problems. Movable and flexible landscape is the core principle of this design method. The author explains the way to apply this concept in design practice with a real urban design project in London which was awarded second prize of a Canary Wharf competition in 2012.

Moghaddasi, Ahmad, Sanaz Sadeghi, and Mohammad Hossein Moghaddasi. "Role of landscape furniture in urban historic preservation; The similarities in three cities: Isfahan, Saint-Petersburg and Florence." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Many countries have always been concerned about their urban historic fabrics as a part of their cultural property. To respond the modern needs in the urban historic fabrics we must dope the adaptive-reuse in the restoration process. Landscape furniture as a main part of urban historic fabrics has been introduced. These contains landmarks, seats, trash cans, lighting instruments, etc. In this paper, we have studied about three historic cities and their characteristics. Then, feasibility aspects of landscape furniture in mentioned cities and their experiences have been derived. By using an analytical-descriptive method in the results section, principles of design and their similarities have been concluded. This paper study about the role of landscape furniture in the restoration process of urban historic fabrics in three cities in Iran, Russia and Italy. In the conclusion, some approaches for the design of landscape furniture in urban historic fabrics have been recommended.

Ilin, Corina, Zoltan Bogathy, and Alexandra Stancu. "ROSIA MONTANA. ENVIRONMENTAL, PSYCHO-SOCIAL, ECONOMICS AND POLITICAL CONSEQUENCES OF A CONTROVERSIAL PROJECT." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

The study case does a complex analysis of a controversial large scale project which has environmental, economics, political and psycho-social consequences for Romania.

Its main purpose is to highlight the environmental impact of certain controversial political, economics and social decisions, the way in which the individuals/organizations/communities perceive, cope and adapt to future risks and challenges, to potential natural and technological disasters threats.

We will review the stages of the Roşia Montana mining project, the pressure exercised by RMGC by over a decade on the politicians as well as on the scientists, specialists, opinion leaders and also the ongoing but less consistent public protests of those who oppose the project.

We analyse, from the political psychology’s view, the increasingly bitter mass-media manipulation programs, diversions, blackmails and reactions of the public opinion. From an economics psychology perspective we present the alternatives to this project but also the difficulties of implementing revival programs for a mono-industrial area. From the environmental psychology we adopt specific concepts such as risk perception and resilience in order to analyse the environmental consequences of the Rosia Montana project. In brief, we show the main elements of this case study from an applied social psychology integrative perspective.

Walde, Anne. "School buildings in shrinking cities: should they stay or should they go? A comparison between Leipzig and Timisoara." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Urban shrinkage has impacts on different fields of local politics. In the educational sector the process is closely related to an overall decline of numbers of pupils. Therefore, local authorities have to deal with an oversupply of educational infrastructure and, consequently, rising costs per capita. Especially post-socialist countries in Middle and Eastern Europe were concerned with this issue due to low birth rates, out-migration and suburbanisation processes after the year 1989.

This demographic change took place alongside with the transformation of (school) systems after the end of the socialist regime. The paper analyses political strategies in two European cities that had to deal with massive decline of numbers of students since the mid-1990s. It explores in which way the strategies of their political actors and other stakeholders reflect developments in the political transformation process. Using the conception of governance as theoretical framework it investigates in which way political actors perceive new challenges, what kind of actions they take, how they interact with other stakeholders and how they coordinate those interactions. To cover a wide range of possible patterns the method of contrasting comparison is used. Therefore, two cities within very different national contexts serve as case studies: Leipzig (East Germany) and Timisoara (Romania).

On the one hand, both cities had experienced a post-socialist transformation period combined with changes in population structure. On the other hand, the ways of transformation are very different. Compared with other East European countries East Germany has undergone a particularly fast democratisation process, including the adaption to West German decentralised-federal structures. On the contrary, Romania had a centralised system and is considered to be a country of slow transformation with only weak democratic arrangements established.

Although it seemed that the democratisation process in Leipzig allowed a high grade of civil participation the influence of parents was in fact limited. The city’s main strategy to answer the shrinking numbers of pupils was to close many schools. This caused protests from parents, pupils, teachers and other groups that have been partly successful. In Timisoara, by contrast, only a few schools were closed or merged with other school units. Moreover, chances for participation concerning school facilities were very small until the new law on education in the year 2011. With the new regulations the local council became responsible for school net planning including the use of school buildings. This made the decision making process more transparent and opened space for parents and other stakeholders to influence the outcome. All in all both cases show the importance of participative elements as well as its limits in the process of dealing with school buildings in shrinking cities.

O'Rourke, Timothy, and Kelly Greenop. "Self-constructing sovereignty: Aboriginal housing and rights to land on Stradbroke Island, Queensland, Australia." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Aboriginal rights to land in Australia have been contested from the beginning of European colonisation in 1788. Since the 1970s, legal and statutory recognition of land rights has resulted in limited legal and symbolic changes for particular Aboriginal groups. Both within and outside these processes the relationship between Aboriginal built environments and rights to land remain under explored, although local people and Indigenous academics have argued for the philosophical construction of ongoing Indigenous sovereignty for several decades. In the 1940s, Quandamooka people on Stradbroke Island constructed their own permanent settlement at One Mile, on the margins of the Island’s colonial township, just across the bay from the state capital, Brisbane. Illegal under the Crown, this continuous presence of Aboriginal people living on their land lead to the recognition of native title rights in 2011.

This paper examines the relationship between acts of construction, attachment to land and declarations of Aboriginal sovereignty. Using case studies of self-built dwellings, we describe the construction history of one Aboriginal man and his use of carpentry skills in building to assert his sovereign rights to land. Built out of necessity, but also in defiance of state regulations, these dwellings proclaim ownership of land, connection to country and are an explicit assertion of Aboriginal sovereign rights. The dwellings are a form of political resistance to colonisation and an act of autonomy, rarely enabled by settler institutions. We compare the meaning and significance of self-constructed housing with state-supplied housing occupied by Quandamooka people. The conditions attached to the state housing and their mode of occupation can be contrasted with the relative autonomy of self-constructed environments.

We argue that the self-constructed housing takes on meaning based on: 1. its location on traditional land, outside government sanctions or controls; 2. its self-construction according to family needs; 3. its difference from government housing with associated conditions and restrictions; and 4. its overall conceptualisation as an act of sovereign assertion.

Diotaiuti, Pierluigi, Angelo Marco Zona, Luigi Rea, and Stefania Mancone. "Self-regulation and means for critical consumption behaviors." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

The socially conscious consumer is a person who takes into account the public consequences of his private consumption and strives to use its purchasing power to encourage social change. When deciding, ethical consumers not at all ignore the price and quality of the goods, but apply some additional criteria in the choice of products and try to promote products that have an improving effect from the environmental and social point of view. The ethics of consumption is highly contextual and the appropriateness of practices is determined by time and place in which they live: what is positive at a time can become disadvantageous thereafter for which the practices of ethical consumption must be reformulated in a continuous public debate. It is therefore important not only to identify channels to change the consumption practices of the people but also to facilitate public participation in debates and decisions about the meaning, objectives and responsibilities that contemporary consumption implies. People are more likely to adopt models of ethical behavior with respect to the production and consumption if they feel morally obliged as part of a community committed to the environmental, social and sustainable development.Most of the initiatives does not take place in isolation but within communities of practice, groups of people who share a topic or an issue of interest, that deepen their knowledge in the field and interact on this basis in order to produce changes in non-momentary collective practices. The rapid changes in society and in globalized markets expose all subjects, even the smaller ones, to continuous stress stimuli, proposals, manipulation, influences. This means that you have to navigate to a consumer-oriented educational program that begins early and continues into adulthood, covering a wide variety of topics. Consumer education today is to provide tools and skills to exert influence on the market, rather than passively endure it. Sustainable consumption requires a lifestyle where actions are guided by positive forecast and responsibilities, including four fundamental aspects of sustainable development: ecological, economic, social. and cultural sustainability. It has been observed that traditional teaching methods to slow to the consumer only minimal effects on consumer behavior. In fact, buying and consumption patterns of younger people are more influenced by peer group. They tend to think that being a consumer is rather a characteristic that belongs to adulthood. Therefore it is necessary to rethink the teaching methodology of a consumer education. Indirectly consumer education includes knowledge, attitudes and skills that serve the people better manage their lives and to be prepared to participate in and influence the management of collective life in a global society. Therefore consumer education overlaps educational fields such as education for justice, equality, media management, finance management and security. The orientation of practical and concrete tasks help learners to understand the meanings of being a critical consumer: they need to be directly involved in the design and evaluation of activities.

Portella, Adriana Araujo, Inês de Carvalh Quintanilha, Andressa Marina Mat Rocha, Ellen Scott Hood Antonello, and Sinval Cantarelli Xavier. "Sense of place as a variable to increase user satisfaction with residential areas: the case of a low-income neighbourhood in Brazil." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

This study attempts to understand what makes a place recognized by users as good to live, considering for that user evaluation not only of the physical aspects of the streetscape, but the symbolical variables involved in the concept of sense of place. In this research, the definition of sense of place comprises the strong relationships that can exist between people and a particular location in terms of attachment and familiarity with the place and people who live there.

Different neighbourhoods of a city in the South of Brazil where analysed in terms of visual quality. Three areas were selected to this analysis as the objective here was to compare responses of residents (i) in a low-income neighbourhood located near the main water canal of the city, (ii) in a middle‐income neighbourhood located in the port area of the city which has been regenerated by the insertion of university buildings, and (iii) in a high-income neighbourhood located in a new district and considered to be one of the most expensive land value of the city. The research question was: Do people are more satisfied with their neighbourhood and residential street in the high- income neighbourhood? And the following hypothesis was tested: ‘as better the physical aspects (visual quality, infrastructure and urban design), more satisfied are people with the place where their live’.

The city chosen as case study was Pelotas, in the south coast of Brazil, near Uruguay and Argentina. The city comprises neighbourhoods with strong historic heritage but is marked by high social differences between these places. 90 residents were selected through a random sample to be part of this study. The only pre requisite to be part of this survey was to live in one of the neighbourhoods analysed and to be at least 18 years old. A questionnaire with 19 closed questions was applied to understand what makes people feel happy (or sad) with their neighbourhood and residential street. The data collected were analysed through non-parametric statistical tests.

The results putting in doubt the importance of visual order on user satisfaction with residential areas. The majority of people who lives in the high-income neighbourhood are quite satisfied with the place, however at the same time are very unsatisfied with safety issues as they feel unsafe to walk in the streets, get into their houses, and, as they don´t use the public space very much due to these problems, they don´t know their neighbours. In the other hand, people who live in the low-income neighbourhood are very satisfied with their place because of what the literature recognizes as ‘sense of place’. According to the majority of residents in this neighbourhood, they are happy with their living situation because of symbolic meanings attached to the place. The visual order of the physical environment did not come out as a variable that influence user satisfaction in this case. To conclude, the research identifies principles of urban design that can help to create this sense of place.

Reis, Antônio Tarcísio, and Maria Cristina Lay. "Social housing: traditional and modernist urban design, users attitudes and behaviors." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

This paper deals with social housing urban design and related users attitudes and behaviors. The focus is on ‘traditional’ urban design, which characterized social housing design previous to modernist urbanism, and on modernist urban design. Whereas the first is characterized by a direct relationship between buildings and public open spaces, such as Karl Marx Hof in Vienna , the second is characterized by a loose relationship, with public open spaces merely resulting from the layout of blocks of flats, such as Killingworth Housing State in northeast England. In a ‘traditional’ urban design approach, buildings have front doors and windows facing the public streets, whereas in a modernist urban design approach buildings tend have doors and windows far away from the public streets and/or facing inward open spaces with no distinction between front and back windows and doors. Users’ attitudes and behaviors are discussed regarding the perception and use of public open spaces in housing estates with a ‘traditional’ urban design and in estates with modernist urban design, including perception of appearance, security and wayfinding. Although many problems have been related to the modernist urban design, a main reason for these discussions is related to the fact that the modernist urban design has been the dominant approach to social housing design, at least in the case of housing estates built in Brazil, including many of those built in the scope of the federal housing programs. Data was collected by means of questionnaires, interviews and observations carried out in housing estates with a modernist urban design and constituted by four storey blocks of flats (Rubem Berta, Sapucaia, Guajuviras, Loureiro da Silva and Angico) and in housing estates with a more ‘traditional’ urban design (IAPI – with three and four storey buildings; Princesa Isabel - four storey buildings) located in Porto Alegre and in its metropolitan region, in southern Brazil. These data was analyzed trough non-parametric statistical tests such as Kruskal-Wallis and Spearman rank correlation. The results obtained from the analyses of these housing estates are compared to those from studies about housing states such as the Killingworth Housing State and Pruitt- Igoe (St. Louis, United States). Results indicate, for example, that housing estates with a modernist urban design tend to provoke negative users’ responses concerning their appearance and use of open spaces. In the case of housing states with modernist urban design located either in Porto Alegre or in its metropolitan region, communal open spaces were illegally occupied by buildings for private use such as garages. These occupations negatively affect the appearance of housing estates, tend to make wayfinding more difficult and to increase perception of insecurity. Moreover, these findings emphasize the importance of social housing urban design in affecting users’ attitudes and behaviors and in making possible the design and provision of more sustainable social housing.

