Keywords Abstract
SMITH, JOHN F.. "A Typological Account of Continuity and Transition in the Built Environment." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. The proposed paper will give a typological account of the nature of continuity and transition in the built environment. This theory of types claims that architecture is created and experienced within a framework of inherited formal norms. Types are defined as sets of rules for the design of buildings which are established historically - in the process acquiring a collective value to a particular culture - but which remain open to change. In order to elucidate these notions an analysis has been undertaken of a representative example of the traditional operation of types, the 17th Century Parisian aristocratic house or 'hotel particulier'.
Munro-Clark, Margaret. "Acceptability as Neighbours: Attitudes of Detached - House Dwellers to Having Other Forms of Housing in their Vicinity." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. This paper reports a survey of attitudes towards an impending transition to higher densities in what are currently low-density residential suburbs in the city of Sydney. This showed that while resistance to this development is partly due to aesthetic preferences, anticipated loss of privacy and higher levels of traffic, what is chiefly feared and resisted are changes to a chosen level of social homogeneity at the neighbourhood level.
Bonnes, Mirilia. "Across - Cultural Approach to Temporary Experience of the City of Rome." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. The study, undertaken by a group of European social psychologists, concerns the experience which French and Italian Visitors and temporary residents have of the city of Rome. This study is part of the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Project. Its specific aims are as follows: (1) to gain insight into the psychological 'processes by which users perceive their urban environment; and (2) to study how psychological representations of the environment are related to social represent. ationalsystems used in defining the urban environment. Data concerning affective meaning, residential preferences, knowledge about and cognitive. representations (spatial, descriptive, and effective characteristics) of the.city are discussed.
Fried, Marc. "Adaptation to Environmental Transitions: Contributions Ofcontextual Attributes and of Individual Coping Behaviors." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. The purpose of this analysis is to extricate the relative contribution of external, environmental attributes, both physical and social, and of individual coping behaviors or stress-resistance functions in successful adaptation to changing experiences of urban-, metropolitan environments. The paper is an integrated overview of several large-scale empirical studies of people in different types of environmental transition experiences while bringing to bear the recently expanded literature on stress and diversities of coping methods.
Moore, Gary T.. "Alternative Housing for Older Persons: a Typology and Examples of Community Clustered Housing." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. "There is a severe shortage of appropriate housing for older people, especially housing that is neither institutional with total services nor single-family with no services. This paper develops a typology for the alternative forms that have emerged recently. By way of example, one housing type--what can be called "community clustered housing"--is looked at in more detail, paying attention to the existing research literature and some planning and design implications."
Serfaty, Perla Korosec-. "Appropriation De L`espace Et Vecu De La Transition." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. conference:IAPS:9
Symes, Martin. "Architects, Planners and Politicians - a Case Study of Shiftingprofessional Roles." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. This case study concerns professional roles and role-sets in an urban development project. Competing design teams were interviewed to establish the detailed history of their proposals. In some instances moments of conflict were reported. When these were resolved the rolesets altered. A number of hypotheses are suggested concerning the function of role-conflicts in project dynamics. The study concerned architects, planners and politicians in Melbourne, Australia.
Meir, Isaac A.. "Back to the Future." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. "The Industrial Revolution and its consequent developments changed drastically the face of society in all respects. The concentration of production means caused dependence of the population on the production centers both for jobs and for goods. As a consequence, masses of people moved from rural areas to urban centers. The resulting "mass-housing', "mass-production" , and other "mass"- processes became identified with the concept of "progress"."
Davidoff, Nissim. "Bringing Back the Balcony to the Cityscape of Tel - Aviv." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. Tel-Aviv begun to be shaped in its urban form during the 1930's. Most of the buildings, which were in the International Style had balconies- the local interpretation of the horizontal ribbon windows, which characterized it. Beyond their importance in the facades composition, and in linking the open space and the solid mass of the building; the balcony offered an outdoor space for the families to enjoy the warm weather. Consequently new patterns of usage, interactions with neighbours and bypassers were formed. In the cityscape the balconies displayed the daily routine life and enriched the experience of the people walking along the streets of Tel-Aviv.
Yiftah, Ayala. "Can School Have an Immediate Effect on the Planning of a Residential Environment." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. Changes in the education system - among others, a growing interest in topical issues, coupled with changes in transportation and road safety that have placed a greater emphasis on planning and the adjustment of environment to needs, have led to the emergence of a new educational concept which influences planning and allows for immediate environmental improvements.
Groening, Gert, and Joachim Wolschke. "Changes in the Philosophy of Garden Architecture in the Xxth Century and their Impact Upon the Social and Spatial Environment." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. The changing ways of human appropriation of nature are a concomitant to developmental processes in society.Consequently the physical environment is changed also. Man and woman attempt to react towards such changes by consciously designing an environment. Such attempts are especially explicit in disciplines which focus on the design of spatial environment,e.g.garden architecture.
Demick, J, J. P. Redondo, and S. Wapner. "Cherished Possessions and Adaptation of the Elderly to the Nursing Home Environment." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. This study concerns the general problem of older people coping with relocation to a nursing home. More specifically, it examines the role of cherished possessions in facilitating transition into and adaptation to a nursing home. It is hypothesized that if the person brings his/her cherished possessions into the nursing home environment, then those possessions dperate to provide a more optimal person-environment fit, or better adaptation to the new environment.
Nasar, J.. "Commonalities and Differences in Environmental Response." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. Evaluation of environmental settings plays n important role in determining behavior in those settings. What are the environmental features which influence evaluation? Do groups differ in these evaluations? Answers to these questions can inform decisions in design and planning. Participants in this symposium examine environmental perception and preference. In particular, they examine commonalities and differences across groups in their response to environmental settings. Special attention is given to architect and non architect responses to the environment.
Azmon, Yael. "Community Development: Region 2000." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. The general objective of the Region 2000 development plan for the central Galilee is twofold: The promotion of high technology industries and the consequent promotion of a high quality of life. A high quality of life is composed of both ecological and social factors. Because public participation is essential to the social factor, promoting public participation is considered an important part of the development plan.
Jockusch, Alfred. "Concepts of Human Health in Residential Use." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. In an outline of the state of the art the author attempts to highlight mutual interrelations between medicine and architecture. The paper starts with a short historic overview on health and hygiene relevance of patterns of urbanisation and residential architecture. then covers psychological issues in the criticism of post war mass housing. discusses health relevance of comfort and physiological problems and leads to new concerns about.toxic and allergenic materials in the physical environment. Radiation and geobiology are covered as well. Finally the lack of transdisciplinary research is complained about and the need for residential medicine as a subject of architectural teaching is emphasized. Examples from author's own enquiries and from recent german literature are quoted.
