Keywords Abstract
Beyer, H. J.. " Die Arbeit Und Das Environment Im Experimentellen Log Id Gewächshaus." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. conference:IAPS:8
Preiser, W. F. E.. "A Combined Tactile/electronic Guidance System for Visually Impaired Persons in Indoor and Outdoor Spaces." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. "In order to guide visually impaired persons safely through difficult spaces, highly schematized, second-generation tactile maps have been developed which depict in relief fashion the major route configurations in a building or outdoor area. The raised images of a path and the symbols for major items of interest along it (e.g., public phones, restrooms, intersections, elevators, and stairs) can be felt with the fingertips of the person studying the map. This type of map is useful for familiarization with an area that is new to a traveler by helping to create a mental image of where things are and how they are spatially related to each other. These simplified, topological maps are made possible through their combination with an electronic safe-tracking system which follows the route configuration shown. A wire loop antenna spaced 20 cm apart in the ground or floor surface emits an AN band radio signal received by the cane only when its tip is within about 20-40 cm of the wire in the ground, thus permitting the user to closely follow a track by tapping or swaying the cane left and right in a rhythmic fashion. The radio signal can be felt by placing the index finger on a vibrator just beneath the handle of the cane. When activated, point source beacons positioned along pathways in key locations indicate to the visually impaired traveller landmarks through voice synthesis devices (like talking clocks) broadcasting within a 2meter range messages like "elevator right," etc."
Mikellides, B.. "A Question of Interest." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. Over the past year or so and mainly as a result of the present economic crisis there has been considerable interest in architectural education, including the question of control and cute in student numbers. Inevitably the question of 'education' as opposed to 'training' is being reassessed at the moment and s quarters are calling for a return to the Architects' traditional role while others advocate changes that capitalize on his or her newly acquired skills and education. We now have a-'history' of change, in architectural education, particularly in the Polytechnics, since the old Intrnedate RIBS Examination was replaced in most by the CNAA BA(Hons) Degree in Architectural Studies in the early lOs,-a period long enough to allow, a critical analysis.
Nandi, S, and S. K. Dasgupta. "A Study on the Body - Buffer Zone of Female Prison Inmates." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. Every person has an optimum extent of space sensivitivity, known as body-buffer zone and mental health problems are engendered when this extent is taxed and strained. Bodybuffer zones of 80 Bengalee, adult, femal prisoners (experimental.group) were determined and compared with a matched control group. It was observed that the prisoners with aggressive temperamental dispositions had significantly high space sensitivity. The findings provided evidences contributive to dorm atory-spacingfor designing modern prison to ensure healthy prison environment having reformative rehabilitative base.
Sandrisser, Barbara. "Aesthetics and the Elderly." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. A humane environment for the elderly should include both awareness of daily and seasonal change and response to beauty. Beauty is defined as the quality which gives pleasure to our aesthetic sense. In architecture this is interpreted as form, colour, texture, use of )materials, proportion and scale. Awareness of daily and seasonal change is enhanced by a climate responsive structure where the inhabitants participate in controlling the comfort of the interior spaces and where they have easy visual and physical access to the outside. This presentation will explore some theoretical issues regarding the combined roles of aesthetics and response to climate in designing spaces which are used by older people. Using slides of a recently completed senior center in Maryland, U.S.A as a case study, we examine some non-verbal responses of the elderly to their environment.
Gerber, I. J., and W. S. Gerber. "An Ecological Study of the Association Between Ethnic Background and Malignant Melanoma Mortality in the United States." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984.

Environmental Protection Agency scientists have expressed concern regarding the possible depletion of the earth's ozone layer in the upper atmosphere. The consequence of such reduction in the stratospheric layer would increase the intensity of ultraviolet radiation, with the concomitant increase in the number of people suffering from cancers of the skin. Fortunately, most basal and squamous cell skin cancers are readily treated by physicians in their private offices and, therefore, go unreported. Malignant melanoma, however, can be highly fatal if it is not treated almost immediately, and must be treated in hospitals. This high fatality rate is indicative of the melanoma incidence and -is a more accurate index of its frequency.

Daish, J. R., and D. A. Joiner. "An Environment - Beravioijr Model for Design Teaching and Practice." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. Environment-behaviour studies are established as an academic discipline a worthwhile contribution to wake to design professions. There is still a need however for a coherent architectural theory which successfully embraces in reaching and practice, environment-behaviour concepts.The paper describes an environment-behaviour model which for some years has been used in teaching first year architecture students as the foundation of their architecture design work. The model is now finding it. way into public practice where its implications are shaping design attitudes and policies. The theoretical bases and assumptions of the model, and its practical outcomes are discussed.
Segaud, M.. "Anthropologie De L`espace." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. conference:IAPS:8
Robinson, J. W., T Thompson, H Graff, P Emmons, and E. Franklin. "Architectural Parameters of Normalization: an Exploratory Study." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. "An exploratory study of four residences for mentally retarded people and six other housing settings for nondisabled people explored two hypotheses: (1) that differences exist between institutional and other residential environments which are measurable; (2) that architectural differences which exist between institutional and other residential settings can be related to differences in expected behavior. The first hypothesis was supported by a preliminary bedroom measure for architectural characteristics which indicated a polar relationship between the descriptors "institutional" and "homelike." Drawings and slides of environments tested among students were found to be consistently categorized, indicating shared cultural expectations for behavior."
Salmaso, P, and P. Legrenzi. "Categorization of Environments: an Examination of Prototypes Andmemory for Places." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. This research aims at investigating if and how categorial organization of knowledge about everyday life places influences memory a specific environment. In the first part of the research we examined how subjects form environmentS categories (such as buildings or rooms), while in the second part the relation between category membership of places and memory for them was investigated. Data were analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively.. Results are discussed -on the basis of previsions derived from the distinction between place aspects conforming or not conforming to the prototypical image.
Björklid, Pia. "Children's Outdoor Environment from the Perspective of Environmental and Developmental Psychology." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. "The aim of the empirical study was to provide a frequency description of children's play on two housing estates. The study showed that it was mainly older pre-school children and younger schoolboys who made use of the open spaces on the -housing estates. The different designs of the play areas were reflected in the children's interactions with their environments insofar as activities were wore varied on the more diverse and natural estate than on the more "synthetic" one."
Hernandez, F, and J. M. Sancho. "Children´s Image of their City as a Starting Point for an Urbanenviromental Education." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. Nowadays there is great concern in connecting education with the urban environment. This concern has generated different approaches to enviroiraentai education. However most of the existing approaches do not talc into account the previous knowledge and experience children have from their urban environment.
Kubota, Yoichi. "Citizens Concern with River Space in Suburban Area." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984.

it is an important issue to plan and design rivet space from the viewpoint of residents taking into account of their mental and behavioral concern besides the natural condition of the river. Investigations were made in order to grasp the residents' concern with the Qimi River from the aspects of activities and preferences, and to clarify the citizens' image on the river space. From the questionnaire survey, it was proved that the sorts and distribution of activities at present time differ from that of the past owing to environmental change. Preference of place has relation with behavioral orientation.

Anthony, Kathryn H.. "Clients Benefit from Behaviour - Based Programming: a Case Study of Patrick Sullivan Associates, San Taxis Obispo, Ca." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. This article demonstrates how behaviour-based programming saves architects' clients both time and money. Given present economic constraints in most design offices, this 1,s one of the most convincing arguments in favour of a behavioural approach to architecture. The work of design firm Patrick Sullivan Associates of San Luis Obispo, California, is high-lighted here, as it is one of the few firms which routinely applies environment-behaviour research in its architectural practice.
McLachlan, G. M.. "Clients' Perception of a Social Model Recovery Facility." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. The purpose of this study is to examine the perceptions of clients in a Social Model Recovery Home for Alcoholic Women. The attitudes of women in early stages of recovery (three months or less), are compared to their care givers and the founders of the facility. Part one examines their perceptions of Alcoholism per cc. Secondly, their perceptions of the facility are explored and compared to the founders and to the staff of the facility. Reasons for discrepancies ire explored and discussed.