Bettencourt, Leonor Correia, and Paula Castro. "Social Memory of Place: Social Cohesion and Neighborhood Relationships in Mouraria." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Introduction: : While Mouraria is still considered a traditional neighborhood of Lisbon, today it is home to three main groups of residents - new gentrifiers and immigrants, as well as old residents. Studies show that this diversity is simultaneously a force and a threat to its social cohesion and urban re-habilitation (Malheiros et al., 2012). This project aims at understanding how these three groups of residents interact with each other and the neighborhood.

How reciprocal intergroup representations and representations of social order relate to the social memory of the neighborhood and affect neighbors relationships, and how memory, neighborhood identity and attachment relate to the use of the public space and affect the residential turnover.

The psycho-social processes involved in inter-group and inter-ethnic interactions and their impact on social cohesion (Green et al., 2010) and social memory are well studied at the national level (Liu et al., 2012), but not at the local level. There is also a gap in studies regarding neighbors relationships in multicultural neighborhoods and how they affect residential turnover (Livingston et al., 2008). This study is based on these studies and on the Social Order Model (Staerklé, 2009).

Residents of Mouraria - old residents, new gentrifiers and immigrants - will be asked to assess the current and past physical and social environment of the neighborhood, describe how they interact with each other, use the public space, choose their paths and delineate the neighborhood.

The first step will be survey study, assessing the following aspects:

- The social representations of the social order and of the other residents (Staerklé, 2009) and System Justification (Kay & Jost, 2003).

- Social memory of the neighborhood (following Liu et al., 2012, adapted to neighborhood level) and Perceived Residential Environmental Quality (following Fornara, Bonaiuto & Bonnes, 2010, short version adapted).

- Place attachment and neighbors relationships (following Lewicka, 2005, Place Attachment and Neighbors Relationships scales adapted).

The second step will involve interviews identifying discourses about Mouraria (following Bustos Castro & Lindbladh, 2004) and analyzing the perception of residential turnover (Livingston et al., 2008). Some of the interviews will resort to the Walking Voices method (following Rishbeth & Powell, 2012) to understand how the residents use the public space of the neighborhood.

The final step will be to share residents personal narratives in the neighborhood, showing the major conflicts, strengths and solutions wanted by the three groups.

The analysis will combine quantitative and qualitative strategies (mostly discourse and narrative analysis) for understanding how the dynamics of representations, identities and memories relate to place attachment and place use.

The project will have implications for further research on social environmental psychology, where the relationship between place relation and social cohesion, in the light of social memory of place and reciprocal representations in multi-ethnic context is not strongly developed.

Lee, Yung-Jaan, Ching-Yi Wu, Yu-Ching Lee, and Piin-Rong Lee. "Social Vulnerability and Biophysical Vulnerability: Case Study of Yunlin County, Taiwan." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

The Yun-Chia Area, Taiwan has faced the threat of land subsidence and sea-level rising, which increases the danger of disasters. If the main primary industries (agriculture and fishery) in Yunlin Country are taken into consideration, these issues will become more severe. Through the literature review, this study analyzes whether social vulnerability affects biophysical vulnerability. Furthermore, this study establishes a general framework of social vulnerability, and combines statistical data to analyze vulnerability in the township/city level in Yunlin County. Using the GIS mapping technique, including the land subsidence map, the potential flood map and the sensitive landslide map of Yunlin County, this study analyzes mapping results of social vulnerability and biophysical vulnerability. Study results show that Lunbei Township, Mailiao Township and Sihhu Township, all located in the coast area, have higher social vulnerability scores than other townships. Moreover, these three townships exhibit higher potential dangers of land subsidence and flood. On the other hand, Douliou City with a low social vulnerability score and a little biophysical vulnerability faces lower vulnerability than other townships/cities and thus becomes the largest settlement in Yunlin County. Different townships/cities have different disaster prevention programs and responsive attitudes and capacity. Therefore, social vulnerability analyses provide a diversified perspective and can be adopted as a planning tool in future development planning and design.

Maturana, Beatriz. "Socially integrated housing and sustainability in a new urban development policy." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Recent public policies in Chile highlight the role of social integration in delivering the changes that will assist to improve quality of life and reduce what is perceived by many as anincreasingsocial segregation in cities. Thus, integration is seen as an instrument directed at many and diverse areas of government policy to achieve equity. Social integration is also associated with a propensity forsustainabledevelopment, a notion that similarly rates high in the current governments’ political agenda.

While social integration has acquired prominence in public discourse, the notion of integrationin regards to urban development is neither well defined in public policy as there is noconsistency in the use of the term, norisits effectivenessassessed in the variousurban scales to which the concept is applied. It is therefore important to examine the conceptual basis of social integration before investigating and assessing what is being done on the basis of this notion.

This paper is part of a larger research project aiming to develop indicators to evaluate a purported propensity of people living in socially integrated housing to generate a more sustainable form of living. The research investigates two recent key socially integrated housing developments combining middle class and social housing, one of which, Casas Viejas in Santiago, is discussed in this paper. In the absence of a clear definition or criteria to evaluate progress, a foundational task of this 3-year research project has been to establish definitions andsuitable methodologies for such an investigation. This paper uses in-situ analysis, mapping and literature review that include government policy and census data, to establish the frameworkin order to investigate the connection between socially integrated housing and sustainability.

As an OECD country member, the evolution of social housing policy in Chile references models outside of its region. In establishing its own social housing targets, policy makers tend to use OECD countries as models and these aresimilarly cited in this research when comparing criteria. This paper and this research contribute towards the establishment of indicatorsto assist in the evaluation of these policy objectives of social integration through housing and sustainability.

Li, Dawei. "Socially Sustainable Urbanism and Socially Responsive Urban Squares in Modern Chinese Cities." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

The urban square is normally treated as the node of the city and presented as a vivid asset to support the people’s urban social life, which contributes to the health of people, the cohesion of the community, and development of the economy. However, currently in China, a few number of squares, although having a large amount invested in them, lack use, and seem to be abounded by the citizens. There could be a number of reasons for this, including: the unawareness of the changing social aspiration of urban squares due to the change of social culture and people’s life style in the planning and design; or during the globalisation era of design, the successful cases of urban squares in the west were referenced to China ponderously with a lack to the thought regarding cultural issues and therefore there is a mismatch of expectation between the providers of public squares, and their users in China.

In this situation, the author decided to carry out the research on delivering the design guidance of socially responsive urban squares in Chinese cities. In this research, one key objective is to investigate the real Chinese aspirations and current usage patterns of urban squares, and therefore a few research methods had been attempted during the pilot studies. The implementation of the integration of panorama and GIS behaviour mapping was eventually identified as the most effective and accurate way to collect and present the real social uses of a square and the semi-structured interviews are used to obtain insight into the Chinese aspirations for the uses of squares.

This research produced a valuable conceptual framework, which included a series of conceptual models for establishing socially responsive urban squares to echo socially sustainable urbanism in the modern Chinese cities. This research identifies a way to increase the social value of urban open public squares through appropriate design in modern China. The outcomes of this research will be not only a valuable contribution to the theoretical structure of Chinese urban public realm but also a positive and applicable reference to be used by practitioners in practical projects.

Li, Dawei. "Socially Sustainable Urbanism and Socially Responsive Urban Squares in Modern Chinese Cities." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

The urban square is normally treated as the node of the city and presented as a vivid asset to support the people’s urban social life, which contributes to the health of people, the cohesion of the community, and development of the economy. However, currently in China, a few number of squares, although having a large amount invested in them, lack use, and seem to be abounded by the citizens. There could be a number of reasons for this, including: the unawareness of the changing social aspiration of urban squares due to the change of social culture and people’s life style in the planning and design; or during the globalisation era of design, the successful cases of urban squares in the west were referenced to China ponderously with a lack to the thought regarding cultural issues and therefore there is a mismatch of expectation between the providers of public squares, and their users in China.

In this situation, the author decided to carry out the research on delivering the design guidance of socially responsive urban squares in Chinese cities. In this research, one key objective is to investigate the real Chinese aspirations and current usage patterns of urban squares, and therefore a few research methods had been attempted during the pilot studies. The implementation of the integration of panorama and GIS behaviour mapping was eventually identified as the most effective and accurate way to collect and present the real social uses of a square and the semi-structured interviews are used to obtain insight into the Chinese aspirations for the uses of squares.

This research produced a valuable conceptual framework, which included a series of conceptual models for establishing socially responsive urban squares to echo socially sustainable urbanism in the Chinese cities. This research identifies a way to increase the social value of urban open public squares through appropriate design in modern China. The outcomes of this research will be not only a valuable contribution to the theoretical structure of Chinese urban public realm but also a positive and applicable reference to be used by practitioners in practical projects.

García, Víctor Serrano. "Sources of environmental stress in high school teachers." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

In order to identify the environmental characteristics of the school environment that are perceived as stressful and how they influence the job satisfaction of high school teachers, were adapted and validated the scales of environmental assessment and perception of stress with 238 mexican students (92 men, 146 women). It starts from the theoretical position that environmental stress is the result of psychological issues that arise from the individual's relationship with the environment ( Baum, Singer & Baum, 1981; Cohen, Kessler & Underwood, 1997; Evans & Cohen, 1987; Zimring, 1981), so from the theoretical formulation "person- environment fit" (Kaminoff & Proshansky, 1982) is described the degree to which the environment accommodates, facilitate or support relevant needs and behaviors of the individual, or prevents it generating stress. As a result, the Environmental Assessment Scale consists of 21 items on five factors, with a total Alpha of .805, while the Perceived Stress Scale contains 10 items on two factors, with a total Alpha of .752.

Şalgamcıoğlu, Mehmet Emin. "Space Syntax: A dialect of Architectural Design Research." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

The aim of this study is to discuss the contribution of space syntax theory and space syntax research methods to various disciplines including the design research. In the broader area of design-based researches, space syntax can be seen as a dialect of design research with its contribution to not only the fields of urban design, urban planning, architecture and interior architecture, but also to interdisciplinary design including urban and architectural design fields’ relationship with social sciences such as geography, psychology, anthropology and ecology. Moreover, various research fields including archeology, landscape design, transportation, and information technology are also using the space syntax approach and methods. In the context of transitions to sustainable societies, space syntax related research’s contribution to both syntactic and semantic point of view is crucial for interpreting design research and policy for changing lifestyles and communities.

This paper will examine the theory of space syntax in relation with Social Logic of Space (Hillier and Hanson, 1984) and the nature of the concepts in space syntax related with spatial design research. The way of perception in space syntax theory is spatial recognition and Social Logic of Space is discussing the relationship between the social forces and the outside affects that are producing the shapes around us. According to the architectural theories’ point of view, space syntax is contributing to a better understanding of the relationship between social constraints and shape possibilities with its methods examining design characteristics and organizations of spaces starting from urban scale to interior design scale. This point of view is also important for designing research and policy for the changing lifestyles. The social logic of space is also supporting a discussion about the obstacles on our way to a better design of the environment for all scales. In this context, one of the most important obstacles is the difficulty of understanding the sensitive nature of the relationship between social life and spatial organizations. Space syntax is suggesting a method to analyze the spatial pattern of the social content and the social content of the spatial pattern at the same time, which is crucial to make a research about the morphological relations of design especially in architecture.