Piche, Denise. "Controle De L´environnement Et Liberte D´usage: Mythes Et Realites Du Vecu Residentiel." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. conference:IAPS:9
Sebba, Rachel. "Day Care Centers in the City and the Dibbutz (Workshop)." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. "The workshop will, deal with the physical planning of Day Care Centers for children between 6 months and 4 years old. The workshop is, planned for a full day and will be divided into three parts. In the first part basic information regarding two different types of Day Care Center in Israel will be presented: The community Day Care Center and the "Children's Home" in the Kibbutz. The information will include a description of their general scope, historical background, main objectives and children's daily program in the Centers."
Werczberger, Elia. "Demographic Change in an Aging Neighborhood in Tel - Aviv." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. "This paper deals with the recent immigration into the "Lev Tel-Aviv" area, a central neighborhood of Tel-Aviv developed during the 1920s and 1930s. The study thus pertains to the problems of decline and revitalization of aging neighborhoods which during the past years have become a major concern of urban policy and research. The purpose of the investigation was to understand the process of change of the neighborhood, and to identify the factors which affect the composition of the migrants and thus the future character of the area. In addition, alternative theories of neighborhood change could be tested in the context of the Israeli housing market."
Goldschmidt, Gabriela. "Design Solutions as Reflection of Loose Ends in Problem Setting." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. "A representation of a design task, in the form of problem-setting, preceeds every process of architectural designing. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how designers use loose ends in problem setting as a major resource for the conception and consolidation of design solutions. The Brief as a Solution Space Relevant information pertaining to the problem is often stated in the form of a design-brief, which is handed out to the designer(s) at the outset of the design process. A typical well prepared brief includes givens, objectives and constraints both quantitative and qualitative. The designer is expected to pay careful attention to every item in the brief and respond to it in his solution. The brief, then, delimits the problem - within the "space" it creates a solution is sought."
Wurff, A V. d, L. V. Staalduinen, and P. Stringer. "Designing Facet Designs: a Methodology and a Case Study." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. Facet design is enjoying a revival, in particular because of the interest of British environmental researchers (e.g. Canter et al.). However, if we examine the actual methodology that lies behind it, we find disappointingly little that can be useful for any researcher who is at the beginning of his research project. Admittedly, once the 'mapping sentence' is generated and put into practice in the construction of a measuring instrument, there is an abundance of (statistical) techniques that can be used. But it is that very first step of generating the mapping sentence which is in need of clarification and elaboration. Various approaches to generation will be discussed, each with its own prescriptions and hints for users. The scarce literature on how to design facets will be reviewed and augmented by insights and suggestions from such diverse sources as philosophical concept analysis, logic, taxonomy and commonsense. A case-study of development of one particular mapping sentence will be presented to serve as a running illustration of the pitfalls and possibilities likely to be met in designing facet designs.
Inui, M, and J. Sanui. "Effects of Colour Distribution on Townscape Evaluation." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. The aim of the research is to provide a viable model of people's evaluation of townscapes and to explore ways of improving the aesthetic quality of townscapes. As townscape evaluation is highly visual, it is difficult to quantify visual features of a certain scene. In this research, a colour image processor was utilized to overcome this obstacle.
Riley, Robert B.. "Emerging Trends in Vernacular Landscape Studies." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. While the study of vernacular architecture has a reasonably long and respected, if episodic tradition dating back to the nineteenth century, serious treatment of the vernacular landscape and its relation to human behavior can be thought of as beginning not much more than a decade ago. The field is still in a pre-paradigmatic stage, with the bulk of attention focused on enumerating and describing the elements that make it up: elements either new or heretofore ignored in the landscape.
Moore, Gary T.. "Environment - Behavior Studies in Transition: Changing Emphases and Orientations." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. This paper looks at the field of environment-behavior studies as it has evolved in North America. Using the orthogenetic principle of development, the field can be seen to have passed through a global undifferentiated stage and periods of differentiation and articulation. While some might claim there has been an appearance of a consolidated perspective, this may be true for certain sub-disciplines like environmental psychology or sociology, but not for the filed as a whole. This paper traces recent developments and retrenchments and looks at similarities and differences between the various sub-disciplines.
KRAMPEN, MARTIN. "Environmental Attitudes in Transition." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. Measured as the difference between the score of the items on the two occasions. It would also be possible to calculate the difference in the dimensions and amount of crnge between different groups such as the younger early advocates of environmental protection and their older opposites. Unfortunately such a longitudinal study has not been initiated at the beginning of the transition 10-15 years ago. It could, however, be simulated if the ERI was given twice to each subject, a first time to register the present environmental attitudes, and a second time to elicit memories of past attitudes.
Sanoff, Henry. "Environmental Meaning." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. This workshop intends to explore the implications of environmental meaningthrough small discussion groups. Issues related to the communicative ability of the everday environment and people's interpretations of salient features has been the subject of considerable empirical research. By selecting a series of frequently recurring concerns such as building identity, character, and imageability, a series of activities are proposed to engage workshop participants in revealing their perceptions through the use of prepared visual materials. The format of this workshop will be small group discussions that permit the free flow of ideas where participants can learn from each other while making decisions collectively. This approach is advanced as a method for increasing people's awareness of the multiple meanings conveyed by the physical environment. It is also proposed as a viable technique for architects - clients - users to develop a dialogue aboutthe importance of environmental meaning while exploring the implications of such issues in everyday practice.
Mees, G. B., and R. E. Schiefer. "Environmental Perception Techniques in the Development of a Communication T00L - an Upgrading Project in an Informal Settlement." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. "Previous experience in South Africa during upgrading programmesshowed that conventional architectural sketches and models wereoften misinterpreted by the people within an informal settlement.Consequently, the National Building Research Institute is seekingto develop appropriate illustrative techniques and suitable toolsto investigate individual housing needs, preferences and priorities.A pilot study was undertaken to determine how residents illustratetheir homes. The first phase involved two classes of school-children;each child drew his or her home so that "a stranger would recogniseit". A group of adults performed a similar exercise. This paper willdiscuss the way in which the drawings were analysed, the findings.and the potential value of the technique."