E Peron, Mainardi, Michel Baroni, R Job, and P. Salmaso. "Cognitive Strategies in Remembering and Describing Unfamiliar Places." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. "Recall of various aspects of an unfamiliar place was studied under incidental and intentional conditions. We also investigated whether lack of item details in subjects' verbal reports could be attributed either to a lack of coding or to a communicative setting not requtring their mention at the retrieval stage. The results showed that subjects passing through a place intentionally remembered furniture items better than structural elements while no such difference was observed in the incidental condition. Furthermore, qualitative analysis of data revealed a distinction between a "grouping" and a "tour" recall strategy."
Foote, K. E.. "Color in Public Spaces: Toward a Communication Based Theory of the Urban Built Environment." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. This paper seeks to clarify the assertion that the urban built environment can be understood as arising from the process of human communication. To accomplish this task a study of color in public spaces is introduced. The results of statistical analyses derived from photographic images of a systematic sample of seven hundred building facades are reported. They reveal strong relations between organizational function, and price level, and the facade's pattern of color. Explanation of these findings stresses (I) the value of material expression--the integration of physical artifacts in interaction--as a generally overlooked aspect of communication and (2) the relation of color--as one facet of this material expression--to its complements, including architectural style, physical size, and building materials.
Sallie, M. I., J Owen, and C. Furuseth. "Community Cognition and Response to Beach Erosion Hazard in Carolina Beach, N.c." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984.

The focus of this study is an analysis of community perception of coastal erosion risks, attitudes toward adjustments and the perceived role of government in mitigating beach erosion in coastal North Carolina, U.S.A. In general ,community cognition of the causes of erosion and the long-ten effectiveness of various adjustments were in agreement with current scientific research. Respondents were, however, somewhat deterministic in their attitudes toward beach erosion processes, favored nonstructural adjustments over traditional engineering solutions for controlling erosion risk. The research findings suggest that coastal residents have a fairly sophisticated understanding of and attitude toward coastal erosion hazards.

Van Hoogdalem, H, Theo J. M. van der Voordt, and H. B. R. van Wegen. "Comparative Floorplan Analysis as a Mean to Develop Spatial Organizational Concepts in the Briefing Stage of the Design Process." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. This study explores the usefulness of floorplan analysis on the development of spatial concepts in architectural design processes. Each floorplan can be considered as a reflection of the goals and activities of the user as interpreted by the architect. By comparing a wide range of building layouts for similar organizations one may achieve a good understanding of the way organizational characteristics are (can be) expressed into spatial solutions. Different evaluative studies have been made on e.g. child care centres, health centres and pedestrian subways. In the study reported here, in which 50 Dutch health centres were analysed comparatively, definite relationships between organizational and spatial concepts were found. This information is used both as a mean to make organizational principles more explicit as well as data for briefwriting and design guidelines.
Leroy, Cl.. "Controle De Lénvironnement Et Processus De Decision Locoregional: Le Projet Mab - Unesco X.7 En France Et Le Plan Urbain." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. conference:IAPS:8
Sime, J. D.. "Creating Places Or Designing Spaces: Place Afflliation and Architectural Design." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. The concept of place affiliation is used to explain the origin of psychological attachments to particular places. It is argued that the psychological connotations of a 'sense of place' an a vestige of the survival function of affijiative ties to familiar people and places. These ties characterise a wide variety of animal species. Insight into the role of place affiliation has been provided in recent studies. These a14 the contribution the concept could- make to future research are discussed. Finally the degree to which architects can promote place affiliation through their design of physical spaces is considered.
Ellis, Peter et al.. "Cross - Cultural Differences in Office Production and Procurementprocesses and their Effect on Office Quality." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. This will be the first publication of results of a major cross-cultural study sponsored by the Anglø-German Foundation. The study compared and contrasted the different systems of providing and procuring office space in West Germany, Britain and the USA. The aim is to inform the consumers of office space how, in the rapidly changing climate of the 1980s, they can best acquire offices which meet organisational and individual needs.
King, A. D.. "Cultural Production and Reproduction: the Political Economy Ofsocieties and their Physical Environment." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. Drawing on recent structuralist approaches in urban studies, the paper proposes a conceptual framework for cross-national research on societies, built enviromnent and the relationship between the,. It directs attention to the need for studying processes of change in enviroanent,- society and their interaction aM particularly, on the conditions of production. Two spheres of- research are proposed and related: the political economy of the built environment, and also, of social and cultural change. The emergence of a global system of production in the late -20th century requires that urban/building developments in 'first and 'third world' environments ('Westernisation'/'Modernisation'/'bourgeoisification'/ ' de-induatrialisation'/ 'counter-urbanisation') be seen in a single perspective. The ideological context of research in SPPS/MES -is examined in this framework.
Habimana, Gerard. "Das Rundhaus Und Die Kultur in Ostafrika Am Beispiel Der Massy in Kenya." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. conference:IAPS:8
Uppenbrink, Martin. "Das Umweltbundesamt Im Umweltschutz Der Letzten Zehn Jahre." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. conference:IAPS:8
Symes, M.. "Designers' Involvement in Design." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. This paper is intended to throw light on the way architectural designs are created and reports on case studies of the architectural design process which were included in the professional development programme of a large organisation. They provided an opportunity for designers to explain their personal understanding of a design problem to other designers and to have it questioned. This interaction not only revealed prejudices and preconceptions about design problems, but also led to the emergence of unforeseen solutions. The paper concludes by asking whether conflicts between designers can be considered the general matrix for creative thought.
Boselie, F.. "Designing for Visual Clarity and Beauty." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. A quantitative index for the clarity and beauty of visual designs is proposed. The clarity of a design is measured by the ratio between the information load of the most preferred interpretation and the second best interpretation- of the design. The beauty of a design is measured by the ratio between the number of regularities of the design which are not represented by the most preferred interpretation on the one hand and the number of irregularities of the most preferred interpretation on the other. hand.
Seiwert, N, and M. Krampen. "Develophent and Validation of Scales 0$ Environmental Experiences." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. "The ENU ("Skalen zum Erleben der nichtmenschlichen Umwelt") is a German-linguag, paychiogical instrument developed to obtain information about how people relate to their physical environment. The 62 statement cover various thins of environmental experiences, such a. urban life, modern design, stimulus seeking, hobby crafting, privacy, nature, plants, and environmental concern. Many statements- are from the "Environmental Response Inventory" (ERI) by Mckechnie (1974). Some relationships between the ENU and demographic variables, environmental behavior, holidaypreferences, postnaterialistic values and housing conditions are reported."
Römhild, Thomas. "Die Genesis Der Künstlichen Beleuchtung - Versuch Einer Entwicklungstheorie Eines Symbolbildungsprozesses." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. conference:IAPS:8
Kaminski, Gerhard. "Die Koordination Psychologischer Und Nichtpsychologischer Aspekte in Der Umweltgestaltung (Beispiel: Städtischer Freiraum)." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. conference:IAPS:8
Jockusch, P, S Stöbe, U Lustig, G El-BAdwan, and G. Habimana. "Domestic Work and Domestic Architecture." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. It has been complained quite a bit that with the change of the name of IAPS we have discouraged sociologists and psychologists to come to lAPS conferences. Also our presentation pt Berlin will be the work of architects who tried as much as they can to collaborate with psychologists and sociologists and who tried to introduce psychological and sociological arguments into their insight and awareness about domestic work and housing architecture. This presentation is also an offer to people from the-international housing research network with whom we have already some close contacts from earlier: EDRA and IAPS conferences.
Ando, Y.. "Effects of Intense Noise During Human Fetal Life." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of our works on the effects of noise during human fetal life. It was found by recording electroplethysmography that babies born of mothers who came to a noisy area around an airport before or during the first five months of pregnancy were little aroused from sleep. Besides, human placental lactogen levels in the serum of expectant mothers exposed to the noise are significantly lower after the thirtli-six week of pregnancy. Thus, noisy environment affects baby 'a birth weight.
Masao, Inui, and Miyashiro Go. "Effects of Number of Storeys on the Evaluation of Living Conditions in High - Rise Flats." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. A questionnaire evaluating conditions of individual floors was given to residents in tall flats. Residents' awareness of environmental conditions of their own floor has been shown as well as the relationships between the awareness perceived and the way of judging satisfaction.