The key definitions of space syntax theory and methodology such as isovist (Benedikt, 1979; Hillier and Hanson, 1984), and convex space (Hillier et al., 1987) should also be introduced for a better understanding of the concepts of space syntax. Isovist is a concept of spatial recognition that defines any particular viewpoint in a space with its visibility field and viewpoint’s visibility field can also be called as the isovist field in relation with the concept of convex space, where convex spaces are the basis of space syntax analysis.

In the context of space syntax, the syntax and the semantics of the spaces are completing the whole understanding of space organizations. Syntactic and semantic dimensions are producing the spaces that we design, live and analyze all together rather than acting separately in spatial formation processes.

Johansson, Rolf Oskar. "Stockholms Urban Landscape  Contrasting ideals for the relation between man and nature." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Stockholm is characterized by dramatic natural formations. Movements in the earth's crust in prehistoric times created a dominating fault escarpment from east to west. When the ice sheet retreated left it behind glaciofluvial sediment that forms a high ridge in a north to south direction. Stockholm was founded where these two large-scale natural formations, the fault escarpment in east-west direction and the esker in north-south direction, intersected. This is also where the water from the lake Mälaren creates rapids at its outlet into the Baltic Sea, which is a strong reason to foundation of the city on this location. To this obvious dramatic nature, behaved planning of the urban landscape much different throughout history with respect to the relationship between man and nature.

The aim of this paper is to describe, analyse and discuss two contrasting planning ideals, applied on Stockholm’s urban landscape, and differing as to the notion of mans relation to nature.

The first dominated during the time of the Swedish great power in the seventeenth century and early eighteenth century. City planning was referring then to manifest the power of the King over both nature and urban dwellers. A cosmic order based on grid and axes were introduced, which were difficult to realize because natural formations are so powerful. In his plan for the Royal Palace surroundings, used the architect Tessin the Younger different design principles in order to impose an order superior to natural formations on the site. He used for instance false perspective to stretch out axes where the topographical conditions made it impossible to really do so.

From the 1930s onwards developed a diametrically opposite approach, which took the dramatic natural formations as a base. The public parks that were built were intended to approach man to nature by enhancing the experiences of the dramatic nature formations on the site. Especially along the waters of Stockholm was created public park paths and walkways.

This ambition is still prevalent and in new residential areas around Stockholm, as in Hammarby Sjöstad for instance, are landscaped walks along the water. Along the banks of one of Stockholm's largest island, Kungsholmen, has since the 30's industrial and port activities been replaced by public park areas. A residential area recently replaced the last industrial establishment situated close to the water, and a park was laid out along the waterfront. It is now possible to walk along the water around the whole island, which is a walk of approximately ten kilometres.

Oi, Naoyuki, and Hironobu Takahashi. "Stress situations and restorative environments of Chinese young adult people focusing on young people born in the 80s." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

The Post-80s (also the Post-1980 or balinghou) is a colloquial term which refers to the generation, especially in urban areas, whose members were born between 1980 to 1989 in Mainland China after the introduction of the One-child policy. This generation, the first to grow up entirely within the reformist era, currently ranges in age from 24 to 34, making up a major portion of China's young adult demographic.

Firstly, the stress situations of the Post-80s were surveyed with questionnaires. The result shows that the Post-80s feel stress in daily life and interested in decreasing their stress, though they are thought to be a happy generation in China. Over 95% of male respondents answered that they feel stress, while 87% of female respondents feel stress.

Secondly, the restorative environment for them were surveyed and compared between the post-80s who lives in Mainland China and the post-80s who lives in Japan as foreign students. The top three answered restorative environment of the Chinese Post-80s is natural environment (55.4%), private rooms/houses (37.3%), restaurants/cafes (26.5%). In a previous study, Shibata (2009) shows the top three restorative environments of Japanese students: private rooms/houses (50.0%), baths/bathrooms (20.1%), natural environment (17.4%). However, only 1.2% of the Chinese post-80s answered bath/bathrooms as the restorative environment. There are some discrepancies between the Chinese Post-80s who are living in China and living in Japan. For example, Karaoke is popular in Post-80s living in Japan, Baths/spas and massage/ostheopathy are also pointed by the Post-80s who are living in Japan, though none of the Post-80s in China pointed those environment.

Social environments or surrounding culture could influence on people’s psychology of restorative environment.

Sung, Jang Mi, and Su Jin Park. "Study on tour information Pictogram for foreign tourists." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

The number of foreign tourists visiting Korea is 11,100,000 in 2012. In recent years, The number of foreign tourists in Korea is continuously increasing these days. But foreign tourists are very dissatisfactory to tourist information system along with language inconvenience. Although the government of Korea has spent considerable amount of money on tourist information system, the foreigners' complaint didn't stop. And we guess one of the reason is the limit of cultural interpretation and expression of pictogram graphic. We are to find improvement on tourist information system through field survey on pictogram in Busan, questionnaires and interview with foreign tourists. This survey is based on cultural differences through the analysis of the characteristics of the symbolic meaning of the image, which can vary from one culture and case-by-case analysis of the contents of the error through a substantial figure on the cover was research into developing a pictogram design research. there are 3 zones, such as marine tourism zone, culture and relics zone, and commercial and shopping zone in Busan. This study takes the survey of foreign tourist's cognition about pictograms which are collected from 3 tourism zones. Busan officially uses KS A 0901 series, but only 65 signs out of 149 fallow the standard. 102 signs are designed by district offices or related facilities of the zone with their own way. Busan travel guide to Adobe Illustrator to redrawing the pictograms for each district has a total of 30 by 120 people present to foreign tourists and to question whether it is possible. As a result, most pictograms with low recognition rate didn't reflect multinational cultural difference. Especially, lack of understanding of cultural and perceptional difference between the East and the West is one of the reason of miscommunications. Due to the nature of the Korean Oriental cognitive indirect and implicit, and attaches great importance to the context here is that by directing the situation as a strong inclination to tend to look complicated, but several that appeared. On the other hand, the West by several elements should have been directing the situation seemed complicated tendencies. Based on this, most of the People's Republic of China to visit Busan, Japan, American researchers can minimize cultural differences with a pictogram to improve the design. 149 on the cover, surveyed in A series of regulations designed to fit in the KS brochure cover, except for the deviations from the average value of the cover of non-standard big picture first of all was the selected as research, foreign tourists and improved as a result, 12% or more of the proposed design of pictogram is to determine the degree of improvement. The more countries foreigners comes from and the more detailed their desires to get information, the rate of success in communication with a simple pictogram will be gradually low. But we intend to show the possibility that we can minimize the inconvenience of foreign tourists through our effort to overcome cultural difference and make a common design.

García-Mira, Ricardo, Adina Dumitru, Dennis Kerkman, David Uzzell, Nora Rathzel, Tony Craig, Amparo Alonso-Betanzos, Corina Ilin, Richard Wener, Jaco Quist et al. "SUPPORTING TRANSITIONS TO SUSTAINABLE LIFESTYLES AND WORKPLACES: A NEW RESEARCH AGENDA (Part 1)." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Patterns of unsustainable production and consumption have been recognized as main causes of climate change. The renewed Sustainable Development Strategy 2006 of the EU states that “the main challenge is to gradually change our current unsustainable consumption and production patterns and the non-integrated approach to policy-making” (European Council 2006). Despite cross-cutting multidisciplinary research and policy efforts in most European states it has not been possible to achieve significant changes in consumption and production which would reverse or slow down the devastating projections outlined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climatic Change (IPCC) for our ecosystem. Considerable research funds have been dedicated in the last few years to investigate the barriers to and drivers of transitions to sustainable societies and to define the processes and tools that would promote multi-level changes towards sustainability. Also, significant research has been dedicated to the design of robust and adaptive policy that would support change at different levels of government. It has long been recognized that for transitions to sustainable societies to be effective, it is necessary to tackle both consumption and production, and to conceptualize lifestyles as situated patterns of activities, in contexts such as workplaces, homes and communities. The present symposium will explore the multiple research dimensions and determinants of sustainability transitions, as well as the main obstacles to achieving considerable greenhouse gas emissions reductions in areas such as energy consumption, waste generation and management or mobility. It will explore the psychological and social factors influencing (un)sustainable behaviors, and the utility of different tools for the definition and testing of pathways for the transformation of workplaces and communities, such as participatory scenario development tools, modeling and simulations. Within a multi-disciplinary framework, it will show how social science theory, modeling tools and multi-method empirical research can describe the conditions under which sustainable lifestyles can become the norm, rather than the exception. Through the presentation of a wealth of empirical research, with a European-wide focus and scope, this symposium will present the main aspects of this new research agenda.

ABSTRACTS

1. Cultural Values and Attitudes toward Environmental Sustainability

How fundamental cultural values affect students’ attitudes toward environmental sustainability? To address this issue, we surveyed 445 students at a university in the Midwestern United States. There were 195 males and 290 females, ranging in age from 18 to 63 (Mean = 32.36). Sixty-one percent were Caucasian, 11.4% were Hispanic, 14.6% were Black, and the remainder were from a variety of ethnic groups. A standardized test of Hofstede’s dimensions (Yoo, Danthu, &Lenartowicz, 2011) was entered in to an electronic survey together with 7 questions concerning attitudes toward environmental sustainability. While it is not too surprising that people who value long-term planning are also concerned about environmental sustainability, it was surprising to see that less masculine students were more concerned with the environment than the more masculine ones, especially since sex of participant did not enter the equation. While we had originally hypothesized that collectivism would be the strongest predictor of pro-environmental attitudes, it was actually only the third-best predictor. In retrospect, the relation of uncertainty avoidance to environmental sustainability makes sense, but was not hypothesized in advance. It was the weakest of all the significant predictors. Future research should examine relations between cultural values, environmental attitudes, and pro-environmental behaviors across varying cultures.

2. Workplaces in TNCSs: Can Green Practices be Transported across the Home-Workplace Border?

This paper reports on a three year study of two transnational corporations (truck production and oil and gas extraction) in Sweden and the UK, investigating under what conditions workers and managers are encouraged to transfer “green practices” from work to home and/or vice versa. We have also investigated how relationships between managers, employees and trade unions might encourage or prevent the adoption of ‘greener’ production processes. Both case studies draw on informational and life-history interviews to understand changes in practices over time as well as understanding the individual worker as a whole person whose motivations, actions and constraints are intimately tied to different aspects of their lives and identities. Our findings explain why workers are often unable and unwilling to carry practices between home and work, why they draw borders between those areas and under which conditions they become permeable and “green practices” are carried from home to work and vice versa. We have found how limited communication between hierarchical levels within companies as well as inflexible management structures and practices discourage workers to suggest and implement environmentally beneficial changes.

3. Transmission of pro-environmental norms in large organisations

A questionnaire study was carried out as part of this wider project, and various individual psychological constructs were operationalized within the questionnaire. Constructs included: values, norms, identity, and of the level of identification with the organisation. This presentation will focus on findings from two of the LOCAW case studies (Enel green power and the University of A Coruna), and will add an additional case (Aberdeenshire Council) to test the robustness of the findings. Analysis of the questionnaire data show that individual's level of identification with the organisation was associated with the likelihood of transmitting pro-environmental norms to co-workers. As part of the research process, Agent-based models were also constructed within the LOCAW project to simulate the effect of different policy mixes on large organisations. These models were empirically grounded with findings from questionnaires across the different case studies through the use of decision trees. One of the key question groups within the questionnaire that was particularly important in designing the agent-based models were those related to norm-transmission. We asked people to report how likely they would be to transmit environmental norms to co-workers and other people within the organisation. This paper will report on these findings, and will also explore the relationship between norm transmission and environmental behaviours more generally.

4. Testing policy options in an academic organization for a successful sustainability transition

The FP7 European Project LOCAW (LOwCArbon at Work) [http://www.locaw-fp7.com/ began conducting a thorough analysis to obtain a complex picture of the barriers and drivers to sustainable practices of different organizations at the present time using different methodologies (documental analysis, focus groups, in-depth interviews and questionnaire surveys). Besides, in order to construct knowledge on the necessary steps of transitioning to more sustainability organizations, back-casting sessions with personnel of different positions were done in LOCAW project. Backcasting is central for a strategic approach to planning for sustainable development. The methodology works by defining a desirable future and then works backwards to the present time in order to identify policies and programs that will connect the future to the present, assessing its feasibility. The information obtained in the back-casting scenario development workshops was used in defining policy tracks that were modeledusing an agent-based model approach. In particular, one of the organizations modeled was the University of A Coruña (UDC), which has a total of 2277 workers, between administration (790) and research/teaching (1487) personnel. In modeling UDC, agents represent workers with an individual value-based (altruistic, egoistic, hedonic, etc.) profile and their behavior is modeled using decision trees, automatically generated for each profile using actual data obtained by an online questionnaire that workers voluntarily fulfilled. Agents interact with each other in two ways: each agent has relations with his peers in the organization, which form the personal social network, and agents have also professional relations with subordinates/supervisors, and these form the organizational social network that is mostly of hierarchical type. In UDC personal network relations are very strong while hierarchical network influence in a more limited way in the actual behavior of the agents.