Shechter, Mordechai. "Environmental Pollution and State Anxiety." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. Environmental pollution figures promine-tly as a potential source of environmental stress in modern urban society. Unfortunately, however, very little systematic research has been con:icted in order to gauge the actual degree of perceived threat in response to environmental pollution or the anxiety correlates of differential exposure to high risk toxic environments. In view of the gaps in the stress literature, this study sets out to address the following problems:
Ortega-Andeane, Patricia, and Javier Urbina-Soria. "Environmental Psychology in Mexico." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. This paper presents an overview of environmental psychology research and education in Mexico within the general context of people and their interactions with the physical surroundings. Environmental psychology is a new discipline in Mexico, which is developing with, and in response to, the social and political needs of the country, in great manner due to the growing concern over the deterioration of the environment. The government and especially the univerisites have started to confront both old and new environmental problems.
Granoff, M.. "Ethiopian Cildren in Transit - Adapting Through Play." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. The recent wave of Ethiopian immigrant children is an extreme example ofchildren in transit. Transported geographically from one continent toanother, ewvirorimentallv from mountain jungles to urban cities cultruallyfrom tribal structures to democratic citizenship, economically from self-sufficiency to financial dependence, linutstically from Amharic to Hebrew -they epitomize the modern-day phenomenon of drastic shift and loss of roots.
Groat, L.. "Exprt and Non - Expert Interpretations of Contextual Compatibility in Architecture." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. This paper presents an empirical study of espert and non expert responses to examples of new buildings in contextually sensitive settings. A total of 73 nonexpert (lay) respondents and 24 deisng review commissioners were interviewed. All respondents were asked to comment on the contextual fit of 25 urban inf ill buildings simulated through color photos. Analysis of the interview data reveal a high degree of consistency between the experts and non experts in their judgments of the contextual relationships. However, the findings also reveal important and significant differences between the groups in: 1) the frequency with which they construed the urban scene according to the issue of compatibility, and 2) the manner in which they conceptualized the concept of compatibility.
Eldar, R.. "From Dependent to Independent Living." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. At the successful completion of rehabilitation, physically disabled are often capable of resuming productive and independent lives and adjust into society. However, many are presently unable to do so due to a lack of appropriate facilities; they are discharged to their families' homes where, within the functions of the previous environment they become deoend.ent recipients of assistance, or are institutionalize, a process counterproductive to rehabilitation.
MEYER-BRODNITZ, MICHAEL. "From Peasantry to Suburbia: Transformation of Arab Settlements in Israel (Workshop)." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. One out of every six Israeli citizens is an Arab (This does not include the populatton of territories occupied since 1967). Most of this population lives in old traditional villages that turned during the recent kO years into townships of 1000 to 20000 inhabitants each. The process of economic, social and cultural transformation (of these communities) and its evidence in the physical environment will be the subject of this proposed workshop.
Meese, G. B., K. A. Finlayson, and R. E. Schiefer. "Homeowners and Officials their Differences in the Perception Ofa Successful Project." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. "Experience has shown that there is conflict between officials and partipants in their judgement of what constitutes a "successful" housing project. The individual owner's view of the project may be influenced by such factors as the delivery system and the level of their participation in the scheme overall, whilst the view of the officials may be largely dependant on the physical, external appearance of the houses. A post occupancy evaluation by the National Building Research Institute has attempted to look at a housing project through the "eyes" of three groups: (1) the owners, (2) the local authority and (3) the financial institution. The housing project studied was financed by a private company and involved a high degree of owner participation. This paper iill discuss the development of an appropriate framework for the objective evaluation of both existing and future housing projects."
Hardie, Graeme J., and Timothy Hart. "Homeowners in Transition: the Effects of Change in South Africa's Housing Policy." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. "Black housing policy in South Africa has changed dramatically since 1976. In terms of the so-called "new dispensation", there has been a shift toward the promotion of homeownership, with public housing made available for purchase by existing tenants, and with the future housing strategy being replaced by an emphasis on self-help. This policy shift has initiated a process of transition among urban black communities that will ultimately touch millions of people. This paper examines particular attitudes to ownership, tenure and finance. It is argued that those that are subject to the process of transition carry with them a socio-political and historical heritage that inevitably colours their receptiveness in terms of new policy initiatives."
TACHIBANA, Naomi. "Human Cognition to Biofactors and Its Effect on the Estimation of the Environment." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. In parallel with the rapid and distractive alteration of natural environments in and arround the urbanized areas in Japan, the attention of common persons to natural factors has been increased in these areas. The author has been interested in the cognition levels of common persons to natural factors in their environments and in the effects of the cognition on the estimation of the environment. She (1975, 1977, etc.) has already confirmed that the cognition of major factors like trees and bushes have distinct effects on the estimation of environments.
Schnell, Izhak. "Human Temporality and the Experience of Immigration." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. "Paper investigate the importance of human temporality in immigrants' experience of adaptation to a new place. This may serve two purposes: a. To highlight the importance of human temporality In constituting a sense of "being" in a place b. to raise awareness to some of the difficulties that immigrants may confront in critical transitions, concerning their success in holding together, their past, their future and their present practices, in one unified biography within place. In the paper I present few examples from the experience of Israeli pioneers, in order to set the foundation for a general understanding of human "being in a place" and adaptation to a new place."
Sanui, J, and M. Inui. "Individual Differences in the Evaluation of Living Rooms." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. This research intends to examine the nature of individual differences in place evaluation. Living rooms were taken as objects and a two-step procedure which consists of a elicitation of evaluative constructs and a fixed format questionnaire was adopted. As results, individual differences were too evident to be disregarded as errors and three dominant types of evaluation were obtained. According to the lIDS models respectively obtained along types of evaluation, differences among them could be explained by the differences in importance placed on each evaluative construct while the basic structures were the same.
Rodeheaver, Dean. "Intergenerational Conflict in a Rural American Community: Physical Environment as Metaphor." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. This paper examitles physical space as a symbol of intergenerational conflict in small communities as seen in an ethnographic study of the social position of elders in a rural American Appalachian church community in West Virginia. The history of the Appalachian region and in particular of this community has been characterized by constant tension between modernization and tradition. The growth of the community has left the church as the center of community activity, making it the rope in an intergenerational tug-of-war.
Pol, E, M Morales, J Ros, S Presmanes, and J. Munatanola. "Involvement in an Experience to Improve the Environment - the School that the Children Long For." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. We present the process and some results of a study that tries to showsome of the wishes of children regarding their school environment. Though they cannot be generalized due to the close link to a specific social andcultural context, they may serve as an orientation for future work.The work is not a close design made by the user (children and educatorsin this case) substituting the work of. architects; it presents somemorphologic elements to be worked out and conjugated by the designer aswell as a help in decision making of architects. An indirect result has been the reflection of children regarding environmental problems, which affect their relationship with the environment in general.