Van Andel, Joost. "Effects of the Redevelopment of an Elementary School - Yard." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. The effects of the redevelopment of an elementary school-yard were evaluated by comparing the situation before and after the physical transformation. Observations produced data on the actual use during playtime. Interviews were held with all the pupils on their perception and evaluation of the change. A group of adult experts judged the environment before and after the change on aspects like complexity, manipulabtli€y and affordances for different activities. An interview with the designer of the plan gave information about his intentions and expectations, especially concerning behavioral aspects. Data from these different sources are presented and related to each other.
Barbey, G.. "Effets De Sublimation Dans L`architecture Domestique." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. conference:IAPS:8
KRAMPEN, MARTIN. "Ein Pflanzenlesebuch." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. conference:IAPS:8
Summerer, Stefan. "Environmental Ethics as an Impulse for Action." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. The modern paradigm of technical controlability of nature and humanity has reached a crisis, such that a power over power is here required, namely to do whatever we can. Such a power, however, can only be one of ethical action. Environmental ethics have to face the following questions: - Do we really need environmental ethics? - What will be the nature of such ethics? - How can environmental ethics be realized socio-politically?
Lissner, Andrea. "Ethnography of Codns. as a Research - Approach for the Study of the Environment." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. The exciting issue of the concept of 'Unwelt', of environment, is for me the perspective of seeing man a an integral put of a greater whole. In the following I want to present a methodology that applies this concept consequently to the study of a specific environment, the family living room. The way the family uses the medium 'living room' in their interactional behaviour is the study's subject matter.
Kernohan, D, J Daish, and J. Gray. "Evaluating Evaluation - an Assessment of a Programme of Post Occupancy Evaluation." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. The paper is about a progranree of post occupancy evaluation (POE). The programme is being operated in New Zealand by the Building and Property Division (BPD) of the Ministry of Works and Development (MWD) and its client departments. It was developed through a research contract let by the MWD to the School of Architecture, Victoria University of Wellington (VOW). How the programme was developed is reported elsewhere (Daish et al, Dec 1983).
Pol, E.. "Evaluation De L´etat De La Pschychologie De L´environnement En Europe." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. conference:IAPS:8
Yamada, Y.. "Factors Influencing the Noisiness of Sound (An Investigation of the Personality of Subjects and Visual Sensation) ." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. "It is assumed that the assessed value of the "noisiness" of sound is determined not only by the physical property of the sound, but also by the personality of the assessors,and visual stimuli from the sound source. This paper reports on the results of some experiments on the assessment of noises and a factor analysis of auditive and visual impressions. The subjects were given a Naudaley Personality Inventory, Then while the subjects listened to the same sounds with different visual stimuli, noises were evaluated as less noisy with pleasant stimuli than with unpleasant stimuli."
Roesler, Tilo. "Farbe in Der Architektur - Wieviel Läßt Sich Mit Ihr Erreichen?" In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. conference:IAPS:8
Weresch, Katharina. "Farben in Der Architektur in Ihrem Bedeutungswandel Als Anzeiger Langfristiger Gesellschaftlicher Transformationsprozesse." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. conference:IAPS:8
Van der Wurff, A, F. F. Stringer, and F. Timmer. "Feelings of Unsafety in Residential Environments: Integrating Divergent Research." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. Based on a review of approximately 200 articles, the major research traditions on fear and the environment are discussed from an environmental psychological point of view. It is shown that research within criminology, urban sociology, environmental design and hazard research should -be supplemented with an environmental psychological approach. Possibilities and directions for such an investigation are discussed.
Gutzeit, Axel. "Forschungsprojekt mit dem Ziel." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984.
Bonaiuto, M, and P. Bonaiuto. "Functional Choice of Dress and the Influence of Clothing on Selfimage." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. The choice of dress which corresponds to aims and needs or the influence of clothes on human behaviour, constitute interesting examples of interrelationships between the individual and the environment. Attention is focused on the case of dress chosen in order to confer sociaiprestige and on dress which confer the reverse. Subjects of both sexes, young and to mature, of average social class, were examined. The two opposing sets of clothing show special characteristics and the functional significance of these was explored. Change in the clothes produces clear-cut effects on certain aspects of one's self-image, while other aspects are unalterated. The structure of the personality and environmental demands can increase or reduce these clothing effects.
Langmandel, R.. "Für Einen Ästhetischen Vorschein Höherer Lebenswerte in Der Architektur." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. conference:IAPS:8
Beyer, H. J., W Klimesch, F Möllring, and D. Schempp. "Gasa (Grüne Autarke Solararchitektur) - Ein Zukunftsprojekt." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. conference:IAPS:8
Beer, Ingeborg. "Grosse Ideale Für Große Siedlungen. Architektur Und Menschliches Handeln Am Beispiel Des Siedlungsbaus Der 20Er Jahre." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. conference:IAPS:8
Rohrmann, B.. "Grundsätzliche Probleme Bei Der Nutzung Sozialwissensschaftlicher Daten Für Umweltpolitische Entscheidungen." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. conference:IAPS:8
KRAMPEN, MARTIN. "Grüne Solararchitektur - Gesundheitliche Aspekte Und Akzeptanz." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. conference:IAPS:8
Schempp, Dieter. "Grüne Solararchitektur - Von Der Idee Überdas Experiment Zum Projekt." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. conference:IAPS:8
Fritz, H. J., and Thomas Sielaff. "Häuser Des Krankseins Und Des Sterbens - Einige Empirische Beobachtungen Und Randbemerkungen Zu Räumlich - Sozialen Aspekten Der Krankenhausplanung." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. conference:IAPS:8
Thorne, R, and J. A. B. Turnbull. "High - Rise Living for Low - Income Elderly: Satisfaction and Design." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. Over the last two decades high-rise housing has come in for much criticism yet more recent studies have shown that this formof housing seems to be satisfactory for the elderly. A study was carried out in Sydney of two 30-storey slab-block of flats for old-age pensioners using a research instrument developed by the Housing Research Development Programme at the University of Illinois, Urbana-champaign. Although high levels of satisfaction were indicated by the residents, the detail obtained allows advice to be given to designers of this residential environment.
Mougenot, C.. "Histoire D`une Brique Dans Le Ventre." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. conference:IAPS:8
Giuliani, Maria Vittoria. "Home Interior Decoration: Psychosocial Models and Aesthetic Theories." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. "This study explores the relationship between aesthetic theories on home interior design and decor/social attributes and attitudes. The analysis of the interviews of 47 roman women revealed, on the one hand, a widely shared stereotype that identifies the "objectively beautiful!' as the presence of antique furniture and precious objects, and the desire for a beautiful home as alt attitude in conflict with the desire to have a. "functional" and "cosy and comfortable" home. On the other hand, interviewees varied considerably in their propensity for showing an aesthetic involvement in furnishing decisions. These differeccê appear to be correlated with the sociocuttural background of the subjects."
Simon, C, and J. Simon. "Housing and Community Design Responses to the Canadian Climate." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. This paper describes the authors experience and developments in thinking and design of low energy housing and community planning in a northern climate over a period of 10 years. The characteristics of this climate irilcude considerable extremes of cold in the winter and heat in the manner.
Axia, V, Michel Baroni, and Mainardi E. Peron. "How Children Remember External and Internal Familiar Places." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. This research aimed at investigating if and how children's memory for external places differed from that for internal places even when they were comparable for size, familiarity and use. Furthermore, this research investigated if children's free recall of a familiar place would differ from its description to another person. Particular attention was devoted in the qualitative analysis of subjects' verbal reports to individuate the use of different retrieval strategies according to different experimental tasks. Results showed that memory for exteriors differs both qualitatively and quantitatively from memory for interiors and that subjects adapt their performance to task demands.
Glaeser, Bernhard. "Humanökologisches Handeln." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. conference:IAPS:8
Tognoli, J, and F. Hornberger. "Images of Household Roles and Childrevs Television Programs." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. Thirty-four second grade children were asked to watch one and a half hours of pre-recorded television program. consisting of either traditional or non-traditional format regarding household sex role, stereotyping. They were administered pre- and post-experimental questionnaires concerning attitudes toward play activities, careers, and television program preference. Data indicate that boys watching the traditional format judged more occupations as belonging to -men, whereas boys and girls viewing the non-traditional programs saw the occupations as more appropriately belonging to both sexes. The data indicate the power of television in shaping children's attitudes, both positively and negatively.