5. Structural and organizational factors influencing sustainability - related everyday practices in the workplace: comparative study Enel (Italy) vs. Aquatim (Romania)

This paper reports on a three year study from LOCAW research and we outline the general conclusions. In order to reach our particular aim – to provide a comprehensive analysis of the macro-factors influencing everyday practices and behaviors in the workplace, we investigated 6 European case studies of large-scale organizations operating under different national and international contexts and occupying different positions that are relevant in the sustainability debate. For this sympozium we will focus on the results of two comparative studies within the LOCAW project, Enel (Italy) and Aquatim (Romania) and we will reveal the multiple factors influencing the everyday practices and behaviors in these organizations. One of the most influential structural factor identified in our studies is the political-economic context in which the organization operates. The second influential structural factor identified in our studies is the legislation and regulation. The third influential structural factor identified in our studies is reputation. Findings from the LOCAW project demonstrate that the issue of reputation can act as both a driver and a barrier to the occurrence of sustainable practices. The building and maintaining of a good reputation is a key element of economic success on the market. Even if economic success is not a key concern of public institutions, reputation has still turned out, in our research, to be a key driver for sustainable practices.

PART 2

6.Evidence from a Pilot Program of Energy Retrofits in a Large Commercial Building Portfolio

Organizations consume more than twice the energy of households (Prindle and Finlinson, 2011*). Many organizations are making a concerted effort to reduce energy use across their operations, tackling their facilities, supply chains, and employing management strategies that help to align energy consumption and production. However, there are numerous barriers to the reduction of energy use in organizations, especially in multi-tenanted commercial office buildings. These include diverse tenant needs and heterogeneous occupant preferences and behavior, and the need to balance cost containment, efficient operation and occupant well-being. This presentation draws upon empirical results of a detailed POE of a pilot program of energy efficient retrofits within a large commercial building portfolio in the US. This multi-method study includes interviews and surveys, collection of field measurements, utility bills and metered data, with the development of an agent-based behavioral model coded to an Energy Plus simulation of one of the pilot buildings. Key findings relate to the difficulty of installing lighting and HVAC technologies that are behaviorally robust within complex organizations, the mediating role of education and organizational learning, and the extent to which habits and occupancy schedules drive energy use outcomes. Indeed, the changing nature of work (in the US) wherein employees may split the “workday” between home, an office and a coffee shop suggests that an entirely new paradigm of “the office” is needed if workplaces are to become less intensive in their consumption of energy and other environmental resources.

7. Transitions to sustainable protein food consumption: the role of visions and niche development

Meat consumption is major source of unsustainability and transitions to lifestyles and diets building on vegetarianism, meat alternatives and strongly reduced meat consumption are strongly required. This paper reports on a backcasting experiment on meat alternatives and its effects after 10 years in the Netherlands. It has been found that the original participatory backcasting study successfully resulted in the development of a strong future vision in which by 2040 40% of all meat consumed would be substituted by meat alternatives based on vegetable and microbial sources, as well as in considerable stakeholder endorsement and stakeholder learning. In an evaluation study 10 years later it was found that niches of related activities could be found in the policy domain, research domain, business domain and public/societal domain. Both diffusion and further refinement of the vision had taken place in a co-evolutionary development with its supporting networks. The Leitbild concept from German sociology of technology is used to analyse the vision diffusion and shows that the vision provides both orientation and guidance to supporting networks, but that these networks co-shape the refinement of the vision too. Though a transition is not yet taking off, the related niches identified can be seen as a stepping stone for potential transition to a more sustainable consumption of protein foods

8. The role of Urban Multi-family Residential Buildings in Creating Sustainable Lifestyles

Knox (1991)* argues, “The built environment is both a product of, and the mediator between, social relations” (p. 182). Using that lens, buildings provide more than shelter; they create and enforce norms, and have the potential to drive social dynamics. Taking the building as the unit of analysis, this research investigates the possibility that there are underexplored group and organizational relationships among households in urban multi-family residential buildings, and that these organizational dynamics could be leveraged to change energy consumption behavior. Using survey and interview data from multiple buildings, household and building-wide electricity consumption data, and case studies of programmatic interventions in buildings, this research aims to identify organizational characteristics that may influence household energy behavior. This research is unique in its attempt to extend this line of thinking about organizations – typically applied in a commercial/institutional setting – to a residential context.

9. Sustainable lifestyles: A workplace and home behaviour-based cluster analysis on a cross-cultural sample of employees

The present work refers part of the results of the LOCAW EU 7FP research project. 487 employees from diverse organizations (both private and public) filled in a questionnaire including measures across an array of social-psychological, behavioural, and socio-demographic variables. A hierarchical cluster analysis was carried out on the basis of the employees’ responses to the behavioural items of the on-line questionnaire, concerning both work and home practices, which were used as classificatory variables. Results show the emergence of a distinct cluster whose composition is characterized above all by the presence of employees from Enel Green Power (a renewable Italy, about 40%) and Acquatim (Romania, about 28%), i.e. the two most explicitly “green” among the considered organizations (compared to two public organizations such as Groeningen Municipality and A Coruna University). Such cluster shows the highest scores for (pro-environmental) values, worldviews, identity, norms, and efficacy, whilst a congruent highest behavioural score appeared only for waste reduction at work, and, on the contrary, the consumption of energy (particularly at work) is higher than in the other clusters. In other words, it seems that these individuals - mainly employed in EGP and Acquatim - only partially translate their pro-environmental psychological drivers in coherent actions. This may be due to the possible existence of contextual and situational barriers which impede such psychological-behavioural consistency.

10. Temporal and spatial dimensions of sustainable lifestyles: a new research agenda

During the last decades accumulating scientific evidence has shown that our patterns of intensive resource use together with our GHG emissions are leading to increasing resource scarcity, loss of biodiversity and climate change with its numerous and disastrous effects. Lifestyles characterized by patterns of intensive consumption are a key challenge for sustainability objectives. Lifestyles are influenced by cultural, social, economic, political and technological factors and understanding the complex interactions among these factors as well as the most effective strategies for promoting significant changes in lifestyles is key to counteracting unsustainable trends that persist in several areas. The present paper will analyze different conceptualizations of lifestyles and the implications they have for research design and policy, emphasizing the main directions of this research agenda.

Garca-Mira, Ricardo, Adina Dumitru, Dennis Kerkman, David Uzzell, Nora Rthzel, Tony Craig, Amparo Alonso-Betanzos, Corina Ilin, Richard Wener, Jaco Quist et al. "SUPPORTING TRANSITIONS TO SUSTAINABLE LIFESTYLES AND WORKPLACES: A NEW RESEARCH AGENDA (Part 2)." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Patterns of unsustainable production and consumption have been recognized as main causes of climate change. The renewed Sustainable Development Strategy 2006 of the EU states that “the main challenge is to gradually change our current unsustainable consumption and production patterns and the non-integrated approach to policy-making” (European Council 2006). Despite cross-cutting multidisciplinary research and policy efforts in most European states it has not been possible to achieve significant changes in consumption and production which would reverse or slow down the devastating projections outlined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climatic Change (IPCC) for our ecosystem. Considerable research funds have been dedicated in the last few years to investigate the barriers to and drivers of transitions to sustainable societies and to define the processes and tools that would promote multi-level changes towards sustainability. Also, significant research has been dedicated to the design of robust and adaptive policy that would support change at different levels of government. It has long been recognized that for transitions to sustainable societies to be effective, it is necessary to tackle both consumption and production, and to conceptualize lifestyles as situated patterns of activities, in contexts such as workplaces, homes and communities. The present symposium will explore the multiple research dimensions and determinants of sustainability transitions, as well as the main obstacles to achieving considerable greenhouse gas emissions reductions in areas such as energy consumption, waste generation and management or mobility. It will explore the psychological and social factors influencing (un)sustainable behaviors, and the utility of different tools for the definition and testing of pathways for the transformation of workplaces and communities, such as participatory scenario development tools, modeling and simulations. Within a multi-disciplinary framework, it will show how social science theory, modeling tools and multi-method empirical research can describe the conditions under which sustainable lifestyles can become the norm, rather than the exception. Through the presentation of a wealth of empirical research, with a European-wide focus and scope, this symposium will present the main aspects of this new research agenda.

ABSTRACTS

1. Cultural Values and Attitudes toward Environmental Sustainability

How fundamental cultural values affect students’ attitudes toward environmental sustainability? To address this issue, we surveyed 445 students at a university in the Midwestern United States. There were 195 males and 290 females, ranging in age from 18 to 63 (Mean = 32.36). Sixty-one percent were Caucasian, 11.4% were Hispanic, 14.6% were Black, and the remainder were from a variety of ethnic groups. A standardized test of Hofstede’s dimensions (Yoo, Danthu, &Lenartowicz, 2011) was entered in to an electronic survey together with 7 questions concerning attitudes toward environmental sustainability. While it is not too surprising that people who value long-term planning are also concerned about environmental sustainability, it was surprising to see that less masculine students were more concerned with the environment than the more masculine ones, especially since sex of participant did not enter the equation. While we had originally hypothesized that collectivism would be the strongest predictor of pro-environmental attitudes, it was actually only the third-best predictor. In retrospect, the relation of uncertainty avoidance to environmental sustainability makes sense, but was not hypothesized in advance. It was the weakest of all the significant predictors. Future research should examine relations between cultural values, environmental attitudes, and pro-environmental behaviors across varying cultures.

2. Workplaces in TNCSs: Can Green Practices be Transported across the Home-Workplace Border?

This paper reports on a three year study of two transnational corporations (truck production and oil and gas extraction) in Sweden and the UK, investigating under what conditions workers and managers are encouraged to transfer “green practices” from work to home and/or vice versa. We have also investigated how relationships between managers, employees and trade unions might encourage or prevent the adoption of ‘greener’ production processes. Both case studies draw on informational and life-history interviews to understand changes in practices over time as well as understanding the individual worker as a whole person whose motivations, actions and constraints are intimately tied to different aspects of their lives and identities. Our findings explain why workers are often unable and unwilling to carry practices between home and work, why they draw borders between those areas and under which conditions they become permeable and “green practices” are carried from home to work and vice versa. We have found how limited communication between hierarchical levels within companies as well as inflexible management structures and practices discourage workers to suggest and implement environmentally beneficial changes.

3. Transmission of pro-environmental norms in large organisations

A questionnaire study was carried out as part of this wider project, and various individual psychological constructs were operationalized within the questionnaire. Constructs included: values, norms, identity, and of the level of identification with the organisation. This presentation will focus on findings from two of the LOCAW case studies (Enel green power and the University of A Coruna), and will add an additional case (Aberdeenshire Council) to test the robustness of the findings. Analysis of the questionnaire data show that individual's level of identification with the organisation was associated with the likelihood of transmitting pro-environmental norms to co-workers. As part of the research process, Agent-based models were also constructed within the LOCAW project to simulate the effect of different policy mixes on large organisations. These models were empirically grounded with findings from questionnaires across the different case studies through the use of decision trees. One of the key question groups within the questionnaire that was particularly important in designing the agent-based models were those related to norm-transmission. We asked people to report how likely they would be to transmit environmental norms to co-workers and other people within the organisation. This paper will report on these findings, and will also explore the relationship between norm transmission and environmental behaviours more generally.