Wener, K, and J. Nasar. "Is Savanna Nirvana?" In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. Sociobiolgy (as explicitly advocated by E.O. Wilson) suggests that human behavior (even complex behaviors such as aggression, affiliation and altruism) is directly determined by genetic structure. Critiques of this approach have placed sociobiolgy in the context of a long history of biological determinism: an approach with inevitable political and social consequences. This paper focuses on recent writings of Wilson indicating that preference is genetically determined by a long social evolutionary history. According to Wilson, our evolution has produced specific preferences for savanna-like landscapes: grassy plains, dotted with trees, promontories overlooking bodies of water. In our review of the empirical studies of preference, we find little support for this sociobiolgical perspective.
Forgays, Donald G., and Randy Rzewnicki. "Isolation as a Iathway to Well - Being." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. This study was an attempt to evaluate tie relaxation potential of the flotation environment, employing both subjective, and objective measures. The subjects were 20 male and 20 female adult volunteers who were floated in a commercially produced tank for up to 150 minutes for each of three runs at intervals of one week. Physiological monitoring of heart rate was done just before and just after each run and during all the flotation periods. Most subjects remained for about 2/3rds of possible time in tank. Heart rate appears to follow a general trend across and within floats starting at a higher value, proceeding to a lower value, and then increasing again. Post-run differences in subjective indices of well-being, relaxation, or anxiety appear to be associated with the age and sex of subjects. Thus, while this environment does seem generally to be a relaxing one, the degree of relaxation potential is related to individual subject differences. These findings will be generalized to other environmental manipulations which may e related to subjective evaluation of increase in sense of well-being and objective indications of relaxation.
Sauzet, Maurice. "La Transition De L´exterieur a L´interieur." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. conference:IAPS:9
Bernard, Yvonne. "Le Demenagement: Continuite Et Changement." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. conference:IAPS:9
Riley, Robert B.. "Lessons from a Landscape in Transition." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. The vernacular landscape of the rural midwestern USA over the first half of the twentieth century can best be understood at two levels. First, as a wonderfully stable and productive adaptation to the prevailing natural, technological and economic systems of the region, and secondly, as a culminating expression of the ages old northern European mixed animal and small grain agricultural system described so eloquently by Carl Sauer. Since 1950, however, drastic changes have occurred in this landscape: an electro-petro-chemical revolution that replaced older energy and fertilizer systems, extreme capital intensive development, total dominance of a two-crop, row-planted system and at least one key technological innovation, seemingly minor, that revolutionized crop handling and storing. All these changes are commonly read as decay or at least disruption and imbedded as object lessons in a mythic structure of corporate landscape.
Finlayson, K. A.. "Linkages Betweeen an Informal Settlement and Its Urban and Rural Hinterlands Indicators for a Regional Housing Strategy." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. The linkages between an informal settlement and its related urban and rural hinterlands provide crucial indicators of the stage of transition in the acculturation process experienced by each household at any one point in time. The establishment of an effective urbanisation strategy which provides the framework for realistic regional housing strategies requires an accurate evaluation of the role each settlement plays in accommodating the changing needs and priorities of a community experiencing rapid urbanisation and transition.
Allen, Barbara, and Patrice Sechet. "L´installation Dans Un Nouvel Environnement Comme Periode Transitoire Support De Dynamique Individuelles Et Sociales." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. conference:IAPS:9
JOINER, DUNCAN. "Managing Public Taste: Architecture and Behavioural Science in Transition." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. A recent article in the British architectural press laments the desecration of a fine 50 year old piece of modern public architecture with flock wall papers. Such desecration is the experience of many architects who witness their design intentions being mis-interpreted, or inappropriately maintained. There is clear evidence from research and literature in environmental psychology that people use buildings and spaces in ways which express their personal or collective values. Many architects are acutely aware that their tastes are not shared by a wider public. But so strongly introverted is the architectural culture that its response to this awareness is frequently expressed as a belief that the public needs educating in architectural values.
Sime, Jonathan. "Mapping People's Movements in Emergencies: a Hotel Fire Example." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. People's behaviour in building emergencies can be considered at two levels: (a)sequences of actions and goals (b) path of movement through a building. Research of fires to date has not physically 'situated' the actions, making it difficult for the findings to be translated into design recommendations. Efforts to map people's movements on architectural plans have been illustrative examples and not recorded the distances covered. Research on high-rise building evacuations has monitored people's flow of movement down stairs, but has not examined the pattern of movement and actions prior to reaching a staircase. Despite the emphasis on 'travel distance' to exits in building codes, very little is known at all about the distances people move 'in fires.
Forgays, Donald G., and Gary J. Ellenbogen. "Modifying Self - Abusive Behaviors Through Selective Isolation Experiences." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. Research indicates that Restricted Environmental Stimulation Technique (REST) can be an efficacious intervention for self-abusive behavior. A wide range of behaviors has been examined, including: over-eating, hypertension, drug abuse, and tension headaches. The present study is an attempt to produce smoking cessation or reduction in persons who smoke cigarettes heavily but are motivated to stop. Isolation-floatation REST Is used as an intervention, coupled with messages designed to shape attitudinal change. Subjects were followed up for twelve months post-intervention. Reduction at 12 month follow-up compares favorably with other interventional techniques, and floats of longer duration appear to be a more effective intervention than shorter floats. Messages did not add to effects found.
Cohen, Uriel, and Ruth McMurtry. "Museums in Transition: from Passive Viewing to Participatory Learning." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. The change from formal, user-passive treasure houses to informal, interactive experience-rich settings is reflected in the image and contents of contemporary museums of all types. It is expressed in their physical environment as well as the social and organizational ones.
Carmon, Naomi. "Neighborhoods in Transition." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. A workshop of six hours. Purpose: To discuss the experience of several countries in introducing planned change in various kinds of neighborhoods, and to present Israel's experience with Project Renewal as an example of social and physical change in distressed neighborhoods.
Ellis, Peter, and DUNCAN JOINER. "Organisation Development as a Means of Improving Building Delivery." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. The paper describes some of the work of the authors, as client and consultant respectively, in developing the organisation for producing public buildings in New Zealand. The work is in two stages. Stage 1, during 1984, consisted of analysing the present system for delivering new buildings by the Architectural Directorate of the Ministry of Works and Development and associated departments, and producing recommendations for change. Stage 2, which started in late 1985 and is scheduled to last 3 years, consists of implementing those recommendations.