Verdonik, F, and R. Hart. "Individual Differences in How Children Code and Decode Environmental Meanings Through Different Media." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. "The paper contributes to the literature on children'. "cognitive mapping." This is part of a larger study of the development of' sap symbol formation in children aged five, six and seven years. Two different media for representing environment., modelling blocks and pictures, are compared. The paper describes and interprets individual difference, in the types of symbol. that children made for places in a fantasy environment. Differences in how these symbols were decoded is also examined. Presentation will be made via video tapes and color slides. Implications are drawn for future research in cognitive mapping, educational, practices and participatory planning and design."
Anthony, Kathryn. "International House: Home Away from Home." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. This work analyzes the concept of home within an institutional setting, the International House at the University of California, Berkeley, U.S.A., whose residents hail from over SO different countries. It also examines residential satisfaction overall and with specific physical and social aspects of the building, as well as a variety of environment-behavior issues such as personalization and territoriality. Finally, it considers the extent to which the goals of International Mouse are achieved. Archives, participant-observation, field notes, resident and staff interviews, resident and alumni questionnaires and photography were used to collect the data.
Hoege, Holger. "Ist Schön - Hässlich Eine Ästhetisch Relevant Dimension?" In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. conference:IAPS:8
Noack, P, and R. K. Silbereisen. "Jugendtypische Freizeitsituationen Und Ihre Bedeutung Für Die Entwicklung Von Jugendlichen." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. conference:IAPS:8
Morales, M.. "L' Enfant Et L' Environnement, Une Relation Necessaire." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. conference:IAPS:8
Korosec-Serfaty, P.. "La Grand `place En France Et En Suede. Quelques Reflexions Sur Límpact De La Protection Sur Les Practique Et Representations Des Lieux." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. conference:IAPS:8
Bernaldez, F. G., J. P. Ruiz, and M. Ruiz. "Landscape Perception and Appraisal, Ethics, Aesthetics and Utility." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. The processes of landscape perception and appraisal have aroused interest in recent years due to the uncertainties they cause in management and environmental impact assessment. Since 1973 the present research team has undertaken experiments concerning natural environment perception and evaluation, developing data processing methods for the analysis of preferences of sets of picture pairs.
Barbey, G, R Lawrence, and R. Perrinjaquet. "Le Logement De Masse: Implantation Dans L´espace Et Controle Social." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. conference:IAPS:8
Leger, J. M.. "Les Maisons Industrialisees, Des Maisons Comme Les Autres." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. conference:IAPS:8
Conan, M. H.. "Les Representations De La Ville Et De La Natur: Un Essai D´utilisation De L´analyse Psychologique En Vue De La Creation Dún Parc Public a La Vilette." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. conference:IAPS:8
Ives, S. M., G. L. Ingalls, and W. A. Walcotte. "Lifestyle and Housing Preference: Monitoring Local Housing Markets." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. Recent trends in the market place call into question the traditional views of housing market segments. This papaer addresses this general question by examining the home purchasing behaviour.
Gotman, A.. "Logement, Parente, Heritage." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. conference:IAPS:8
Verpraet, G.. "L´analyse Socio - Anthropologique Des Relations De Cohabitation Dans Une Cite Residentielle." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. conference:IAPS:8
Gottesdiener, H.. "L´ecrit, L´organisation De L´espace Et Les Tablaeaux Regardes Dans Un Musee." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. conference:IAPS:8
Korosec-Serfaty, P.. "L´habiter Et L´experience De L`effraction." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. conference:IAPS:8
Jaedicke, Hans-Georg. "Mensch Und Blume." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. conference:IAPS:8
Warne, Bengt, and Joachim Glässel. "Naturhaus Berlin - Ökoloisches Wohnhaus Für Die Stadt." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. conference:IAPS:8
Kilical, Adil A.. "Non - Mechanical and Non - Architectural Climatic Solutions Ina Traditional Settlement: Case Study Al Diraiyah, Saudi Arabia." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. Saudi Arabia, a rich and a modern country. Almost every apace is air-conditioned to increase living-working standards. About three centuries ago, this muslim community tried their beat to create a physical environment to cope with extreme climatic conditions without depending on magnificent and expensive mechanical devices and also without She help of the architects.
Stafford, P. B.. "Nursing Home Ethnography." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. It has become a truism in gerontoloqical research that, as one gets old, the external environment plays -an increasingly significant role as a variable determining one's experience of the world. In June of 1984, several researchers will gather to examine one old age environment in particular - that of the intermediate care nursing home. Moreover, this group will address an understanding of that environment from the perspective of ethnography, which is seen as a yet unrecognised but valuable complement to other methodological approaches. The proceedings of this symposium were presented to participants of the IAPS 8 in West Berlin.
Donald, I. J., and A. Hedge. "Office Evaluation; Sterile Research on a Fertile Topic?" In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. It is argued that after fifteen years of office evaluationi psychologists can still make only the broadest of recommendations regarding the suitability of a design to an organisation. It is suggested that this is due to the atheoretical, non-cumulative and non-comparitive nature of the field. It is further argued that until the fundamental inadequacies in the positivist philosophical basis which exists are overcome, research will remain sterile. Attempts are made to clarify the rote of the environment for the individual and organisation and the nature of evaluation, from which it would be possible to develop a model of office evaluation.
Hahn, Ekhart. "Ökologischer Stadtumbau - Eine Zentrale Aufgabe Präventiver Umweltpolitik." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. conference:IAPS:8
Zwirner, W. G. 0.. "On Site Visits, Over Lunch Or Elsewhere: the Behavioural Action Spaces of Agents for Environmental Change, of Public Administrators and of Other Users of the Environment." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. People differ in the way they notice environmental changes and become aware of-environmental problems,(1) The perception and evaluation of environmental settings involves role-specific values. These vary with the influence which someone may believe to have - or actually has - to realise environmental changes. It follows that both the processes and products of environmental decision making look different to agents for change, compared to the views of other, ordinary environmental users.(2) Evidence from psychological research shows that environmental specialists do not, view city patterns like other people.(3) Residents and other regular users of an urban area might value it'f or theopportunities it provides for making social contacts. They might tolerate certain-phys-ical disadvantages in favour of the social qualities of their area.(4) Architects,Andtown planners might view the same area for its rehabilitation potential- by taking note- predominantly of its unsatisfaâtory physical characteristics which they would wish to improve.(5) Differences in the evaluation of environmental settings such as the ones outlined above exemplify the notion that actions and perceptions are inseparably related.(6) They imply a need to distinguish more clearly between different behavioural action spaces (7); i.e. the rolespecific-action spaces of agents for environmental change, those of public administrators in charge of environmental control, and those of other ordinary users of the environment.(8)
Mugerauer, Robert. "Openings in the City; Openings for the City." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. A phenomenological description reveat that urban open space has two dimensions. First, there are openings in th M for the sake of human life. We discover four categories of open space: space for movement, play, rest, and development. These spaces also allow embodied humane to get their bearings and keep a sense of their symbolic place in the cosmos. In turn, the first dimension depends on a second level where openings are interpreted as openings for the It is shown that open spaces provide the place or site which enables the city to first merge and then remain vital.
Tomoda, H. T. Hiromic. "Outdoor Behaivior and Consciousness of Habitability - the Case of a Middle - Rise Apartment - House Complex." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. It is speculated that housewives who have more frequent outdoor behaivior around their houses have more consciousness of habitability. To make certain of this speculation, housewives in a middle-rise apartment-house were surveyed by the questionnaire end interview method. As this result, it was demonstrated that housewives who have a higher level of cleaning up (sweeping) entrance yards and using common spaces between apartment-house buildings have a tendency to feel more defensible and comfortable in their both indoor and outdoor lives than others.
Gärling, T, A Svensson-Gärling, and J. Valsiner. "Parental Concern About Childrens Traffic Safety in Residential Neighborhoods." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. The paper reports the results of a questionnaire study which support the assumption that parents judge the risk of traffic accidents to children in residential neighborhoods on the basis of acquired causal schemata related to such accidents. Parents and nonparents of both sexes were asked to judge the risk of a traffic accident occuring to children of different ages living in six familiar residential neighborhoods. These judgments were in all subgroups of subjects found to correlate with ratings of the strengths of various causes (child itself, parents, environment, drivers, and bad luck).