4. Testing policy options in an academic organization for a successful sustainability transition

The FP7 European Project LOCAW (LOwCArbon at Work) [http://www.locaw-fp7.com/ began conducting a thorough analysis to obtain a complex picture of the barriers and drivers to sustainable practices of different organizations at the present time using different methodologies (documental analysis, focus groups, in-depth interviews and questionnaire surveys). Besides, in order to construct knowledge on the necessary steps of transitioning to more sustainability organizations, back-casting sessions with personnel of different positions were done in LOCAW project. Backcasting is central for a strategic approach to planning for sustainable development. The methodology works by defining a desirable future and then works backwards to the present time in order to identify policies and programs that will connect the future to the present, assessing its feasibility. The information obtained in the back-casting scenario development workshops was used in defining policy tracks that were modeledusing an agent-based model approach. In particular, one of the organizations modeled was the University of A Coruña (UDC), which has a total of 2277 workers, between administration (790) and research/teaching (1487) personnel. In modeling UDC, agents represent workers with an individual value-based (altruistic, egoistic, hedonic, etc.) profile and their behavior is modeled using decision trees, automatically generated for each profile using actual data obtained by an online questionnaire that workers voluntarily fulfilled. Agents interact with each other in two ways: each agent has relations with his peers in the organization, which form the personal social network, and agents have also professional relations with subordinates/supervisors, and these form the organizational social network that is mostly of hierarchical type. In UDC personal network relations are very strong while hierarchical network influence in a more limited way in the actual behavior of the agents.

5. Structural and organizational factors influencing sustainability - related everyday practices in the workplace: comparative study Enel (Italy) vs. Aquatim (Romania)

This paper reports on a three year study from LOCAW research and we outline the general conclusions. In order to reach our particular aim – to provide a comprehensive analysis of the macro-factors influencing everyday practices and behaviors in the workplace, we investigated 6 European case studies of large-scale organizations operating under different national and international contexts and occupying different positions that are relevant in the sustainability debate. For this sympozium we will focus on the results of two comparative studies within the LOCAW project, Enel (Italy) and Aquatim (Romania) and we will reveal the multiple factors influencing the everyday practices and behaviors in these organizations. One of the most influential structural factor identified in our studies is the political-economic context in which the organization operates. The second influential structural factor identified in our studies is the legislation and regulation. The third influential structural factor identified in our studies is reputation. Findings from the LOCAW project demonstrate that the issue of reputation can act as both a driver and a barrier to the occurrence of sustainable practices. The building and maintaining of a good reputation is a key element of economic success on the market. Even if economic success is not a key concern of public institutions, reputation has still turned out, in our research, to be a key driver for sustainable practices.

PART 2

6.Evidence from a Pilot Program of Energy Retrofits in a Large Commercial Building Portfolio

Organizations consume more than twice the energy of households (Prindle and Finlinson, 2011*). Many organizations are making a concerted effort to reduce energy use across their operations, tackling their facilities, supply chains, and employing management strategies that help to align energy consumption and production. However, there are numerous barriers to the reduction of energy use in organizations, especially in multi-tenanted commercial office buildings. These include diverse tenant needs and heterogeneous occupant preferences and behavior, and the need to balance cost containment, efficient operation and occupant well-being. This presentation draws upon empirical results of a detailed POE of a pilot program of energy efficient retrofits within a large commercial building portfolio in the US. This multi-method study includes interviews and surveys, collection of field measurements, utility bills and metered data, with the development of an agent-based behavioral model coded to an Energy Plus simulation of one of the pilot buildings. Key findings relate to the difficulty of installing lighting and HVAC technologies that are behaviorally robust within complex organizations, the mediating role of education and organizational learning, and the extent to which habits and occupancy schedules drive energy use outcomes. Indeed, the changing nature of work (in the US) wherein employees may split the “workday” between home, an office and a coffee shop suggests that an entirely new paradigm of “the office” is needed if workplaces are to become less intensive in their consumption of energy and other environmental resources.

7. Transitions to sustainable protein food consumption: the role of visions and niche development

Meat consumption is major source of unsustainability and transitions to lifestyles and diets building on vegetarianism, meat alternatives and strongly reduced meat consumption are strongly required. This paper reports on a backcasting experiment on meat alternatives and its effects after 10 years in the Netherlands. It has been found that the original participatory backcasting study successfully resulted in the development of a strong future vision in which by 2040 40% of all meat consumed would be substituted by meat alternatives based on vegetable and microbial sources, as well as in considerable stakeholder endorsement and stakeholder learning. In an evaluation study 10 years later it was found that niches of related activities could be found in the policy domain, research domain, business domain and public/societal domain. Both diffusion and further refinement of the vision had taken place in a co-evolutionary development with its supporting networks. The Leitbild concept from German sociology of technology is used to analyse the vision diffusion and shows that the vision provides both orientation and guidance to supporting networks, but that these networks co-shape the refinement of the vision too. Though a transition is not yet taking off, the related niches identified can be seen as a stepping stone for potential transition to a more sustainable consumption of protein foods

8. The role of Urban Multi-family Residential Buildings in Creating Sustainable Lifestyles

Knox (1991)* argues, “The built environment is both a product of, and the mediator between, social relations” (p. 182). Using that lens, buildings provide more than shelter; they create and enforce norms, and have the potential to drive social dynamics. Taking the building as the unit of analysis, this research investigates the possibility that there are underexplored group and organizational relationships among households in urban multi-family residential buildings, and that these organizational dynamics could be leveraged to change energy consumption behavior. Using survey and interview data from multiple buildings, household and building-wide electricity consumption data, and case studies of programmatic interventions in buildings, this research aims to identify organizational characteristics that may influence household energy behavior. This research is unique in its attempt to extend this line of thinking about organizations – typically applied in a commercial/institutional setting – to a residential context.

9. Sustainable lifestyles: A workplace and home behaviour-based cluster analysis on a cross-cultural sample of employees

The present work refers part of the results of the LOCAW EU 7FP research project. 487 employees from diverse organizations (both private and public) filled in a questionnaire including measures across an array of social-psychological, behavioural, and socio-demographic variables. A hierarchical cluster analysis was carried out on the basis of the employees’ responses to the behavioural items of the on-line questionnaire, concerning both work and home practices, which were used as classificatory variables. Results show the emergence of a distinct cluster whose composition is characterized above all by the presence of employees from Enel Green Power (a renewable Italy, about 40%) and Acquatim (Romania, about 28%), i.e. the two most explicitly “green” among the considered organizations (compared to two public organizations such as Groeningen Municipality and A Coruna University). Such cluster shows the highest scores for (pro-environmental) values, worldviews, identity, norms, and efficacy, whilst a congruent highest behavioural score appeared only for waste reduction at work, and, on the contrary, the consumption of energy (particularly at work) is higher than in the other clusters. In other words, it seems that these individuals - mainly employed in EGP and Acquatim - only partially translate their pro-environmental psychological drivers in coherent actions. This may be due to the possible existence of contextual and situational barriers which impede such psychological-behavioural consistency.

10. Temporal and spatial dimensions of sustainable lifestyles: a new research agenda

During the last decades accumulating scientific evidence has shown that our patterns of intensive resource use together with our GHG emissions are leading to increasing resource scarcity, loss of biodiversity and climate change with its numerous and disastrous effects. Lifestyles characterized by patterns of intensive consumption are a key challenge for sustainability objectives. Lifestyles are influenced by cultural, social, economic, political and technological factors and understanding the complex interactions among these factors as well as the most effective strategies for promoting significant changes in lifestyles is key to counteracting unsustainable trends that persist in several areas. The present paper will analyze different conceptualizations of lifestyles and the implications they have for research design and policy, emphasizing the main directions of this research agenda.

Andrade, Soraya Souza. "Sustainability of açaí: considerations on the role of consumers." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

This paper presents some results from a doctoral research that proposes connections between açaí’s gastronomy and notion of place identity in Belém, a metropolis in Brazilian Amazon. Aims to discuss some of the proposed interventions by regulators in artisan processing of açaí, through the role of consumers in this context.

The açaí is a base food of diet for riverside Amazon population, which has a strong identity character. His original production process refers to technologies developed by these populations and its consistent with available resources in an everyday lived on the banks of the Amazon river in the nineteenth century. In the mid 1990 açaí began to be consumed outside the Amazon, reaching the international market in the next decade which resulted in a series of changes in its supply chain, constantly updated since then. Among the changes is the improvement of the processing of fruit from your harvest to the pulping, aiming at improving the quality of the final product.

From a panel of experts, it was found that in Pará, the Brazilian state with most increased production, circulation and consumption of açaí, such improvement has become a priority agenda of public health officials from the year 2007 when occurred a surfaced contamination by Trypanosoma cruzi, etiologic agent of Chagas disease. With the massive dissemination of the problem in local and national media, has established a strain on the government to solve the problem. Since then, several actions have been undertaken, with different elements that make up the supply chain of açaí in order to provide a safer and healthier product. However, the expert panel also indicated that consumers have been neglected by those actions. On the other hand, observations based in urban ethnography and semi-open interviews with consumers of açaí in Belém showed that a expressive proportion of these consumes a low quality product. Extending the analysis, such conduct was associated with lack of information and intense attachment to the consumption of açaí. Consumers unaware risks and ways of contamination of açaí as well as good processing practices to ensure a safer product. Moreover, the attachment of certain population to daily consumption of açaí and processing practices traditionally established groups makes these disregard certain information and recommendations. Also contributes to this situation, the high price, directly related to the increase in demand for foreign markets and general production costs. Thus, groups of low-income, mostly among those who traditionally maintain consumption habits more ingrained açaí, has been hampered in accessing this product.

Thus, we believe that consumers are key to interventions on the dynamics of consumption of açaí committed to the ideals of sustainability. The approach can favor them much either food security, as a fairer distribution of good quality açaí.

Twardoch, Agata. "Sustainable housing in Poland. Current status and projections." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Paper refers to condition of housing in Poland and to housing future, giving announced law changes.

Conclusions on condition of housing are based upon research on housing in Silesian Metropolitan Region conducted between 2011 and 2013 and upon case studies from other regions of Poland. Review of legal process of new housing development and statistical data on housing are also taken into consideration.

Attempts of projections are based on interviews with developers and with architects involved in designing and building process and upon common knowledge about environmental requirements. In 2014 new law, called Flat for youngsters is going to be implemented, author of the paper speculates how some of legal provisions may affect future housing developments.

Polish solutions are compared with English law and practice.

Kuestner, Fabian. "Sustainable neighborhood development through energy efficiency." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

The reduction of CO2 emissions trough 40% from 1990 until 2020 is one of the objectives of the ambitious program: „Energy efficient city. Modellstadt for renewable energies“. Inspired by this program, the doctoral theses of the author develop. The thesis deals with the sustainable development, supported by saved energy. The abstract illustrates the ideas of the author, who is currently at the beginning of his work.

Increased energy efficiency is an effective strategy to implement energy and climate policy objectives. In practice the actually realised savings are often lower than the calculations. The cause of this is a changing behaviour. It may happen that the saved money will be reinvested in other technologies that emit CO2. In an extreme case there is more energy use than before. Thats the rebound effect. It is also an obstacle for sustainable development, as it were an side effect of measures on energy efficiency.

Relating to the aim of the reduction in CO2 is the aim of the reduction of the individual energy consumption and the sustainable use of the saved money. The focus of the thesis is to research the percentage of the rebound effect in socio-demographic groups. After that I want to know how the saved money can be used for a sustainable development in urban neighborhoods.

Important for this aims are the societal approval and the acceptance by the population. Because of this it is important to know, what kind of measures faces approval or rejection.

  • Key research question:
  • How can we stop the spread of the rebound effect and how could this be used for a sustainable neighborhood development?

Hypotheses:

  • Low income groups have an higher rebound effect
  • The behavior depends on social interaction of the actors
  • The knowledge in energy saving and energy efficiency is higher in more educated groups
  • Die unterschiedlichen Gruppen haben gegensätzliche Meinungen zu den Themen Suffizienz, Wachstum/Generationengerechtigkeit
  • Inwieweit erklären sind die Akteure bereit eingespartes Geld in grünes Wachstum, Grünflächen usw. zu investieren
  • The living quality can be increased by investing the saved money in neighborhood development

Methods: It will be used a mix of methods. Focus groups will be generate. They consist of members from different socio-demographic groups. In this method I will use a qualitative approach, it is called group discussion. On the other side I use the quantitative approach, it is a survey of all group members.

Focus groups are useful for a little amount of participants in moderated professional discussion. The data collection is trough group interaction on a topic determined by the researcher. Researcher interest provides the focus, whereas the data themselves come from the group interaction.