Watson, C. G.. "Participation in Transition." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. This paper reviews three case studies of current building projects in which NZ Government architects have involved users in briefing and design. Comparisons between the projects suggest directions for further development of participatory processes. The buildings are of various types and accommodate user groups as diverse as scientists, office workers and juvenile delinquents. Interaction was with different numbers of participants for various lengths of time and at different stages in the design process.
Grivel, F.. "Perception, Evaluation and Behaviour Related to Short - Term Ambient Humidity Changes. an Experimental Study Simulating Dwelling Conditions in Tropical Countries." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. In connection with a study of thermal comfort experienced by the dwellers of low cost residences in developping countries,, an investigation was carried out using climatic chamber facilities. The data provided by the experiment were concerned with short-term transitions (temporal changes) in a single component of the physical environment which human subjects may commonly face.
KANTER, ALAN. "Phenomonology and Text Analysis in Environmental Evaluation." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. "The awareness, investigation and description of concepts of placehas traditionally been the domain of behavioral scierce under thegeneral category of "sense of place". Yet the recent popularity efarchitectural literature dealing with the phenomenology of place, or"spirit of place", has indicated that on the one hand, quantitativemethods in both environmental design and evaluation do not, inthemselves, present a true picture of the environmental who2e; on theother hand, phenomenological approaches, although addressn- importantnon-quantitative aspects of the environment, have been limited in theirapplicability as critical instruments since, in general, they lack afunctional operational base. In this project a systematic method isdeveloped, based on methods of text analysis, which establishes indexesof value for use in architectural/environmental criticism based uponspecific phenomenological criteria. The method developed was designedand tested in a closed case-study situation."
Laicardi, Caterina. "Physical and Social Environmental Predictors of Well - Being in Older People of Rural Areas." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. Relocation is one of the most important critical environmental transitions for individuals of all ages, but especially for individuals over the age of 65. The purpose of this study was to identify some indicators of well-being for older individuals living in two rural communities--similar in social but different in geographic and physical characteristics. Five hundred ninety participants were tested with a multiphasic social inventory. On the basis of this inventory, two groups of subjects, with high and low levels of well-being, were selected and their sociological conditions were studied.
Mailer, Alex. "Physical Factors Determining the External Legibility of the Building's Envelope Considered as an Unified Whole." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. This paper presents a conceptual model for the investigation of physical factors perceived on the building's envelope. The model assumes that the syntactic correlation of physical factors is aimed to achieve four basic attributes of architectural form which are easily recognized and identified by interested observers. The legibility of the built ensemble, as a whole, is considered to be determined by the manifestation of these attributes.
BARBEY, GILLES. "Place - Making, Place - Alienation and Place - Restoration in Architecture." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. "It has recently become obvious that environmental evaluation is dependent on the recognition of place in architecture. Following the concepts of place and placelessness introduced by E. Reiph and of genius loci by C. Norberg-Schulz, place and placemaking are the theme of the PAPER 1985 Conference in Melbourne. J. Sime suggests the term place affiliation to describe "the nature of a person's emotional attachment to particular physical locations". While studying placemaking processes, K. Dovey proposes to summarize the individual experience of place by an ecological knot, which is "the conjunction of the paths and projects of everyday life" related to "our soclospatial patterns, meanings and identities, both individual and collective". The recognition of place is eased by the phenomenological analysis of built space, especially at the micro-space level, as evident from the ecology of the room or home. It is expected that the place concept plays an important role in architectural history and can be instrumental in the remodeling of buildings.."
Korosec-Serfaty, Perla. "Place Making and the Experience of Transition and Relocation." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. This study is based on twenty semi-structured interviews centered on moving, i.e. its aim is the understanding of a specific experience of transition and relocation. It's outcome is a description of the various facets of three sequences, which are artificially separated to make this presentation more systematic. One sequence, during which the dweller still resides in his old home, draws his qualities from his or her capacity to project his actions into a new place, and from the conditions under which this capacity can be exerted. The other is an unstable state, made of indecision and yet of many decisions. The dweller is confronted with a sudden chaos, and he experiences the choices to be made as many opportunities to question the dimensions of his identity and of the material extensions of his/her self. Lastly, another sequence corresponds to the necessity to multiply the beneficial actions which lead to the mastering of the new house. It is marked by purification and celebration practices and by the adaptation of the body to the physical constraints of the place.
SUGIYAMA, Keiichi. "Plan of a Natural Garden Based on the Idea of the Third Ecology." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. A natural garden is planned based on a new idea of the Third Ecology, namely, that of the construction of new natural conditions, The essencial factors indispensable for as many species as possible to complete their life cycles are collectively given in the relatively narrow planning area. An environment in which rich biofactors are established in conditions of dynamic ecological stability is expected. Among various structures build in this garden, a cottage-like structure to which a number of holes and crevices of various size are given as shelters and breeding sites for small animals including birds and insects may be very effective to the accumulation of species in this garden.
Smith, William M.. "Post Occupancy Evaluations of Desert Kibbutz Housing." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. This paper reports initial findings from post occupancy evaluations of desert Kibbutz tossing in the southern Arava. Evaluations of housing and buildings by residents have proven to be of substantial value in the the design of structures and the data they provide is beginning to he seen as an important addition to the design process. It is a relatively new dimension however, and is not yet in widespread use. Studies began in January 1985, when a photographic record was rnae nf housing types on the seven Kibbutzim in the southern Arava which lie along the road leading north from the city of Eilat.
Tzamir, Y, K Sarit, and J. Kunoff. "Problems of Constancy and Transition in the Design Ofakko." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. Akko Is a multiple lager historical city. Every period, since Its foundation 4,000 gears ago, left Its marks representing cultural end physical cues of the pest. The remains of historical ftkko and the cultural marks of the last decades are significantly present as pert of the enisting urban structure and landscape.
Potter, J.. "Professional and User Perceptions of Settings." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. This research compared architects' and users' conception of three different settings. The intent was to determine whether the conceptions of the two groups. display a significant lack of correspondence. The results indicate that the groups do attend to similar aspcets of the settings but that they vary with regard to the emphasis (or importance) each group places upon physical or social characteristics. Understanding this disparity can help prevent potential misunderstandings between architects and their clients.
Bloch, Alex, and David Guggenheim. "Project Renewal Musrara Neighbourhood Jerusalem." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. Musrara,a slum neighbourhood of Jerusalem, was included in the national urban renewal program in 1979. Since Musrara is an old housing area of high and partially hidden visual quality, its rehabilitation and preservation is an important resource for its social rehabilitation. The renewal plan is comprehensive and deals with all aspects of infrastructure, housing, services, as well as social and community development.