Sanoff, Henry. "Participatory Design of Community Arts Facilities." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. The growing recognition of the needs of particular age groups combined with the increased amount of leisure time has alerted people's awareness of the importantce of leisure activities. In the U.S. it is recognised that many of the older type of recreational facilities do not meet domxaunity needs because they are only suitable for a limited range of activities, and they may not be easily accessible to the vast majority of the community either because of location or limiation of use.
Abdel-Hadi, Aleya. "Patterns of Life Style in a Public Housing Project. a Case Study - Cairo 1983." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. Population growth in greater Cairo, and rapid undirected urbanization processes are among the causes of a severe'houeing shortage, more evident in the low-incom, sector. From 1952 until 1976. the Egyptian government sponsored the realization of sanitary stereo-typed Public Rousing Project, in various locations in Cairo. They consisted of apartment building blocks, with units at one, two or three rooms plus hail and services (kitchen/bathroom).
Wyatt, Ray. "Perceived and Actual Accessibility to Distributions - an Example of Mistakes Made in Social Science." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. Good social science can greatly enhance environmental design. But whilst some social science research is good, much is bad. The bad examples are very dangerous in that they foist false conclusions onto unsuspecting environmental designers. Therefore, rather than simply accept all social science findings uncritically, it is vital that designers know how to distinguish between work that is good and work that is misleadingly bad. This paper provides a few pointers. It uses, by way of an example, social scientists' attempts to validate a widely-accepted principle.
Bonaiuto, P, M Romano, F Bonaiuto, and M. Bonaiuto. "Phenomena of Reduction Or Increase in Perceptual Irregularity Ofarchitectural Structures and Environments." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. The authors examine the tendency to prefer shapes perceived as regular and homogeneous when a person interactds with architectural structures and environments. Instinctual components. - environmental components (the - -latter being subdivided into components for, learning or for saturation)and particular control needs, depending on personality, are identified - -as factors which contribute in determining this tendency. Reference ismade to the behaviour of adult subjects of both sexes interacting with; a) buildings with acute or obtuse corners;- - b) buidinga with tilted wall; - - c) flat surfaces rotated in the third dimension; d) perspective graphic representation of tunnels; - e) long oblique tunnels containing escalators; - -- f) leaning buildings; - g) irregular-shaped rooms.
Walcher, K, and P. Oldenburg. "Pleading for the Analysis of Meaningful Environment." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. The following considerations put the recognizing subject and the texture of environment into correspondence. As a matter-of-course this field of interest is a complex network of situational factors comprising momentary behavior and personality-cultural dispositions, as well as environmental continual ranging from micro- to macralevel in different degrees of proximity to the individual. It is not very fertile to produce an extensive list of such possible components without giving points of reference in order to classify the components. We shall assume two points of reference, firstly focussing on human action, secondly on environmental texture.
Huber, Jorg Wolfgang. "Possessions of Personal Value." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. Only a few psychological studies have investigated personal possessions and their role in everyday life. Two surveys about a special segment of possessions, namely possessions of personal value, will be presented here. Interviews were carried out in an adhoc survey of 76 people in the streets of Guildford and at Surrey University (England). Method and results are critically related to a studf cherished household possessions in Chicago (USA). The main difference is the more intimate quality of the objects mentioned by the English sample. A second study using structured interviews explored the relation between an individual and his objects in great detail. In presenting selected results emphasis is qivento the meaning of personal possessions and the analysis of those situations, in which the objects play & major role.
Couwenbergh, J. P.. "Pour Une Conception Labyrinthique De Léspace. Ou Comment Concilier Privatisation Et Communaute." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. conference:IAPS:8
Imbert, M.. "Production, Practice and Symbolic Appropriation of Public Spaces in a New Town." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. "Studying the relationships between Space/Society, an important bulk of sociological researches have been carried out on the basis of a disjunctive approach between analyses regarding the "production" of urban spaces, and those which are related to the process of appropriation of urban environment. Reducing in such a way the interference and reciprocity relationships between these two approaches, implies for the least to leave out the opportunity of trying to grasp all components of conflicts to which town planning is constantly facing. The aim of this research, carried out in a. French new town, is to analyse the conflictual relationships between the different social actors involved in planning, building, management and the users of public spaces, and their consequences regarding the evolution of physical aspects of these spaces."
Lenartowicz, K.. "Prolegomena to a Design of an Ecumenic Temple." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. "The paper comments on the ideas of a project of a building complex, conceived and designed with environmental psychology in mind. The object of the project is temple of Peace, the first ecumenic shrine to be built in the world. It is to serve and unite different religions in one place on the site of the former nazi extermination and forced labour camp in Majdanek, Poland. Canter's "Psychology of Place" provides guidelines for theoretical considerations. Basic conceptions, activities, and physical attributes are discussed as the constituents of the shrine as a place. Special attention is paid to the spatial solution of the ecumenical contact activities."
Jäger, Stephan. "Psychologische Aspekte Des Wohnens in Grüner Solararchitektur." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. conference:IAPS:8
Pennartz, P. J. J.. "Qualitative Research: an Aid to Designers - a Case - Study of a Home for Psycho - Geriatric Patients." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. Qualitative research usually does not result in figures or tables. The question. of its usefulnes is consequently more urgent than in case of quantitative research. It is the belief of the author, that qualitative research has some possibilities which deserve more attention as is usual given to. Subject of this paper is an evaluation-study of a new building for psycho-geriatric patients. A procedure will be presented about how to apply findings from qualitative research into the practice of decision-making in the development of new plans. Inducement for this study was a request from the designer for an evaluation of a new building for some hundred patients, about six months after coming in use.
Espe, Hartmut. "Relationships Between Ideal Room Concepts and Personality." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. In order to investigate relationships between various aspects of personality and room evaluation, ideal room concepts were correlated with two widely used Geriaan personality inventories and with a mood list. The findings clarify the highly personal nature of ideal, room, notions.
Yuichiro, Naka. "Research on Complicated Passenger Flow in Railway Station." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. This is a research on passenger flow and railway station as a part of extensive research on pedestrians and their environment. The research consists of two parts. The one is about mechanism of cross passenger flow in a railway station. The cross flow is the most basic type of complicated flow that has little been investigated so far. The other is abgut simulation model of complicated passenger flow in railway stations, which is backed with the knowledge obtained in the aforesaid research.
Simon, J, P Ndubisi, and R. Forster. "Residential Design Integrating Social - Cultural Aspects into to Basic Program." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984.

Socio-Cultural Aspects of the Residential Environment are as significant as the biophysical. During the past fifteen years, programming techniques for biophysical inputs have increased in sophistication and are a standard part of the practice of community design. Although much discussion and research has been generated about the cultural, social and psychological aspects of the environment, the incorporation of these aspects Into, the development of conceptual plans has remained outside the reams of normal practice. This paper sketches the significance of socio-cultural factors to the design of communities, especially for sub-cultural groups, suggests how to collect this data and illustrates the application of this theory to a real project.

Kose, S, Y Endo, and H. Uno. "Safety Requirements for Stairs 1N Dwellings - - Analysis of User Movement." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. Safety requirements of domestic stairs were studied by three different experimental methods. They were: Measurement of foot movement of the user by video camera; analysis of impact force by force platform; and energy requirements of stair climbing by heart rate. Oxygen intake on the treadmill was also measured to establish the applicability of heart rate as the estimate of energy consumption. Results suggest that minimum going should be 210 mm to assure firm support during descent; maximum rise be 180 mm to control body movement; but no limit was found from energy expenditure tests for dimensions of domestic stairs.
Schneider, Rolf. "Selbstbau Als Ökologischer Prozess." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. conference:IAPS:8
Robinson, Zan. D.. "Semiotic Structure and Social Class Distinctions." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. The most personal-of all people's physical surroundings is housing. All individual actions seem aimed it securing comfort through home and family. Very little has been written regarding the semiotic relationship between architectural designs in private housing and social class, action and organization, This study addressed the didactic quality of semiotic structuie in terms of architecture, design, housing and social stratification.