Lee, Yung-Jaan, and Piin-Rong Lee. "Sustainable Use of Water Resources in Taiwan: From the Perspective of Blue Water Footprint." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Global climate change has caused the decreasing number of annual rainy days and uneven rainfall distribution in Taiwan. Moreover, typhoons frequently cause heavy rainfall in a short time and often lead to flooding in central and southern coastal Taiwan. In the mountains and slopeland areas, due to the steep terrains and heavy runoffs, typhoons have caused frequent landslides and debris flows. On the other hand, in the dry seasons, Taiwan faces severe water shortages and limited water use. Due to natural and human factors, Taiwan's water storage and deployment have become more difficult. Consequently, the examination of water footprint can provide policymakers and the society a clear vision of the current overall water use. The Water Footprint Network defines the water footprint to include the impact assessments of two dimensions: water resource use and water pollution level. There are strong relationships among water consumption, energy use and greenhouse gas emission. The examination of Taiwan's water footprint can help policymakers and the society assess the degree of sustainability. This paper explores water consumption among five municipalities and seventeen counties in Taiwan, through the blue water footprint calculations. The goal is to help local and central governments propose appropriate water-saving policies to effectively manage Taiwan’s water resources and further to move towards sustainability.

Ghavampour, Ensiyeh, and Brenda Vale. "Sustained use of small urban spaces: a case study of nature as a design attribute." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Public spaces are valued as physical settings which fulfill the social needs of residents. Consideration of compact cities, lack of land, and people’s need for convenient and well-designed public places for social activity have highlighted the importance of the design of affordable and efficient small public spaces in cities. Place Theory claims there is a strong link between activity, physical setting and meaning, and having these is essential for sustained use of public spaces, but it does not provide specific design guidelines for these. Using behavioural studies can provide a checklist for the design attributes that make small public spaces successful. However the contributions of these design attribute to the sustained use of place have not been tested in Place Theory. This paper aims to fill this gap by comparing the results of a survey undertaken within the framework of Place Theory using a facet theory approach with the results of a behavioural mapping investigation.

The survey was based on eight natural and artificial design attributes and their contribution to sense of place, in combination with two activities that occur in the place (having people around and having a café nearby) to test the effect of these on three types of social activity (spending time with family, chance contact, spending time alone). The survey results are used to provide a framework for identifying subspaces in four data collection sites. These are then divided into five categories with two options of natural-artificial for each meaning in the 10 differently coded places. Each case study was observed for one day using intermittent photographs and GIS as the analysis method to investigate use of the subspaces in practice.

Comparison between the uses of each subspace in the behavioural mapping with the preferred design attributes found in the survey indicate a general agreement between theories and practice (a preference for use of natural attributes over artificial). However, there are some differences. Results also show that although theoretical research studies are valuable for predicting and evaluating the contribution of attributes in the sustained use of space, detailed investigation within the context of behavioural studies provides more helpful results for designers.

Ayalp, Nur. "Sustaining Community Identity Through the Medium of Place Identity: Aspect of Changing Social Life Styles -A Case From Turkey." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Community identity, as the creator of cultural diversity, is the main force in shaping social environments. Every community consists of patterns of living habits, attitudes and beliefs that shape their social and individual identities. The term community identity is defined as a group identity that is developed via being a member of a specific group. Social interaction is the main influential factor in the creation of community identities and the social environment is the medium for these interactions. There is a two way interaction between the environment and its user. By designing environments, people define the spaces, and this designed space in return defines its user’s identity. Communities develop a certain sense of place through these interrelations. These interrelations have cultural, psychological, economic and physical dimensions.

Among the dimensions that interrelations possess, sustainability is considered to be the major term in determining the aspects of changing social life styles. Community identity, as an effective factor in shaping sense of place, faces the problem of redefining itself in the context of sustainable development. When the term sustainable development was first declared with Bruntland Commission in 1987, all disciplines started to define the problem. In this problem formulation, a major emphasis is placed on the redefinition of the term ‘need’. Considering the community identity and sense of place as a problem of environmental sustainability, needs of the community regarding the changes in the social life is a vital point.

In this study, changing social life styles are discussed based on community identity and place identity. Considering that the environment and the community are counter parts in defining social life, newly defined social needs provide a focal point in creating man-made environments. In other words, man-made environments have vital responsibilities in the creation of sustainable environments. Otherwise, continuity and development in community identity is interrupted. In relation, all the changing trends in the sense of place can be interrupted as well. It is clear that social places are the environments that people satisfy their social needs. This means that, places as designed environments are the most important and the closest places to fulfilling socially defined community identities as human needs.

This study focuses on the dimensions of creating socially sustainable environments in the context of community identity. In this context, changing social life styles in Turkey are introduced. Development shifts in the social life and its effects on the community identity has been analyzed. In Turkey, during these social shifts some authentic environments such as coffeehouses and hamam (Turkish bath) in which social/community identities and place identities used to develop, have lost their importance in determining a sense of place. These environments weren’t able to be sustained in new images. Thus this analysis focuses on the relation between new types of social life styles, new types of needs and new types of images in the social environments in Turkey. With the help of these analyses a multifaceted sustainability model is discussed regarding these relations.

Wiersma, Bouke, Patrick Devine-Wright, and Saffron O'Neill. "The acceptability of offshore renewable energy on Guernsey: Studying coastal place meanings through participant photography." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Introduction: Climate change and energy security policy targets have led to the adoption of low-carbon electricity sources such as renewable energy technologies. However across the world the development of these technologies has met with opposition, commonly but simplistically labelled as ‘NIMBY’ (Not In My Back Yard). This study avoids NIMBY presumptions that individuals are selfish and ill-informed and instead asks how specific people-place bonds influences acceptability of renewable energy technology. It focuses on a group of emerging offshore technologies: offshore wind, tidal and wave energy. It studies the British island Guernsey, which has a substantial wind, tidal and wave resource but no currently planned or operational device(s). Studying this area is important due to claims by some that offshore technologies will be much more publicly acceptable - claims which have to date not been sufficiently scrutinised in the scholarly literature.

Method: 28 participants were asked to photograph what they valued about Guernsey’s coast and sea. The photographs were subsequently discussed during a one-hour interview, which also explored participants’ perceptions and understanding of these offshore renewable energy technologies, and their acceptability at different marine locations around Guernsey. The interviews were transcribed and along with the participant photographs subjected to a thematic analysis.

Results: The study found that participants felt strongly and positively connected to Guernsey as a whole as well as to a multitude of specific coastal places, encompassing the entire coastline. The sea was represented in multiple ways, including as a ‘playground’ and as an open space contrasting with the ‘closed’ inland landscape of Guernsey. Offshore renewable energy technology was represented as making the island more self-sufficient, as improving security of supply, and as inevitable due to the finite nature of fossil fuels. The extent of a ‘fit’ between these representations of place and technology has often been argued to be associated with levels of public acceptance of energy technologies (McLachlan, 2009; Devine-Wright, 2011), and will be analysed to draw conclusions about the relative levels of support for these different technologies in different offshore locations around Guernsey.

Discussion: The study confirmed how meanings ascribed to offshore places matter in shaping public responses to potential energy infrastructure developments, and that participant photography can be a good way to investigate this relationship in greater depth. The focus on an early stage of development, where decisions on technology type and siting have not yet been made, suggests that an exercise of exploring meanings ascribed to different places, and the relative public acceptability of energy technologies in those places, can be a worthwhile exercise to explore acceptability of technologies in an early stage, potentially avoiding opposition in later stages.

References

Devine-Wright, P. (2011). Enhancing local distinctiveness fosters public acceptance of tidal energy: A UK case study. Energy Policy, 39(1), 83-93.

McLachlan, C. (2009). ‘You don’t do a chemistry experiment in your best china’: Symbolic interpretations of place and technology in a wave energy case. Energy Policy, 37(12), 5342-5350.

Mastandrea, Stefano, Fridanna Maricchiolo, Ilaria Giovannelli, and Giuseppe Carrus. "The Art museum as a restorative environment." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Are art museum settings capable to promote the recovery of psychological well-being, identified through stress reduction, increase in positive emotions, and renewal of cognitive resources? In other words, can art museums be considered as restorative settings? Moreover, are there any differences, in terms of restoration, between different art style museums (ancient-figurative art vs. contemporary-abstract art)? These are the main questions that we would like to address in the research we are presenting.

In a first laboratory study, a sort of virtual museum visit was simulated (like virtual tours shown on museum websites). Two different slide shows of 15 pictures each, differentiated by the art styles (figurative vs. abstract art) and a control slide show (composed by urban settings pictures) were presented to 3 different groups of participants (34 university students). Physiological (blood pressure and heart rate), attention (Attention Network Task, ANT) affective (self-reported emotions), and behavioural (pro-social intentions) pre-post variables were measured. Findings show that heart rate decreases after viewing the slide show for the figurative art group only; diastolic blood pressure decreases for the figurative and control group. Participants felt more relaxed after viewing figurative art stimuli compared to abstract and control ones. Attentive outcomes (alerting but neither orienting nor executive functions) tend to improve after viewing abstract stimuli compared to other conditions. Finally, in the two art conditions, participants tend to be characterized by more pro-social intentions than in control setting.

In a second study, we investigate the topic of restoration during a real art experience in museum settings. The direct experience of artworks in real museum contexts should provide clearer evidence to the preliminary laboratory findings obtained in the first study. The data collection, still in progress, is ongoing in the ancient and contemporary sections of the National Gallery of Modern Art (GNAM), located in Rome, Italy. Physiological (blood pressure and heart rate), attention (Stroop test), affective (self-reported emotions) and behavioural (pro-social intentions) measures will be taken before and after the visit to two different art styles collections (figurative and contemporary) and a control setting (offices of the gallery). We expect findings to confirm the restorative potential of the art museum compared to control setting and possible variations according to the different art styles experienced. From the preliminary data, realistic or figurative artworks appear as more restorative compared to avant-garde and abstract paintings and to the control setting. The practical and theoretical implications of the study will be discussed.

Hu, Shiyang, Katarina Katsma, Claudia Ferrai, Aimee Felstead, and Emma Powell. "THE CALLS, PEOPLE AT THE HEART." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Introduction: This is located in an undergoing regeneration area of Leeds, UK. Leeds’ river corridor was once a neglected backwater of past industrial and commercial use. Around the 1990s the area was redeveloped to bring life back to the area. However, the redevelopment did not take into consideration the diversity and the needs of the community. Luxury apartments and few amenities were built with little thought as how the area could thrive as a community. In particular, we now see that . This has created a slow degradation of the area causing a daily out migration of users of which has worsened due to the recent economic recession.

Method: This project was completed in a MA2 Urban Landscape Design module at the University of Sheffield which aimed to design for that would provide . In this module we learned how to map a site through 'Experiential Mapping' and adopt a method of role-play where the group created a profile of characters that routinely used the site that would then map their experiences within the spaces so that an appropriate design could be determined. Experiential Mapping is the mapping of a site to show spaces that may or may not work, areas they feel safe in, positive or negative sensations and social restorative spaces through a series of symbols.

Following the characters wishes, the spaces were re-designed from the community courtyard to the river edge with ownership changing from public, to semi-public then to private near the homes. This hierarchy of spaces provides social interaction without creating barriers. The existing residential buildings are adapted to provide mixed use activities, all while remaining affordable to ordinary people and different family sizes. This will also provide new economic opportunities and support a social network. The redeveloped courtyard spaces and gardens provide a series of socially restorative spaces. The riverside edge was softened with floating gardens and decks. Spaces both riverside and in the courtyards would provide for a variety of activities like temporary markets and festivals.

Discussion: By encouraging mixed use development and providing local services and amenities, the community can become sustainable and . Social media and online networks would be harnessed to establish easy communication for residents to . New technology would also . The studio-offices would be adaptable spaces that have the ability to . Local facilities such as a corner shop, a library and a youth and community centre would be theoretically located in the converted existing buildings to . The courtyard gardens and floating gardens would . The overall design is to care for , people from and of .