Conan, Michel, and Bernard SALIGNON. "Recovering from Housing Alienation." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. Social housing in Nancy seems to be a debilitating experience for most people in life insofar as that region. They loose any sense of control on the course of their housing conditions and social relationships in the neighborhood are concerned. A housing demonstration project was built there 4 years ago in order to provide a living environment where people would have the opportunity of taking a fresh look at their dwelling situation and engaging in a rediscovery of neighbourly relationships and homely feelings in town. We carried out a follow up study in order to assess the impact of the denonstration project on the new inhabitants'system of representations and to observe the development of their pattern of relationships within and around the project for the first two years of settlement.
Archea, John. "Responses to Abruptly Destabilizing Settings." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. Throughout the environment-behavior literature, the physical environment tends to emerge as a stable or slowly evolving backdrop against which the interpersonal consequences of people's capabilities, expectations, and intentions are played out. The short-term stability of the environment is seldom questioned.
Enis, R, D Kalekin-Fishman, and S. Mandel. "Roots: How Children and Adults Relate to their Natural Environment." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. It is assumed that the relationship of human beings to their environment is determined by their orientation to the past and their interpretation(s) of the natural environment. For Jews in Israel today, this relationshIp can be traced to the implications of the Zionist ideology as well as to the type of perceptive experience it parented. Moved by aspirations to found a Jewish State, many people left familiar environments in different parts of the world when they immigrated to the Promised Land. As immigrants in a strange, even hostile, landscape, they rejected obvious opportunities for adapting their settlements to the Inherent features of the surroundings - often by literally turning their backs on nature. Sites of recreation and play for children as well as adults are alienated built environments. This is demonstrated in many sites in residential neighborhoods as well as in facilities for recreation. The spontaneous contact with nature has been exchanged for organized and institutionalized out-door activity.
Robinson, Zan D.. "Semiotic Structure and Social Shifts of Populations." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. This study addresses the semiotic relationship of different races in terms of the resettlement patterns of the inhabitants of a major urban city in the United States of America. More specifically, the study demonstrates the dynamics of settlement transition, cyclical changes in the environment, migration of peoples, and their subsequent implications in terms of human behavior and the physical environment.
Seidel, Andrew U.. "Setting Priorities for and Evauuating the Buiut Environment as an Instrument of Local Public Policy." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. A national examination of local government expenditures within the United States reveals that the largest single category of expenditure regularly concerns the built environment. When one includes the construction, maintenance and demolition of parks, highways, airports, recreation centers, city halls and other local government facilities, one finds an area of public expenditure that, in many localities, exceeds all other expenditures combined. While increasing efforts are being made in local governments to evaluate the outcomes of social program expenditures, practically no attention has been paid to the ability of these expenditures on the built environment to facilitate the achievement of public policy objectives.
SANCHEZ-ALGARRA, Pedro, and Teresa M. Argilaga. "Similarity Between Mathematical Models for Studying People in Transit and Social Mobility." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. The processes of people in transit and social mobility are parti cularly approiate area of study from which to approach reflexions of an eristemological and methodological nature on the present state of affairs in Human Sciences in general. The considerable amount of pubiishec material available in both particular fields is ample evidence that they is a certain danger of repetition and a mere accumulation of unrelated empirical studies with little evidence of any sessions attempt to relate such studies to the various theories rut forward by different writers on the subject.
Van der Wurff, A, and P. Stringer. "Situated Feelings of Residential Unsafety: Methods and Results." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. Feelings of unsafety in the residential environment were examined in a field study in two Dutch cities. Four different types of measurement were used in interviews with 160 residents of four neighbourhoods. Respondents (1) pointed out 'unsafe' locations on a neighbourhood map; (2) answered general questions about the frequency and intensity of feelings of unsafety; (3) indicated wether of not they would experience feelings of unsafety in particular, specified real-life situations; (4) gave their own accounts of what for them constituted a situation provoking feelings of unsafety
van ANDEL, Joost. "Six Years Children's Use of a Neighbourhood." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. Most studies in environmental psychology in general, and on children's behaviour in relation to their physical environment in particular are short-term in character. In most cases one environment is studied or several different ones are compared at only one point in time. Longitudinal research is rare, mostly due to restrictions in money, time and long-term perspective. But in order to evaluate the effects of physical transitions in environments, information about the 'normal' fluctuations in behaviourof its users is necessary as a frame of reference.
Stern, Eliahu. "Spatio - Temporal Variations of the Private Cars Age Mix in Israel." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. "Tax reduction on imported cars in Israel between 1981 and 1983 revealed a differential shift across all cities away from old and medium aged toward new cars, resulting in spatial variations in the age mix of private vehicles. This study explains the variations with a geo-demographic model. A shiftshare technique is used to identify the age shifts and the demand for various aged cars. Path analysis is then applied to. estimate the model parameters. A sheaf coefficient is calculated to evaluate the impact of geographical constructs. Changes in the car age mix was found to be dominated by the changing stock of old cars. Intermetropolitan peripheries appear to be "importers" of old cars while metropolitan peripheries, and to a lesser extent, metropolitan cores appear to be their "exporters". Functional space affiliation is found to determine the supply of old cars while the percentage of carless families and the 20-30 age group explain their demand. The findings indicate that the gap between core and periphery in Israel is widening even in a period of growth in the national transport market."
Lowenstein, Ariela. "Targeting Community Services Towards Prevention of Long Term Care Institutionalization of the Elderly - a Social Policy Dilemma." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. The concept of prevention is defined and the role of social policy as a primary prevention mechanism is explored. Data from a community sample of 60 elderly and their families who applied for institutional placement was gathered, as well as data from-the 60 social workers who treated these elderly. The impact of community care and the well being and surroundings of the elderly was investigated in order to determine the significant predictors of preventing long term care institutionalization. Recommendations are made for new social policies based on the philosophy of prevention. which are comprehensive, flexible, responsive and informed by the elderly themselves.
Sebba, Rachel. "The Approach to School Design Versus the Approach to Child Education." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. This paper presents the social implications of the design approachaccording to which the school is planned. A distinction is made between two different design approachs (The functional and the territorial) that appear confounded in existing schools. The implication of each of them for the child's development and ability to learn is discussed. Finally the paper proposes a combined approach to school design based on children's developmental needs.