Preiser, W. F. E., and R. R. Pugh. "Senior Centers: Literature Evaluation, Walkterougn Post - Occupancy Evaluations and a Generic Program for Tee City of Albuquerque." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. Senior centers need to be responsive to the climatic, socio-economical and cultural conditions of a region. This project assessed the stateof-the-art of senior centers as documented in the literature, evaluated existing centers in Albuquerque NM, and established a generic program for future centers by involving user agency representatives in the entire process. The outcome was applied in -à site specific senior center design.
Saarinen, T. F.. "Sense 0F Place Research: Panacea Or Will - 0 - the - Wisp." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. This session i. designed to stimulate discussion about the pros and cons of sense of place research which is currently experiencing a resurgence of interest in both North America and Europe. This objective will be net by bringing together researchers from both continents who have done significant research on the topic.
Grivel, F.. "Sensibilite´de L´homme a Des Niveaux De Temperature Ambiante Compris Entre 17 Et 33°C Maintenus Pendant De Courtes Durees." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. conference:IAPS:8
Takahashi, Takashi. "Seven Wonders of the Japanese House." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. Seven wonders or questions were obtained from a research cocerning the characteristics of 145 individual houses built with the financial aid of the Government Housing Loan Corporation in 1975. These houses, sampled nation-wide, represent the typical plane of the contemporary Japanese houses. The Japanese way of living and housing construction are undergoing a continuous change with the onrush of western influences. The waves of weeternisation seem to have - inundated every nook and cranny of our life and society. It is, however, quite miraculous that much of the original Japanese style of life and house -design still obstinately survives under such onslaught.
Hardie, G. J.. "Simulation - a Means of Engendering User Participation.in the Housing Process." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. What does the homeowner prefer in a future house and neighbourhood? The questions of house image, street layout, and house form are three major issues on which the designer can invite human response and action in creating an environment which meets the users' preferences. This paper presents approaches which have been developed to meet this need.
Gräflich, Carola. "Sinnhafte Architektur - Empfindung Und Wahrnehmung Von Gebauter Wohnumwelt." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. conference:IAPS:8
Sefertzi, P. R.. "Social and Ideological Implications 01 the .architectural Foriiobservations in Greek School Buildings." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. The ideological and utilitarian functions 6f school space is analysed in the case of Greek school -buildings. Observations in urban and rural schools show the existence of different subcultures corresponding to similar more or less types of buildings but different usages. The educational outcome nontheless in terms of socialization remains the 'apis bit is iflintained through different processes. -Ja the rural ease through obedience and acceptance of the existing hierarchical structure, while in the urban, through a do facto incorporation; great numbers of marginal pupils who reject the existing hierarchies, incorporate passively because they fail to promote other leas authoritarian models.
Blauw, LW.. "Social Contacts in an Urban and Suburban Environment." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. The central question in this paper is: how does the suburban environment - in conperison with the urban environment - influence social contacts? Referring to some studies in the U.S. and the Netherlands it is concluded that there are significant differences in neighbour contacts. Even after controlling for individual and contextual characteristics significant differences remain. Comparing the social contacts before and after the move an increase otneighbour contacts has been observed, together with a decrease of contacts with -family and friends, especially for those who moved over a larger distance. Finally, some notions will be put forward with regard to the role ofenvironment in making social conctacts.
Uzzell, D. L.. "Social Representations of the Mediterranean." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. In this paper the traditional approach in psychology to decoding myths and meanings is replaced by a semiotic analysis which explores the social representations conveyed in the travel brochures marketing Mediterranean package holidays. The analysis suggests that holiday companies attempt to attract their clientele not through the overt add superficial attributes of holiday destinations as portrayed in brochure texts and photographs, but by providing the reader with a range of cultural tools which fantasy, meaning and identity can be created and constructed. Rather than being passive victims of advertisers' propaganda, the holidaymaker becomes an active participant in the creation and maintenance of ideology and myth.
Kilical, A. A.. "Socio - Cultural Factors Shaping a Traditional Settlment - Case Study: Al Diraiyah, Saudi Arabia." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. "Socio-cultural factors are the primary factors that shape our physical environment. Although Saudi Arabia is one of the few countries that the people live with their traditions and share the same ideals, they are also one of the few countries possessing all the latest facilities. On the other hand, most of the "imported" architectural solutions do not fuilfil the socio-cultura]. needs of the people. This research tries to point out the main factors to be considered in creating new physical environments, by bringing out the architectural responses in a traditional settlement."
Espe, Hartmut. "Some Findings with a German Version of the Environmental Response Inventory." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. Traditional personality theory and assessment tend to focus on various' aspects of the self and its relationships to the human environment. Moreover, they tend to regard human behavior as a function of the social environment. Both of these-underlying assumptions are problematic for environmental psychology. First, our environment does not only consist of people but also of nature and, more than ever, of man-shaped nature and man'made objects. Second, man's behavior is not only determined by his human and his non-human environment, but he creates parts of his environment as well. It is necessary, therefore, to investigate more thoroughly man's psychological relations to his everyday non-human physical environment.
Kratzsch, Ernst. "Soziale Entsehungsbedingungen Für Eine Großwohnanlage." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. conference:IAPS:8
Kennedy, Declan. "Space for Food for People." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. The energy: situation has made it necessary to rethink our food production systems. Furthermore, chemically polluted foodstuffs are becoming more prevalent, while the traditional agricultural environments in the countryside are little better in ambient air quality, water, etc. than their urban and suburban counterparts. Solutions to unemployment and underemployment release new concept. for the division of labour and -allow, time for other activities. A system of partial self-sufficiencyin the production of fresh and healthy food is proposed, particularly for vegetables and fruits, near the doorstep. It is possible in Permaculture to achieve a high yield with low input in work and tine. This system would ideally call for a new division of land and a new concept of land ownership.
Klein, Hans-Joachim. "Stabilität Und Wandel Von Wohnpräferenzen." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. conference:IAPS:8
SCHMIDT, Alexander J.. "Stadtgestaltung Nach Prinzipien Des Lebendigen." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. conference:IAPS:8
Schneider, G, and C. F. GRAUMANN. "Städtische Umwelt: Identität Und Identifikation." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. conference:IAPS:8
Groat, L. N.. "Strategies for Contextual Design: a Partial Order Scalogram Analysis." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. The intent of this research study is to generate some general principles for guiding architects in the design of new buildings in older settings through the use of user/observer easements of exemplary projects. A conceptual framework for defining the design strategies of I variety of contextually-designed projects was developed. A set of 25 bsildixjgs, simulated through color photos, was evaluated by 72 subjects at 3 separate sites. The results indicate that these non-architects generally prefer buildings that highly replicate, especially in terms of stylistic features, the existing context.
Bernhard, Y, and V. Giuliani. "Structuration, Organisation, Animation De L´espace Domestique." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. conference:IAPS:8
Kotaroh, H.. "Study on Evaluation of Street - Vista in Cityscape." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. We made an experiment on measurement of psychological quantity (human evaluations at street-vistas), with using photomontage slidefilme of street-vistas, - After obstructive element, retouched, roadside trees were montaged. - for objects of experiment and using method of 2 categories with 3 scales for a method of measurement. The results (relations between physical and psychological quantities, in other words, stimulus and judgement), were analyzed with a newly introduced model (a model with 2 turning points on judgement continuum). With this procedure, we -could get the range of comfortness and the fact shows that the model is affective and fulfills engineering-demand.
Lawton, M. P.. "Supportive Housing: Charges in People, Services and Environments." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. "Host industrialized nations have developed programs of housing constructed to serve the needs of older people. Over the past decade a subvariety of such purpose-built housing that builds in supportive services, in addition to the primary shelter, has appeared in increasing numbers - "congregate housing" in the United States, "foyers-lognents" in France, -and undoubtedly other names in other countries. However, the bulk of all housing built for older people nay be characterized as "independent housing." that is, housing that presumes most occupants to be reasonably healthy, mobile, and able to perform their own self-maintaining tasks such as shopping, cooking, and housekeeping. In the United States about 700,000 older people live in such independent housing. Unlike people in the middle-adulthood period, those in the later years can expect to decline in health as they near the end of their lives. The hospital or nursing home is - often their final residence. However, there is a period from the time of their beginning biological decline and the time when -institutional care is sought during which the needs of these tenants may be poorly met in independent housing. In kahana's terms, the congruence between person and environment is disturbed. In the absence of the built-in services that are an essential component of congregate housing, tents with beginning impairment may have difficulty doing their shopping, keeping up their apartments, and sometimes performing basic self-care - such as bathing o dressing. Thus they may be at risk of having to, go to an institution, where similar tenants in supportive housing could have enough services provided on the site to postpone their entry into an institution."