Bakır, Neşe Yılmaz, and Hikmet Eldek. "THE CHANGE İN THE REASONS FOR CONSERVATİON, A Evalution Of Talas Historic City Center." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Nowadays urban marketing is an indispensable element within the strategies for economic development of the cities, contributing to the overall vision of the strategy. This helps cities to accomplish many objectives, especially developing tourism, while they have to face the harsh competition to attract new investors. For this reason cultural heritage of the city and the marketing issue is an important approach. New urban policies that are structured through neoliberalism as a new governance mode of globalisation necessitate the use of cultural heritage as a tool to respond to the rapidly changing socio-economic conditions of the new economic order. Here, the definition of heritage becomes an important factor, because today most of the conservation projects resort to that concept in order to legitimize the intervention. Especially the historic sites which are engaged in tourism claim heritage value. decision- maker or a local person, tend to consider the conservation and restoration practices as economic investments for the development of tourism as an income generating activity. Despite the fact that this type of a conception leads to the ignorance of the heritage value of the built environment, the economic aspects is an important motive for public support and sustainability.

İn Turkey, now being interpreted as a process of revitalisation and integration of the entities having historical, cultural and architectural values with certain economic and functional potential. However, the perceived economic benefits from the re-use of the cultural heritage increasingly cause the transformation of the historic sites.

İn this context this study attempts to examine on the conservation experience within the spatial characteristic and functional identity shaped by natural and cultural heritage values in case study of Talas as one of the historical cities of Turkey. İt provides to the transferring–sharing information and creating discussion platform about conservation experiences and challenges between historical cities according to the alternative solution seeking for (probable) common problems after conservation process.

The reason for selecting a sample area of the city as the recent branding discourse, investment oriented approach are the developments in urban conservation projects. Historic conservation approach in Talas seems to have focused on restoration on a single-building scale and street renovation activities .The main goal of conservation processes in Talas is to create an authentic touristic space that would appeal primarily to international tourists, especially those visiting Cappadocia, which is a very popular tourist destination near Talas.

The methodological framework of this study is based a process composed of three stages. Firstly, It explores how neo-liberal urban politics shape present debates over cultural heritage. Secondly, the planning and implementation experiences focused on urban conservation in Talas are explained in detailed. And finally, it is examined to include socio–cultural, economical impact over the spatial projects prepared or completed by talas Municipality in order to determine the contributions to the conservation processes of cultural heritage.

Bomfim, Zulmira Aurea Cruz, Adeliani Almeida Campos, and Ana Kristia da Martins. "The community experience as a way for the development of pro-environmental behavior." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

This work aims to discuss the process experienced in the Cocó’s Park based on the reports of those who lived a group experience when different people all over the city came together to defend the protected ecological area of Cocó Park, which has been devastated by different kinds of building constructions.

The focus of the reports were the feelings experienced by different groups, evaluating the consequent personal transformations experienced by the members. This group settled in an area where trees and manguezal ecological system had been destroyed in order to stop the devastation process that had begun to construct a viaduct.

In the camping area they begun a dialogue process with campers and visitors to discuss new concepts of integrated healthy behaviors related to different models of growth and consumption within more sustainable parameters of living. Professionals and students in a transdisciplinary approach, biology, Architecture, Geography, Dentistry, Psychology, Sciences and Education developed an ecological consciousness in the camping members and visitors, and with the population as a whole. They reflected the human and environmental nature and its relation to a sustainable way of living and planning about a new city and a new way of life.

Dias, Pierre, and Thierry Ramadier. "The congruence between social and cognitive structures in the urban space: Psychological perspective in socio-spatial segregation." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

This study analyses the representations of urban space from the social representations paradigm (Jodelet, 1982). This approach hypothesizes that a same set of elements of representation can be structured differently from one social group to the next; social meanings as such are less important to our understanding of what differentiates a representation from another than the place of its meanings in the structure of representation (Abric, 1976). The psychosociological approaches of representations provide us with the conceptual and methodological tools to analyze spatial representations through the prism of social relationships by investigating their social (individuals’ social histories) and cognitive structure. As the Chicago school has long showed, despite the effects of social structures, individuals can move on to occupy social positions other than those previously held by their parents (original social positions). To highlight the social dimensions of spatial cognition processes, we examine the cognitive configurations of the city from the social mobility of respondents that live in a same neighborhood. We have hypothesized that social position of individuals is not only a social filter for cognitive process: a same social group affiliation can produce different representations of urban space because it depends more on social structure than their actual social positions.

In order to verify our hypothesis, we have questioned 92 residents, living in single-family houses of a neighborhood located in the first ring of the Strasbourg suburbs. This population is mainly composed of managers and officers. The survey participants responded to a face-to-face questionnaire including a section on the representation of space and one on socio-demographic data. In the first section we have used a tool developed to collect social representation: technique of characterization (Flament, 1994), and the sociographic section was collecting the individuals’ actual social position and individuals’ social trajectory.

A hierarchical clustering analysis of the responses to the characterization technique yielded four cognitive groups with different representations of the city of Strasbourg. Then a multiple correspondence analysis allows us to give a clear picture of the relations between the four socio-cognitive groups and the individuals’ sociographic characteristics. The results show that the representation of Strasbourg depends on the social trajectory of individuals (which can be upward, downward or stable compared to social position of the parents). Thus, our results show that the representation of urban space does not follow a principle of self-construction within a social group, that social life within the group (i.e. the cultural status of social factors - Heft, 2013) is not the only factor in the socio-cognitive construction of geographical space. Representation of geographical space ultimately relates to social relationships between groups, to social structures rather than personal experience. We conclude that reference or anchor points, hierarchies between urban places and clusters in cognitive mapping must be analyzed in a social and relational/transactional perspective, to understand more accurately the cognitive mapping processes and its relations on social socio-spatial segregation.

Jimenez, Bernardo. "The Creative Digital City Project and the Perspective of the Morelos Park Neighbors." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

The urban regeneration Project Alameda and the Pan-American Villa for 8 thousand people during the 2011 Pan-American Games was defined by the Major´s Office of Guadalajara, the second largest city of Mexico, as a future housing project and a unique occasion for the revitalization of the Historic Center. The Urban Planning Commission conceptualized the project as a sustainable one searching to re-densify the center in the surroundings of the downtown Park Morelos according to the principles of the compact city. The compact city is a dense and socially diverse city in which social and economical activities superimpose, and communities are organized as neighborhoods. Compact city is defined in opposition to urban sprawl, zoning and suburbia. The problem is that out of the urban sustainability discourse and the compact city urban regeneration project, this project was defined unilaterally by the government with the approval of the Pan-American Games authorities and the Real State investors. But the citizenship in general, professional associations, research centers, urban movements and the neighbors in particular didn´t know about it. Meaning, they never were consulted or at least informed in any way.

A qualitative study was done on the neighbors experience, perspective and proposals for the revitalization of the Morelos Park with the intention of bringing the results into the process of design in an inclusive way.

What nobody anticipated was the broke out of an international economic crisis. The whole project was modified based on the adverse effects on the economy and budget and the time left for constructing the Pan-American Villa. The original project was canceled. At that moment the neighbors celebrated their pyrrhic victory without knowing that the situation was going to be worse for them. The demolished and semi-demolished properties the Major´s Office bought at the double of their real price was abandoned. The demolished areas around the Park Morelos left a fragmented landscape, in direct contradiction of the urban articulation and public spaces network of the regeneration project and the compact city model original discourse.

Now our following study is on the new creative digital city project to be built in the surroundings of the Park Morelos and the neighbors participation in it. The neighbors are asking to the local authorities to share the new project done by the MIT to transform the demolished area surrounding the Park Morelos in a digital city presented by the president himself in January 2012. He announced the creation of the first Digital Creative City in the site of the old Morelos Park in downtown Guadalajara. The Digital Creative City is an initiative of ProMexico, a public body responsible for promoting foreign investment in Mexico. Again nobody knows well this project and there is any real participation in the design of the project. For them is like beginning again another fight to demand the Mayor Office to share it and include them in the planning in a participatory way.

Büter, Kathrin, and Gesine Marquardt. "The Design of Environments for People With Dementia: Challenges in the Acute Care Setting." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

The rising life expectancy leads to an increased risk of developing dementia. Experts estimate that currently 35.6 million people with dementia live worldwide. This number will double within the next twenty years and will rise to 115.4 million in the year 2050. The symptoms of dementia occur slowly over time, affecting memory, orientation, attention, language, and problem solving. Whereas dementia is rarely the reason for admission to general inpatient units, it is present in a significant proportion of the patients. Often, they show problematic behaviors, which are challenging to nurses, doctors, and other patients in the units. Further they are at risk of losing their independence and more of their cognitive status during a hospital stay. Consequently, they might not be able to be discharged back home but to a long-term care facility instead. To respond to the rising number of geriatric patients with dementia, acute care hospitals need to make changes to their operational and organizational structure. These changes will furthermore result in an adaption of the built environment to meet the needs of geriatric patients and staff caring for them. The aim of the poster presentation is to report findings from an analysis of several international case studies which are exemplary in the care of geriatric patients with dementia in the acute care sector. This analysis was implemented to find out in what ways different acute care hospitals are currently responding to the challenge and what can be learned from their experiences. Several acute care hospitals which implemented special care and design concepts for geriatric patients were visited in the USA, UK and Germany. These were, for example, ACE (Acute Care for the Elderly) Units and Emergency Rooms specially designed for geriatric patients. The projects were then analyzed and compared in respect to their design of the built environment. As a result various design interventions were found that can be helpful for architects to create environments that are adapted to the needs of geriatric patients with dementia. They include suggestions on the location of ACE Units within hospitals, their spatial layout and room schedule. Examples for the considerate, dementia-friendly use of light, material and acoustic interventions were noted. Furthermore, ways to communicate information through the hospital environment to support spatial, timely and situational orientation in patients with dementia were analyzed. The poster will display the results of a meta-analysis of the case studies, resulting in design-recommendations. Tangible information for architects on how to design the environment in acute care hospitals, that meet the needs of geriatric patients and patients with dementia, will be given. The design recommendations will be illustrated through photographs from the case studies. Furthermore, research gaps and unsolved details in this field of work will be exposed. The poster will also ask the question and give hints on what acute care hospitals might be able to learn from other institutions which are providing care for the target group, such as nursing homes.

Havasi, Brindusa Raluca, Daniela Luciana Negrisanu, and Cristian Tiberiu Blidariu. "The Education on Built Environment could rise the Awareness, Understanding, Choice and Decision of Children for a sustainable Lifestyle." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

The quality of our future built environment lays in the hands of our children. Could education on the built environment rise the awareness, understanding, choice and decision of our children for a sustainable lifestyle?

Several international and national associations develop educational programmes on architecture and built environment, like: , (play+space) Architecture Education for Children and Young People, founded in Finland in 2003, , founded in France, 1981, and , founded in Romania. All these associations aim to raise awareness of the built spaces and places in which we live.

, 2012, concludes that only 38% of students consider their curriculum as relevant to future employment and only 23% of them appreciate their studies as useful in their chosen profession. is an optional course designed by association for primary school. Subjects in this research will be primary school pupils from at least two schools in Timisoara. The instrument of research will be a questionnaire adapted to their age. The procedure will be: students in architecture take the questionnaire to the classrooms selected and guide children to fill it in, without any input from the teachers. The data collected will be processed by sociologist as collaborators.

The results will identify differences between pupils who took the optional course , and the control group with regard to their awareness of the built environment.

The improved awareness and understanding by children of built environment leads to change in lifestyle to a more sustainable one, when they will became fully grown citizens.

Gokce, Duygu, and Fei Chen. "The evolution of house forms and the change of culture: A Turkish Perspective." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

The paper aims to investigate the interplay between the evolution of house forms and the change of residents’ life styles. People continuously modify their living environment to improve their life quality. This has been done in a piecemeal manner traditionally where both the physical forms and life styles could be gradually adapted. However, high transformation rate of cities at the modern age has caused incompatibility of physical forms and the local culture. It is therefore important to study the dynamic link between house forms and the residents’ everyday life and needs over time. Within the Turkish context, this paper will explain the change of Turkish house types within 5 different morphological phases (from the late Ottoman period to the present: 1890-1923, 1923-1950, 1950-1980, 1980-2000, and 2000s) when external influences have been received and indigenised. The house types are traditional Turkish houses, terrace houses, garden houses and apartments. The spatial arrangements of each house type will be analysed through case studies and special attentions will be paid to the everyday use in those houses and the relationships between private, semi-private and public spaces. The conclusion will be drawn on the house form in relation to people’s way of living and will shed light on socio-culturally sustainable development and regeneration in contemporary Turkey.