M. Giuliani, Vittoria, and Giuseppina Rullo. "The Context of the Environmental Evaluation: the Evaluator's Role." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. The analysis of the preferences for home interiors expressed by a group of 180 subjects shows that a change in context (from judgments of aesthetic preference to judgments of dwelling preference) will result in a significant change in the subjects' responses. This diversity is traced to the diversity, of environmental roles the subjects assume in the two situations: in giving an aesthetic judgment, the individual tends to objectivize and to assume as term of reference the model of the cultural group of origin, whereas in giving a livability judgment the individual utilizes his/her own personal life experience, which implies greater use of affectively connotated categories.
M. Argilaga, Teresa, and Victoria M. CARRERAS-ARCH. "The Dynamics of Small Settlements Transition Through Protocol Analysis of Family Interaction." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. In recent years, a growing body of knowledge has developed on evaluation strategies in a wide range of community settings, that are inhabitated by a number of subjects interacting with the environment. But community settings or towns cannot be studied whole and undivided, and its necessary to decide what parts or units of this are significant and scientifically adequate for their study of the relations between their environments and he behavior of individuals.
Pacheco, Angel M., and Nydia Lucca-Irizarry. "The Experience of Chance in the Interpersonal and Socio - Physical Environment as Perceived by Puerto Rican Migrants." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. As people shift from environment to environment their construction of knowledge about people and places undergoes a transformation. In this study we have sought to assess the experience of Puerto Rican adolescents as they strive to relate to a new environment (migration) and as they return to their old environment (return migration). Specifically, we assessed such questions as: iiow do young adolescents, as they return to Puerto Rico, perceive their homeland? Is it a foreign land? Or is it a homeland which they feel they have known forever? What are their constructs of homeland, fatherland, and foreign land?
Frescura, Franco. "The Indigenous Built Environment of Southern Africa: a Study in Transition." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. This programme sets out to study the indigenous dwelling forms of southern Africa since 1822. It examines the physical, social and economic factors which gave rise to a number of different regional styles of construction. It then traces the arrival of white farmers, missionaries, traders and military to the subcontinent and the resultant changes which occurred in local architectural patterns. These developments are then analysed in the context of potential white-black cross-cultural pollination through the use of a number of historical and current case studie. The conclusions are that although a number of alterations in the local built environment may be attributed directly to the arrival of white immigrants to the region, such changes are both manipulative and pragmatic.
PELED, ARIE, and Miriam Braun. "The Meanings Invested in the Spatial Organization of a Secondary School." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. "In the context of an environmental education program: "Environments",a group of secondary school students have used "Location Tasks" to design their "as I would like it to be" school. The resulting, spatial configurations were analysed in an attempt to reveal main spatial parameters and their interelation. The input of the program on the image of the "ideal" school was also evaluated."
Blanco-Villasenor, Angel, and Maria Teresa Argilaga. "The Problem of Reliability Issues in Observational Studies of the Environment." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. A reliable observational study is one with small errors of measurement, one that shows observer agreement (interobserver agreement percentage), stability (stability coefuicient), consistency (reliability coefficient), and dependability (generalizability coefficient) of behavioral observations for individuals on the trait, characteristic, or behavior being assessed in the natural environment.
Sanoff, Joan. "The Process of Creating a Learning Environment." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. Creating a learning environment is a process developed for people working with young children. Central to the learning process is the interrelatedness between educational objectives, the children's activities that accommodate those objectives, and the places where the activities occur. The awareness of this process will have a direct impact upon the participants and the quality of the children's environment.
van Wagenberg, Andreas F.. "The Systematic Observation of the Interaction of Human Activities and Environmental Events." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. Direct observation is a major measurement technique in environmental psychology and environmental design. Five different techniques are currently used: behavioral observation, participant observation, behavioral mapping, behavior setting survey, behavior specimen recording.
Krapp, Andreas. "The Transition from Family to Kindergarten and Its Impact on Person - Object Relationships." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. "The theoretical rationale for the present investigation is based on an educational theory concerning 'interests" described as specific person-environment relations. It is assumed that the general basis of interest-orientation develops in early childhood. Specifically, this orientation, especially the development of preferences for certain objects, begins during preschool years. In this developmental period, experiences outside the family and the influence of peers are important determinants of interest development. The child's transition/relocation from family (home) to kindergarten (school) and its impact on individual interest-development was studied longitudinally over a five-year period (beginning at four years of age). Interview, questionnaire, and observational methods were employed. The presentation includes theoretical considerations, methodological issues, and discussion of results concerning environmental and social experiences on the structure and dynamics of individual person-object relations."
Aslanoglou-Evyapan, Gonul. "The Transition in a Rapidly Urbanising Environment - a Case Study in Ankara." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. Rapid. urbanisation has been causing the loss of open areas and. spaces at the levels of city environs,city proper,and. immediate building surroundings. The latter is perhaps the most critical, as it is this level of opan space loss that affects urban daily life the most. Moreover, the interaction with immediate outdoor spaces has been a natural part of the Turkish traditional way of life, so that their loss is particularly obvious and distasteful.
Kantrowitz, Min, and J. Farbstein. "The U.s. Post Office; Building Image in Transition." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. Why do building images change? Whose values and aesthetics are reflected as buildings serving the same function are designed and redesigned over time? What pressures result in a decision to change building image? These are just a few of the questions inherent in this study of Design Aesthetics and Postal Image for the United States Postal Service.
Setala, Maija-Leena. "The Wawes of Environmental Psyzhology - an Obstacle Or Promoter Ofapplication?" In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. "We can distinguish three "waves" or trends in the twenty-five years of the history of environmental psychology: the 1960's witnessed the experimental wave, the 70's saw the ecological wave, and now we are living through the wave of realism. Each of these waves has its own way to frame questions and answer them, and each way is based on the psychological research tradition."
Kuno, Satoru, Hideo Ohno, and Nobuo Nakahara. "Thermal Sensation in Transitional Conditions - and the Hue - Heat Hypothesis." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. A new model that accounts for ambient, physiological conditions, and sensation in transitional conditions is proposed. Experiments to test the hue-heat hypothesis in transitional conditions are also reported and the utility of the model and the hue-heat hypothesis are examined.
Rosenthal, Miriam K., and Nadine Frank. "Toddlers, Caregivers and their Social - Physical Environment in Family Daycare in Israel." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. Alternative care arrangmente such as Daycare Centers, supplementinghome care were developed in recent years throughout the world, to meatthe needs of families with young children and working mothers, as wellas those of families supported by the welfare system. Many studieshave investigated the effects of (high quality) Daycare on the develop-ment of young children. Some of these investigations demonstrated theeffects a? the physical and social environment on the behavior ofchildren, as well as caregivers, in Daycare Centers.Thus several studies examined the effects of a Center setting (groupsize, space, noise, adult-child ratio, amount and type of play equip-ment) very little is known on the effects of another, very com''cn carearrangement - Family Caycare (FDC). In this arrangement, the home of acaregiver is used as a care-setting for 4-7 children. The aim or thepresent study is to investigate the effect of the physical and socialcharacteristics of this unique setting on the behavior of children andcaregivers.