Kühlmann, Torsten M.. "Technische Neuerungen in Der Arbeitsumwelt Aus Der Sicht Der Betroffenen." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. conference:IAPS:8
Barbey, G.. "Tertriarisation Urbaine Et Evolution Du Rapport Prive - Public." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. conference:IAPS:8
Ohno, R, and K. Komuro. "Texture Perception Versus Object Perception in the Environment." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. conference:IAPS:8
Bonnes-Dobrowolny, Mirilia, and Gianfranco Secchiaroli. "The Cognitive Construction of the Urban Environment a Multidimensional and Categorical Approach." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. An empirical research is presented dealing with the psychosocial study of the man-environment relationship through an analysis of cognitive representations. The cognitions that the inhabitants of the city of Rome have of different parts of this urban environment are studied: the residential quarter, the city center, the outskirts. The research has been carried;out in two different phases, the first explorative-intensivein nature and the second systematic-extensive. A categorical and multidimensional scheme of analysis has been hypothetically outlined in order to explain the variability between the different urban cognitive representations as far as their content and formal aspects are concerned.
Riley, R. B.. "The Concept of Garden: Some Theoretical Questions About Its Place in Person/environment Interaction." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. The garden has been a persistent theme, real and metaphorical, in human/ environment relations. Its current devaluation deprives us of a valuable concept and laboratory, Redefinition of the garden in terms of current parson/environment concepts raises immediate issues of theoretical importance to an understanding of human interaction with the natural world. The concept of the garden as a. dialectic of submission/control, rather than as an archetypal expression of a need for nature, is proposed and opportunities for exploration that stem from such a view are discussed.
Setala, Maija-Leena. "The Culture of Children's Plays and Games from the Perspective of Environmental and Ecological Psychology." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. The purpose of this paper is to present research results on the transmission of the culture of children's plays and games in an urban environment. This transmission can be examined in terms of how far and where play groups move; in Yl local play groups are organised and in terms of changes in the contents of the tradition of plays and games. The units of observation are cultures f plays and games in seperate residential areas, their development and relation to the physical and functional structure of the city (Syvanan 1981).
Küller, Rikard, and Rolf Mattsson. "The Dining Room at a Geriatric Hospital." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. The purpose of the study was to redecorate the dining-room environment at a geriatric hospital in a way that agreed with the prior living of the patients. We also wanted to be able to evaluate the eventual psychological and medical effects on the patients of such a change. While two thirds of the patients expressed a preference for the redecorated dining- the attitudes of the personnel seemed to be influenced by fur rtiorfal rather than aesthetic considerations. Still the study seems to have promoted a change in attitude towards the geriatric erivironment.
Küller, Rikard. "The Dining Room at a Geriatric Hospital." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. The purpose of the study was to redecorate the dining-room environment at a geriatric hospital in a way that agreed with the prior living of the patients. We also wanted to be able to evaluate the eventual psychological and medical effects on the patients of such a change. While two thirds of the patients expressed a preference for the redecorated dining-room, the attitudes of the personnel seemed to be influenced by functional rather than aesthetic considerations. Still the study seems to have promoted a change in attitude towards the geriatric environment.
Janssens, Jan. "The Effect of Professional Education and Experience on the Perception of Building Exteriors." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. The effect of people's educational and professional background on their perception of the built environment was studied. Using semantic ratings, 20 practicing architects and 20 non-architects (chemical engineers) ,aged 40-51 judged standardized color slides of 24 building exteriors, 12 one family houses and 12 multiple family highrise dwellings. Specific individual data, amongst others a creativity measurement And eye movement behavior, when looking at the slides, were gathered. On the basis of the various data, the individuals were sorted into subgroups and their evaluations and other measurements compared.
Ginsberg, Y.. "The Elderly in the Central City." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. This paper deals with the elderly in the central neighborhoods of TelAviv. It is based on structural interviews with a sample of 384 people aged 60 and over. Most are veterans in the area, and are satisfied with their neighborhood despite the fact that it has been changing. Most are familiar with the people they meet, and over half have intensive social ties in the area. The majority consider the neighborhood to be a safe area and only a third are afraid to go out at night.
Priestley, T.. "The Environment Behavior Perspective and Assessment of Landscape Aesthetics - Powerline Siting and Analysis in North America." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. Analysis of landscape quality and the aesthetic effects of change is now an important component of North American landscape practice. This paper reviews the aesthetic analysis methods most commonly used in electric transmission line routing and project assessment. Most are based on a formalist conception of aesthetics and ignore the critical dimension of meaning. An a consequence, the analyses often are not reliable indicators of powerline acceptability in a given landscape. To improve the usefulness of these analyses, new methods are needed that reflect en. environment behavior understanding of environmental experience and evaluation.
Thorne, K.. "The Environmental Psychology O Theatres and Movie - Palaces - - 1902 to 1930 ." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. "Architecture which is "popular" has been largely missing from our environment for the last fifty years. The USSR attempted to impose an architecture which would be appreciated by the masses through its espousal of an architecture of "social realism". Of their own volition the architects of movie-palace. of USA in the 1920. were also attempting to provide an architecture that would be appreciated by the masses. They were conscious of the effects of colour and decoration on people'. moods and feelings, perhaps being more aware of "environmental psychology"- than are many of their modern-day colleagues who exist in a world more populated with social scientists."
Turnbull, J. A. B.. "The Habitability - of Communal Spaces in High Rise Buildings for Theelderly." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. The use made of ground floor community rooms and communal sitting rooms on each floor of 2 30-storey buildings as reported by their elderly residents was investigated by interview survey. Use of these rooms was taken to indicate their role in promoting social interaction within the buildings. Results showed that residents used common rooms extensively, although reporting that Set of their social activities occurred away from the buildings.
Hardie, G. J.. "The Historical and Attitudinal Context of Self - Help Housing Action: Two Case Studies Compared." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. "This paper discusses an important and neglected variable in the selfhelp housing process - the effect of people's attitudes on self-help action. This is evaluated in the context of two separate housing schemes in South Africa. It has become apparent from this research that attitudes to a place or situation, tempered by the historical context, tend to mediate actions which are more usually seen as being circumscribed by social and economic circumstances. It is argued that a "willingness. to act" in a particular situation is as important as the possession of the resources and freedom necessary to take action."
Gall, J. C.. "The Impact of Voluntariness of Migration." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. "The subject of this article is the influence of the degree of subjective voluntariness of migration on the consequences of the migration for the migrant. The event "migration from a large city to a new town" is analysed with help of the attribution theory, a psychological theory originally developed by Heider. The analysis shows that the degree of voluntariness is an important variable and that attribution theory can be of use in framing the theory about migration."
Gold, John R., and Margaret M. Gold. "The Inauthentic Place? Myths and Folklore in Research on Suburbia." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. There is no doubt about the quantitative significanceof suburbia in the twentieth century growth of cities on both sides of the Atlantic. Nor can there be much dispute that suburbia is one of the typical landscapes of the contemporny world. Nevertheless, the claims of suburbia as a legitimate object of study have been largely ignored. The reasons for this situation are complex, but special emphasis needs to be laid upon (a) the strong focus-of urban studies on other areas of the city, especially the central and inner city and (b) a pervasive anti-suburban prejudice, which has sterotyped suburbia as dull, homogeneous and inherently less 'worthy- of study.
Kalekin-Fishman, Devorah. "The Kindergarten as a Controlled Environment." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984.

In a non-participant observational field study of three kinds of kindergartens ip Konstanz (BRD) and four in Haifa (Israel), we compared how rules established by legislation and rules that teachers hold necessary, interact to shape kindergarten environments. Structured observations and sound recordings of complete kindergarten sessions were analysed. It was found that each activity has a sound envelope defined by the kindergarten's location and layout, by the allocations of time, and by the ways in which teachers' and children's movements are distributed in space. Despite common historical sources, kindergartens in Germany and Israel constitute surroundings that impact children very differently.