This analysis is part of an on-going PhD research aiming to bridge two separate subjects: Urban Morphology and Quality of Life (QoL). The PhD research intends to empirically explore the relationship between people and their surrounding environment through the evolution of house types and a monitor of their QoL in the Turkish context. The hypothesis is that constant and gradual transformation of house types might help to maintain better QoL particularly in social and cultural terms, which is claimed by many scholars in literature but has not been adequately supported through empirical research. Thus, the research starts with an examination of the key indicators of QoL in order to establish a framework to monitor QoL during the transformation processes of house types at various changing rates. This new analytical framework will consist of sets of parameters which then will be applied to several selected series of Turkish house types from the late 19th century to the present: Some typological transformation has been incremental while some dramatic. Appropriate quantitative and qualitative methods will be developed according to each parameter. The result will not only firmly support the hypothesis but also benefit the design of house forms in contemporary Turkey to fully integrate the local cultural values to housing design and to improve the residents’ QoL.

Maier, Alexandra, and Cristian Dumitrescu. "The experience of daylight in architecture." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Humans have evolved under the canopy of trees and blue sky. Our visual system is most sensitive to wavelengths of daylight associated with these conditions found at the boundary between forest and open savannah. We search for light experienced in these conditions even in our buildings. We're searching for the sun's heat and its ability to support life in all forms. We need sunlight to see and perceive the world around us. This opens up to sight the immediate surroundings, the remote nature and the artificially built environment.

A naturalness bias may exist in people’s assessment of light. The life-like and life-sustaining qualities of daylight clearly imply that daylight is a basic human need, not a resource to be used or excluded at the caprice of the building owner or designer. The presence of daylight and sunlight in the indoor visual environment strongly affects our psychological and physiological experience of a place. Its absence creates lifeless, tedious, indifferent spaces that disconnect us from our biological heritage.

When investigating whether the preference for natural light is mostly normative, or is grounded in people’ s instrumental beliefs with respect to the mental and behavioral consequences of being exposed to sunlight (health, performance, and concentration), studies have shown that sunlight is perceived as more natural than electrical light, and that daylight provides a connection with the exterior which leads to relief from monotony and presents accurate information about the weather and time of day.

Certainly we can design electric lights that can mimic the features of daylight, changing intensity and color, but the perception will not be the same, and also the biological benefits of daylight cannot be induced by the alternative of electrical devices.

The essence of architecture is to provide shelter and protection from natural factors and potential threats. Architecture is about instinct and human experience. Careful design gives us a sense of safety and security and daylight is an essential component. It allows us to experience the world through the succession of light and shadow which reveals the three-dimensional qualities. Daylight charges architecture, transforms the buildings and brings them to life.

This paper aims to investigate which are the unique features that differentiate daylight form artificial light and make it an important vector for human health and a conductor to the experience of architectural space.

Maier, Alexandra. "The experience of daylight in architecture:  a qualitative approach for sustainable buildings performance indicators." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

The research aims to analyze the quality of daylighting in the built environment, from the perspective of the implications of daylight in the act of dwelling. The experience of a space is determined by the quality of lighting, an attribute that becomes difficult to be expressed as a building performance indicator.

Human beings have an innate need to be in contact with nature. Therefore, the acceptance of buildings as a confined environment crucially depends on the extent to which they allow contact with the external surroundings. It is very likely that the design of adequately lit environments will become increasingly complex. Traditionally, those in charge of lighting design focused on creating the lighting conditions suitable for visual tasks in a room, with simultaneous satisfaction of individual needs.The light in the room should neither restrict nor hinder our ability to see, thereby enabling us to orient ourselves and move freely inside the rooms and building. However, recent research indicates that light environments of the future must also take into account other factors, such as health issues of the inhabitants. Nevertheless, the method of including this aspect in the design of a adequate lit environment is not yet clarified. What is certain is that the well-lit environments have a direct influence on the health and well-being of people who live and work in them.

However, with the advent of new technologies, prioritizing the use of daylight in the design process has suffered a setback.

Nowadays, the focus on energy consumption of buildings and savings by reducing energy used for electric lighting, along with the recognition of the benefits of daylight on productivity and well-being of the occupants, have revived attention towards daylight as essential in the design.

The requirements of the European standards in construction industry are largely determined by the minimum amount of lighting requirements, but these values will not guarantee an adequate interior lighting. In most cases, the highest energy efficient certification for buildings fail to provide a healthy indoor lighting, or ensure a visually attractive environment for the occupants. Quantitative approach does not take into account any subjective and inter-subjective perspectives and assessment of certain issues such as creating an experience of beauty, the integration into the ecological context or placing individuals in symbolic relations with nature cannot be found in any sustainable certification criteria for buildings. However, since there are many successful examples of buildings designed with focus on daylight harvesting, where the post- occupancy evaluations conducted have shown a high degree of user satisfaction, we should be optimistic and try to identify these success criteria.

Methodology: theoretical bibliographic research; sketches, graphical data, daylight studies on 3D models; case studies on buildings which offer an adequate lit environment; investigations by questionnaires addressed to occupants of significant energy certificated buildings to evaluate the visual comfort at work/living.

The research aims to asses the qualitative and subjective aspects of daylight in a manner that can be easily understood and thought in architecture education institutions and publicly campaigned for the masses, in order to promote the comfort requirements of contemporary architecture.

Mwale, Faidess Dumbizgani, Adebayo J. Adeloye, and Lindsay Beevers. "The flood vulnerability of the Lower Shire Valley of Malawi: a contemporary disaster management perspective." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Analytical frameworks used in assessing vulnerability to disasters have shifted from a solely physical or social emphasis to a multi-dimensional approach supported by quantitative metrics. However, despite the policy relevance of this approach, it has not been widely applied in flood vulnerability assessment in Sub Sahara Africa. This paper therefore uses an index approach to determine the level of vulnerability and the associated spatial patterns at community scale in the Lower Shire Valley in Malawi. Results suggest that the Lower Shire valley is a region on the high end of the vulnerability spectrum driven by a high level of susceptibility. Variation in vulnerability magnitudes between communities in general is insubstantial. The findings suggest that policy interventions targeted at reducing susceptibility and building resilience and mainstreamed within the broader development agenda at the community scale are more appropriate for the Lower Shire valley.

Winter, Amanda Kay. "The Flows of Institutional Discourse(s): Why They Matter for Urban Environmental Sustainability." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

Introduction: “Sustainable cities” have been framed as the solution to increasing urbanization and our environmental crisis; yet the deeper neoliberal roots and its associated globalized consumer culture are largely missing from this dialogue. This paper will highlight the complexity of challenging consumer culture in a neoliberal world and will discuss gaps in the current literature. This will show the interdisciplinary importance of urban environmental sustainability and how it is contested on multiple levels. While discussing different approaches to sustainability, I deliberately separate efficiency efforts like sustainable consumption from sustainable lifestyles. Both urban and environmental studies lack empirical research and a strong definition of what it means to live sustainably. I will introduce a conceptual framework that ties consumer culture and urbanization to neoliberal economic growth that will guide empirical research. My guiding research question is: Accepting institutional change as a driver for sustainable lifestyles, discursive institutionalism is used to build upon this framework. Discursive institutionalism allows for an investigation of both the dynamic process of discourse – the interaction and communication between institutional actors, and the content of ideas that constitute the discourse. Rather than employing quantitative environmental indicators, this perspective allows for a contextual understanding and will critically engage and question even the most vanguard "sustainable cities." Focusing on the way urban citizens live in developed cities can illuminate solutions to these systemic problems.

I have developed a methodology based on qualitative case study. In order to triangulate the data sources and theories, I use literature review, desktop research, discourse and framing analysis, semi-structured interviews and participant observation. The theories and concepts draw from environmental, urban, sociology and political science fields. From several selection criteria, Copenhagen, Denmark was chosen as a case study, with fieldwork planned for March through May 2014. A preliminary analysis allowed me to locate specific institutional initiatives that focused on ‘sustainable lifestyles’ – changing culture and even the economic growth priority.

The obtained results include a literature review based on problematizing consumer culture and “sustainable” cities; and a literature review on urban environmental sustainability in Copenhagen. The envisioned results include an analysis based on transcripts and field notes from a variety of actors involved in urban environmental sustainability that will be coded based on a themes and patterns.

The results will resemble a social mapping based on patterns of discourse – current institutional initiatives will be evaluated based on their conceptualization of consumer culture. The case studies can provide qualitative insight to contemporary environmental issues through a better understanding of perspectives of those involved with urban environmental sustainability in “green” cities. This research will contribute to empirically defining sustainable lifestyle and provide cities around the world with a basis for a critical dialogue on sustainable lifestyles.

Silva, Edinéa Alcântara, Cynthia Lucienne, Circe Monteiro, Rosinha Barbosa, and Eugênia Lima. "The gift and community resilience in the struggle for the right to the city: Coque (R)Existe, Recife, Brasil." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

The development model adopted in Brazilian cities such as Recife attaches little weight to their memories, history and natural resources. The city spreads into areas designated unsuitable for building, such as riverbanks and mangroves, following a highly verticalised pattern. In this unplanned process, both public and private projects find justifications to expel low-income residents from central, high-value areas. This article discusses the basis of low-income community resilience in the struggle for the right to the city, taking the example of the Coque, a spontaneous low-income settlement in Recife dating back to the C19th which has lost half its area since the 1960s through urban infrastructure projects. The Coque's long history of struggle has promoted partnerships between institutions, groups, and individual citizens which together enable it to resist. Some institutions promote solidarity and links while offering another analytic dimension from an anti-utilitarian perspective using the gift to strengthen social networks. The threat of removals and this work on the basis of solidarity and the gift have stimulated the emergence of a broader on-line and off-line movement within the community and beyond. The “Coque (R)Existe” movement was set up and the area was occupied with cultural activities and dialogue circles to debate the threats and rights violations. After this mobilization some projects were suspended and the removal of 58 families for road expansion was halted. These developments offer rich material for reflection on the importance of articulating resources and partners and the potential of network articulation for community resistance. The abuses and rights violations catalyzed a broader social movement in support of the community's resistance. A number of pertinent questions arise. How has this community resisted the pressure to remove it for so long? What strengths has it developed? Which support – from groups and institutions, inside and outside the community – has counted most in building up its resistance? What form does its community resilience take? Mauss's theory of the gift, notions of community resilience and social networks, and Honneth's theory of recognition will be used to illuminate the Coque' struggle and social conflicts and explain the processes underlying its sources of support, its links and its capacity to resist and guarantee the right to the city. The community's resilience developed against a background of repeated removals and the threat of total expulsion. Understanding the connections between this process of resistance and the makeup of its collective resilience allows us to reflect on how sustainable communities and societies can be constructed. Events in the Coque are emblematic of other communities and Brazilian cities, as well as other developing countries, subject to the pressure of property speculation. Empirical data were drawn from participation in public meetings and events, as well as focus groups and interviews with leaders, residents and administrators. The article discusses how resilience is structured as a process in low-income areas facing similar challenges, and indicates lines of action that helped strengthen this community's social resilience.

Bertoldo, Raquel, and Paula Castro. "The green of your eyes: Social judgments of different types of pro-environmental behaviours." In Transitions to sustainable societies: Designing research and policies for changing lifestyles and communities. IAPS. Timisoara, Romania, 2014.

There is today an international consensus on the fact that our societies have to alter the way they interact with the environment (IPCC, 2013). Today, environmental claims are part of our daily lives to the point that they integrate different types of environmentally significant behaviours (Stern, 1999): activist, non-activist and private sphere behaviours. A previous study has shown that pro-environmental behaviours can be associated with the perception of both competence and warmth – i.e., people that present them are seen as more competent and warm that people that do not. However, it is not tested whether if these pro-environmental behaviours were activist ones, clearly questioning the current state of affairs, they would still be regarded as competent and warm. Therefore, this study had the objective of comparing different types of environmentally significant behaviours in terms of their attribution of competence and warmth. To do so, we presented participants with a target that presented either an activist behaviours (demonstration), a non-activist behaviour from the public sphere (signing a petition), or a private sphere behaviour (purchase of organic products, recycling and saving water and energy). Then participants were asked to form an impression of the target and attribute to it adjectives from the competence and warmth dimensions. Results show that targets presenting any type of environmentally significant