Kantrowitz, Min, and Richard Nordhaus. "Towards Accessible Recreation: a Planning and Design Approach." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. While there has been significant progress in establishing and implementing improved accessibility to buildings for people with disabilities, there have been few improvements in outdoor recreational opportunities. Attempts to apply fairly rigid standards are difficult due to varied topology, interest in preserving site characteristics, and providing a range of possible recreational opportunities to people with a wide range of interests and abilities.
PEARLMAN, Wolf. "Transformational Procedure F0R Design of New Urban Structure." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. Presentation of alternative urban design strategy opposed to the ascendant concensus as represented by..: the ubiqüitous semiotic of 'post modern' determinism. Research indicates that creativity cannot be optimised, simply, through construction of a heuristic fiction, as model; and the transposition of the characteristics of a metaphor to reality.: itself.
Lawrence, Roderick J.. "Transition Spaces, Privacy Regulation and Personal Control." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. This paper discusses theoretical and methodological principles for the study of home environments. It begins with an overview of three predominant interpretations that are commonly used to analyse the relationships between personal behaviour and the built environment. This review includes a discussion of studies that have examined the well-being of residents in different kinds of houses. It becomes clear that generalizations have often been made about the influence of different kinds of houses on the occurence of social pathologies without consideration of group and personal differences, that ought to be considered in terms of goals and values and also in terms of the architectural characteristics of the dwelling units.
STOKS, FRANK. "Transitions in the City Environment, Crime and Fear of Crime from Day to Night." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. Crime is one of several, forces that cause transitions in the physical city environment resulting in changes in behaviour patterns from day to night. Transitions in the physical environment and behaviour patterns responding to crime and fear of crime are summarised in a review of the literature on crime prevention through environmental design with respect to three rationales in theory. The hardware rationale causes transitions through access control devices such as gates, grilles, screens and locks which tend to modify the shape of the physical environment and the way in which the city is used. The social surveillance rationale which involves lighting, removal of opportunities for concealment and strategies for promoting pedestrian activity strives to increase the likelihood of crimes being observed in progress thereby increasing the perceived risk by the criminal. The community building rationale involves transitions in the city environment which promote territoriality, natural surveillance and an enhanced perception of image, and milieu. Among the more significant conclusions from the literature are that crime prevention theory would seem to apply less to urban contexts than to residential settings; that the perception of safe places does not always correlate with such places in actuality; and that real affects of transitions on behaviour should be studied more closely. Changes in the physical environment of the city attributable to crime and fear of crime are illustrated by a case study of day to night transitions in Wellington, the capital city of New Zealand.
Urbina-Soria, Javier. "Transitions in the Largest Urban Population of the World: the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. The metropolitan area of Mexico City has become the largest urban population in the world with its 18 million inhabitants. This enormous concentration has caused many great problems such as: internal and external crowding; housing shortages; water scarcity; transportation and thoroughfares and their social impact; environmental deterioration -air, visual, sonic and land; and lack of green areas.
Davidovici-Marton, Ronit, and Arza Churchman. "Urban Housing and the Activities of Women." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. This paper presents the results of a study carried out in Jerusalem in 1984, which examined the implications of living in a residential neighborhood which is geographically separated from the city, on the activities of women as employees and as consumers of services. The hypotheses of the study were based mainly on American studies which had indicated that living in the suburbs poses difficulties for women. The question posed was whether the explanations proposed for their results by the American studies are indeed the major explanation for the obstacles which separated neighborhoods place before women. In order to test the hypotheses, a comparison was made between two Jerusalem neighborhoods: Gilo and Gonen. Gilo is a separated, planned neighborhood whereas Gonen is an inner-city neighborhood, whose growth was almost totally unplanned.
Jockusch, Alfred. "Usability of Housing Schemes Praised by the Architectural Press - the Two Cultures." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. This paper is anattempt towards housing satisfaction studies on an evaluative empiristic basis. It reports the results of an analysis done by advanced students in a seminar guided by the author. The analysis was done in a new housing scheme advertised as an important mile stone in future housing trends in the Federal Republic. realised 1982 as part of an exhibition by ten internationally reputated architects. Students made interviews with users.took records of furnishing patterns. observed building failures and mistakes and noted complaints. Results were compared with architects' statements andwith appraisals given by the professional press as well as with statements from developpers and housing agencies.
Groves, Mark, and Ross Thorns. "Visual Aspects of Housing Satisfaction and Preference: Revisiting a Cross - Cultural Study with the Hindsight of 15 Years Research." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. The association between designers and social scientists in environmental psychology burst into the public arena at the end of the 1960's with conferences on Architectural Psychology in Scotland, Environmental Design Research in the USA, and the publication of the journal Environment and Behaviour. In the seventeen or so years since this introduction, theoretical advances combined with statistical developments have improved our ability to assess perception of environments. This paper reports the recent reanalysis of a study carried out in 1970 to measure cross cultural differences in attitudes to the external appearance of house forms. The reanalysis, using a hierarchy of individual differences models, showed that the cross-cultural differences were not as great as originally thought.
Korosec-Serfaty, Perla. "Workshop on Self - Built Housing." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. The shortage of housing and the alienated quality of much of public housing have created a world-wide trend towards subsidized self-built housing. In Israel, we have been witnessing In the last decade the growth of small self-built neighbourhoods especially in development towns. Although the neighbourhoods tend to be socially successful, the houses often reveal a lack of understanding of the spatial implications of the residential situation.
Soffer, Arnon. "Workshop: Environment in Transition - the Galilee Mountains." In Environments in Transition: IAPS 9th International Conference. IAPS. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1986. In recent years the Galilee Mt's environment are. under very dramatic changes as a result of a very intensive Arabs and Jewish development there. The purpose of the workshop is to answer two questions: 1) IS the transition of the Galilee Mt's a model for other mountainsareas? 2) Is the development there balanced from the geoecological point of view? The workshop will be based on a field trip to one ridge in lower Galilee (Yodf at Ridge in Segev Block). Schedule: 8-10.00 Travel from Haifa to Hararit (explanations on the way) 10-10.30 The Panorama of Hararit 10.30-12.00 Discussions around the workshop theme (in the outlook restaurant with coffee)