B. Peled, Arie. "The Outside of Places." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. conference:IAPS:8
Moran, Rosalyn. "The Place Brief Using the Psychology of Place in Building Design." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. The paper demonstrates the use of Canter's (1977) theory of place as a framework for specifying the psychological dimension of the brief or program. A small charitable organisation which ran a Day Centre for unattached young girls who are psychologically at risk were dissatisfied with their existing accommodation and had decided to commission a new building. One problem of making a useful contribution to the design process was- conceived of as solving three main inter-related problems.
Moran, R.. "The Place Brief: Using the Psychology Place in Building Design." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. The paper demonstrates the use of Canters (1977) theory of place as a framework for specifying the psychological dimension of the brief or program. A small charitable organisation which ran a Day Centre for unattached young girls who are psychologically at risk were dissatisfied with their existing accommodation and had decided to commission a new building. One problem of making a useful contribution to the design process was conceived of as solving three main interrelated problems.
KRAMPEN, MARTIN, and Margarete Seiwert. "The Relationships Between Experiences of the Nonrum&n Environment and Self - Descriptions by a Personality Inventory." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. A set of German language scales constructed to measure a person's experience of the nonhuman environment (ENU) was correlated with a German language personality inventory (FIT) describing experiences of the human environment (Self and Others). Previous correlational studies between tests measuring attitudes toward the nonhuman environment and tests describing the relationships to the human environment had indicated that, the tendency to retreat from the human environment in neurosis and depression was paralleled by a tendency to retreat also from the nonhuman environment.. This tendency was confirmed by high multiple correladons (.42. p=.OO1) between ENU and the FPI scales measuring neurotLcist and depressivity.
Anthony, K. H.. "The Role of the Home Environment in Family Conflict: Therapists'viewpoints." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. Forty American professional therapists involved in marriage, family, and child counseling were interviewed in an exploratory study regarding the role of the physical bole environment in family conflicts over territoriality and privacy. Results showed that the bedroom was most prone to territorial and privacy conflicts, followed closely by the kitchen, bathroom and living room. Televisions, stereos, and desks seemed to spark great conflict. Counselors believed that compared to other, age groups, adolescents have the strongest territorial needs. Most therapists considered it important for family members to bce their own private space in the home.
Hormuth, Stefan S., and Marco Lalli. "The Role of Urban Environments in Self - Presentation." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. The meaning or function of urban environments for the selfconcept of 100 persons was assessed using the method of - auto-photography. The role of urban environments for the self-concept is seen as part of a- total environment, consisting of people, things and environments that contribute to an 'ecology of the self'. Subjects had to describe themselves by way of seven photographs of self-relevant aspects of their environment. The analysis allows an assesssent of the relative contribution of urban environments for self-understanding and self-prese.tation as compared to other aspects of the physical environment and the -social environment.
Henderson, J, and J. Brown. "The Significance of Environmental Factors and Attitude Towards Nuclear Energy." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. The paper considers the significance of four environmental factors, and attitude to nuclear energy. These are distance from a nuclear site, spatial awareness, visual and environmental impact. A major survey of 1354 members of the public in South West England in 1982 revealed that the distribution of opinion within a 20 mile radius of an established site, a proposed site and a control site were different. Opinion groups also differed in their estimations of the visual impact of a station, potential effects of routine and accidental releases of radiation and the anticipated environmental effects of building a new station.
B Peled, Aria, and Baruch B. Baruch. "The Spatial Organisatoin of the Desert Kibbutz." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. Within the framework of an existential analysis, 'Outside' comes to mean an am of reduced structuredness in comparison to other areas. When we are within a given syatn, a given place, we experience ourselves as belonging to this system, this place. Any nearby system or place will be interpreted by us as 'Outside' if we experience it as less structured than the system we are presently occupying.
Finlayson, K. A.. "The Use of Community Involvment Procedures in the Upgrading of Aninformal Housing Area." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. A sensitively designed approach to the upgrading of an informal residential area incorporating appropriate community involvement procedures is described. Each particular procedure has evolved as a result of the specific requirements perceived at the interface created by members of the project team comprising representatives of both the resident coemiunity and the research staff of the National Building Research Institute (NERO. A key factor in the project was the perceived relationship between the needs, preferences and priorities of the residents concerned and their socio-economic end physical Environment. By successfully tapping this resource a satisfactory solution was made possible.
Tzamir, Y, and A. Churchman. "The Use of the Realm of Knowledge by Architecture Students - an Ethical Perspective." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. The purpose of this paper is: a) to present an approach to architectural ethics with particular emphasis on the role of environment-behavior studies within architecture. b) to examine the attitudes and design behavior o( a ample of Israeli architecture students with regard to the issues dealt with in this approach. We examine the implications for the education process of architects and for the role of the environment-behavior studies professional in this process.
Sanui, J, and M. Inui. "Towards a Phenomenological Model of Urban Housing Evaluation." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. The goal of this research is to provide a viable model of people's evaluation of housing to explore ways of improving urban housing. To achieve this goal, two requirements were set up. First, individual differences in the housing evaluation should be respected. Second, the model should have reliability, i.e. it should be of statistically condensed outcome. Based on the personal construct theory, a two-step procedure which consists of the elicitation of the dimensions in the housing evaluation on the individual level, and the fixed format questionnaire which is statistically analysed along phenoinenologically obtained subgroups is proposed.
Edelstein, M. R.. "Toxic Exposure and the Inversion of the Rome." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. "In the United States, the, ownership of a house signifies a family's achievement of a desired developmental status as well as the economic "creditability" necessary for a mortgage 'loan to be received. Houses encode a variety of messages which may e seen as reflective of the owners or occupants in various ways. The term "home" suggests a much more psychological meaning for the structure itself, encompassing such notions !s security and identity."
Stöbe, Sylvia. "Tradition Sitzt in Den Wänden - Wohnerhalten Im Geselllschaftlichen Wandel." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. conference:IAPS:8
Van der Weiden, Johannes. "Ungeplante Planung. Raumplanung Ala Sozialer Prozess / Unplanned Planning. Social Processes Crippling Physical Planning." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. conference:IAPS:8
Landwehr, Klaus. "Varianten Verfügbarer Optischer Stimulusinformation Für Fussgänger in Städten Und in Der Natur." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. conference:IAPS:8
Saup, Winfried. "Veraenderte Wohnumwelt Im Alter: Strain, Stress Und Coping." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. conference:IAPS:8
El-Badwan, Ghassan. "Veränderung Des Damzener Stadthauses (Changes in the Damacene House)." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. conference:IAPS:8
Schreiber, Klaus. "Von Der Alten Zur Neuen Politik - Die Raketendiskussion Als Motor Des Sozio - Kulturellen Wertewandels." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. conference:IAPS:8
Szecsenyi, Joachim. "Wahrnehmung Und Bewertung Von Wohnhäusern - Eine Vergleichende Studie Zur Erfassung Relevanter Merkmale Der Grünen Solararchitektur Versus Konventionelle Architekturstile." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. conference:IAPS:8
Eubank-Ahrens, Brenda. "Wirkungskontrolle Einer Wohnumfeldverbesserung: Verhalten Und Erleben Im Öffentlichen Raum." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. conference:IAPS:8
Hoffmeyer-Zlotnik, Jürgen H. P.. "Wohnquartierbeschreibung - Ein Instrument Zum Erfassen Sozial - Räumlicher Differenzierung Städtischer Bevölkerung." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. conference:IAPS:8
Valach, L., and U. Kalbermatten. "Zielgerichtetes Handeln, Umwelt Und Umweltschutz." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. conference:IAPS:8
Schubert, Herbert J.. "Zu Gründen Und Folgen Der Selbststeuerung Von Beziehungen Zur Umwelt - Am Beispiel Wohnbezogener Eigenarbeit." In Environment and Human Action: Proceedings 8th International Conference of the IAPS. IAPS. West Berlin, Germany, 1984. Physical self-help, self-labor involves decentralisation of control, because of individual resistance to bureaucratic or economic decisions. The consequence is a change of the relation that the men have with the non-human nature: the use of natural forces for human ends becomes more ecological. Selflabor as physical self-help - for example in housing - produces an unintended process towards greiter control over natural phenomena for the individual by realization that men are dependent on n&n-human nature differentially.